Prime Minister of Afghanistan: Wikis

  
  

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Afghanistan

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Politics and government of
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The Prime Minister of Afghanistan is a currently defunct post in the Afghan Government.

The position was created in 1927, and was appointed by the king, mostly as an advisor, until the end of the monarchy in 1973. During the Communist Era, the position was the [head of government].

Contents

Constitutions of 1923 and 1963

The Chairman of the Council of Ministers was not headed by the Prime Minister, but the King. Only during his absence was the Premier the acting Chairman of the Council.

Until 1963, the King always appointed one of his relatives as Prime Ministers. The King also had the power to dismiss or transfer the Prime Minister.

This was changed, stating that the Head of the Afghan Government was the Prime Minister, and that the government consisted of its Ministers. It was the first time that the King did not play an important role in the Government, leaving it to an elected authority. However, it also stated that they cannot engage in any other profession during their tenure of office.

The Constitution of 1963 also granted the Prime Minister the power to summon the Electoral College in case of the death of the King. The Prime Minister only answered to the Wolesi Jirga about the General Policy of the Government, and individually for their prescribed duties.

Saur Revolution (1978-1992)

In April 1978, Mohammed Daoud Khan was killed during a communist coup that started the Saur Revolution. The Communist government revived the office of Prime Minister that year, and it remained throughout the reign of the Communist and post-Communist governments.

The President was in charge of the appointment of the Prime Minister, who in turn appointed the Council of Ministers. The Council's stated purpose was to formulate and implement domestic and foreign policies, to formulate economic development plans and state budgets, and to ensure public order.

Under the Constitution of 1987, the President was required to appoint the Prime Minister in order to form the Government. The Prime Minister had the power to dissolve the government. Several Afghan Presidents during the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan era were also appointed Prime Minister. With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Prime Minister was no longer in charge of the government. The General Secretary of the PDPA or the Director of the KHAD exercised greater power.

The Islamic Republic (1992-present)

After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullah's Presidency, a transitional state was created. Thus, the office of Prime Minister once again played an important role in the history of the nation.

Also, the Constitution of 1990 established that only Afghan-born citizens are eligible to hold the office, something that was not specified in the previous documents.

There was constant friction between the President and the Premier during this period. The State had collapsed and there was not an effective central Government from 1992 until 1996. Thus, the position became de facto ceremonial, with little power in what was left of the Government.

The title was abolished when the Taliban captured Kabul in 1996 and proclaimed the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The Deputy Leader of the Taliban was often known as the Prime Minister throughout its rule. With the death of Rabbani in 2001, the Taliban decided not to revive the office.

Until August 1997, the government which the Taliban had ousted, which remained in rebellion until the end of the Taliban in 2001, had a Prime Minister in the government, but the position was abolished.

The current president of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzai was sometimes called the prime minister by the international media during the first years of his presidency.

List of Heads of Government of Afghanistan

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Kingdom of Afghanistan (1919–1973)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Vacant (19 August 1919-25 October 1927)
Sardar Shir Ahmad 25 October 1927 January 1929 Non-party
Shir Giyan January 1929 1 November 1929 Non-party
Mohammad Hashim Khan 1 November 1929 May 1946 Non-party
Shah Mahmud Khan May 1946 7 September 1953 Non-party
Mohammed Daoud Khan 7 September 1953 10 March 1963 Non-party
Mohammad Yusuf 10 March 1963 2 November 1965 Non-party
Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal 2 November 1965 11 October 1967 Non-party (until 1966), Progressive Democratic Party of Afghanistan (from 1966)
Abdullah Yaqta1 11 October 1967 1 November 1967 Non-party
Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi 1 November 1967 9 June 1971 Non-party
Abdul Zahir 9 June 1971 12 December 1972 Non-party
Mohammad Musa Shafiq 12 December 1972 17 July 1973 Non-party

Daoud Republic of Afghanistan (1973–1978)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Vacant (17 July 1973-27 April 1978)

Military Dictatorship (1978)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Vacant (27 April 1978-30 April 1978)

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1987)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Nur Muhammad Taraki 1 May 1978 27 March 1979 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Hafizullah Amin 27 March 1979 27 December 1979 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Babrak Karmal 27 December 1979 11 June 1981 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Sultan Ali Keshtmand 11 June 1981 26 May 1988 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Mohammad Hasan Sharq 26 May 1988 21 February 1989 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Sultan Ali Keshtmand 21 February 1989 8 May 1990 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Fazal Haq Khaliqyar 08 May 1990 15 April 1992 Fatherland Party
Vacant (15 April 1992-28 April 1992)

Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992–1996)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Vacant (28 April 1992-6 July 1992)
Abdul Sabur Farid Kohistani 6 July 1992 15 August 1992 Islamic Party of Afghanistan-Gulbuddin faction
Vacant (15 August 1992-17 June 1993)
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar 17 June 1993 28 June 1994 Islamic Party of Afghanistan-Gulbuddin faction
Arsala Rahmani2 28 June 1994 1995 Islamic Union for the Freedom of Afghanistan
Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai3 1995 26 June 1996 Islamic Union for the Freedom of Afghanistan
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar 26 June 1996 27 September 1996 Islamic Party of Afghanistan-Gulbuddin faction

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Mohammad Rabbani 27 September 1996 21 April 2001 Taliban
Abdul Kabir4 21 April 2001 13 November 2001 Taliban

Northern Alliance of Afghanistan (1996–2001)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar 27 September 1996 11 August 1997 Islamic Party of Afghanistan-Gulbuddin faction
Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai 11 August 1997 21 August 1997 United Islamic and National Front for Salvation of Afghanistan
Abdul Ghafoor Rawan Farhadi 21 August 1997 13 November 2001 United Islamic and National Front for Salvation of Afghanistan

Islamic Transitional State of Afghanistan (2001–2004)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Abdul Ghafoor Rawan Farhadi 13 November 2001 22 December 2001 United Islamic and National Front for Salvation of Afghanistan
Vacant (22 December 2001-7 December 2004)

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2004–Present)

Name Term start Term end Political Party
Vacant (7 December 2004-Present)

Notes

  1. Abdullah Yaqta was prime minister in an acting capacity.
  2. Arsala Rahmani was prime minister in an acting capacity.
  3. Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai was prime minister in an acting capacity.
  4. Abdul Kabir was prime minister in an acting capacity.

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