Pretender: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Pretender

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A pretender is a claimant to an abolished throne or to a throne already occupied by somebody else. The term in itself is not pejorative. The original meaning of the English word pretend, from the French word prétendre, means "to put forward, to profess or claim"; this predates today's more common English meaning of "pretend," which is to claim falsely.

The term pretender is applied to those persons on whose behalf a claim to a throne is advanced, regardless of whether that person himself actually makes an active claim.[citation needed] Significantly, the word pretender applies both to claimants with arguably genuine rights to the throne (as the various pretenders of the Wars of the Roses) and to those with wholly fabricated claims (as pretender to Henry VII's throne Lambert Simnel). People in the latter category often assume the identities of deceased or missing royals, and are sometimes referred to for clarity as false pretenders or royal impersonators. A Papal pretender is instead called an Antipope, but some antipopes did rule as pope, and might only be declared an antipope afterward.[1]

Contents

Modern pretenders

The following list contains current pretenders. During the monarchical period of some countries listed here, there was no reigning house as it is known in the European sense – those are for example Tibet or the Central African Empire. These countries have a– in the column "House."

Europe

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Flag Kingdom Of Albania.svg Albania Crown Prince Leka 1939 1961 son of Zog I (self-proclaimed King from 1928 to 1939, afterwards unofficially in exile to 1961) Zogu Prince Leka 1982
Flag of Austria-Hungary 1869-1918.svg Austria-Hungary Crown Prince Otto[2] 1912 1922 son of Charles I (Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary etc. from 1916 to 1918) Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Karl 1961
Flag of Bulgaria (1878-1944).svg Bulgaria Simeon II[3] 1937 1946 Tsar from 1943 to 1946 Wettin
(Saxe-Coburg and Gotha line)
Kardam, Prince of Turnovo 1962
Flag of courland.svg Courland Prince Ernst-Johann Biron of Courland 1940 1982 descendant of Ernst Johann von Biron (Duke from 1737 to 1740 and 1763 to 1769) Biron Prince Michael 1944
Flag of the Kingdom of Croatia.svg Croatia
(Habsburg)
Crown Prince Otto[2] 1912 1922 son of Charles I (King from 1916 to 1918) Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Karl 1961
Flag of Croatia Ustasa.svg Croatia
(Savoy)
Crown Prince Amedeo, Duke of Savoy 1943 1948 son of Tomislav II (King from 1941 to 1943) Savoy Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta 1967
Flag of England.svg England
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
England Arms 1603.svg France
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Pavillon royal de France.svg France
(Legitimist)
Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou 1974 1989 tenth-generation descendant of Louis XIV (King from 1643 to 1715) Bourbon Juan Carlos I of Spain 1938
Flag of France.svg France
(Orléanist and Unionist)
Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France 1933 1999 great-great-great-grandson of Louis-Philippe of France (King from 1830 to 1848) Orléans
(sub-line of the House of Bourbon)
François, Count of Clermont 1961
France
(Bonapartist)
Charles Napoléon[4] 1950 1997 great-great-grandnephew of Napoléon I (self-proclaimed Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814 and in 1815) Bonaparte Jean-Christophe Napoléon 1986
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia David Bagration of Mukhrani, Duke of the Lasos and Prince of Kakheti, Kartli and Mukhrani 1976 2008 Heir male of Constantine II of Georgia. Son of Jorge de Bagration who was recognised as the Head of the House of Bagrationi by the Government of Georgia in 1991. Bagrationi Gurami Ugo Bagrationi-Mukhraneli 1985
Hellenic Kingdom Flag 1935.svg Greece
(Glücksburg)
Constantine II 1940 1973 King from 1964 to 1973 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
(sub-line of the House of Oldenburg)
Crown Prince Pavlos 1967
Greece
(Wittelsbach)
Carlo Poletti-Galimberti 1950 1997 Great-great-great-nephew of Othon I, King 1832-1862 Wittelsbach Tomass-Eugenio 1989
Flag of Gwynedd.png Gwynedd Ieuan ab Ieuan 1943 1968 patrilinear descendent of Owain Gwynedd (King from 1137-1170) Aberffraw Dafydd Ieuan ab Ieuan 1977
St Patrick's saltire3.svg Ireland
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Flag of Mide.png Ireland
(Gaelic)
Deasmumhain Ó Conchubhair Donn, Prince of Connácht 1938 2000 patrilinear descendants of Ruaidrí mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, last High King of Ireland, d.1198. Ó Conchubhair Pilip Aodh Ó Conchubhair (Philip Hugh) 1967
Flag of Lithuania 1918-1940.svg Lithuania Wilhelm Albert, Duke of Urach 1957 1991 grandson of Mindaugas II (nominal King in 1918) Urach
(a morganatic subline of the House of Württemberg)
Prince Karl Philipp 1992
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg Mann Simon Egerton Scrope 1934 descendant of William le Scrope (King from 1392 to 1399) Scrope Harry Scrope 1974
Flag of Montenegro (1941-1944).svg Montenegro Crown Prince Nikola 1944 1986 great-grandson of Nikola I (King from 1910 to 1918) Petrović-Njegoš Hereditary Prince Boris 1980
PortugueseFlag1830land.png Portugal Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza 1945 1976 great-grandson of Miguel I (King from 1828 to 1834) Braganza
(male-line descent from the House of Capet)
Infante Afonso, Prince of Beira 1996
Flag of Romania.svg Romania Michael I 1921 1947 King from 1927 to 1930 and from 1940 to 1947 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Frederick William, Prince of Hohenzollern
(via last royal constitution)
1924
Princess Margarita
(via post-abolition family law)
1949
Paul-Philippe Hohenzollern 1948 2006 grandson of Carol II (King from 1930 to 1940) Lambrino
(descended of an annulled Hohenzollern marriage)
Alexander Hohenzollern 1961
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna 1953 1992 descendant of Alexander II (Tsar from 1855 to 1881) Romanov
(a sub-line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a sub-line of the House of Oldenburg)
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich 1981
Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia 1922 1992 descendant of Nicholas I (Tsar from 1825 to 1855) Prince Dmitri Romanovich 1926
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg Serbia
(Obrenović)
Crown Prince Nikola 1944 1986 grandson of Prince Mirko of Montenegro, relative and designated heir of Alexander I of Serbia Petrović-Njegoš Hereditary Prince Boris 1980
Serbia
(Karađorđević)
Crown Prince Alexander 1945 1970 son of King Peter II, King from 1934 to 1945. Karađorđević Hereditary Prince Peter 1980
Flag of New Spain.svg Spain
(Carlist)
Carlos Hugo, Count of Montemolin 1930 1977 sons of Xavier, Duke of Parma, declared regent by Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Bourbon Carlos, Duke of Madrid 1970
Sixtus, Duke of Aranjuez 1940 1979
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia[5] Crown Prince Alexander 1945 1970 son of Peter II (King from 1934 to 1945) Karađorđević Hereditary Prince Peter 1980

