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Prince, from French "Prince" (itself from the Latin root princeps), is a general term for a monarch, for a member of a monarchs' or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in some members of Europe's highest nobility. The feminine equivalent is a princess.

Contents

Historical background

Cicero attacks Catiline in the Senate of the Roman Republic.

The Latin word prīnceps (older Latin *prīsmo-kaps, literally "the one who takes the first [place/position]"), became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus.

Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion. He also tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, and, for that task, granted them the title of princeps.

The title has generic and substantive meanings:

  • generically, prince refers to members of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title being used to refer either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family. The term may be broadly used of persons in various cultures, continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title legally borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, and borne by courtesy by members of formerly reigning dynasties.
  • as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of, respectively, Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Mingrelia, Monaco, Waldeck and Pyrmont, Wallachia, etc.
  • also substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, however, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, e.g. de Beauvau-Craon, Colonna, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, (de Talleyrand) von Sagan, van Ursel, etc.
  • generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince (or, less commonly, duke) were sometimes also authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Mérode, Pignatelli, Radziwill, von Wrede, Yussopov, etc.
  • substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of, respectively, Asturias (Spain), Grão Pará (Brazil, formerly), Orange (Netherlands), Viana (Navarre, formerly), Wales (UK), etc.
  • substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession. These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de, respectively, Bidache (Gramont), Marcillac (La Rochefoucauld), Tonnay-Charente (Mortemart), Poix (Noailles), Léon (Rohan-Chabot),

Prince as generic for ruler

The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from Roman, more precisely Byzantine law, and the classical system of government that was the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory which is sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e., exercising substantial (though not all) prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, as was common, for instance, within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy and Germany. In this sense, "prince" is used of any and all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank. This is the Renaissance use of the term found in Niccolò Machiavelli famous work, Il Principe.[1]

As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either substantially smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings. A lord of even a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps (as for the hereditary ruler of Wales), or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory absolutely, owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes.

Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were also sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense, especially if they held the rank of count or higher. This is attested in some surviving styles for e.g., British earls, marquesses, and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes (cf. Royal and noble styles).

In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail (i.e. Germany), all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles. While this meant that offices, such as emperor, king, and elector could only be legally occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, margrave, landgrave, count palatine, and prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles (e.g. Princess Katherine of Anhalt-Zerbst ane Karl, Count Palatine of Zweibrucken-Neukastell-Kleeburg), but as agnatic primogeniture gradually became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the eighteenth century, another means of distinguishing the monarch from other members of his dynasty became necessary. Gradual substitution of the title of Prinz for the monarch's title of Fürst occurred, and became customary in all German dynasties except in the grand duchies of Mecklenburg and Oldenburg.[2] Both Prinz and Fürst are translated into English as "prince", but they reflect not only different but mutually exclusive terms.

This distinction had evolved before the eighteenth century (in most families: Liechtenstein long remained an exception, cadets and females using Fürst/Fürstin into the 19th century) for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany. The custom spread through the Continent to such an extent that a renowned imperial general who belonged to a cadet branch of a reigning ducal family, remains best known to history by the generic dynastic title, Prince Eugene of Savoy. Note that the princely title was used as a prefix to his Christian name, which also became customary.

Cadets of France's princes étrangers began to affect similar usage but when, for example, the House of La Tour d'Auvergne's ruling dukes of Bouillon, attempted to use the same style, it was initially resisted by historians such as Père Anselme -- who, however, willingly recognized use of territorial titles, i.e. he accepts that the ducal heir apparent is known as prince de Bouillon, but would record in 1728 only that the heir's cousin, the comte d'Oliergues was "known as the Prince Frederick" ("dit le prince Frédéric").[3]

The post-medieval rank of gefürsteter Graf (princely count) embraced but elevated the German equivalent of the intermediate French, English and Spanish nobles. In Germany, these nobles rose to dynastic status by preserving from the Imperial crown (de jure after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648) the exercise of such sovereign prerogatives as the minting of money; the muster of military troops and the right to wage war and contract treaties; local judicial authority and constabular enforcement; and the habit of inter-marrying with sovereign dynasties. Eventually, these titles came to be more highly valued than that of Fürst itself, and by the 19th century, their cadets would become known as Prinzen.

Prince of the Blood

Louis François II de Bourbon, prince de Conti, was the premier prince du sang during his lifetime (painted by Joost van Egmont).

Currently, the husband of a queen regnant is usually titled prince or prince consort, whereas the wives of male monarchs take the female equivalent of their husbands' title—the same as is used when a female mounts the throne in her own right, such as empress or queen. In Brazil, Spain and Portugal, however, the husband of a female monarch was accorded the masculine equivalent of her title—at least after she bore him a child. In previous epochs, husbands of queens regnant often shared their consorts' regnal title and rank.

But in cultures which allow the ruler to have several wives (e.g. four in Islam) and/or official concubines, for these women sometimes collectively referred to as harem there are often specific rules determining their hierarchy and a variety of titles, which may distinguish between those whose offspring can be in line for the succeesion or not, or specifically who is mother to the heir to the throne.

To complicate matters, the style His Royal Highness, a prefix normally accompanying the title of a dynastic prince, of royal or imperial rank, that is, can be awarded separately (as a compromise or consolation prize, in some sense).

Although the definition above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are also different systems. Depending on country, epoch, and translation, other meanings of prince are possible.

Over the centuries foreign-language titles such as Italian principe, French prince, German Prinz (son of a king or emperor) Fürst (peer), Russian kniaz, etc., are usually translated as prince in English.

Some princely titles are derived from that of national rulers, such as tsarevich from tsar. Other examples are (e)mirza(da), khanzada, nawabzada, sahibzada, shahzada, sultanzada (all using the Persian patronymic suffix -zada, meaning son, descendant).

However, some princely titles develop in unusual ways, such as adoption of a style for dynasts which is not pegged to the ruler's title, but rather continues an old tradition (e.g. grand duke in Romanov Russia), claims dynastic succession to a lost monarchy (e.g. prince de Tarente for the La Trémoïlle heirs to the Neapolitan throne, or is simply assumed by fiat (e.g. prince Français by the House of Bonaparte).

Specific titles

In some dynasties, a specific style other than prince has become customary for dynasts, such as fils de France in the House of Capet, and infante in Spain, Portugal, and Brazil (infante was borne by children of the monarch other than the heir apparent, for whom each realm did use a unique princely title, viz, "Prince Imperial" in Brazil, "Prince of Brazil" in Portugal until 1822, and "Prince of Asturias" in Spain).

Sometimes a specific title is commonly used by various dynasties in a region, e.g. Mian in various of the Punjabi princely Hill States (lower Himalayan region in British India).

European dynasties usually awarded apanages to princes of the blood, typically attached to a feudal noble title, such as Britain's royal dukes , the Dauphin in France, the Count of Flanders in Belgium, and the Count of Syracuse in Sicily. Sometimes appanage titles were princely, e.g. Prince of Achaia (Courtenay), prince de Condé (Bourbon), Prince of Carignan (Savoy), but it was the fact that their owners were of princely rank rather than that they held a princely title which ensured their prominence.

  • For the often specific terminology concerning a probable future successor, see Crown Prince and links there.

