Primorsky Krai: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Primorsky Krai (English)
Приморский край (Russian)
-  Krai  -
Map of Russia - Primorsky Krai (2008-03).svg
Coordinates: 45°19′N 135°22′E / 45.317°N 135.367°E / 45.317; 135.367Coordinates: 45°19′N 135°22′E / 45.317°N 135.367°E / 45.317; 135.367
Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg
Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai
Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg
Flag of Primorsky Krai
Anthem none[citation needed]
Political status
Country Russia
Political status Krai
Federal district Far Eastern[1]
Economic region Far Eastern[2]
Administrative center Vladivostok[citation needed]
Official languages Russian[3]; Russian[4]
Population (2002 Census)[5] 2,071,210 inhabitants
- Rank within Russia 26th
- Urban[5] 78.3%
- Rural[5] 21.7%
- Density 12 /km2 (0/sq mi)[6]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7] 165,900 km2 (64,054.3 sq mi)
- Rank within Russia 23rd
Established October 20, 1938[citation needed]
License plates 25
ISO 3166-2:RU RU-PRI
Time zone VLAT/VLAST (UTC+10/+11)
Government (as of March 2009)
Governor[8] Sergey Darkin[9]
Legislature Legislative Assembly[10]
Charter Charter of Primorsky Krai
Official website

Primorsky Krai (Russian: Примо́рский край) also known as Primorye (Примо́рье), is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). Primorsky means "maritime" in Russian, hence the region is sometimes referred to as Maritime Province or Maritime Territory.



  • Borders length — over 3,000 kilometers (1,860 mi), including 1,350 kilometers (840 mi) of the sea borders.
  • Highest peak — Anik Mountain, 1,933 meters (6,342 ft)
  • Average life expectancy in 1994 — 62.5 years (male — 56.8, female — 69.4).
  • Railroads length — 1,628 kilometers (1,012 mi) (of which 345 kilometers (214 mi) are electrified).
  • Automobile roads length — 12,633 kilometers (7,850 mi)

Primorsky Krai, bordered by China, North Korea, and warm - though freezing in winter – waters of the Sea of Japan, is the extreme South-Eastern region of Russia, located between 42° and 48° north latitude and 130° and 139° east longitude. It is stretched in the meridianal direction, the distance from its extreme Northern point to the extreme Southern point totals about 900 kilometers (559 mi). Highlands dominate the territory of the krai. Most of the territory is mountainous, and almost 80% is forested.

The average elevation is about 500 meters (1,640 ft). Sikhote-Alin is a mountainous formation, extending for the most part of the Krai. It consists of a number of parallel ranges: the Partizansky, the Siny (Blue), the Kholodny (Cold), and others. There are many karst caves in the South of Primorye. The relatively accessible Spyashchaya Krasavitsa cave (the Sleeping Beauty) in the Ussuriysky Nature Preserve could be recommended for tourists. There are comparatively well-preserved fragments of the ancient volcanoes in the area. The ranges are cut by the picturesque narrow and deep valleys of the rivers and by large brooks, such as the Partizanskaya, the Kiyevka, the Zerkalnaya, the Cheryomukhovaya, the Yedinka, the Samarga, the Bikin, and the Bolshaya Ussurka. Most rivers in the Krai have rocky bottoms and limpid water. The largest among them is the Ussuri, with a length of 903 kilometers (561 mi). The head of the Ussuri River originates 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the East of Oblachnaya Mountain. The vast Prikhankayskaya Lowland extends into the West and the South-West of Primorye, carpeted by coniferous-deciduous forests. A part of the Lowland surrounding the largest lake in the Russian Far East, Khanka Lake, is occupied by a forest-steppe.

The geographic location of Primorye accounts for the variety of its flora - there are the mountainous tundra areas, conifers and coniferous-deciduous forests, forest-steppe, which is sometimes called the Far Eastern Prairie, where the ancient plant species have been preserved: the ferns, the lotus, the Chozenia Willow, etc.