Germany

Some of the former German monarchies are not listed here because all eligible dynasts of the respective formerly reigning houses are extinct: The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 2001, the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg in 1991 and the principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (since 1909 in personal union with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt) in the male line in 1971. There may be potential claimants to the entirety of Schwarzburg, however.

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Empire
Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia 1976 1994 great-great-grandson of Wilhelm II (Emperor from 1888 to 1918) Hohenzollern Prince Christian-Sigismund 1946
Kingdoms
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg Bavaria Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 great-grandson of Ludwig III (King from 1913 to 1918) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg Hanover Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover 1954 1987 great-great-grandson of Georg V (King from 1851 to 1866) Hanover
(a sub-line of the House of Welf, a sub-line of the House of Este)
Prince Ernst August 1983
Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg Prussia Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia 1976 1994 great-great-grandson of William II (King from 1888 to 1918) Hohenzollern Prince Christian Sigismund 1946
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg Saxony Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen[6] 1926 1968 grandson of Frederick Augustus III (King from 1904 to 1918) Wettin Prince Albert 1934
Flag of the Kingdom of Westphalia.svg Westphalia Charles Napoléon 1950 1997 great-great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (King from 1807 to 1813) Bonaparte Jean-Christophe Napoléon 1986
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg Württemberg Carl, Duke of Württemberg 1936 1975 grandnephew of William II (King from 1891 to 1918) Württemberg Hereditary Duke Friedrich 1961
Grand Duchies
Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1891-1918).svg Baden Maximilian, Margrave of Baden 1933 1963 great-grandnephew of Frederick II (Grand Duke from 1907 to 1918) Zähringen Hereditary Prince Bernhard 1970
Frankfurt Nicolas, Duke of Leuchtenberg 1933 1988 descendant of Eugène de Beauharnais (Grand Duke in 1813) Beauharnais Prince Constantin 1965
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg Hesse and by Rhine Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse 1926 1968 adoptive grandson (from the elder line of Hesse-Kassel or Hesse-Cassel) of Ernest Louis (Grand Duke from 1892 to 1918) Hesse Hereditary Prince Donatus 1966
Flag of Hesse.svg Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)[7]
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Duke Georg Borwin of Mecklenburg[8][9][10] 1956 1996 descendant of Georg (Grand Duke from 1816 to 1860) Mecklenburg
(Strelitz line)
Duke Alexander 1991
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (1871).svg Oldenburg Anton-Günther, Duke of Oldenburg 1923 1970 grandson of Frederick Augustus II (Grand Duke from 1900 to 1918) Holstein-Gottorp
(a sub-line of the House of Oldenburg)
Duke Christian 1955
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1897-1920).svg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[11] Michael, Prince of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 1946 1988 grandson of William Ernest (Grand Duke from 1901 to 1918) Wettin Prince Wilhelm Ernst 1946
Duchies
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg Anhalt Eduard, Prince of Anhalt 1941 1963 son of Joachim Ernst (Duke from April to November 1918) Ascania
(Princess Julia Katharina is styled Hereditary Princess[12] on family site)
1980
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg Brunswick Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover 1954 1987 grandson of Ernest Augustus III (Duke from 1913 to 1918) Hanover
(a sub-line of the House of Welf, a sub-line of the House of Este)
Prince Ernst August 1983
Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg Nassau Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1955 2000 great-great-grandson of Adolphe (Duke from 1839 to 1866) Nassau-Weilburg
(a sub-line of the House of Bourbon-Parma, a sub-line of the House of Bourbon)
Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume 1981
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1943 1998 grandson of Charles Edward (Duke from 1900 to 1918) Wettin Hereditary Prince Hubertus 1975
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen.svg Saxe-Meiningen Konrad, Prince of Saxe-Meiningen 1952 1984 grandnephew of Bernhard III (Duke from 1914 to 1918)
Principalities
Flag of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Sigmaringen.png Hohenzollern-Hechingen Frederick William, Prince of Hohenzollern 1924 1965 great-great-grandson of Karl Anton (Prince from 1848 to 1849) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Hereditary Prince Karl Friedrich 1952
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Flagge Fürstentum Lippe.svg Lippe Armin, Prince of Lippe 1924 1949 son of Leopold IV (Prince from 1905 to 1918) Lippe Hereditary Prince Stephan 1959
Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Lippe 1947 1990 great-nephew of Leopold IV (Prince from 1905 to 1918)
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß jüngere Linie.svg Reuss-Köstritz
(Reuss Junior Line)
Heinrich IV, Prince of Reuss-Köstritz 1919 1946 current head of the House after the extinction of the first hereditary line in 1945 Reuss Prince Heinrich XIV 1955
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß ältere Linie.svg Reuss-Greiz
(Reuss Senior Line)
hereditary line ceased in 1928 through the death of Heinrich XXVII (Prince from 1908 to 1918), so the claim passed to the Köstritz line that year
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Schaumburg-Lippe Alexander, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe 1958 2003 grandnephew of Adolf II (Prince from 1911 to 1918) Lippe Hereditary Prince Heinrich-Donatus 1994
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt,
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Friedrich Magnus, Count of Solms-Wildenfels 1927 1984 heir via application of semi-salic law, descendant of Friedrich Günther (Prince of Rudolstadt from 1793 to 1863) Solms Hereditary Count Michael 1949
Philip, Prince of Stolberg-Wernigerode 1967 2001 heir of Count Botho of Stolberg, to whom the Schwarzburg lands would have passed on the extinction of the house via a pact between the two houses Stolberg Prince Georg Heinrich 1970
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Waldeck and Pyrmont Wittekind, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont 1936 1967 grandson of Friedrich Adolf (Prince from 1893 to 1918) Waldeck Hereditary Prince Carl Anton 1991

Italy

Modena, Naples and Parma do not mean the Italian cities but the former states on the territory of present-day's Italy.

