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Pride is, depending on the interactional and cultural context, either a high sense of one's personal status (i.e., leading to judgements of personality and character) or the specific mostly positive emotion that is a product of praise or independent self-reflection. Philosophers and social psychologists have noted that pride is a complex secondary emotion which requires the development of a sense of self and the mastery of relevant conceptual distinctions (e.g., that pride is distinct from happiness and joy) through language-based interaction with others[1]. Some social psychologists identify it as linked to a signal of high social status.[2] One definition of pride in the first sense comes from St. Augustine: "the love of one's own excellence".[3] In this sense, the opposite of pride is humility.

Pride is sometimes viewed as excessive or as a vice, sometimes as proper or as a virtue. While some philosophers such as Aristotle (and George Bernard Shaw) consider pride a profound virtue, most world religions consider it a sin.

According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, proud comes from late Old English prut, probably from Old French prud "brave, valiant" (11th century) (which became preux in French), from Late Latin term prodis "useful", which is compared with the Latin prodesse "be of use".[4] The sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud", like the French knights preux.[citation needed]

When viewed as a virtue, pride in one's appearance and abilities is known as virtuous pride, greatness of soul or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is often termed vanity or vainglory. Pride can also manifest itself as a high opinion of one's nation (national pride) and ethnicity (ethnic pride).

Contents

Philosophical views

Ancient Greek philosophy

Aristotle identified pride (megalopsuchia, variously translated as proper pride, greatness of soul and magnanimity[5]) as the crown of the virtues, distinguishing it from vanity, temperance, and humility, thus:

Now the man is thought to be proud who thinks himself worthy of great things, being worthy of them; for he who does so beyond his deserts is a fool, but no virtuous man is foolish or silly. The proud man, then, is the man we have described. For he who is worthy of little and thinks himself worthy of little is temperate, but not proud; for pride implies greatness, as beauty implies a goodsized body, and little people may be neat and well-proportioned but cannot be beautiful. [6]

He concludes then that

Pride, then, seems to be a sort of crown of the virtues; for it makes them more powerful, and it is not found without them. Therefore it is hard to be truly proud; for it is impossible without nobility and goodness of character. [7][8]

By contrast, Aristotle defined hubris as follows:

to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anything may happen to you, nor because anything has happened to you, but merely for your own gratification. Hubris is not the requital of past injuries; this is revenge. As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this: men think that by ill-treating others they make their own superiority the greater.[9]

Thus, although many religions may not recognize the difference, for Aristotle and many philosophers hubris is altogether an entirely different thing from pride.

Nietzsche

Nietzsche saw pride as an example of a previous, master set of morals that had been replaced with slave moralities. In this, pride was good, because it acknowledges the good and the noble, rejecting the weak and insipid. Without pride, Nietzsche argued, we will remain subservient.[citation needed]

Psychological views

Pride is "a pleasant, sometimes exhilarating, emotion that results from a positive self-evaluation" (Lewis, 2002). The standard view of pride was that it results from satisfaction with meeting the personal goals set by oneself. Most research on pride attempts to distinguish the positive aspects of pride and the negative. Pride involves exhilarated pleasure and a feeling of accomplishment. Pride is related to "more positive behaviors and outcomes in the area where the individual is proud" (Weiner, 1985). Pride is generally associated with positive social behaviors such as helping others and outward promotion. According to Bagozzi et al., pride can have the positive benefits of enhancing creativity, productivity, and altruism.

Gestures that demonstrate pride can involve a lifting of the chin, smiles, or arms on hips to demonstrate victory. Research shows that the nonverbal expression of pride conveys a message that is automatically perceived by others about a person's high social status in a group.[2] Behaviorally, pride is shown by an expanded posture in which the head is tilted back and the arms extended out from the body. This postural display is innate as it is shown in congenitally blind individuals who lack the opportunity to see it in others (Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008).[10] There are similarities between this expression of pride and dominance displays used establishing status hierarchies in nonhuman primates.[11]

Hubris, by contrast, involves an arrogant tone and satisfaction in oneself in general. Hubris seems to be associated with more intra-individual negative outcomes. Hubris is related to expressions of aggression and hostility (Tangney, 1999). Hubris is not necessarily associated with high self-esteem, as one might expect. But with highly fluctuating or variable self-esteem (Rhodwalt, et al.) Excessive feelings of hubris have a tendency of creating conflict and sometimes terminating close relationships. Hubris is considered one of the few emotions without some positive functions. Though this is easily arguable, Hubris is essentially self-confidence, and confiding in oneself may not be as 'negative' as some say. Nevertheless, examples of the evil of hubris are regularly used to inculcate people with selfless values--"Hitler had a lot of hubris", etc.