The fauna of Primorye is also diverse. The following animals are found in the Krai: the Ussuri black bear (Ursus thibetanis), the Amur tiger, the Amur leopard, the lynx, the wild boar, the Manchurian deer (Cervus elaphus xanthopygos), the Siberian Roe Deer, the musk deer, the goral (Nemorhaedus goral), the sika deer, the sable, the mandarinka duck (Aix galericulata), the black stork (Ciconia nigra), the scaly goosander (Mergus squamatus), the Chestnut-cheeked Starling (Sturnia philippensis), the black griffon (Aegypius monachus), the large-winged cuckoo (Cuculidae family), and others. Among 690 species of birds inhabiting the territory of the former USSR, 350 are found in Primorye. Rich fisheries of salmon, Hucho taimen, lenok and marine fisheries of crab, pollock and other species make the aquatic and maritime environment a valuable resource for the region. However, the rich diversity of wildlife in Primorye is threatened by poaching and the illegal wildlife trade. Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife Fund, Wild Salmon Center, and Russian NGOs including Phoenix Fund are active in the region's wildlife and habitat conservation.

Most of the world's population of Siberian Tigers are found in Primorsky Krai


The cliffs Brat ("Brother") and Sestra ("Sister") in the environs of Nakhodka.
  • Average annual temperature — near 1 °C (33.8 °F) in the North of the krai, 5.5 °C (41.9 °F) on the southern coast.
  • Average annual precipitation — 600–850 mm.


Ancient history

According to archaeological data, the first inhabitants of Primorsky Krai were the Palaeasiatic and Tungus peoples. They probably appeared in this area 50-60 thousand years ago in the Paleolithic period.[citation needed] The descendants of the Tungus-speaking tribes are still inhabiting Primorye and Priamurye. These are the Nanai, the Orochs and the Udege.[citation needed]

A Jurchen stone tortoise preserved in Ussuriysk

From 698 to 926, the Korean kingdom of Balhae occupied northern Korea and parts of Manchuria and Primorsky Krai, consisting of the above-mentioned people and the people of the recently fallen Goguryeo kingdom of Korea. Balhae was an early feudal medieval state of Eastern Asia, which developed its industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, and had its own cultural traditions and art. People of Balhae maintained political, economic and cultural contacts with the Chinese Tang Dynasty, as well as Japan.[citation needed]

From 1115 to 1234, the southern area of the modern Russian Far East was occupied by a more powerful state — The Jurchen Empire, also called the Jin Dynasty. The Jurchen were a Tungusic people. Nomadic stock raising and common agriculture formed their economic basis. They also developed a metallurgical industry, shipbuilding, and the manufacture of luxury articles. The Jin Dynasty conducted independent foreign and domestic policies. The Jurchen established close contacts with the southern Chinese Song dynasty, Korea and Japan. Having conquered northern China, the Jurchens thrived until the Mongol invasions of the 13th century.

The Jin Dynasty came to an end as a result of the Mongol invasion led by Genghis Khan. The Mongols destroyed the empire's cities and ports along with the sizable Jurchen fleet. The majority of the population was either killed or enslaved, while the survivors retreated into the wilderness. The end result of the Mongol invasion was a permanent social, cultural and economic shift in the region; the remaining population of the area permanently abandoned urbanism and resettled in the remote forests and river valleys of the Amur and Zabaykalye, as well as along the Okhotsky coast and parts of Sakhalin island. Industry and skilled craft faded as the local economy reverted to subsistence fishing and hunting.[citation needed]

The Yongle emperor of the Ming Dynasty conquered the area in the 14th century.[11]

Modern history

The territory of the future Primorsky Kray (east of the Ussuri River - Oussouri on the map) on a 1734 French map

Little economic and cultural development occurred in the period following the departure of the Mongols and the arrival of the first Russian settlers in the 17th century.

The acquisition of Siberia by the Tsardom of Russia and the subsequent Russian expansion to the Far East, brought the Russians into direct contact with the Qing Empire. The Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689 demarcating the borders of the two states gave all lands lying south of the Stanovoy Mountains, including Primorye, to the Qing Empire. However, with the weakening of the Qing Empire in the second half of the 19th century, Russia began its expansion into the area. In 1858 the towns of Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk were founded.