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Unified Italy
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples 1937 1983 son of Umberto II (King from May to June 1946) Savoy Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont 1972
Amedeo, Duke of Savoy 1943 2006 second cousin once removed of Umberto II (King from May to June 1946) Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia 1967
Pre-unificarian States
Flag of the Kingdom of Etruria.svg Etruria Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma 1930 1979 great-great-grandson of Charles II
(Louis II)
(King from 1803 to 1807)
Bourbon Carlos, Prince of Piacenza 1970
Mantua Prince Maurizio Gonzaga 1938 1943 descendant of Federico I Gonzaga (Marquess from 1478 to 1484) Gonzaga Prince Corrado Gonzaga 1941
Flag of the Duchy of Modena.svg Modena and Reggio Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este 1955 1996 head of the ducal family of Modena Habsburg-Lorraine Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este 1986
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1811).svg Naples Joachim, 8th Prince Murat 1944 1944 descendant of Joachim Murat (King from 1808 to 1815, appointed by Napoléon I of France) Murat Joachim, Prince of Pontecorvo 1973
Flag of the Duchy of Parma.svg Parma Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma 1930 1977 grandson of Roberto I (Duke from 1854 to 1859) Bourbon Carlos, Prince of Piacenza 1970
Piombino Prince Niccolò Boncompagni-Ludovisi 1941 1988 descendant of Antonio I Boncompagni-Ludovisi (prince from 1778 to 1801) Boncompagni Prince Francesco Boncompagni-Ludovisi 1965
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1840).svg Tuscany Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1966 1993 descendant of Ferdinand IV (Grandduke from 1859 to 1860) Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Amadeo, Grand Prince of Tuscany 2001
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1860).svg Two Sicilies Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria 1938 1964 descendants of Ferdinand II (King from 1830 to 1859) Bourbon Prince Pedro, Duke of Noto 1968
Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro[13] 1963 2008 Prince Antoine of Bourbon Two Sicilies 1929

Africa

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Flag of the Benin Empire.svg Benin Erediauwa I 1953 1978 Great-grandson of Oba Overami (Oba from 1888 to 1897) Oba ?
Flag of Burundi (1962 to 1966).svg Burundi Princess Rosa Paula Iribagiza 1934 1977 daughter of Mwambutsa IV (King from 1915 to 1966) Ntwero ?
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Central Africa Jean-Bédel Bokassa II 1975 1996 son of Emperor Jean-Bédel Bokassa I (1976 to 1979) Bokassa
Flag of Egypt 1922.svg Egypt Fu'ād II 1952 1953 King from 1952 to 1953 Muhammad 'Ali Muhammad Ali, Prince of Said 1979
Flag of Ethiopia (1897).png Ethiopia Zera Yacob Amha Selassie 1953 1997 grandson of Haile Selassie I (Emperor from 1930 to 1936 and from 1941 to 1974) Solomon Paul Wossen Sagad Makonnen 1947
Ethiopia
(Iyasuist)
Girma Yohannis Iyasu 1961  ? grandson of Iyasu V (Emperor from 1913 to 1916)
Flag of Libya (1951).svg Libya Muhammad as-Senussi 1962 1992 great nephew of Idris I (King from 1951 to 1969) Senussi
Flag Rwanda 1959.svg Rwanda Kigeli V 1935 1961 King from 1959 (de facto from 1954) to 1961 Ndahindurwa
Flag of South Kasai.svg South Kasai Albert I Kalonji Ditunga 1919 or 1929 1961 proclaimed King in 1961
Flag of Egypt 1922.svg Sudan Fu'ād II 1952 1953 King from 1952 to 1953 Muhammad 'Ali Muhammad Ali, Prince of Said 1979
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia Prince Muhammad Bey 1928 2006 descendant of Muhammad V an-Nasir (Bey from 1906 to 1922) Husainid ?
Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar.svg Zanzibar Jamshid bin Abdullah Al-Busaidi 1929 1964 Sultan from 1963 to 1964 Sa'îd Sayyid Ali bin Jamshid Al Busaidi ?

Americas

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Flag of the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia.svg Araucania and Patagonia Prince Felipe of Araucania 1927 1951 heir of Orélie Antoine I (self-proclaimed King from 1860 to 1878) Boiry ?
Flag of the Second Empire of Brazil.svg Brazil
(Vassouras branch)
Prince Luís Gastão of Orléans-Braganza 1938 1981 great-great-grandson of Pedro II (Emperor from 1831 to 1889) Orléans-Braganza
(a sub-line of the House of Orléans, a sub-line of the House of Bourbon)
Prince Bertrand of Orléans-Braganza 1941
Brazil
(Petrópolis branch)
Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza 1945 2007 great-great-grandson of Pedro II (Emperor from 1831 to 1889) Prince Pedro Thiago of Orléans-Braganza 1979
Flag of Mexico (1864-1867).svg Mexico Don Maximilian von Götzen-Itúrbide 1944 1949 descendant of Salvador de Itúrbide y de Marzán, grandson of Agustín I (Emperor from 1822 to 1823) Itúrbide Don Fernando von Götzen-Itúrbide 1992
Bandera regne Miskito.png Miskito Nation Norton Cuthbert Clarence  ? 1978 since 1978 pretender to the Miskito Kingdom and hereditary chief of the Miskito Nation ? ?

