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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Princess Royal[1] is a style customarily (but not automatically) awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. The style is held for life, so a princess cannot be given the style during the lifetime of another Princess Royal (in particular, Queen Elizabeth II never held the title as her aunt, Princess Mary, was in possession of the title). There have been seven Princesses Royal in total.[2][3] Currently Princess Anne is the Princess Royal.

This title came into existence when Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), daughter of Henry IV, King of France, and wife of King Charles I (1600–1649), wanted to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the King of France was styled "Madame Royale." The style is granted by Royal Warrant.

Princess Mary (later Queen Mary II of England) (1662–1694), eldest daughter of King James II, and Princess Sophia Dorothea (1687–1757), only daughter of King George I, were eligible for this honour but did not receive it. At the time she became eligible for the title, Princess Mary was already Princess of Orange, while Sophia Dorothea was already Queen in Prussia when she became eligible for the title.

Contents

List of Princesses Royal

The following is a complete list of women officially styled as "Princess Royal":

  1. 1642-1660 − Princess Mary (1631–1660): eldest daughter of King Charles I (d. 1649); wife (1641) of William II, Prince of Orange (1626–1650)
  2. 1727-1759 − Princess Anne (1709–1759): eldest daughter of King George II (d. 1760); wife (1734) of William IV, Prince of Orange (1711–1751)
  3. 1789-1828 − Princess Charlotte (1766–1828): eldest daughter of King George III (d. 1820); wife (1797) of Frederick I, King of Württemberg (1754–1816)
  4. 1841-1901 − Princess Victoria (1840–1901): eldest daughter of Queen Victoria (d. 1901); heiress presumptive 1840-1841; wife (1858) of Frederick III, German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888)
  5. 1905-1931 − Princess Louise (1867–1931): eldest daughter of King Edward VII (d. 1910); wife (1889) of Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife (1849–1912)
  6. 1932-1965 − Princess Mary (1897–1965): only daughter of King George V (d. 1936); wife (1922) of Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood (1882–1947)
  7. 1987–Present − Princess Anne (born 1950): only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II; wife firstly (1973–1992) of Mark Phillips (born 1948) and secondly (1992) of Timothy Laurence (born 1955)

Eldest daughter of the King

Even before the title of Princess Royal was granted, the eldest daughter of the King of England had a special status in law. For instance, according to Magna Carta, aids were due from the barons of the realm to finance the first wedding of the king's eldest daughter;[4] and by a statute of the 25th year of King Edward III, sleeping with the king's eldest daughter before her marriage constitutes an act of high treason punishable by death.[5]

The eldest daughters of the reigning monarch of England, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom were:

  1. 1066 or 1067-1087 Adela of Normandy (1062 or 1067-1137?), daughter of William I of England and wife (1083?) of Stephen II, Count of Blois (1045–1102)
  2. 1102-1135 Empress Matilda (1102–1167), daughter of Henry I of England and wife (1114) of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (1086–1125) and later (1128) to Geoffrey V of Anjou (1113–1151), mother of Henry II of England, named as her father's heir 1127-1135, briefly (1141) ruler of England
  3. 1136-1154 Marie of Boulogne (1136–1182), daughter of Stephen of England and wife (1160–1170) of Matthew of Alsace, Count of Boulogne (c. 1130-1173)
  4. 1156-1189 Matilda, Duchess of Saxony (1156–1189), daughter of Henry II of England and wife (1168) of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony (1129–1195)
  5. 1210-1216 Joan of England (1210–1238), daughter of John of England and wife (1221) of King Alexander II of Scotland (1198–1249)
  6. 1240-1272 Margaret of England (1240–1275), daughter of Henry III of England and wife (1251) of King Alexander III of Scotland (1241–1286)
  7. 1272-1298 Eleanor of England (1269–1298), daughter of Edward I of England and wife (1293) of Henry III of Bar (1259–1302). Died 1298.
  8. 1298-1307 Joan of Acre (1272–1307), daughter of Edward I of England and wife (1290) of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford (1243–1295) and (1297) of Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer (c. 1270-1325). As her sister died during their father's reign, Joan became the eldest daughter of the king then living.
  9. 1307 Margaret Plantagenet (1275-1333?), daughter of Edward I of England and wife (1290) of John II, Duke of Brabant (1275–1312). She was very briefly the eldest living daughter of Edward I between her sister's death in April 1307 and her father's death in July 1307.
  10. 1318-1327 Eleanor of Woodstock (1318–1355), daughter of Edward II of England and wife (1332) of Reginald II of Guelders (1295–1343)
  11. 1332-1377 Isabella de Coucy (1332-1379 or 1382), daughter of Edward III of England and wife (1365) of Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy (1340–1397)
  12. 1399-1409 Blanche of England (1392–1409), daughter of Henry IV of England and wife (1402) of Louis (1378–1436), son of King Rupert of Germany
  13. 1409-1413 Philippa of England (1394–1430), daughter of Henry IV of England and wife (1406) of Eric of Pomerania (1382–1459), King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. As her sister had died during their father's reign, she became the eldest daughter of the king then living.
  14. 1466-1483 Elizabeth of York (1466–1503), daughter of Edward IV of England and wife (1486) of Henry VII of England (1457–1509), heiress presumptive 1466-1470
  15. 1489-1509 Margaret Tudor (1489–1541), daughter of Henry VII of England and wife (1503) of King James IV of Scotland (1473–1513), heiress presumptive 1509-1511, 1511–1516
  16. 1516-1547 (but declared illegitimate 1533) Mary (1516–1558), daughter of Henry VIII of England and wife (1554) of Philip II of Spain (1527–1598), heiress presumptive 1516-1534 and 1547–1553, and later Queen of England and Ireland in her own right as Mary I 1553-1558
  17. 1603-1625 Elizabeth of Bohemia (1596–1662), daughter of James I of England and wife (1613) of Frederick V, Elector Palatine (1596–1632), heiress presumptive 1625-1630
  18. 1631-1649 Mary, Princess Royal (see above)
  19. 1685-1689 Mary (1662–1694), daughter of James II of England and wife (1677) of William III of Orange (1650–1702), heiress presumptive 1685-1688, later Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland in her own right as Mary II 1689-1694
  20. 1714-1727 Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (1687–1757), daughter of George I of Great Britain and wife (1706) of Frederick William I of Prussia (1688–1740); she had already become Queen in Prussia before her father became King
  21. 1727-1759 Anne, Princess Royal (see above)
  22. 1766-1820 Charlotte, Princess Royal (see above)
  23. 1841-1901 Victoria, Princess Royal (see above)
  24. 1901-1910 Louise, Princess Royal (see above)
  25. 1910-1936 Mary, Princess Royal (see above)
  26. 1936-1952 Elizabeth (1926–present), daughter of George VI of the United Kingdom and wife (1947) of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (1921-), heiress presumptive 1936-1952 and later Queen of the United Kingdom in her own right as Elizabeth II, 1952 to present. Throughout her time as eldest daughter of the king, there was a living Princess Royal (Mary, Countess of Harewood)
  27. 1952–present Anne, Princess Royal (see above)