Prince as a substantive title

Other princes derive their title not from dynastic membership as such, but from inheritance of a title named for a specific and historical territory, although the family's possession of prerogatives or properties in that territory may be long past. Such are most of the "princedoms" of France's ancien régime so resented for their pretentiousness by St-Simon. These include the princedoms of Arches-Charleville, Boisbelle-Henrichemont, Chalais, Château-Regnault, Guéméné, Martigues, Mercoeur, Sedan, Talmond, Tingrey, and the "kingship of Yvetot, among others.

Prince as a reigning monarch

A prince or princess who is the head of state of a territory that has a monarchy as a form of government is a reigning prince.

Nominal principalities

The current princely monarchies include:

Micronations

In the same tradition some self-proclaimed monarchs of so-called micronations establish themselves as virtual princes:

Princes as representants of a reigning monarch

Various monarchies provide for different modes in which princes of the dynasty can temporarily or permanently share in the style and / or office of the Monarch, e.g. as Regent or Viceroy.

Though these offices must not be reserved for members of the ruling dynasty, in some traditions they are, possibly even reflected in the style of the office, e.g. prince-lieutenant in Luxembourg repeatedly filled by the Crown prince before the grand duke's abdication, or in form of consortium imperii.

Some monarchies even have a practice in which the Monarch can formally abdicate in favor of his heir, and yet retain a kingly title with executive power, e.g. Maha Upayuvaraja (Sanskrit for Great Joint King in Cambodia), though sometimes also conferred on powerful regents who exercised executive powers.

Non-dynastic princes

France and the Holy Roman Empire

Coat of arms of Otto, prince of Bismarck (Holy Roman Empire).

In several countries of the European continent, e.g. in France, prince can be an aristocratic title of someone having a high rank of nobility in chief of a geographical place, but no actual territory and without any necessary link to the royal family, which makes comparing it with e.g. the British system of royal princes difficult.

The kings of France started to bestow the style of prince, as a title among the nobility, from the 16th century onwards. These titles were created by elevating a seigneurie to the nominal status of a principality—although prerogatives of sovereignty were never conceded in the letters patent. These titles held no official place in the hierarchy of the nobility, but were often treated as ranking just below dukedoms, since they were often inherited (or assumed) by ducal heirs:

  • Unrecognized titles of Prince

This can even occur in a monarchy within which an identical but real and substantive feudal title exists, such as Fürst in German. An example of this is:

Spain and France

Coat of arms of the princes of Waterloo (the Netherlands).

In other cases, such titular princedoms are created in chief of an event, such as a treaty of a victory. An example of this is:

Poland and Russia

Coat of arms of the princes Sanguszko-Lubartowicz (Poland).

In Poland specifically, the titles of prince dated either to the times before the Union of Lublin or were granted to Polish nobles by foreign kings, as the law in Poland forbade the king from dividing nobility by granting them hereditary titles. For more information, see The Princely Houses of Poland.

In the Russian system, knyaz, translated as "prince", is the highest degree of official nobility. Members of older dynasties that were eventually subjected to the Russian imperial dynasty were also accorded the title of knyaz -- sometimes after first being allowed to use the higher title of tsarevich (e.g. the Princes Gruzinsky and Sibirsky. Rurikid branches used the knyaz title also after they were succeeded by the Romanovs as the Russian imperial dynasty. An example of this is:

The title of prince in various Western traditions and languages

In each case, the title is followed (when available) by the female form and then (not always available, and obviously rarely applicable to a prince of the blood without a principality) the name of the territorial associated with it, each separated by a slash. If a second title (or set) is also given, then that one is for a Prince of the blood, the first for a principality. Be aware that the absence of a separate title for a prince of the blood may not always mean no such title exists; alternatively, the existence of a word does not imply there is also a reality in the linguistic territory concerned; it may very well be used exclusively to render titles in other languages, regardless whether there is a historical link with any (which often means that linguistic tradition is adopted)

Etymologically, we can discern the following traditions (some languages followed a historical link, e.g. within the Holy Roman Empire, not their linguistic family; some even fail to follow the same logic for certain other aristocratic titles):

Romance languages

  • Languages (mostly Romance) only using the Latin root princeps:
    • Catalan: Príncep /Princesa - Príncep /Princesa
    • French: Prince /Princesse - Prince /Princesse
    • Friulian: Princip /Principesse - Princip /Principesse
    • Italian: Principe /Principessa - Principe /Principessa
    • Latin (post-Roman): Princeps/*Princeps/*
    • Monegasque: Principu /Principessa - Principu /Principessa
    • Occitan: Prince /Princessa - Prince /Princessa
    • Portuguese: Príncipe /Princesa - Príncipe /Princesa
    • Rhaeto-Romansh: Prinzi /Prinzessa - Prinzi /Prinzessa
    • Romanian: Prinţ /Prinţesă - Principe /Principesă
    • Spanish: Príncipe /Princesa - Príncipe /Princesa
    • Venetian: Principe /Principessa - Principe /Principessa

Celtic languages

    • Breton: Priñs /Priñsez
    • Irish: Prionsa /Banphrionsa - Flaith /Banfhlaith
    • Scottish Gaelic: Prionnsa /Bana-phrionnsa - Flath /Ban-fhlath
    • Welsh: Tywysog /Tywysoges - Prins /Prinses

Germanic languages

  • Languages (mainly Germanic) that use (generally alongside a princeps-derivate for princes of the blood) an equivalent of the German Fürst:
    • Old English: Ǣðeling /Hlæfdiġe
    • English:Prince /Princess - Prince /Princess
    • Danish: Fyrste /Fyrstinde - Prins /Prinsesse
    • Dutch: Vorst /Vorstin- Prins /Prinses
    • Estonian [Finno-Ugric family]: Vürst /Vürstinna - Prints /Printsess
    • Faroese: Fúrsti /Fúrstafrúa, Fúrstinna - Prinsur /Prinsessa
    • Frisian: Foarst /Foarstinne - Prins /Prinsesse
    • German: Fürst /Fürstin - Prinz /Prinzessin
    • Icelandic: Fursti /Furstynja - Prins /Prinsessa
    • Luxembourgish: Fürst /Fürstin - Prënz /Prinzessin
    • Norwegian: Fyrste /Fyrstinne - Prins /Prinsesse
    • Swedish: Furste /Furstinna - Prins /Prinsessa

Slavic and Baltic languages

  • Slavic and Baltic languages:
    • Belarusian: Tsarevich, Karalevich, Prynts /Tsarewna, Karalewna, Pryntsesa
    • Bulgarian: (phonetically pronounced) Knyaz /Knaginya, Kral, Prints /Printsesa
    • Bosnian: Кнез/Књегиња or Knez/Kneginja, Краљевић/Краљевна or Kraljević/Kraljevna, Принц/Принцеза or Princ/Princeza
    • Croatian: Knez/Kneginja, Kraljević/Kraljevna, Princ/Princeza
    • Czech: Kníže /Kněžna, Princ/Princezna
    • Latvian: Firsts /Firstiene - Princis /Princese
    • Lithuanian: Kunigaikštis /Kunigaikštiene - Princas /Princese
    • Macedonian: Knez /Knezhina, Tsarevich, Kralevich, Prints /Tsarevna, Kralevna, Printsesa
    • Polish: Książę /Księżna, Książę, Królewicz /Księżna, Królewna
    • Russian: Knyaz /Knyagina Knyazhyna, Tsarevich, Korolyevich, Prints /Tsarevna, Korolyevna, Printsessa
    • Serbian: Кнез/Књегиња or Knez/Kneginja, Краљевић/Краљевна or Kraljević/Kraljevna, Принц/Принцеза or Princ/Princeza
    • Slovak: Knieža /Kňažná, Kráľovič, Princ /Princezná
    • Slovene: Knez /Kneginja, Kraljevič, Princ /Kraljična, Princesa
    • Ukrainian: Knyaz /Knyazhnya, Tsarenko, Korolenko, Prints /Tsarivna, Korolivna, Printsizna