National pride

Germany

In Germany, "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing public debate about the issue of German patriotism. The World Cup in 2006, held in Germany, saw a wave of patriotism sweep the country in a manner not seen for many years. Although many were hesitant to show such blatant support as the hanging of the national flag from windows, as the team progressed through the tournament, so too did the level of support across the nation[12]. By the time the semi-final against Italy came around, the level of national pride and unity was at its highest throughout the tournament, and the hosting of the World Cup is seen to have been a great success for Germany as a nation. Many Germans still are not sure about if it is good to find a way to "healthy" pride again that also exists in other countries or if this would be a negative development.[citation needed]

Ethnic and racial pride

Asian pride

Asian pride in modern slang refers mostly to those of East Asian descent, though it can include anyone of Asian descent. Asian pride was originally fragmented, as Asian nations have had long conflicts with each other, examples are the old Japanese and Chinese religious beliefs of their individual superiority. Asian pride emerged prominently during European colonialism.[13] At one time, Europeans owned 85% of the world's land through colonialism, resulting anti-Western feelings among Asian nations.[13] Today, some Asians still look upon European involvement in their affairs with suspicion.[13] In contrast, Asian empires are prominent and are proudly remembered by adherents to Asian Pride. An example is the Mongol Empire, which was the largest contiguous empire in history, occupying most of Asia and reaching as far as Europe. Another empire is Imperial Japan, the symbols of which are widespread in modern culture, especially the Rising Sun Flag, one of the main symbols of Japanese pride.

Black pride

Black pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States to raise awareness for a black racial identity. The slogan has been used by African Americans (especially of sub-Saharan African origin) to denote a feeling of self-respect, celebrating one's heritage, and being proud of one's personal worth. Black pride as a national movement is closely linked with the developments of the American Civil Rights Movement, during which noted figures such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, A. Philip Randolph, Stokely Carmichael, and others protested the conditions of the United States' segregated society, and lobbied for better treatment for people of the Black race. Roy Innis has sought to enhance and build on the black pride movement of the mid-1960’s, he and a Congress of Racial Equality delegation toured seven African countries in 1971. Curtis Mayfield's "We're a Winner" became a virtual anthem of the black power and black pride movements.

The concept of black power See also permeated into the work of popular musicians at the time. The Impressions's "We're a Winner", written by their lead singer Curtis Mayfield, became a virtual anthem of the black power and black pride movements, as did James Brown's "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud", Collin Carlone's "Life As a 'Boro Black Boy", and, unwittingly, Martha & the Vandellas' "Dancing in the Street". In addition to Black America, the Black Pride Movement was very prevalent in "“Afro-Brazil"". http://video.aol.com/video-detail/black-pride-brazil/349833279. , especially throughout their poorer population. A local and global recognition of this movement has been demonstrated throughout Brazilian funk. Brazilian Funk’s origin reflects Brazilian Black resistance and today appeals to a larger regional cultural identity. Ethnomusicologist George Yúdice’s states that youth were engaging black culture mediated by a U.S. culture industry met with many arguments against their susceptibility to cultural colonization. Although it borrows some ingredients from a form of Black American musical resistance hip hop, its style still remains unique to the Brazil (specifically in Rio and São Paulo).[14]

White pride

White pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States to agitate for a white European racial identity and is closely aligned with white supremacy, white separatism, and other extreme manifestations of white racism.[15] Organizations advocating white pride are collectively referred to as racists. White pride activists claim that white pride is equivalent to "black pride" and similar terms that express no more than ethnic self-affirmation.

In the United States it is more often acceptable to be proud of one's ancestry as long as they are not "white". See Whiteness studies#Criticisms Institutions of higher learning regularly have "Black History" or some other ethnic group class, while in the past similar "white" classes/groups have met with protest.