In 1858, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky signed the Aigun Treaty with China, followed by the Beijing Treaty two years later. As a result of the two treaties the Sino-Russian border shifted south to the Amur and Ussuri rivers; granting Russia full control of Primorye.

In the period from 1859 to 1882 ninety five settlements were established in the Primorye region, including Vladivostok, Ussuriysk, Razdolnoye, Vladimiro-Aleksandrovskoye, Shkotovo, Pokrovka, Tury Rog, and Kamen-Rybolov. The population was primarily engaged in hunting, fishing and cultivation. These activities involved more than two-thirds of the territory's inhabitants.

Coat of arms of Primorskaya Oblast in the beginning of the 20th century

The latter part of the 19th century saw significant economic development in Primorye. Coal mining became a prominent industry as did the export of sea-kale, velvet antlers, timber, crab, dried fish, and trepangs. The rapid economic expansion of Primorye was financed in large measure by Russian and foreign capital investment.

In 1922, shortly before the end on the Civil War Primorye came under Bolshevik control and the economic, scientific, and cultural development of the territory were dictated by the new government. The Soviet Government spent the following ten years combating "bourgeois ideology" in many areas of life and culture. As a result the music, theater, literature, and the fine arts of Primorye were censored.

The period also saw the beginnings of centralized planning. As in the rest of the Soviet Union, priority was given to heavy industry, with a special emphasis on mining and commercial fishing. Rail and sea transit was greatly expanded and new port facilities were constructed.

On 1942 April 18, Primorsky Krai became unwillingly involved in World War II as Primorsky Krai became the location of the landing of one of the 16 United States Army Air Corps B-25 Mitchell medium bombers which had been launched from USS Hornet to accomplish the famous Doolittle Raid on Japan. The landing occurred 40 miles (65 km) west of Vladivostok, the bomber's crew deciding to abort their mission while still en route to Tokyo due to excessive fuel consumption.[12]

The 1970s witnessed an expansion of scientific institutions in Primorye, espeically in the city of Vladivostok. As a result the city possess several large research institutions such as the Institute of Biology and Agrigulture, The Pacific Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry, The Institute of Marine Biology, The Pacific Institute of Geography, The Pacific Oceanological Institute, as well as several Institutes affiliated with the Far Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Science

By the early 1990s the once small enterprises had developed into large companies. Some of the most prominent include the DVMP shipping company, the Dalmoreprodukt seafood concern, Progress Arsenyev Aircraft Works, and Vostok Mining. Commercial fishing plays an important part in the ecnonomy of the Primorye and includes firms like Vladivostok Trawling and Refrigerating Fleet (VBTRF), the Active Marine Fisheries Base of Nakhodka, and the Fishing and Marine Transport Fleet of Primorye. Numerous enterprises of the Russian Military Industrial Complex were also established in Primorye.

Administrative divisions


Primorsky Krai's economy, the most balanced in the Russian Far East, is also the largest in absolute terms. Food production is the most important sector, represented mainly by fish processing. Annual catch exceeds two million tonnes, or one half of the Russian Far East total. Second is machine building, where half of the output is geared toward the fishing industry and shipyards. Defense is another important sector, producing naval vessels and military aircraft. The construction materials industry here provides for the whole Russian Far East. Lead smelting is conducted in the coastal town of Rudnaya Pristan.

The timber industry, though in recession, is still second only to Khabarovsk Krai's with an annual yield of about 3 million cubic meters of timber. Primorsky Krai is the largest coal producer in the Russian Far East and generates more electricity than any other Russian Far East administrative division, but power shortages are common. Agriculture is also important; the Krai produces rice, milk, eggs, and vegetables.

Primorsky Krai is the Russian Far East's banking and finance center. It has more than 100 banks and affiliates and well-developed futures and stock exchanges.

The Krai's proximity to Pacific Rim markets gives it an edge over most other Russian Far East administrative divisions in developing foreign trade. Major trade items are seafood products, timber products, and ferrous metals. Major trading partners are Japan, China, and Korea.