Asia

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Flag of Aceh.svg Aceh Hasan di Tiro 1930 ? descendant of the Sultans of Aceh Tiro 1925
Flag of Afghanistan 1930.svg Afghanistan Crown Prince Ahmad Shah 1934 2007 Eldest surviving son of Mohammed Zahir Shah, Shah from 1933 to 1973 Barakzai Prince Muhammad Zahir Khan 1962
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Bukhara Seyyid Mir Ibrahim Khan 1903 1944 son of Seyyid Mir Mohammed Alim Khan (Emir from 1910 to 1920) Manġit ?
Champasak Keo Na Champassak 1944 1980 grandson of Ratsadanay (King from 1900 to 1904) Na Champassak Saysanasak na Champassak 1946
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1889.svg China
(Qīng)
Aisin Gioro Hengzhen 1944 1997 descendant of Dàoguāng (Emperor from 1820 to 1850) Qīng[14] Jin Xing (Aisin Gioro) 1977
YuanFlag1.svg China
(Yuán)
Vincent Yuan[15] 1947 2003 great-grandson of Yuán Shìkǎi (self-proclaimed Emperor from 1915 to 1916) - Jada Yuán  ?
China
(Míng)
Zhu Rongji 1928 1928 descendant of Hongwu[16] (Emperor from 1368 to 1398) Míng[17]
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia Nugzar Bagration-Gruzinsky 1950 1984 descendant of George XII (King of Georgia from 1798 to 1800) Bagrationi Princess Anna Bagration-Gruzinski of Georgia 1976
David Bagrationi of Moukrani 1976 2008 descendant of Constantine II (King from 1478 to 1505) Gourami (Ugo) Bagration of Moukhrani 1985
State Flag of Iran (1964).svg Iran
(Pahlavī)
Rez̤ā Pahlavī 1960 1980 son of Mohammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī (Shah from 1941 to 1979) Pahlavī Ali-Rez̤ā Pahlavī II 1966
Flag of Persia (1910).svg Iran
(Qâjâr)
Mohammad Hassan Mirza II 1949 1988 descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah Qâjâr (Shah from 1907 to 1909) Qâjâr Prince Arsalan Mirza ?
Flag of Iraq 1924.svg Iraq Prince Ra'ad bin Zeid 1936 1970 cousins of Faysal II (King from 1939 to 1958) Hāshim Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein 1964
Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein 1956 1958[18] ?
Flag of Kingdom of Jerusalem.svg Jerusalem Juan Carlos I 1938 1975 The Kingdom of Jerusalem was abolished in 1291. There are various succession theories as to how the claim were to pass and who the rightful heir or heiress is. Bourbon Felipe, Prince of Asturias 1968
Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou 1974 1989 Juan Carlos I 1938
Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples 1937 1983 Savoia Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont 1972
Otto von Habsburg 1912 1922 Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Karl 1961
Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria 1938 1964 Bourbon Prince Pedro, Duke of Noto 1968
Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro 1963 2008 Prince Antoine of Bourbon Two Sicilies 1929
Charles-Antoine Lamoral, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoille 1946 2005 Ligne Prince Edouard 1976
Patrick Guinness 1956 1999 Guinness Jasmine Guinness 1976
KalatFlag.gif Kalat Agha Suleiman Jan 1967 1998 grandson of Ahmed Yar Khan (Khan from 1933 to 1955) Ahmadzai
Flag of Korea 1882.svg Korea Yi Haewŏn[19] 1919 2006 granddaughter of Gwangmu (Emperor from 1863 to 1907) Yi[20]
Yi Won 1962 2005 adoptive son of Prince Yi Gu, grandson of Gwangmu (Emperor from 1863 to 1907) ?
Flag of Laos (1952-1975).svg Laos Soulivong Savang 1963 1978/
1984
grandson of Savang Vatthana (King from 1959 to 1975) Khun Lo Thayavong Savang 1964
Flag of the Maldives 1953.png Maldives Prince Muhammad Nur ud-din ? 1969 son of Hassan Nooraddeen Iskandar II (Sultan from 1935 to 1943) Huraa Prince Ibrahim Nur ud-din ?
Flag of Manchukuo.svg Manchukuo Aisin Gioro Puren 1918 1994 brother of Kāngdé
(Pǔyí)
(Emperor from 1934 to 1945)
Qīng Jin Yuzhang 1942
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1889.svg Mongolia Aisin Gioro Hêng Chen 1944 1997 descendant of Dàoguāng (Emperor of China from 1820 to 1850) Aisin Gioro Chinsin 1977
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Jampal Namdol Chökyi Gyaltsen 1932 1936 9th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, reincarnation of Bogd Khan, 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
Flag of Burmese Empire (1853-1876).svg Myanmar Taw Phaya 1924 1962 grandson of Thibaw Min (King from 1878 to 1885) Konbaung Taw Phaya Myat Gyi 1945
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal Gyanendra 1947 2008 king from 2001 to 2008 Shah Crown Prince Paras 1971
Quaitiflag.gif Qu'aiti Ghalib II 1948 1967 Sultan from 1966 to 1967 Al-Qu'aiti Prince Saleh bin Ghalib al-Qu'aiti 1977
Ryukyu Islands flag 1875-1879 cs.svg Ryūkyū Shō Mamoru ? 1996 descendant of Shō Tai (King from 1848 to 1879) Shō ?
Flag of Sarawak.svg Sarawak Anthony Brooke[21] 1912 1946 nephew of Charles Vyner Brooke (White Raja from 1917 to 1946) Brooke James Bertram Lionel Brooke 1940
Flag of Johor.svg Singapore Tengku Sri Indra ? 1996 descendant of Ali of Johor (Sultan from 1835-1877) ?
Late 19th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Sulu Jamalul Kiram III 1938 1986 grandson of Jamalul Kiram I (Sultan from 1884 to 1899) Kiram ?
Flag of Swat.svg Swat Miangul Aurangzeb 1928 1987 son of Miangul Jahan Zeb (Wali from 1949 to 1969) Miangul Miangul Adnan Aurangzeb
Flag of Tibet.svg Tibet Tenzin Gyatso[22] 1935 1940 Dalai Lama since 1940
Ottoman Flag.svg Turkey Bayezid III 1924 2009 great-grandson of Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Sultan and Caliph from 1839 to 1861) Osman Dündar Aliosman 1930
Flag of South Vietnam.svg Vietnam Bảo Thắng 1943 2007 second son of Bảo Đại (Emperor from 1925 to 1945) Nguyễn
Flag of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.svg Yemen Ageel bin Muhammad al-Badr 1974 1996 son of Muhammad al-Badr (King from 1962 to 1970) Al-Qasimi Muhammad al-Hassan bin 'Ageel ?

India

Entries here refer not to Indian cities, but rather to former states in the territory of modern India.