Other languages

  • Albanian: Princ /Princeshë - Princ /Princeshë
  • Afrikaans: Prins
  • Arabic: Emir /Emira - Prince /Princess
  • Estonian: Vürst /Vürstinna - Prints /Printsess
  • Finnish: Ruhtinas /Ruhtinatar - Prinssi /Prinsessa
  • Georgian: თავადი / Tavadi
  • Greek (Medieval, formal): Prigkips, Πρίγκηψ/Prigkipissa, Πριγκήπισσα
  • Greek (Modern, colloquial): Prigkipas, Πρίγκηπας/Prigkipissa, Πριγκήπισσα
  • Hindi: Rājkumār (राजकुमार), Kũwar (कुँवर), both from Sanskrit rāj (royal) + kumāra (a boy)
  • Hungarian (Magyar): Herceg / Hercegnő
  • Maltese: Princep /Principessa - Princep /Principessa
  • Turkish: Prens /Prenses
  • Malaysian: Putera / Puteri
  • Urdu: Shahzada / Shahzadi - Prince /Princess
  • Filipino: Prinsipe / Prinsesa - Prince / Princess

The title of prince in other traditions and languages

The above is essentially the story of European, Christian dynasties and other nobility, also 'exported' to their colonial and other overseas territories and otherwise adopted by rather westernized societies elsewhere (e.g. Haiti).

Applying these essentially western concepts, and terminology, to other cultures even when they don't do so, is common but in many respects rather dubious. Different (historical, religious...) backgrounds have also begot significantly different dynastic and nobiliary systems, which are poorly represented by the 'closest' western analogy.

It therefore makes sense to treat these per civilization.

Islamic traditions

  • Arabian tradition since the caliphate - in several monarchies it remains customary to use the title Sheikh (in itself below princely rank) for all members of the royal family. In families (often reigning dynasties) which claim descent from Muhammad, this is expressed in either of a number of titles (supposing different exact relations): sayid, sharif; these are retained even when too remote from any line of succession to be a member of any dynasty.
  • Malay countries
  • In the Ottoman empire, the sovereign of imperial rank (incorrectly known in the west as (Great) sultan) was styled padishah with a host of additional titles, reflecting his claim as political successor to the various conquered states. Princes of the blood, male and female, were given the style sultan (normally reserved for Muslim rulers)
  • Persia (Iran) - Princes as members of a Royal family, are referred to by the title Shahzadeh, meaning "descendant of the king". Since the word zadeh could refer to either a male or female descendant, Shahzadeh had the parallel meaning of "princess" as well. Princes can also be sons of provincial kings (Khan) and the title referring to them would be the title of Khanzadeh. Princes as people who got a title from the King are called "Mirza", diminutive of "Amir Zadeh" (King's Son).

East Asian traditions

  • China

In ancient China, the title of prince developed from being the highest title of nobility (synonymous with duke) in the Zhou Dynasty, to five grades of princes (not counting the sons and grandsons of the emperor) by the time of the fall of the Qing Dynasty.The Chinese word for prince 'Wang' 王 literally means King as Chinese believe the emperor 'huangdi'皇帝 is the ruler of all kings. The most accurate translation of the English word 'prince' in Chinese is 皇子(son of the Emperor) or 王子 (son of the King).

  • Japan

In Japan, the title of prince (kôshaku 公爵) was used as the highest title of kazoku (華族 Japanese modern nobility) before the present constitution. The title kôshaku, however, is more commonly translated as duke to avoid confusion with the royal ranks in the imperial household, shinnô (親王 literally king of the blood), female naishinnô (内親王 literally queen (by herself) of the blood), and shinnôhi 親王妃 literally consort of king of the blood), or ô ( literally king); female, jyo-ôh (女王 literally queen (by herself)) and ôhi (王妃 literally consort of king). The former is the higher title of a male member of the Imperial family and the latter is the lower.

  • Korea

In Korea, the title Prince was used king's male line descendant. Prince translate generally three division. In Jo-seon, king's legitimate son was used title 대군(Dae-goun). And a son born of a concubine and king's a great-great-grandson was used 군. Present prince usally translate 왕자.

In Thailand (formerly Siam) the title of Prince was divided into three classes depending on the rank of their mothers. Those who were borne of a King and had a royal mother (a Queen or a Princess consort) are titled Chaofa Chai (Thai: เจ้าฟ้าชาย: lit. translation: Male Celestial Lord). Those borne of a King and a commoner mother or children of Chaofas are tilted Phra Ong Chao (พระองค์เจ้า). And finally the children of Phra Ong Chaos are titled Mom Chao (หม่อมเจ้า), abbreviated as M.C. (or ม.จ.).

African traditions

A Western model was sometimes copied by emancipated colonial regimes (e.g. Bokassa I's short-lived Central-African Empire in Napoleonic fashion). Otherwise, most of the styles for members of ruling families do not lend themselves well to English translation. Nonetheless, in general the princely style has gradually replaced the colonialist title of chief, which does not particularly connote dynastic rank to Westerners, e.g. Swazi Royal Family and Zulu Royal Family.

The title of prince in religion

Saint Robert Cardinal Bellarmine was a prince of the Roman Catholic Church during his lifetime.

In states with an element of theocracy, this can affect princehood in several ways, such as the style of the ruler (e.g. with a secondary title meaning son or servant of a named divinity), but also the mode of succession (even reincarnation and recognition).

Furthermore, certain religious offices may be considered of princely rank, and/or imply comparable temporal rights.

The Pope, Cardinals, Prince Bishops, Lord Bishops, Prince-Provost, and Prince-abbots are referred to as Princes of the Church. Also in Christianity, Jesus Christ is sometimes referred to as the Prince of Peace.[4] Other titles for Jesus Christ are Prince of Princes,[5] Prince of the Covenant,[6] and Prince of the Kings of the Earth.[7] Further, Satan is often titled the Prince of Darkness; and in the Christian faith he is also referred to as the Prince of this World[8][9][10] and the Prince of the Power of the Air.[11] Another title for Satan, not as common today but apparently so in approximately 30 A.D. by the Pharisees of the day, was the title Prince of the Devils.[12][13][14] Prince of Israel, Prince of the Angels, and Prince of Light are titles given to the Archangel Michael. Some Christian churches also believe that since all Christians, like Jesus Christ, are children of God, then they too are princes and princesses of Heaven. Saint Peter, a disciple of Jesus, is also known as the Prince of the Apostles.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fürst - Origins and cognates of the title", 2006, webpage: EFest-Frst.
  2. ^ Almanach de Gotha (Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1944), pages 14-131.
  3. ^ Père Anselme. "Ducs de Bouillon" (in French). Histoire Genealogique et Chronologique de la Maison Royale de France. Paris: Compagnie des Libraires. pp. 543, 545. 
  4. ^ This is a title for Jesus Christ (among others) given in Isaiah 9:6.
  5. ^ A title for Jesus Christ given in Daniel 8:25.
  6. ^ A title for Jesus Christ given in Daniel 11:22.
  7. ^ A title for Jesus Christ given in Revelation 1:5.
  8. ^ A title for Satan given in John 12:31.
  9. ^ A title for Satan given in John 14:30.
  10. ^ A title for Satan given in John 16:11.
  11. ^ A title for Satan given in Ephesians 2:2.
  12. ^ A title for Satan given in Matthew 9:34.
  13. ^ A title for Satan given in Matthew 12:24.
  14. ^ A title for Satan given in Mark 3:22.