LGBT pride

Gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. It is often shortened to just Pride. LGBT pride advocates work for equal "rights and benefits" for LGBT people.[16][17][18] The movement has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual preference and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and gender identity are inherent and cannot be intentionally altered.[19]

The word pride is used in this case an antonym for shame, which has been used to control and oppress LGBT persons throughout history. Pride in this sense is an affirmation of ones self and the community as a whole. The modern "pride" movement began after the Stonewall riots of the late 1960s.

Vanity

In conventional parlance, vanity sometimes is used in a positive sense to refer to a rational concern for one's personal appearance, attractiveness and dress and is thus not the same as pride. However, it also refers to an excessive or irrational belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness in the eyes of others and may in so far be compared to pride. The term Vanity originates from the Latin word vanitas meaning emptiness, untruthfulness, futility, foolishness and empty pride.[20] Here empty pride means a fake pride, in the sense of vainglory, unjustified by one's own achievements and actions, but sought by pretense and appeals to superficial characteristics.

In many religions, vanity is considered a form of self-idolatry, in which one rejects God for the sake of one's own image, and thereby becomes divorced from the graces of God. The stories of Lucifer and Narcissus (who gave us the term narcissism), and others, attend to a pernicious aspect of vanity. In Western art, vanity was often symbolized by a peacock, and in Biblical terms, by the Whore of Babylon. In secular allegory, vanity was considered one of the minor vices. During the Renaissance, vanity was invariably represented as a naked woman, sometimes seated or reclining on a couch. She attends to her hair with comb and mirror. The mirror is sometimes held by a demon or a putto. Other symbols of vanity include jewels, gold coins, a purse, and often by the figure of death himself.

Often we find an inscription on a scroll that reads Omnia Vanitas ("All is Vanity"), a quote from the Latin translation of the Book of Ecclesiastes.[21] Although that phrase, itself depicted in a type of still life, vanitas, originally referred not to obsession with one's appearance, but to the ultimate fruitlessness of man's efforts in this world, the phrase summarizes the complete preoccupation of the subject of the picture.

"The artist invites us to pay lip-service to condemning her," writes Edwin Mullins, "while offering us full permission to drool over her. She admires herself in the glass, while we treat the picture that purports to incriminate her as another kind of glass—a window—through which we peer and secretly desire her."[22] The theme of the recumbent woman often merged artistically with the non-allegorical one of a reclining Venus.

"All Is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert, suggesting an intertwinement between life and death.

In his table of the Seven Deadly Sins, Hieronymus Bosch depicts a bourgeois woman admiring herself in a mirror held up by a devil. Behind her is an open jewelry box. A painting attributed to Nicolas Tournier, which hangs in the Ashmolean Museum, is An Allegory of Justice and Vanity. A young woman holds a balance, symbolizing justice; she does not look at the mirror or the skull on the table before her. Vermeer's famous painting Girl with a Pearl Earring is sometimes believed to depict the sin of vanity, as the young girl has adorned herself before a glass without further positive allegorical attributes. [3] All is Vanity, by Charles Allan Gilbert (1873-1929), carries on this theme. An optical illusion, the painting depicts what appears to be a large grinning skull. Upon closer examination, it reveals itself to be a young woman gazing at her reflection in the mirror. Such artistic works served to warn viewers of the ephemeral nature of youthful beauty, as well as the brevity of human life and the inevitability of death.

Literary references

The most common literary term for pride is hubris (sometimes spelled hybris; Greek: ὕβρις).

Ancient Greece

In Ancient Greece, instances of pride were termed hubris because of the added connotation that pride was a crime against the gods and would result in fatal retribution. The word was also used to describe those who considered themselves more important than the gods themselves. Hubris against the gods is often attributed as a character flaw of the heroes in Greek tragedy, and the cause of the "nemesis", or destruction, which befalls these characters. However, this represents only a small proportion of occurrences of hubris in Greek literature, and for the most part hubris refers to infractions by mortals against other mortals. Therefore, it is now generally agreed that the Greeks did not generally think of hubris as a religious matter, still less that it was normally punished by the gods.[23] The ancient Greek concept of hubris extended to what would today be termed assault and battery.