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Political pensioners
Carnatic Muhammed Abdul Ali 1951 1993 descendant of Azimuddaula (Nawab from 1801 to 1819) Farukhi Muhammad Asif Ali Khan  ?
Khudadad Shahzada Asif 'Ali 1957 1983 descendant of Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan
Flag of the Mughal Empire.svg Mughal Empire Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad[23] 1946 1975 descendant of Alam II (Shah from 1759 to 1806) Tīmūr Mirza Shahrukh Shah Jahan 1978
Punjab Beant Singh Sandhanwalia 1926 1978 heir of Duleep Singh Sandhu Jat Sukhdev Singh Sandhanwalia  ?
Satara Udayanraje Maharaj Bhonsle 1966 1978 descendant of Shivaji Maharaj Bhonsle
Surat Usman Alam Khan Sahib 1935 1989 descendant of Mir Jaafar Ali Khan head of the Surat family (1842 to 1863) Sehswani Maqbul Alam Khan Sahib  ?
Salute states
Alwar Tej Singh 1911 1947 Maharaja from 1937 to 1947 Kachwaha Jitendra Singh 1971
Balasin flag.svg Balasinor Muhammad Salabat Khan II 1944 1947 Maharaja from 1945 to 1947 Babi Muhammed Salauddin Khan 1979
Banganapalle Fazli Ali Khan IV 1959 1983 grandson of Fazli Ali Khan III (Nawab from 1937 to 1948) Naqdi
Baroda Ranjitsinhrao Gaekwad 1938 1988 son of Pratapsinhrao Gaekwad (Maharaja Gaekwar from 1939 to 1949) Gaekwad Samarjitsinhrao Gaekwad 1967
Bhopal Begum Saleha Sultan 1940 1995 granddaughter of Hamidullah Khan (Nawab from 1926 to 1949) Orakzai
Flag of the Kingdom of Cochin.svg Cochin Rama Varma 1978 Perumpadapu Swaroopam
Gwalior Royal Flag.svg Gwalior Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia 1971 1998 grandson of George Jiyajirao Scindia (Maharaja Scindia from 1925 to 1947) Scindia Mahanaryaman Scindia 1995
Asafia flag of Hyderabad State.png Hyderabad Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah 1933 1967 grandson of Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII (Nizam from 1911 to 1949) Asif Jah Prince Azmet Jah 1960
Idar Flag.svg Idar Rajendra Singh Idar 1938 1992 grandson of Hirmat Singh Daulat Singh (Maharaja from 1925 to 1947) Rathore
Indore Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur 1933 1961 daughter of Yeshwant Rao II (Maharaja Holkar from 1926 to 1947) Holkar
Jammu-Kashmir-flag.svg Jammu and Kashmir Karan Singh 1931 1949 son of Hari Singh (Maharaja from 1925 to 1949) Rathore Vikramaditya Singh 1964
Jodhpur.svg Jodhpur Gaj Singh 1948 1952 son of Hanwant Singh (Maharaja from 1947 to 1949) Shivraj Singh 1975
Kolhapur flag.svg Kolhapur Shahu II Bhonsle 1948 1983 son of Shahaji II Puar (Maharaja from 1947 to 1949) Bhonsle Shrimant Sambhaji 1971
Flag of Mysore.svg Mysore Srikantha Datta Narasimharaja Wodeyar 1953 1974 Son of Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur (Maharaja from 1940 to 1950) Wodeyar
Sikkimflag.svg Sikkim Wangchuk Namgyal 1953 1982 Son of Palden Thondup Namgyal (Chogyal from 1963 to 1975) Namgyal
Travancore.jpg Travancore Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1922 1991 brother of Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (Maharaja from 1924 to 1949) Cheraman (Kulashekhara)
Drapeau Udaipur Mewâr.png Udaipur (Mewar) Mahendra Singh 1941 1984 adoptive grandson of Bhupal Singh (Maharana from 1930 to 1949) Sisodia Vishvaraj Singh
Ghorewaha (Ghorewaha-Jadla) Rajeshwar Singh 1957 1993 (Grand son of Labh Singh, Raja of Ghorewaha ) Kachwaha Sangram Singh 1990

Oceania

Country

Pretender

Born

Pretender since

Link to past monarchy

House

Heir

Born

Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg Cocos (Keeling) Islands John Cecil Clunies-Ross (Ross V) 1928 1978 self-proclaimed King from 1944 to 1978 Clunies-Ross John George Clunies-Ross 1957
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Quentin Kūhiō Kawananākoa 1961 1998 current head of the descendants of Lili'uokalani (Queen from 1891 to 1893) Kawananākoa Kincaid Kawananākoa 1996
Owana Kaʻohelelani Mahealani-rose Salazar 1953 1988 descendant of Kalokuokamaile half-brother of Kamehameha (King from 1795 to 1819) Keoua Nui Noa Kalokuokamaile DeGuire 1981

Pretenders in the Roman Empire

Ancient Rome knew many pretenders to the office of Roman Emperor, especially during the crisis of the Third Century.

These are customarily referred to as the Thirty Tyrants, which was an allusion to the Thirty Tyrants at Athens some five hundred years earlier; although the comparison is questionable, and the Romans were separate aspirants, not (as the Athenians were) a Committee of Public Safety. The Loeb translation of the appropriate chapter of the Augustan History therefore represents the Latin triginta tyranni by "Thirty Pretenders" to avoid this artificial and confusing parallel. Not all of them were afterwards considered pretenders; several were actually successful in becoming Emperor in at least in part of the Empire for a brief period.

Greek pretenders

The claimant of the throne of the last Greek kingdom is Constantine II, who ruled as King from 1964 to 1973 of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (a branch of the House of Oldenburg), whose designated heir is his son Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece. There are pretendenders to other Greek thrones:

The Byzantine Empire

Disputed successions to the Empire long continued at Constantinople. Most seriously, after the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and its eventual recovery by Michael VIII Palaeologus, there came to be three Byzantine successor states, each of which claimed to be the Roman Empire, and several Latin claimants (including the Republic of Venice and the houses of Montferrat and Courtenay) to the Latin Empire the Crusaders had set up in its place. At times, some of these states and titles were subjected to multiple claims.