External links

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Prince, from French "Prince" (itself from the Latin root princeps), is a general term for a monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in some members of Europe's highest nobility. The feminine equivalent is a princess.

Contents

Historical background

in the Senate of the Roman Republic.]]

The Latin word prīnceps (older Latin *prīsmo-kaps, literally "the one who takes the first [place/position]"), became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus.

Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion. He also tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, and, for that task, granted them the title of princeps.

The title has generic and substantive meanings:

  • generically, prince refers to members of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title being used to refer either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family. The term may be broadly used of persons in various cultures, continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title legally borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, and borne by courtesy by members of formerly reigning dynasties.
  • as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of, respectively, Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Mingrelia, Monaco, Waldeck and Pyrmont, Wallachia, etc.
  • also substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, however, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, e.g. de Beauvau-Craon, Colonna, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, (de Talleyrand) von Sagan, van Ursel, etc.
  • generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince (or, less commonly, duke) were sometimes also authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Mérode, Pignatelli, Radziwill, von Wrede, Yussopov, etc.
  • substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of, respectively, Asturias (Spain), Grão Pará (Brazil, formerly), Orange (Netherlands), Viana (Navarre, formerly), Wales (UK), etc.
  • substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession. These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de, respectively, Bidache (Gramont), Marcillac (La Rochefoucauld), Tonnay-Charente (Mortemart), Poix (Noailles), Léon (Rohan-Chabot),

Prince as generic for ruler

The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from Roman, more precisely Byzantine law, and the classical system of government that was the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory which is sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e., exercising substantial (though not all) prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, as was common, for instance, within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy and Germany. In this sense, "prince" is used of any and all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank. This is the Renaissance use of the term found in Niccolò Machiavelli's famous work, Il Principe.[1]

As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either substantially smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings. A lord of even a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps (as for the hereditary ruler of Wales), or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory absolutely, owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes.

Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were also sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense, especially if they held the rank of count or higher. This is attested in some surviving styles for e.g., British earls, marquesses, and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes (cf. Royal and noble styles).

In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail (i.e. Germany), all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles. While this meant that offices, such as emperor, king, and elector could only be legally occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, margrave, landgrave, count palatine, and prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles (e.g. Princess Katherine of Anhalt-Zerbst ane Karl, Count Palatine of Zweibrucken-Neukastell-Kleeburg), but as agnatic primogeniture gradually became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another means of distinguishing the monarch from other members of his dynasty became necessary. Gradual substitution of the title of Prinz for the monarch's title of Fürst occurred, and became customary in all German dynasties except in the grand duchies of Mecklenburg and Oldenburg.[2] Both Prinz and Fürst are translated into English as "prince", but they reflect not only different but mutually exclusive terms.

This distinction had evolved before the 18th century (in most families: Liechtenstein long remained an exception, cadets and females using Fürst/Fürstin into the 19th century) for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany. The custom spread through the Continent to such an extent that a renowned imperial general who belonged to a cadet branch of a reigning ducal family, remains best known to history by the generic dynastic title, Prince Eugene of Savoy. Note that the princely title was used as a prefix to his Christian name, which also became customary.

Cadets of France's princes étrangers began to affect similar usage but when, for example, the House of La Tour d'Auvergne's ruling dukes of Bouillon, attempted to use the same style, it was initially resisted by historians such as Père Anselme -- who, however, willingly recognized use of territorial titles, i.e. he accepts that the ducal heir apparent is known as prince de Bouillon, but would record in 1728 only that the heir's cousin, the comte d'Oliergues was "known as the Prince Frederick" ("dit le prince Frédéric").[3]

The post-medieval rank of gefürsteter Graf (princely count) embraced but elevated the German equivalent of the intermediate French, English and Spanish nobles. In Germany, these nobles rose to dynastic status by preserving from the Imperial crown (de jure after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648) the exercise of such sovereign prerogatives as the minting of money; the muster of military troops and the right to wage war and contract treaties; local judicial authority and constabular enforcement; and the habit of inter-marrying with sovereign dynasties. Eventually, these titles came to be more highly valued than that of Fürst itself, and by the 19th century, their cadets would become known as Prinzen.

Prince of the Blood

, was the premier prince du sang during his lifetime (painted by Joost van Egmont).]]

Currently, the husband of a queen regnant is usually titled prince or prince consort, whereas the wives of male monarchs take the female equivalent of their husbands' title—the same as is used when a female mounts the throne in her own right, such as empress or queen. In Brazil, Spain and Portugal, however, the husband of a female monarch was accorded the masculine equivalent of her title—at least after she bore him a child. In previous epochs, husbands of queens regnant often shared their consorts' regnal title and rank.

But in cultures which allow the ruler to have several wives (e.g. four in Islam) and/or official concubines, for these women sometimes collectively referred to as harem there are often specific rules determining their hierarchy and a variety of titles, which may distinguish between those whose offspring can be in line for the succeesion or not, or specifically who is mother to the heir to the throne.

To complicate matters, the style His Royal Highness, a prefix normally accompanying the title of a dynastic prince, of royal or imperial rank, that is, can be awarded separately (as a compromise or consolation prize, in some sense).

Although the definition above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are also different systems. Depending on country, epoch, and translation, other meanings of prince are possible.

Over the centuries foreign-language titles such as Italian principe, French prince, German Prinz (son of a king or emperor) Fürst (peer), Russian kniaz, etc., are usually translated as prince in English.

Some princely titles are derived from that of national rulers, such as tsarevich from tsar. Other examples are (e)mirza(da), khanzada, nawabzada, sahibzada, shahzada, sultanzada (all using the Persian patronymic suffix -zada, meaning son, descendant).

However, some princely titles develop in unusual ways, such as adoption of a style for dynasts which is not pegged to the ruler's title, but rather continues an old tradition (e.g. grand duke in Romanov Russia), claims dynastic succession to a lost monarchy (e.g. prince de Tarente for the La Trémoïlle heirs to the Neapolitan throne, or is simply assumed by fiat (e.g. prince Français by the House of Bonaparte).

Specific titles

]]

In some dynasties, a specific style other than prince has become customary for dynasts, such as fils de France in the House of Capet, and infante in Spain, Portugal, and Brazil (infante was borne by children of the monarch other than the heir apparent, for whom each realm did use a unique princely title, viz, "Prince Imperial" in Brazil, "Prince of Brazil" in Portugal until 1822, and "Prince of Asturias" in Spain).

Sometimes a specific title is commonly used by various dynasties in a region, e.g. Mian in various of the Punjabi princely Hill States (lower Himalayan region in British India).