Achilles and his treatment of Hector's corpse in Homer's Iliad demonstrates hubris.[citation needed] Similarly, Creon commits hubris in refusing to bury Polynices in Sophocles' Antigone. Another example is in the tragedy Agamemnon, by Aeschylus.[citation needed] Agamemnon initially rejects the hubris of walking on the fine purple tapestry, an act which is suggested by Clytemnestra, in hopes of bringing his ruin. This act may be seen as a desecration of a divinely woven tapestry, as a general flouting of the strictures imposed by the gods, or simply as an act of extreme pride and lack of humility before the gods, tempting them to retribution. One other example is that of Oedipus.[citation needed] In Sophocles' Oedipus the King, while on the road to Thebes, Oedipus meets King Laius of Thebes who is unknown to him as his biological father. Oedipus kills King Laius in a dispute over which of them has the right of way, thereby fulfilling the prophecy of the oracle Loxias that Oedipus is destined to murder his own father.

Odysseus' ten year journey home was the result of hubris:[citation needed] after blinding the Cyclops, he mockingly declared his name to the monster as he escaped. This allowed the Cyclops to call upon his father Poseidon for help and curse him.

Modern times

Victor in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein exudes hubris in order to become a great scientist, but is eventually regretting this previous desire. Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's play Dr. Faustus exudes hubris, all the way until his final minutes of life. In his book The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power the British politician David Owen argues that President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair developed a Hubristic Syndrome while in power. In particular their handling of the Iraq War showed their hubristic tendencies.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sullivan, GB (2007). Wittgenstein and the grammar of pride: The relevance of philosophy to studies of self-evaluative emotions. New Ideas in Psychology. 25(3). 233-252 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.03.003
  2. ^ a b Shariff AF, Tracy JL. (2009). Knowing who's boss: implicit perceptions of status from the nonverbal expression of pride. Emotion. 9(5):631-9. PMID 19803585
  3. ^ "Est autem superbia amor proprie excellentie, et fuit initium peccati superbia."[1]
  4. ^ Article from Free Online Dictionary, accessed 9 Nov. 2008
  5. ^ The Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle, James Alexander, Kerr Thomson, Hugh Tredennick, Jonathan Barnes translators
  6. ^ Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 4.3; also available here Sacred Texts - Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics; and here alternate translation at Perseus
  7. ^ Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 4.3
  8. ^ Understanding Philosophy for AS Level AQA, by Christopher Hamilton (Google Books)
  9. ^ Aristotle Rhetoric 1378b (Greek text and English translation available at the Perseus Project).
  10. ^ Tracy JL, Matsumoto D. (2008). The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 19;105(33):11655-60. PMID 18695237
  11. ^ Tracy JL, Robins RW. (2007). The prototypical pride expression: development of a nonverbal behavior coding system. Emotion. 7(4):789-801. PMID 18039048
  12. ^ Sullivan, G. B. (2009). Germany during the 2006 World Cup: The role of television in creating a national narrative of pride and “party patriotism”. In Castelló, E., Dhoest, A. & O'Donnell, H. (Eds.), The Nation on Screen, Discourses of the National in Global Television. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge.
  13. ^ a b c Langguth, Gerd. German Foreign Affairs Review. "Dawn of the 'Pacific' Century?" 1996. June 30, 2007. [2]
  14. ^ Yúdice, George. "The Funkification of Rio." In Microphone Fiends, 193-220. London: Routledge, 1994. /
  15. ^ Dobratz & Shanks-Meile 2001
  16. ^ "Pride celebrated worldwide". www.pridesource.com. http://www.pridesource.com/rssarticle.shtml?article=26004. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  17. ^ "GAY PRIDE IN EUROPE LOOKS GLOBALLY". direland.typepad.com. http://direland.typepad.com/direland/2007/07/gay-pride-in-eu.html. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  18. ^ "Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Equality -an Issue for us All". www.ucu.org.uk. http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:xE6eFqA2mfkJ:www.ucu.org.uk/media/docs/s/t/lgbteqguide_1.doc+Gay+pride+believes+the+history+and+diversity+of+Lesbian,+Gay,+Bisexual,+and+Transgender+people+is+important&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=14&gl=us. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  19. ^ "Gay and Lesbian History Month". www.bates.ctc.edu. http://www.bates.ctc.edu/studentservices/Diversity/pdf/June%202007%20Word.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  20. ^ Words Latin-English Dictionary;Perseus Word Lookup
  21. ^ James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), 318.
  22. ^ Edwin Mullins, The Painted Witch: How Western Artists Have Viewed the Sexuality of Women (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1985), 62-3.
  23. ^ MacDowell (1976) p. 22.