Primorsky Krai's compact territory is well endowed with infrastructure. Its railway density is twice the Russian average. Railroads connect it with China and North Korea. Vladivostok, the eastern terminus of the Trans-Siberian railway, was surpassed as a port by the nearby Nakhodka-Vostochny Port container, coal and timber terminals. Primorsky Krai-based shipping companies provide 80% of marine shipping services in the Russian Far East. All the Krai's significant ports are now open to international shipping.

Production of grain, soybeans, potatoes, and vegetables is the leading agricultural sector. The breeding of livestock, especially sheep, is well developed in Primorye; a fur farming industry is also being developed through the establishment of fur farms and animal nurseries.

Natural resources


Population: According to the (2002 Census), the population of the krai was 2,071,210, which is down from 2,258,391 recorded in the 1989 Census. Due to its geographical location, Primorsky Krai boasts a mixture of not only ethnic Russians, but also Korean, Volga German, Udege, Buriat, Nanai, Oroch, and Taz minorities.

Ethnic groups: There were thirteen recognised ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each, and the national composition was:

  • There are many other ethnic groups of less than eight hundred persons each.
  • 0.92% of the inhabitants declined to state their nationality on the census questionnaire.[13]
  • Births (2008): 22,749
  • Deaths (2008): 29,123 [1]


The krai is the location of the massive Sikhote-Alin Meteorite, which fell February 12, 1947, in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, near the village of Paseka (approximately 440 km northeast of Vladivostok).

Sister districts

See also


  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ According to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia, Russian is the official language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Article 68.2 further stipulates that only the republics have the right to establish official languages other than Russian.
  4. ^ According to Article 68.2 of the Constitution of Russia, only republics have the right to establish official languages other than Russian
  5. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  8. ^ Charter, Article 8.4
  9. ^ Official website of Primorsky Krai. Sergey Mikhaylovich Darkin (Russian)
  10. ^ Charter, Article 8.3.1
  11. ^ Denis Twitchett & Frederick W. Mote: The Cambridge History of China Vol. 7 - The Ming Dynasty 1368–1644 Part 1. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  12. ^ See the English Wikipedia article on the Doolittle Raid.
  13. ^ (XLS) National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation. 2002 Russian All-Population Census. 2002. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  14. ^ Alberta-Korea trade


  • №14-КЗ 6 октября 1995 г. «Устав Приморского края», в ред. Закона №359-КЗ от 18 декабря 2008 г. (#14-KZ October 6, 1995 Charter of Primorsky Krai, as amended by the Law #359-KZ of December 18, 2008. ).

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Russia : Russian Far East : Primorsky Krai

Primorsky Krai is a region in the Russian Far East, which borders China to the southwest, Khabarovsk Krai to the north, and North Korea to the south.

Map of Primorsky Krai
Map of Primorsky Krai
  • The Sikhote-Alin mountain range — a Unesco World Heritage site of a mixed ecosystem combining features of taiga and the subtropics, home to the endangered Amur Tiger; also the site of the enormous Sikhote-Alin meteorite crash


Basically annexed by Russia from China in the mid-19th century, Primorsky Krai (a.k.a. Primorye) is Russia's main outlet to the Pacific Ocean. It is also home to impressive landscapes and biodiversity, including the rare Amur Tiger. Today, Vladivostok is newly open to foreigners and is the principal attraction and destination in the region.


Expect to hear Russian and not much else except in hotels catering to foreigners.

Get in

International flights arrive at Vladivostok from Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Niigata, Pusan, and Harbin. Domestic flights are available to Vladivostok as well from major Russian airports across the country.

The most popular way of arriving to Primorye, however, is via the Trans-Siberian Railway, which travels through Ussuriysk and terminates at Vladivostok.

Strelok Bay and Putyatin island view
Strelok Bay and Putyatin island view
  • Explore the natural karst caves in the south near Ussuriysk
  • Fish!
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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Wikipedia has an article on:


Proper noun

Primorsky Krai


Primorsky Krai (Maritime region)

  1. a federal subject in the extreme South-Eastern region of Russia, also known as Primorye (Приморье Primór'je).


See also


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