Cypriot pretenders

Following the defeat and death of King James III of Cyprus in 1474, his younger and illegitimate brother, Eugene Matteo de Armenia (ca. 1485-1523) removed to Sicily, then to Malta. He was acknowledged as rightful heir of the thrones Cyprus, Armenia, Jerusalem, and Antioch, though he never made serious efforts to reify the claims. The title of "Barone de Baccari" was created in 1508 for Jacques Matteo (sives Eugene Matteo) d’Armenia with the remainder to his descendants in perpetuity. Eugene, illegitimate son of King Jacques II of Cyprus, had, when his family were exiled, first gone to Naples, then Sicily, then settled on Malta, marrying a Sicilian heiress, Donna Paola Mazzara (a descendant of the Royal House of Aragon of Sicily and Aragon), with issue. [24]

French pretenders

Following the death of the childless legitimist pretender "Henry V," Comte de Chambord, grandson of King Charles X of France in the 1880s, the majority of French monarchists accepted his distant relative, the Orleanist pretender, the Comte de Paris, grandson of King Louis-Philippe (who descends from King Louis XIII) as the pretender to the French throne. A small minority refused to accept this designation, and chose instead a descendant of Louis XIV and the Spanish line.

The arguments are, on one side, that Philip V of Spain renounced any future claim to the French throne when he became King of Spain, and that the Dukes of Orleans were therefore recognized as the next heirs before the French Revolution. On the other side, that this renunciation was invalid and impossible, and (in some cases) that Philippe Égalité and Louis-Philippe forfeited any remaining right to the crown for disloyalty.

There is also a pretender to the imperial throne of France, in the person of Charles Napoléon, descendant of the Prince Napoléon.

German pretenders

The Hohenzollern of Prussia

Since the abolition of the German monarchy in 1918, the heads of the House of Hohenzollern have claimed to be the titular Kings of Prussia and German Emperors. These claims are linked by the Constitution of the former (2nd) German Empire: according to this, whoever was King of Prussia was also German Emperor, although that Empire was abolished, making the link somewhat tenuous.

Hohenzollern pretenders to the Prussian and German Thrones
Image Name Titular
Reign
Comments
Wilhelm II of Germany.jpg Wilhelm II 1918-1941 Exiled in the Netherlands until his death
KPWilhelm.jpg Crown Prince William 1941-1951
Louis ferdinand c1930.jpg Prince Louis Ferdinand 1951-1994
Georg Friedrich Prinz von Preussen.jpg Prince Georg Friedrich since 1994

The Habsburgs of Austria

Habsburg pretenders to the Austrian throne
Image Name Titular
Reign
Comments
Otto von Habsburg Belvedere 1998 c.JPG Otto von Habsburg 1912- renounced all claims in order to enter Austria

The Wittelsbachs of Bavaria

Wittelsbach pretenders to the Bavarian throne
Image Name Titular Reign Comments
Princefranzofbavaria.JPG Franz, Duke of Bavaria 8 July 1996 - present

The Welfs of Hanover

Guelph pretenders to the Electorship of Hannover
Image Name Titular
Reign
Comments
File:Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.JPG Ernst August, Prince of Hanover present head of the Welfs

Russian pretenders

There is much debate over who is the legitimate heir to the Russian throne. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna is considered by some to be the legitimate heir. She is the daughter of Grand Duke Vladimir who some considered the last male dynast. Supporters of Prince Nicholas' claim believe she is born of a morganatic marriage and therefore not entitled to inherit the throne under strict Russian succession law. Unequal marriages have made tracking a legitimate heir to the Russian throne very difficult, and some believe there is no legitimate heir at all. Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia a descendant of Emperor Nicholas I and president of Romanov Family Association believes himself to be Grand Duke Vladimir's successor. He is regarded by some as the head of the family,[25] but supporters of Grand Duchess Maria's claim believe he is born of a morganatic marriage and therefore not entitled to inherit the throne under strict Russian succession law, Prince Nicholas disputes this and considers himself a Russian dynast. Those who impersonated the murdered daughters of Nicholas II were not pretenders to the throne, as women could not succeed to the Russian throne while a male dynast was alive. Anna Anderson attempted to prove she was the lost daughter of Nicholas II, Anastasia, but DNA testing on her remains proved her claim false.

English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh and British pretenders

England and Scotland

Pretenders to the thrones of the United Kingdom and its predecessor realms, as well as the other historical jurisdictions that are modernly England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, have existed from time to time, though there are now very few. Ireland declared itself a republic in 1948, essentially rendering the discussion of modern Irish pretenders a moot point. Among those who have been pretenders to the thrones of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor or constituent nations are:

  • James Francis Edward Stuart, the Roman Catholic son of the deposed King James VII and II, was barred from the succession to the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701. Notwithstanding the Act of Union 1707, he claimed the separate thrones of Scotland, as James VIII, and of England and Ireland, as James III, until his death in 1766. In Jacobite terms, Acts of Parliament (of England or Scotland) after 1688, (including the Acts of Union) did not receive the required Royal Assent of the legitimate Jacobite monarch and, therefore, were without legal effect.
  • Charles Edward Stuart, James' elder son, the would-be Charles III, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, died in 1788.
  • Henry Benedict Stuart, younger brother of Charles Edward, took up the claim to the throne as the would-be Henry IX of England, though he was the final Jacobite heir to publicly do so. He died in 1807.

The current Jacobite pretender is Franz, Duke of Bavaria, though he himself does not claim the title.

Wales

Owain Glyndŵr (1349-1416) is probably the best-known Welsh pretender, though whether he was pretender or Prince of Wales depends upon one's source of information. Officially, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who died in 1282, was the only Prince of Wales whose staus as ruler was officially recognised by the English Crown, though three of the four men who claimed the throne of Gwynedd between the assumption of the title by Owain Gwynedd in the 1160s and the loss of Welsh independence in 1283 also used the title or similar. Madog ap Llywelyn also briefly used the title during his revolt of 1294-5. Since 1301, the title of Prince of Wales has been given to the eldest living son of the King or Queen Regnant of England (subsequently of Great Britain, 1707, and of United Kingdom, 1801). The word "living" is important. Upon the death of Arthur, Prince of Wales, Henry VII invested his second son, the future Henry VIII, with the title. The title is not automatic, however, but merges into the Crown when a prince dies or accedes to the throne, and has to be re-conferred by the sovereign.