European dynasties usually awarded apanages to princes of the blood, typically attached to a feudal noble title, such as Britain's royal dukes , the Dauphin in France, the Count of Flanders in Belgium, and the Count of Syracuse in Sicily. Sometimes appanage titles were princely, e.g. Prince of Achaia (Courtenay), prince de Condé (Bourbon), Prince of Carignan (Savoy), but it was the fact that their owners were of princely rank rather than that they held a princely title which ensured their prominence.

  • For the often specific terminology concerning a probable future successor, see Crown Prince and links there.

Prince as a substantive title

Other princes derive their title not from dynastic membership as such, but from inheritance of a title named for a specific and historical territory, although the family's possession of prerogatives or properties in that territory may be long past. Such are most of the "princedoms" of France's ancien régime so resented for their pretentiousness by St-Simon. These include the princedoms of Arches-Charleville, Boisbelle-Henrichemont, Chalais, Château-Regnault, Guéméné, Martigues, Mercoeur, Sedan, Talmond, Tingrey, and the "kingship of Yvetot, among others.

Prince as a reigning monarch

A prince or princess who is the head of state of a territory that has a monarchy as a form of government is a reigning prince.

Nominal principalities

The current princely monarchies include:

Micronations

In the same tradition some self-proclaimed monarchs of so-called micronations establish themselves as virtual princes:

Princes as representants of a reigning monarch

Various monarchies provide for different modes in which princes of the dynasty can temporarily or permanently share in the style and / or office of the Monarch, e.g. as Regent or Viceroy.

Though these offices must not be reserved for members of the ruling dynasty, in some traditions they are, possibly even reflected in the style of the office, e.g. prince-lieutenant in Luxembourg repeatedly filled by the Crown prince before the grand duke's abdication, or in form of consortium imperii.

Some monarchies even have a practice in which the Monarch can formally abdicate in favor of his heir, and yet retain a kingly title with executive power, e.g. Maha Upayuvaraja (Sanskrit for Great Joint King in Cambodia), though sometimes also conferred on powerful regents who exercised executive powers.

Non-dynastic princes

France and the Holy Roman Empire

(Holy Roman Empire).]]

In several countries of the European continent, e.g. in France, prince can be an aristocratic title of someone having a high rank of nobility in chief of a geographical place, but no actual territory and without any necessary link to the royal family, which makes comparing it with e.g. the British system of royal princes difficult.

The kings of France started to bestow the style of prince, as a title among the nobility, from the 16th century onwards. These titles were created by elevating a seigneurie to the nominal status of a principality—although prerogatives of sovereignty were never conceded in the letters patent. These titles held no official place in the hierarchy of the nobility, but were often treated as ranking just below dukedoms, since they were often inherited (or assumed) by ducal heirs:

  • French titles of prince recognized by the king
    • Holy Roman Empire States annexed by France
      • Arches-Charleville: in the Ardennes region, near the border with the Empire.
      • Château-Renaud: near Arches-Charleville.
      • Dombes: on the east bank of the Rhône.
      • Orange.
      • Sedan: principalty part of the Duchy of Bouillon.
    • Ancient principalties seated in the Kingdom of France
      • Boisbelle, later Henrichemont: in the Berry region, a sovereign principalty recognized in 1598.
      • Luxe: in the Béarn region, also styled Sovereign Count.
      • Yvetot: in the Normandy region, recognized as King of Yvetot.
    • Principalties created by the King
    • The princes of Condé and Conti, cadets of the French royal house, used recognized princely titles, but the lordships of Condé and Conti were never formally created principalties by the King.
  • Unrecognized titles of Prince
    • Aigremont
    • Anet: used by the Dukes of Vendôme, then the Dukes of Penthièvre.
    • Antibes: claimed by the de Grasse family.
    • Bédeille: in Béarn.
    • Bidache: in Béarn used by the House of Gramont, but the heir was usually styled Count of Guiche rather than Prince of Bidache.
    • Carency: in Artois. Originally a lordship of the House of Bourbon. It was inherited by the Counts of La Vauguyon, who used the style of Prince of Carency for the heir.
    • Chabanais: in Angoumois. Reduced to a marquessate in 1702
    • Chalais: in Périgord. Inherited by the elder branch of the House of Talleyrand. Grandeeship of Sapin annexed to the title in 1714.
    • Commercy: lordship of Lorraine. Younger sons of the House of Lorraine used the style of Prince of Commercy.
    • Courtenay: the House of Courtenay descended from Louis VI of France but was never recognized as Princes of the Blood by the King. The last branch of the house used the style of Prince of Courtenay from the 17th century. The style passed to the Dukes of Bauffremont.
    • Elbeuf: lordship of Normandy. Younger sons of the House of Lorraine used the style of Prince of Elbeuf ; later a duchy.
    • Lamballe: in Brittany, used by the heir of the Duke of Penthièvre.
    • Lambesc: in Provence, used by various cadets of the House of Lorraine, notably by the heirs of the Dukes of Elbeuf.
    • Léon: viscountcy of Brittany. The heirs of the Dukes of Rohan used the style of Prince of Léon.
    • Listenois: in Franche-Comté, used by the Dukes of Bauffremont after the Courtenay inheritance.
    • Marsillac: in Angoumois, used by the heir of the Duke of La Rochefoucauld.
    • Maubuisson: in Île-de-France, used by the Dukes of Rohan-Rohan.
    • Montauban: in Brittany, used by various cadets of the House of Rohan.
    • Montbazon: a duchy of the House of Rohan, style of Prince of Montbazon used by various cadets of the House.
    • Mortagne: in Aquitaine, used by the Dukes of Richelieu.
    • Poix: in Picardy, used by various houses, raised two times to a duchy.
    • Pons: in Saintonge, used by cadets of the House of Lorraine.
    • Rochefort: used by cadets of the House of Rohan.
    • Soubise: used by cadets of the House of Rohan, also Dukes of Rohan-Rohan.
    • Soyons: in Dauphiné, used by cadets of the Dukes of Uzès.
    • Talmond: in Vendée, used by the Dukes of La Trémoïlle.
    • Tonnay-Charente: used by the heirs of the Dukes of Mortemart.
    • Turenne: sovereign viscountcy on the House of La Tour d'Auvergne, style of Prince of Turenne used by cadets of the house.

This can even occur in a monarchy within which an identical but real and substantive feudal title exists, such as Fürst in German. An example of this is:

Spain and France

(the Netherlands).]]

In other cases, such titular princedoms are created in chief of an event, such as a treaty of a victory. An example of this is:

Poland and Russia

(Poland).]]

In Poland specifically, the titles of prince dated either to the times before the Union of Lublin or were granted to Polish nobles by foreign kings, as the law in Poland forbade the king from dividing nobility by granting them hereditary titles. For more information, see The Princely Houses of Poland.

