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Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Princess of Wales
Portrait by Charles Philips, 1736
Spouse Frederick, Prince of Wales
Issue
Princess Augusta
George III of the United Kingdom
Edward, Duke of York
Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain
William, Duke of Gloucester
Henry, Duke of Cumberland
Princess Louisa
Prince Frederick
Caroline Matilda of Wales
House House of Hanover
House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Father Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Mother Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Born 30 November 1719(1719-11-30)
Gotha, Germany
Died 8 February 1772 (aged 52)
Carlton House, London
Burial 15 February 1772
Westminster Abbey, London

Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (30 November 1719 – 8 February 1772) was Princess of Wales between 1736 and 1751, and Dowager Princess of Wales thereafter. She was one of only three holders of the title who never became queen. Princess Augusta's eldest son succeeded as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760, as her husband, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died nine years earlier.

Contents

Early life

Princess Augusta was born in Gotha to Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676-1732) and Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (1676-1740). Her paternal grandfather was Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, eldest surviving son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg.

Marriage

At age 16 and speaking virtually no English, she arrived in Great Britain for a wedding ceremony which took place almost immediately, on 17 April 1736, at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace, London. Despite a twelve-year age difference, the marriage seems to have been a happy one. They had nine children, the last born after Frederick's death. The birth of their first daughter, Princess Augusta, on 31 August 1737, took place at St James's after Princess Augusta was forced by Frederick to travel from Hampton Court Palace while in labour, simply to prevent his hated parents, George II and Queen Caroline, from being present at the birth.

Throughout their marriage, Princess Augusta went along with her husband's wishes in the feud with his parents. Following the Prince of Wales' death, her role as mother of the heir-apparent to the throne became a more important one, and she was named prospective regent, which caused a political controversy. Shortly afterwards, she began to be influenced by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, her son's tutor, and rumours spread that they were having an affair. This was due to her being adamant that Bute was visiting her, and not her son, during his back door visits to tutor the prince. Both were pilloried in the press. Even after George III's accession, Princess Augusta suffered widespread hostility from the public. After she died of cancer of the throat at age 52 at Carlton House, her funeral procession attracted troublemakers who followed the coffin to the grave shouting insults.

Kew Gardens

Princess Augusta enlarged and greatly extended Kew Gardens after her husband's death. Sir William Chambers built several garden structures for her. One of these, the lofty Chinese pagoda built in 1761, still remains.[1]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

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Titles and styles

Princess Augusta's arms[2]
  • 30 November 1719 – 17 April 1736: Her Ducal Serene Highness Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Duchess in Saxony
  • 17 April 1736 – 31 March 1751: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
  • 31 March 1751 – 8 February 1772: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Princess of Wales

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
HRH Princess Augusta 31 August 1737 31 March 1813 married 1764, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick; had issue
HM George III 4 June 1738 29 January 1820 married 1761, Charlotte-Sophia, Duchess of Mecklenburg; had issue
HRH Prince Edward, Duke of York 14 March 1739 17 September 1767  
HRH Princess Elizabeth 30 December 1740 4 September 1759  
HRH Prince William, Duke of Gloucester 14 November 1743 25 August 1805 married 1766, Maria Waldegrave, Countess Waldegrave; had issue
HRH Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland 27 November 1745 18 September 1790 (an alleged marriage to Olive Wilmot in 1767 did not occur)
married 1771, The Hon. Lady Anne Luttrell; no issue
HRH Princess Louisa 8 March 1749 13 May 1768  
HRH Prince Frederick 13 May 1750 29 December 1765  
HRH Princess Caroline Matilda 11 July 1751 10 May 1775 married 1766, Christian VII, King of Denmark, had issue

Legacy

  • In the 1730s the settlement of Augusta, in the then-British colony of Georgia, was named in her honour.
  • Augusta County, Virginia was also named in her honor.
  • Fort Augusta, Northumberland County, United States of America- Named for Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Fort Augusta was the largest of the Provincial forts. It was dismantled in 1794. Fort Augusta was a stronghold in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, in the upper Susquehanna Valley from the time of the French and Indian War to the close of the American Revolution. The fort was erected by Col. William Clapham in 1756 at a site now within the limits of the city of Sunbury, in an area the Indians called "Shamokin." It was first constructed as part of the British defense against the raids of the French and Indians from the upper Allegheny region. Later, it served as an American fortress to aid in protecting settlers of the upper Susquehanna from Britain's Indian allies to the north.

Ancestors

External link

References

  1. ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Augusta, Princess of Wales. Retrieved 6 October 2005.
  2. ^ Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999), Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, London: Little, Brown & Co, pp. 30, ISBN 0-85605-469-1 

Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Princess of Wales

File:Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales by Charles
Portrait by Charles Philips, 1736
Spouse Frederick, Prince of Wales
Issue
Princess Augusta
George III of the United Kingdom
Edward, Duke of York
Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain
William, Duke of Gloucester
Henry, Duke of Cumberland
Princess Louisa
Prince Frederick
Caroline Matilda of Wales
House House of Hanover
House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Father Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Mother Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Born 30 November 1719(1719-11-30)
Gotha, Germany
Died 8 February 1772 (aged 52)
Carlton House, London
Burial February 15 1772
Westminster Abbey, London

Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (30 November 17198 February 1772) was Princess of Wales between 1736 and 1751, and Dowager Princess of Wales thereafter. She was one of only three holders of the title who never became queen. Princess Augusta's eldest son succeeded as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760, as her husband, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died nine years earlier.