Nevertheless, it is Glyndŵr whom many remember as the last native Prince of Wales. He was indeed proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters on 16 September 1400, and his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was not quashed by Henry IV until 1409. Later, however, one of Glyndŵr's cousins, Owain Tudor, would marry the widow of Henry V, and their grandson would become Henry VII, from whom the current British monarch is descended (through his daughter Margaret Tudor, who was married off to James IV of Scotland).

The various minor kingdoms that came together to form what is today known as the Principality of Wales each had their own royal dynasty. The most important of these realms were Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth. After 878 the ruling dynasties in these kingdoms each claimed descent from the sons of Rhodri Mawr who had conquered them or otherwise achieved their thrones during his reign. Merfyn Frych, the father of Rhodri Mawr, had come to power in Gwynedd because the native dynasty, known as the House of Cunedda had expired. Merfyn was descended from royalty through his own father Gwriad and claimed ancestors from among the rulers of British Rheged (in particular Llywarch Hen). It was acknowledged by all of the realms of Wales after the time of Rhodri Mawr that the House of Gwynedd (known as the House of Aberffraw) was senior and homage should be paid by each of them to the king of Gwynedd. After the reign of Owain ap Gruffudd of Gwynedd the realm began to merge with the concept of a Principality of Wales. This was realised by Owain's descendant Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1267. It was not to last and this new Wales was invaded by England and dismantled between 1277 and 1284. All of the descendants of Llywelyn "the last" and his brothers were either imprisoned or killed. Surviving members of the House of Aberffraw descended in the male line from Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd survived in the guise of the Wynn of Gwydir family. They proved their ancestry and maintained a succession in the male line until 1719 when the last of their line died without an heir. After this the male line succession passed to a cadet branch of the family which had become separated in the 15th Century known as the Anwyl dynasty of Park. This family survives in Gwynedd to this day.

Ireland

The business of Irish pretenders is rather more complicated because of the nature of kingship in Ireland before the Norman take-over of 1171. In both Ireland and Scotland, succession to kingship was elective, often (if not usually) by contest, according to matrilineal descent. That is, the head of state of any kingdom, sub-kingdom, high kingdom, etc., was always a king, but the king always inherited the crown through his mother, as a ranking princess royal, not through his father. (See, e.g., The Lion in the North: A Personal View of Scotland's History, by John Prebble ISBN 0-14-003652-0; among other works.)

Thus, a king would not be succeeded by his own son but would normally be succeeded by his mother's other sons; then by his sisters' sons; then his maternal aunt's sons; and so on, traveling through the female line of the royal house. This combination of male succession through matrilineal descent produced a cumbersome system under which the throne passed cyclically from brother to brother, then uncle to nephew, and then cousin to cousin, before starting over as brother to brother, uncle to nephew, etc. {See, e.g., The Lion in the North: A Personal View of Scotland's History, by John Prebble; among other works.} In Ireland, however, the high king from the time of Maelsheachlainn I (died 862) exercised a measure of control over the country. He belonged to the Ui Neill dynasty and under the Brehon laws, succession was open to any kinsman up to and including second cousin. His dynasty is today represented by the O'Neill family, which would regard its head as the pretender. The O Conor dynasty provided two high kings and the head of the family, the O Conor Don, would also be considered a pretender to the Irish throne. The descendants of Brian Boroimhe are represented by Lord Inchiquin, who is also regarded as a claimant. In addition, pretenders or claimants exist to the localised kingdoms of Breifne, Fermanagh, Tyrconnel and Leinster. The O'Neills would also be regarded as claimants to the throne of Aileach and Lord Inchiquin to the throne of Thomond.

In Scotland, Malcolm II tried to get around this system by killing off all of the heirs between himself and his grandson, Duncan; except for Prince Lulach of Moray, who was just five years old at the time and - more importantly - was successfully rumoured to be half-witted (thus, he survived). Duncan I did become king, but Lulach's stepfather, Maelbeth - rendered "Macbeth" in English - successfully claimed the throne in his own right and on Lulach's behalf.

Duncan I's son, Malcolm III 'Canmore', ultimately returned from exile in England and took the throne from Maelbeth and Lulach (the latter reigning 1057-1058, after the death of Maelbeth in battle against Malcolm). Malcolm was succeeded by his brother, as Duncan II, but then by four of his own sons - one of whom, Edgar (1097-1107), changed the official language of Scotland from Gàidhlig (then, still a Scottish dialect of Old Irish) to Scots (then, a language similar to English but missing the Saxon element that has always been part of standard English). Gaelic dominance of Scotland ended during the reign of Alexander I (1107-1124), and the old Celtic system of matrilineal kingship finally ended and was replaced by a system of primogeniture.

Such a transition never happened in Ireland, but civil war and the imposition of Anglo-Norman rule intervened. Although Ireland had been culturally unified for centuries, it was not politically unified, even as a tribal nation.

The High King of Ireland was essentially a ceremonial, pseudo-federal overlord (where his over-lordship was even recognised), who exercised actual power only within the realm of which he was actually king. In the case of the southern branch of the Uí Niall, this would have been the Kingdom of Meath (modernly the counties of Meath, West Meath and part of County Dublin). High Kings from the northern branch of the family ruled various kingdoms in what eventually became the province of Ulster.

Nevertheless, the Uí Niall were apparently powerful in ceremony if not in politic, so that political unification of Ireland was not aided by the usurpation of the high kingship from Mael Sechnaill II and the southern Uí Niall in 1002 by Briain ‘Boruma’ mac Cennédig, of the Kingdom of Munster. This was the third of the so-called "Three Usurpations of Brian Boru."

Brian Boru was a strong king who could have unified Ireland politically, and there is some suggestion he intended to make himself High King of Scotland as well. But he was killed in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, and twelve years as High King was not long enough to unify the island politically. Mael Sechnaill II was restored to the High Kingship but he died in 1022, too soon to undo the damage done by Brian's "coup." From 1022 through the Norman take-over of 1171, the High Kingship was held by "Kings with Opposition" - that is, whoever was strong enough to overthrow the High King of the day and take the Hill of Tara simply did so. This 150-year period of regnal unrest between families now called O'Brian, O'Conner, McLoughlin/O'Melaghlin, and others, was eventually immortalised in the children's game called "King of the Hill." The game is still popular among American children, who take turns trying to push each other off a low stool, chair, or other make-shift hill while arguing, "I'm king of the hill!" "No! I'm king!"