In the Russian system, knyaz, translated as "prince", is the highest degree of official nobility. Members of older dynasties that were eventually subjected to the Russian imperial dynasty were also accorded the title of knyaz -- sometimes after first being allowed to use the higher title of tsarevich (e.g. the Princes Gruzinsky and Sibirsky. Rurikid branches used the knyaz title also after they were succeeded by the Romanovs as the Russian imperial dynasty. An example of this is:

The title of prince in various Western traditions and languages

In each case, the title is followed (when available) by the female form and then (not always available, and obviously rarely applicable to a prince of the blood without a principality) the name of the territorial associated with it, each separated by a slash. If a second title (or set) is also given, then that one is for a Prince of the blood, the first for a principality. Be aware that the absence of a separate title for a prince of the blood may not always mean no such title exists; alternatively, the existence of a word does not imply there is also a reality in the linguistic territory concerned; it may very well be used exclusively to render titles in other languages, regardless whether there is a historical link with any (which often means that linguistic tradition is adopted)

Etymologically, we can discern the following traditions (some languages followed a historical link, e.g. within the Holy Roman Empire, not their linguistic family; some even fail to follow the same logic for certain other aristocratic titles):

Romance languages

  • Languages (mostly Romance) only using the Latin root princeps:
    • Catalan: Príncep /Princesa - Príncep /Princesa
    • French: Prince /Princesse - Prince /Princesse
    • Friulian: Princip /Principesse - Princip /Principesse
    • Italian: Principe /Principessa - Principe /Principessa
    • Latin (post-Roman): Princeps/*Princeps/*
    • Monegasque: Principu /Principessa - Principu /Principessa
    • Occitan: Prince /Princessa - Prince /Princessa
    • Portuguese: Príncipe /Princesa - Príncipe /Princesa
    • Rhaeto-Romansh: Prinzi /Prinzessa - Prinzi /Prinzessa
    • Romanian: Prinţ /Prinţesă - Principe /Principesă
    • Spanish: Príncipe /Princesa - Príncipe /Princesa
    • Venetian: Principe /Principessa - Principe /Principessa

Celtic languages

    • Breton: Priñs /Priñsez
    • Irish: Prionsa /Banphrionsa - Flaith /Banfhlaith
    • Scottish Gaelic: Prionnsa /Bana-phrionnsa - Flath /Ban-fhlath
    • Welsh: Tywysog /Tywysoges - Prins /Prinses

Germanic languages

  • Languages (mainly Germanic) that use (generally alongside a princeps-derivate for princes of the blood) an equivalent of the German Fürst:
    • English:Prince /Princess - Prince /Princess
    • Afrikaans: Prins
    • Danish: Fyrste /Fyrstinde - Prins /Prinsesse
    • Dutch: Vorst /Vorstin- Prins /Prinses
    • Faroese: Fúrsti /Fúrstafrúa, Fúrstinna - Prinsur /Prinsessa
    • Frisian: Foarst /Foarstinne - Prins /Prinsesse
    • German: Fürst /Fürstin - Prinz /Prinzessin
    • Icelandic: Fursti /Furstynja - Prins /Prinsessa
    • Luxembourgish: Fürst /Fürstin - Prënz /Prinzessin
    • Norwegian: Fyrste /Fyrstinne - Prins /Prinsesse
    • Old English: Ǣðeling /Hlæfdiġe
    • Swedish: Furste /Furstinna - Prins /Prinsessa

Slavic and Baltic languages

  • Slavic and Baltic languages:
    • Belarusian: Tsarevich, Karalevich, Prynts /Tsarewna, Karalewna, Pryntsesa
    • Bulgarian: (phonetically pronounced) Knyaz /Knaginya, Kral, Prints /Printsesa
    • Bosnian: Кнез/Књегиња or Knez/Kneginja, Краљевић/Краљевна or Kraljević/Kraljevna, Принц/Принцеза or Princ/Princeza
    • Croatian: Knez/Kneginja, Kraljević/Kraljevna, Princ/Princeza
    • Czech: Kníže /Kněžna, Princ/Princezna
    • Latvian: Firsts /Firstiene - Princis /Princese
    • Lithuanian: Kunigaikštis /Kunigaikštiene - Princas /Princese
    • Macedonian: Knez /Knezhina, Tsarevich, Kralevich, Prints /Tsarevna, Kralevna, Printsesa
    • Polish: Książę /Księżna, Książę, Królewicz /Księżna, Królewna
    • Russian: Knyaz /Knyagina Knyazhyna, Tsarevich, Korolyevich, Prints /Tsarevna, Korolyevna, Printsessa
    • Serbian: Кнез/Књегиња or Knez/Kneginja, Краљевић/Краљевна or Kraljević/Kraljevna, Принц/Принцеза or Princ/Princeza
    • Slovak: Knieža /Kňažná, Kráľovič, Princ /Princezná
    • Slovene: Knez /Kneginja, Kraljevič, Princ /Kraljična, Princesa
    • Ukrainian: Knyaz /Knyazhnya, Tsarenko, Korolenko, Prints /Tsarivna, Korolivna, Printsizna

Other languages

  • Albanian: Princ /Princeshë - Princ /Princeshë
  • Arabic: Emir /Emira - Prince /Princess
  • Estonian: Vürst /Vürstinna - Prints /Printsess
  • Finnish: Ruhtinas /Ruhtinatar - Prinssi /Prinsessa
  • Georgian: თავადი / Tavadi
  • Greek (Medieval, formal): Prigkips, Πρίγκηψ/Prigkipissa, Πριγκήπισσα
  • Greek (Modern, colloquial): Prigkipas, Πρίγκηπας/Prigkipissa, Πριγκήπισσα
  • Hindi: Rājkumār (राजकुमार), Kũwar (कुँवर), both from Sanskrit rāj (royal) + kumāra (a boy)
  • Hungarian (Magyar): Herceg / Hercegnő
  • Maltese: Prinċep /Prinċipessa - Prinċep /Prinċipessa
  • Turkish: Prens /Prenses
  • Malaysian: Putera / Puteri
  • Urdu: Shahzada / Shahzadi - Prince /Princess
  • Filipino: Prinsipe / Prinsesa - Prince / Princess

The title of prince in other traditions and languages

The above is essentially the story of European, Christian dynasties and other nobility, also 'exported' to their colonial and other overseas territories and otherwise adopted by rather westernized societies elsewhere (e.g. Haiti).

Applying these essentially western concepts, and terminology, to other cultures even when they don't do so, is common but in many respects rather dubious. Different (historical, religious...) backgrounds have also begot significantly different dynastic and nobiliary systems, which are poorly represented by the 'closest' western analogy.

It therefore makes sense to treat these per civilization.

Islamic traditions

  • Arabian tradition since the caliphate - in several monarchies it remains customary to use the title Sheikh (in itself below princely rank) for all members of the royal family. In families (often reigning dynasties) which claim descent from Muhammad, this is expressed in either of a number of titles (supposing different exact relations): sayid, sharif; these are retained even when too remote from any line of succession to be a member of any dynasty.
  • Malay countries
  • In the Ottoman empire, the sovereign of imperial rank (incorrectly known in the west as (Great) sultan) was styled padishah with a host of additional titles, reflecting his claim as political successor to the various conquered states. Princes of the blood, male and female, were given the style sultan (normally reserved for Muslim rulers)
  • Persia (Iran) - Princes as members of a Royal family, are referred to by the title Shahzadeh, meaning "descendant of the king". Since the word zadeh could refer to either a male or female descendant, Shahzadeh had the parallel meaning of "princess" as well. Princes can also be sons of provincial kings (Khan) and the title referring to them would be the title of Khanzadeh. Princes as people who got a title from the King are called "Mirza", diminutive of "Amir Zadeh" (King's Son).

East Asian traditions

  • China

In ancient China, the title of prince developed from being the highest title of nobility (synonymous with duke) in the Zhou Dynasty, to five grades of princes (not counting the sons and grandsons of the emperor) by the time of the fall of the Qing Dynasty.The Chinese word for prince 'Wang' 王 literally means King as Chinese believe the emperor 'huangdi'皇帝 is the ruler of all kings. The most accurate translation of the English word 'prince' in Chinese is 皇子(son of the Emperor) or 王子 (son of the King).