Contents

Early life

Princess Augusta was born in Gotha to Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676-1732) and Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (1676-1740). Her paternal grandfather was Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, eldest surviving son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Altenburg.

Marriage

At age 16 and speaking virtually no English, she arrived in Great Britain for a wedding ceremony which took place almost immediately, on 17 April 1736, at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace, London. Despite a twelve-year age difference, the marriage seems to have been a happy one. They had nine children, the last born after Frederick's death. The birth of their first daughter, Princess Augusta, on 31 August 1737, took place at St James's after Princess Augusta was forced by Frederick to travel from Hampton Court Palace while in labour, simply to prevent his hated parents, George II and Queen Caroline, from being present at the birth.

Throughout their marriage, Princess Augusta went along with her husband's wishes in the feud with his parents. Following the Prince of Wales' death, her role as mother of the heir-apparent to the throne became a more important one, and she was named prospective regent, which caused a political controversy. Shortly afterwards, she began to be influenced by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, her son's tutor, and rumours spread that they were having an affair. This was due to her being adamant that Bute was visiting her, and not her son, during his back door visits to tutor the prince. Both were pilloried in the press. Even after George III's accession, Princess Augusta suffered widespread hostility from the public. After she died of cancer of the throat at age 52 at Carlton House, her funeral procession attracted troublemakers who followed the coffin to the grave shouting insults.

Kew Gardens

Princess Augusta enlarged and greatly extended Kew Gardens after her husband's death. Sir William Chambers built several garden structures for her. One of these, the lofty Chinese pagoda built in 1761, still remains.[1]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 30 November 1719 – 17 April 1736: Her Ducal Serene Highness Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
  • 17 April 1736 – 31 March 1751: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
  • 31 March 1751 – 8 February 1772: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Princess of Wales

Issue

NameBirthDeathNotes
HRH Princess Augusta31 August 173731 March 1813married 1764, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick; had issue
HM George III4 June 173829 January 1820married 1761, Charlotte-Sophia, Duchess of Mecklenburg; had issue
HRH Prince Edward, Duke of York14 March 173917 September 1767 
HRH Princess Elizabeth30 December 17404 September 1759 
HRH Prince William, Duke of Gloucester14 November 174325 August 1805married 1766, Maria Waldegrave, Countess Waldegrave; had issue
HRH Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland27 November 174518 September 1790(an alleged marriage to Olive Wilmot in 1767 did not occur)
married 1771, The Hon. Lady Anne Luttrell; no issue
HRH Princess Louisa8 March 174913 May 1768 
HRH Prince Frederick13 May 175029 December 1765 
HRH Princess Caroline Matilda of Wales11 July 175110 May 1775married 1766, Christian VII, King of Denmark, had issue

Legacy

  • In the 1730s the settlement of Augusta, in the then-British colony of Georgia, was named in her honour.
  • Augusta County, Virginia was also named in her honor.
  • Fort Augusta, Northumberland County, United States of America- Named for Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Fort Augusta was the largest of the Provincial forts. It was dismantled in 1794. Fort Augusta was a stronghold in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, in the upper Susquehanna Valley from the time of the French and Indian War to the close of the American Revolution. The fort was erected by Col. William Clapham in 1756 at a site now within the limits of the city of Sunbury, in an area the Indians called "Shamokin." It was first constructed as part of the British defense against the raids of the French and Indians from the upper Allegheny region. Later, it served as an American fortress to aid in protecting settlers of the upper Susquehanna from Britain's Indian allies to the north.

External links

References

  1. ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Augusta, Princess of Wales. Retrieved October 6, 2005.

Simple English

Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Princess of Wales
File:Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess of Wales by Charles
Portrait by Charles Philips, 1736
Spouse Frederick, Prince of Wales
Issue
Princess Augusta
George III
Edward, Duke of York
Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain
William, Duke of Gloucester
Henry, Duke of Cumberland
Princess Louisa
Prince Frederick
Caroline Matilda of Wales
Titles and styles
HRH The Dowager Princess of Wales
HRH The Princess of Wales
HSH Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Father Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Mother Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Born 30 November 1719(1719-11-30)
Gotha, Germany
Died 8 February 1772 (aged 52)
Carlton House, London
Burial February 15 1772
Westminster Abbey, London

Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (30 November 1719 – 8 February 1772) was Princess of Wales between 1736 and 1751, and Dowager Princess of Wales thereafter. She was one of only three holders of the title who never became queen. Princess Augusta's eldest son succeeded as George III of the United Kingdom in 1760, as her husband, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died nine years earlier.


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