Because the native Irish high kingship never transitioned to a system of nation-state kingship primogeniture but simply faded into an oblivion of civil war between competing Irish royal families, there are literally as many as a million or more people[citation needed] who can make a claim to the ancient high kingship of Tara that is as equally valid as anybody else's under the old system disrupted by what may be called Brian Boru's "coup de tribe." Indeed, as a reputed descendant of Brian Boru and of the Uí Niall Dynasty both through his late grandmother, the current heir to the statutory throne that includes Northern Ireland, Prince Charles, could be considered a viable pretender[citation needed] to the high kingship of Ireland, especially as he would be making the claim through the female line of his ancestry. (The British Royal Family has publicly claimed descent from Brian Boru through the late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, and from other ancestors associated with the Ui Niall Dynasty - usually via marriage through the Royal Family's Scottish ancestry; see the history section of the Royal Family's website for bloodlines and timelines.) But see the remarks above regarding existing native dynasties, whose claims are more valid than those of the current British royal family.

Interestingly, some Irish rebels discussed offering the Irish throne to Prince Joachim of Prussia (son of Kaiser Wilhelm II) before the 1916 Easter Rising. This was obviously anti-English sentiment following the execution of the leaders of the rebellion. After the failure of the Rising (whose leaders established an Irish republic; the royalists were a minority among the rebels), the offer was, of course, never made. But had he been crowned, and Ireland had subsequently became a republic, Joachim's son, Franz Wilhelm, would be an Irish pretender; and, afterward, his son, George of Russia, would be an Irish as well as a Russian pretender.

Ottoman pretenders

Cem, eldest son born during the reign of his father, Mehmet the Conqueror claimed the Sultanate although he was defeated in battle months later by his eldest brother (by birth) Bayezid II. He fled to Rhodes Island then eventually to the Papal Territories. His descendants claimed Cem rights until Malta defeated the Ottomans in the 16th century. After the Ottoman empire was abolished, and the Republic of Turkey came into power, the successive heads of the Ottoman family claimed the throne of the Turkish empire.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

Since the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, many European rulers have claimed to be its rightful heir. None of these, however, have actually ruled over a part of the former Kingdom. Today there are several potential European claimants on the basis of the inheritance of the title. None of the claimants have any power in the area of the former Kingdom. See the article Kings of Jerusalem for a list of potential claimants.

Outside of Europe, the Emperors of Ethiopia held the title of "King of Zion" through their claim of descent from the Biblical House of David through his son King Solomon. Menelik II dropped the use of this title. The Ethiopian Emperors continued to use the honorific of "Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah" up until the monarchy ended with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974.

False pretenders

A number of individuals have claimed to be princes who disappeared or died under somewhat mysterious circumstances:

Claimant descendants of Royalty

There have also been individuals who claimed to be descendants of royalty:

Japanese descendants of Chinese emperors

Japanese clans like the Hata clan were descended from the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang. See the article within Japanese clans for other descendants of Chinese emperors in Japan.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See for example the Antipope Christopher.
  2. ^ a b Otto von Habsburg "renounced" his claim in order to pass freely into Austria. However, he continues to act (and is supported) as Head of the House of Habsburg.
  3. ^ Simeon was democratically elected as Prime Minister of Bulgaria in June 2001 under the name Simeon Sakskoburggotski, and served from July 2001 to August 2005.
  4. ^ His son Prince Jean-Christophe was appointed heir in the will of his grandfather Prince Louis Napoléon
  5. ^ After the breakup of Yugoslavia the present-day states are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.
  6. ^ The Margrave has appointed his nephew Prince Alexander of Saxe-Gessaphe as his heir
  7. ^ now united to Hesse and by Rhine, but actually an electorate and landgraviate)
  8. ^ Saisoneröffnung auf Gedenkstätte an Preußenkönigin Luise
  9. ^ "Saisoneröffnung in Hohenzieritz". Official website of the House of Hohenzollern. http://www.preussen.de/de/heute/aktuell/archiv/saisoneroeffnung_in_hohenzieritz.html;jsessionid=DA0FC1967015394303F90EE00CB8F315. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  10. ^ A letter by Duke Georg Borwin of Mecklenburg
  11. ^ officially the Grand Duchy of Saxony
  12. ^ Princess Juliana Katharina of Anhalt is styled hereditary princess on the family's genealogical listing maintained on their website.
  13. ^ Prince Carlo's grandfather Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro was unanimously declared Head of the Bourbon Two Sicilies by all relatives except for Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria and his children due to the fact that the Infante's senior branch of the family abdicated their claims in order to be in line for the Spanish throne.
  14. ^ The Emperors of the Qīng the dynasty descend from the Aisin Gioro clan (chinese 爱新觉罗, „Àixīnjuéluó“).
  15. ^ [1] Luke Chia-Liu Yuan was born in a palace in Beijing. He was the grandson of Yuan Shikai, China's president from 1912 to 1916. In addition to Jada Yuan of Manhattan, he is survived by a son, Vincent, a nuclear physicist, of New Mexico; and a brother, Yuan Jiaji, who lives in Tianjin, China.
  16. ^ Descended from Zhu Yuanzhang, the first Ming-dynasty Emperor (1368-98), the Zhu clan was a big landowner around Changsha in Hunan province, where Zhu was born in 1928 (Zhu Yuanzhang's era name was Hongwu)
  17. ^ The Emperors of the Míng the dynasty have the surname Zhu (chinese 朱, „Zhū“).
  18. ^ Unofficially.
  19. ^ Declared Empress of Korea symbolically in 2006.
  20. ^ The Yi family consists of descendants of the Chosŏn Emperors.
  21. ^ Anthony Brooke was appointed hereditary Rajah Muda of Sarawak on August 27, 1937 but has since renounced any claim to the title.
  22. ^ Officially religious and secular head of Tibet − since the Chinese occupation in 1950 administration from Indian exile as far as possible.
  23. ^ The Indian government recognizes Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad as current head of the House of Tīmūr.
  24. ^ Leto Severis, Ladies of Medieval Cyprus and Caterina Cornaro; Nicosia: 1995; ISBN 9963-8102-1-7.
  25. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message