References

  • Cairns, Douglas L. "Hybris, Dishonour, and Thinking Big." Journal of Hellenic Studies 116 (1996) 1-32.
  • Fisher, Nick (1992). Hybris: a study in the values of honour and shame in Ancient Greece. Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.  A book-length discussion of the meaning and implications of hybristic behavior in ancient Greece.
  • MacDowell, Douglas. "Hybris in Athens." Greece and Rome 23 (1976) 14-31.
  • Owen, David (2007) The Hubris Syndrome: Bush, Blair and the Intoxication of Power Politico's, Methuen Publishing Ltd.
  • Essential Vermeer

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Pride is a lofty view of one's self or one's own. Pride often manifests itself as a high opinion of one's nation (national pride), ethnicity (ethnic pride), or appearance and abilities (vanity). Pride is considered a negative attribute by most major world religions, but some philosophies consider it positive. The opposite of pride is humility.

Quotes

  • And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass.
    • Leviticus 26:19 (King James Version).
  • His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal.
    • Job 41:15 (King James Version) (on the Leviathan).
  • Pride goeth before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall.
    • Proverbs 16:18 (King James Version).
  • Let pride go afore, shame will follow after.
  • Pryde will have a fall;
    For pryde goeth before and shame commeth after.
  • In pride, in reas'ning pride, our error lies;
    All quit their spere, and rush into the skies!
    Pride still is aiming at the blessed abodes,
    Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods.
    Aspiring to be Gods if Angels fell,
    Aspiring to be Angels men rebel.
  • 'Tis pride, rank pride, and haughtiness of soul:
    I think the Romans call it Stoicism.
  • Never to blend our pleasure or our pride
    With sorrow of the meanest thing that feels.
  • Idleness and pride tax with a heavier hand than kings and parliaments. If we can get rid of the former, we may easily bear the latter.
    • Benjamin Franklin, Letter on the Stamp Act, July 1, 1765, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • Catch him at the moment when he is really poor in spirit and smuggle into his mind the gratifying reflection, "By jove! I'm being humble", and almost immediately pride—pride at his own humility—will appear.
  • Free at last, they took your life - they could not take your pride.
  • Remember that pride is the worst viper that is in the heart, the greatest disturber of the soul's peace and sweet communion with Christ; it was the first sin that ever was, and lies lowest in the foundation of Satan's whole building, and is the most difficultly rooted out, and is the most hidden, secret and deceitful of all lusts, and often creeps in, insensibly, into the midst of religion and sometimes under the disguise of humility.
    • Jonathan Edwards, To Deborah Hatheway, Letters and Personal Writings (Works of Jonathan Edwards Online Vol. 16) , Ed. George S. Claghorn
  • Man’s highest blessedness
    In wisdom chiefly stands;
    And in the things that touch upon the Gods,
    Tis best in word of deed
    To shun unholy pride;
    Great words of boasting bring great punishments;
    And so to gray-haired age
    Comes wisdom at the last.
  • Pride and resentment are not indigenous in the human heart; and perhaps it is due to the gardener's innate love of the exotic that we take such pains to make them thrive.
  • Hear ye, and give ear; be not proud: for the LORD hath spoken...But if you will not hear, my soul shall weep in secret places for your pride.

Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895)

Quotes reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895).