  • Japan

In Japan, the title of prince (kôshaku 公爵) was used as the highest title of kazoku (華族 Japanese modern nobility) before the present constitution. The title kôshaku, however, is more commonly translated as duke to avoid confusion with the royal ranks in the imperial household, shinnô (親王 literally king of the blood), female naishinnô (内親王 literally queen (by herself) of the blood), and shinnôhi 親王妃 literally consort of king of the blood), or ô ( literally king); female, jyo-ôh (女王 literally queen (by herself)) and ôhi (王妃 literally consort of king). The former is the higher title of a male member of the Imperial family and the latter is the lower.

  • Korea

In Korea, the title Prince was used king's male line descendant. Prince translate generally three division. In Jo-seon, king's legitimate son was used title 대군(Dae-goun). And a son born of a concubine and king's a great-great-grandson was used 군. Present prince usually translate 왕자.

In Thailand (formerly Siam) the title of Prince was divided into three classes depending on the rank of their mothers. Those who were borne of a King and had a royal mother (a Queen or a Princess consort) are titled Chaofa Chai (Thai: เจ้าฟ้าชาย: lit. translation: Male Celestial Lord). Those borne of a King and a commoner mother or children of Chaofas are tilted Phra Ong Chao (พระองค์เจ้า). And finally the children of Phra Ong Chaos are titled Mom Chao (หม่อมเจ้า), abbreviated as M.C. (or ม.จ.).

African traditions

A Western model was sometimes copied by emancipated colonial regimes (e.g. Bokassa I's short-lived Central-African Empire in Napoleonic fashion). Otherwise, most of the styles for members of ruling families do not lend themselves well to English translation. Nonetheless, in general the princely style has gradually replaced the colonialist title of chief, which does not particularly connote dynastic rank to Westerners, e.g. Swazi Royal Family and Zulu Royal Family.

The title of prince in religion

was a prince of the Roman Catholic Church during his lifetime.]]

In states with an element of theocracy, this can affect princehood in several ways, such as the style of the ruler (e.g. with a secondary title meaning son or servant of a named divinity), but also the mode of succession (even reincarnation and recognition).

Furthermore, certain religious offices may be considered of princely rank, and/or imply comparable temporal rights.

The Pope, Cardinals, Prince Bishops, Lord Bishops, Prince-Provost, and Prince-abbots are referred to as Princes of the Church. Also in Christianity, Jesus Christ is sometimes referred to as the Prince of Peace.[1] Other titles for Jesus Christ are Prince of Princes,[2] Prince of the Covenant,[3] and Prince of the Kings of the Earth.[4] Further, Satan is often titled the Prince of Darkness; and in the Christian faith he is also referred to as the Prince of this World[5][6][7] and the Prince of the Power of the Air.[8] Another title for Satan, not as common today but apparently so in approximately 30 A.D. by the Pharisees of the day, was the title Prince of the Devils.[9][10][11] Prince of Israel, Prince of the Angels, and Prince of Light are titles given to the Archangel Michael. Some Christian churches also believe that since all Christians, like Jesus Christ, are children of God, then they too are princes and princesses of Heaven. Saint Peter, a disciple of Jesus, is also known as the Prince of the Apostles.

See also

References

  1. ^ This is a title for Jesus Christ (among others) given in Isaiah 9:6.
  2. ^ A title for Jesus Christ given in Daniel 8:25.
  3. ^ A title for Jesus Christ given in Daniel 11:22.
  4. ^ A title for Jesus Christ given in Revelation 1:5.
  5. ^ A title for Satan given in John 12:31.
  6. ^ A title for Satan given in John 14:30.
  7. ^ A title for Satan given in John 16:11.
  8. ^ A title for Satan given in Ephesians 2:2.
  9. ^ A title for Satan given in Matthew 9:34.
  10. ^ A title for Satan given in Matthew 12:24.
  11. ^ A title for Satan given in Mark 3:22.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Prince (musician) article)

From Wikiquote

Can you imagine what I would do if I could do all I can?

Prince Rogers Nelson (born June 7, 1958) is a funk/rock/pop/R&B singer, songwriter, and actor. He goes by the name Prince but between 1993 and 2000 he went by an unpronounceable symbol and was referred to The Artist Formerly Known as Prince. During his career, he produced ten platinum album, had 40 top ten singles, and promoted singers such as Sheila E., Carmen Electra, The Time, and Vanity 6. The Artist has written over one thousand songs which have been released by himself, a pen name, or another artist. In 2004, Prince was inducted in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and was ranked #28 out of 100 in Rolling Stone Greatest artist of all times.

Contents

Sourced

  • It's a hurtful place, the world, in and of itself. We don't need to add to it. And we're in a place now where we all need one another, and it's going to get rougher.
    • Tavis Smiley Show, PBS [1] (April 27, 2009)
  • Well, the reason why is because I'm one of Jehovah's witnesses and we've never voted. That's not to say that I don't think Barack Obama - President Obama - is a very smart individual and he seems like he means well. Prophecy is what we all have to go by now.
    • When asked why he doesn't vote
    • Tavis Smiley Show (April 27, 2009)

Albums

For You (1978)

  • You can live your own life and I'll live mine
    I will never try to keep you down
    And even if I only see you some of the time
    I'm just happy when you come around
    And even if the sun don't shine
    I'm warm enough when you're in these arms of mine
    Just as long as we're together.

Prince (1979)

  • I wanna be your lover
    I wanna be the only one that makes you come running
    I wanna be your lover
    I wanna turn you on, turn you out, all night long, make you shout
    Oh, lover! Yeah.
    I wanna be the only one you come for.
  • There's some talk going 'round town
    That you really don't give a damn
    They say you really put me down
    When I'm doing the best I can
    I gave you all of my love
    I even gave you my body
    Tell me, baby, ain't that enough?

Dirty Mind (1980)

  • Now where I come from
    We don't let society
    Tell us how it's supposed to be
    Our clothes, our hair
    We don't care
    It's all about being there
    Everybody's going Uptown
    That's where I wanna be
    Uptown
    Set your mind free.

Controversy (1981)

  • I just can't believe all the things people say -- Controversy
    Am I black or white? Am I straight or gay? -- Controversy
    Do I believe in God? Do I believe in me? -- Controversy
  • Do I believe in God? Do I believe in me?
    Some people wanna die so they can be free
    (I said) Life is just a game, we're all just the same...do you wanna play?
    • Controversy
  • C'mon everybody, yeah, this is your life
    I'm talking about a revolution we gotta organize
    We don't need no segregation, we don't need no race
    New age revelation, I think we got a case.

    I'm OK as long as u are here with me
    Sexuality is all we ever need.

1999 (1982)

  • I was dreamin' when I wrote this
    So sue me if I go 2 fast.
    But life is just a party, and parties weren't meant 2 last.
    War is all around us, my mind says prepare 2 fight
    So if I gotta die I'm gonna listen 2 my body tonight.

    Yeah, they say two thousand zero zero party over,
    oops out of time
    So tonight I'm gonna party like it's 1999.

  • I guess I shoulda closed my eyes
    When U drove me 2 the place
    Where your horses run free.
    'Cuz I felt a little ill
    When I saw all the pictures
    Of the jockeys that were there before me.