  • Pride is not the heritage of man; humility should dwell with frailty, and atone for ignorance, error, and imperfection.
  • There is no passion that steals into the heart more imperceptibly and covers itself under more disguises than pride.
  • It is with men as with wheat; the light heads are erect even in the presence of Omnipotence, but the full heads bow in reverence before Him.
    • Joseph Cook, p. 484.
  • We rise in glory as we sink in pride.
  • Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty, and supped with Infamy.
  • Pride looks back upon its past deeds, and calculating with nicety what it has done, it commits itself to rest; whereas humility looks to that which is before, and discovering how much ground remains to be trodden, it is active and vigilant. Having gained one height, pride looks down with complacency on that which is beneath it; humility looks up to a higher and yet higher elevation. The one keeps us on this earth, which is congenial to its nature; the other directs our eye, and tends to lift us up to heaven.
    • James McCosh, p. 485.
  • Pride is the growth of blindness and darkness; humility, the product of light and knowledge; and whilst pride has its origin in a mistaken or delusive estimate of things, humility is as much the offspring of truth as the parent of virtue.
    • Author unidentified, p. 485.
  • Spiritual pride is the worst of all pride, if it is not the worst snare of the devil. The heart is peculiarly deceitful on just this one thing.
    • Ichabod Spencer, p. 485.
  • If thou desire the love of God and man, be humble; for the proud heart as it loves none but itself, so it is beloved of none but itself. The voice of humility is God's music, and the silence of humility is God's rhetoric. Humility enforces where neither virtue nor strength can prevail, nor reason.
  • Where boasting ends, there dignity begins.
    • Author unidentified, p. 485.
  • Sinners, remember this: It is not so much the sense of your unworthiness as your pride that keeps you from a blessed closing with the Saviour.
  • Of all the marvelous works of God, perhaps there is nothing that angels behold with such astonishment as a proud man.
  • By ignorance is pride increased;
    They most assume who know the least.
  • He who thinks his place below him will certainly be below his place.
    • Sir Henry Savile, p. 486.

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up pride in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven capital sins. St. Thomas, however, endorsing the appreciation of St. Gregory, considers it the queen of all vices, and puts vainglory in its place as one of the deadly sins. In giving it this pre-eminence he takes it in a most formal and complete signification. He understands it to be that frame of mind in which a man, through the love of his own worth, aims to withdraw himself from subjection to Almighty God, and sets at naught the commands of superiors. It is a species of contempt of God and of those who bear his commission. Regarded in this way, it is of course mortal sin of a most heinous sort. Indeed St. Thomas rates it in this sense as one of the blackest of sins. By it the creature refuses to stay within his essential orbit; he turns his back upon God, not through weakness or ignorance, but solely because in his self-exaltation he is minded not to submit. His attitude has something Satanic in it, and is probably not often verified in human beings. A less atrocious kind of pride is that which imples one to make much of oneself unduly and without sufficient warrant, without however any disposition to cast off the dominion of the Creator. This may happen, according to St. Gregory, either because a man regards himself as the source of such advantages as he may discern in himself, or because, whilst admitted that God has bestowed them, he reputes this to have been in response to his own merits, or because he attributes to himself gifts which he has not; or, finally, because even when these are real he unreasonably looks to be put ahead of others. Supposing the conviction indicated in the first two instances to be seriously entertained, the sin would be a grievous one and would have the added guilt of heresy. Ordinarily, however, this erroneous persuasion does not exist; it is the demeanour that is reprehensible. The last two cases generally speaking are not held to constitute grave offences. This is not true, however, whenever a man's arrogance is the occasion of great harm to another, as, for instance, his undertaking the duties of a physician without the requisite knowledge. The same judgment is to be rendered when pride has given rise to such temper of soul that in the pursuit of its object one is ready of anything, even mortal sin. Vainglory, ambition, and presumption are commonly enumerated as the offspring vices of pride, because they are well adapted to serve its inordinate aims. Of themselves they are venial sins unless some extraneous consideration puts them in the ranks of grievous transgressions. It should be noted that presumption does not here stand for the sin against hope. It means the desire to essay what exceeds one's capacity.

Portions of this entry are taken from The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907.

Simple English

Pride means having a feeling of being good and worthy. The adjective is proud.

The word pride can be used in a good sense as well as in a bad sense.

In a good sense it means having a feeling of self-respect. People can be satisfied with their achievements. They can be proud of something good that they have done. They can be proud of (or take pride in) their work. They might be proud of their son or daughter or husband or wife or anyone else who is close to them and who has done something good. People can be proud of their country.

The opposite would be to be ashamed of someone or something.

In a bad sense, pride can mean that someone has an exaggerated sense of feeling good. This might mean that someone has no respect for what other people do, only respect for what he or she does. Someone who is described as proud may be arrogant. The word is used in this sense in the saying: “Pride comes before a fall” (meaning that someone is so overconfident that he or she might soon have a disaster).









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