    Believe it or not,
    I started to worry
    I wondered if I had enough class.
    But it was Saturday night
    I guess that makes it all right
    And U say, "Baby, have U got enough gas?"

  • I get delirious whenever you're near
    Lose all self-control, baby just can't steer
    Wheels get locked in place
    Stupid look on my face.
    It comes 2 makin' a pass, pretty mama
    I just can't win a race.

Purple Rain (1984)

  • Dearly beloved
    We are gathered here today
    2 get through this thing called life.

    Electric word life
    It means forever and that's a mighty long time
    But I'm here 2 tell U
    There's something else:
    The afterworld.

    A world of never ending happiness
    U can always see the sun, day or night.

  • So when u call up that shrink in Beverly Hills
    U know the one - Dr Everything'll Be Alright
    Instead of asking him how much of your time is left
    Ask him how much of your mind, baby.

    'Cuz in this life
    Things are much harder than in the afterworld
    In this life,
    You're on your own.

    • Let's Go Crazy
  • Dr. Everything'll Be Alright will make everything go wrong
    Pills and thrills and daffodils will kill
    Hang tough children.
    • Let's Go Crazy
  • I knew a girl named Nikki
    I guess U could say she was a sex fiend
    I met her in a hotel lobby
    Masturbating with a magazine.
    She said "How'd U like 2 waste some time?"
    And I could not resist when I saw little Nikki grind.
  • How can U just leave me standing?
    Alone in a world that's so cold? (So cold)
    Maybe I'm just 2 demanding
    Maybe I'm just like my father, 2 bold
    Maybe you're just like my mother
    She's never satisfied (She's never satisfied)
    Why do we scream at each other?
    This is what it sounds like
    When doves cry.
  • I never meant 2 cause u any sorrow
    I never meant 2 cause u any pain
    I only wanted 2 one time see u laughing
    I only wanted 2 see u laughing in the purple rain.

Around the World in a Day (1985)

  • There is a park that is known
    4 the face it attracts
    colorful people whose hair
    On 1 side is swept back
    The smile on their faces
    It speaks of profound inner peace
    Ask where they're going
    They'll tell U nowhere
    They've taken a lifetime lease
    On Paisley Park.
  • She wore a raspberry beret
    The kind U find in a second hand store
    Raspberry beret
    And if it was warm she wouldn't wear much more
    Raspberry beret
    I think I love her.
  • Pop life
    Everybody needs a thrill
    Pop life
    We all got a space 2 fill
    Pop life
    Everybody can't be on top
    But life it ain't real funky
    Unless it's got that pop
    Dig it.

Parade (1986)

  • I want to live life to the ultimate high,
    Maybe I'll die young like heroes die,
    Maybe I'll kiss you some wild special way.
    If nobody kills me or thrills me soon,
    I'll die in your arms under the cherry moon.
    • Under the Cherry Moon
  • Happiness in it's uncut form
    Is the feeling that I get, you're warm, warm
    Happy's what I get when we do what we do
    Happiness, mama, is being with u
    Good lord.
  • Women not girls rule my world
    I said they rule my world
    Act your age, mama (not your shoe size)
    Not your shoe size
    Maybe we could do the twirl
    U don't have 2 watch Dynasty
    2 have an attitude
    U just leave it all up 2 me
    My love will be your food
    Yeah.
  • U don't have 2 be rich
    2 be my girl
    U don't have 2 be cool
    2 rule my world
    Ain't no particular sign I'm more compatible with
    I just want your extra time and your
    Kiss.
    • Kiss

Sign O' the Times (1987)

  • Oh yeah
    In France a skinny man
    Died of a big disease with a little name
    By chance his girlfriend came across a needle
    And soon she did the same
    At home there are seventeen-year-old boys
    And their idea of fun
    Is being in a gang called The Disciples
    High on crack, totin' a machine gun.
  • Here we are folks
    The dream we all dream of
    Boy versus girl in the World Series of love
    Tell me, have U got the look?
  • U walked in (I walked in)
    I woke up (U woke up)
    I never seen a pretty girl look so tough' baby (baby)
    U got that look, yes U do (yes U do)
    Color U peach and black
    Color me takin' aback, baby
    Crucial, I think I wantcha.
    • U Got the Look
  • And I said, baby don't waste your time
    I know what's on your mind
    U wouldn't be satisfied with a one night stand
    And I could never take the place of your man.

Lovesexy (1988)

  • I'm going down 2 Alphabet Street
    I'm gonna crown the first girl that I meet
    I'm gonna talk so sexy
    She'll want me from my head 2 my feet.
  • This feeling's so good in every single way,
    I want it morning, noon and night of every day;
    And if by chance i cannot have it I can't say
    But with it I know heaven's just a kiss away.
    • Lovesexy

Batman (1989)

Graffiti Bridge (1990)

Diamonds and Pearls (1991)

Love Symbol Album (1992)

Come (1993)

The Black Album (1994)

The Gold Experience (1995)

Chaos and Disorder (1996)

Emancipation (1996)

The Truth (1998)

The Vault: Old Friends 4 Sale (1999)

Rave Un2 the Joy Fantastic (1999)

The Rainbow Children (2001)

One Nite Alone... (2002)

Xpectation (2003)

N.E.W.S. (2003)

Musicology (album) (2004)

  • I’ve never seen the moon look so lovely as the night I saw it with you.
    It let me know I’d never seen the moon before. (Never seen the moon before)
    So many speak of the moon as though it had no flaws.
    But to compare it to a beauty like yours would give one pause.
    • Call My Name

The Chocolate Invasion (2004)

The Slaughterhouse (2004)

3121 (2006)

Planet Earth (2007)

LOtUSFLOW3R (2009)

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Prince article)

From Wikisource

The Prince
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page that lists different versions of the same work.

Il Principe or The Prince is a political treatise by the Florentine philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli.


Versions of The Prince include:


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also prince

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Prince

Plural
-

Prince

  1. The title of a prince.
  2. A surname for someone who acted like a prince, or played the part in a pageant, or served in the household of a prince.
  3. A male given name in occasional use.

Quotations

  • 1853 Charles Dickens: Bleak House: Chapter XIV:
    Young Mr Turveydrop's name is Prince; I wish it wasn't, because it sounds like a dog, but he didn't christen himself. Old Mr Turveydrop had him christened Prince, in remembrance of the Prince Regent.

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


the title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The "princes of the provinces" (1 Kg 20:14) were the governors or lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the "princes" mentioned in Dan 6:1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were the officers who administered the affairs of the provinces; the "satraps" (as rendered in R.V.). These are also called "lieutenants" (Est 3:12; 8:9; R.V., "satraps"). The promised Saviour is called by Daniel (9:25) "Messiah the Prince" (Heb. nagid); compare Acts 3:15; 5:31. The angel Micheal is called (Dan 12:1) a "prince" (Heb. sar, whence "Sarah," the "princes").

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Facts about PrinceRDF feed

Simple English

This article is about the royal title. For the musician, see Prince (artist). For other uses, see Prince (disambiguation).

A prince is a male member of a royal family. A female prince is known as princess.

Each royal family has its own rules saying who is called a prince. In most of these families, the son of a king or a queen is a prince. In some families, the son of a prince is also a prince. In Monaco and Lichtenstein, the ruler of the country is called the prince.









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