In fiction

References

  1. ^ The Royal Family: Royal Titles. "Style and Title of the Princess Royal." - Royal.gov.uk Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  2. ^ Frequently Asked Questions for Alt.talk.royalty: "Who were the princesses who bore the style 'Princess Royal'?" - Heraldica.org Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  3. ^The Princess Royal,” The British Monarcy. Royal.gov.uk. (Retrieved 2010-01-12.)
  4. ^ Nullum scutagium vel auxilium ponatur in regno nostro.... nisi.... ad filiam nostram primogenitam semel maritandam[1]
  5. ^ si home violast la compaigne le roy, ou leigne file le roy nient marie, ou la compaigne leigne fitz et heire le roy.... doit estre ajugge treson a nostre Seigneur le Roi[2]
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Simple English

Princess Royal is a title often given by the reigning British King or Queen to his or her eldest daughter. The title is a gift of the monarch, unlike Prince of Wales which is automatically given to the eldest son

There can only be one Princess Royal at a time, so Elizabeth II never held the title because her aunt, Princess Mary was already called Princess Royal.

Contents

List of Princesses Royal

The following is a complete list of women officially styled as "Princess Royal":

Order Name
dates
Princess Royal
from (date) to (date)
Parent Date married Husband
dates
Notes
1 Mary, Princess Royal
1631–1660
1642–1660 Charles I
1600–1649
1641 William II, Prince of Orange
1626–1650
2 Anne, Princess Royal
1709–1759
1727–1759 George II
1683–1760
1734 William IV, Prince of Orange
1711–1751
3 Charlotte, Princess Royal
1766–1828
1789–1828 George III
1738–1820
1797 Frederick I of Württemberg
1754–1816
4 Victoria, Princess Royal
1840–1901
1841–1901 Victoria
1819–1901
1858 Frederick III of Germany
1831–1888
Heiress presumptive 1840–1841
5 Louise, Princess Royal
1867–1931
1905–1931 Edward VII
1841–1910
1889 Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife
1849–1912
6 Mary, Princess Royal
1897–1965
1932–1965 George V
1865–1936
1922 Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood
1882–1947
7 Anne, Princess Royal
1950–
1987–present Elizabeth II
1926–
1973–1992 Mark Phillips
1948-
1992 Timothy Laurence
1955–

Princess Louisa Maria (1692–1712), the last daughter of King James II (d. 1701), was born after he lost his crown in the Glorious Revolution. She was given the title of Princess Royal during James's exile at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and was so called by Jacobites, even though she was never even James's eldest living daughter.

Eldest daughters of English sovereigns

Before Charles II in 1660 started using the title of Princess Royal the eldest daughters of the King of England had a special status. The Magna Carta forced the Barons to pay for the eldest daughter's wedding[1] , and later sleeping with her was made High Treason[2], punishable by death - a law only changed in 1998 [3]

List of Eldest daughters of English sovereigns

Name
dates
Eldest daughter
from (date) to (date)
Father Date married Husband
dates
Notes
Adela of Normandy
1062/7-1137?
1066/7-1087 William I 1083? Stephen II of Blois
1045-1102
Mother of Stephen of England.
Empress Matilda
1102-1167
1102–1135 Henry I 1114 Emperor Henry V
1086-1125
Named as her father's heir 1127-1135, briefly (1141) ruler of England; mother of Henry II.
1128 Geoffrey V of Anjou
1113-1151
Marie of Boulogne
1136-1182
1136–1154 Stephen 1160–1170 Matthew of Boulogne
c.1130-1173
Matilda of Saxony
1156-1189
1156–1189 Henry II 1168 Henry the Lion
1129-1195
Joan of England
1210-1238
1210–1216 John 1221 Alexander II of Scotland
1198-1249
Margaret of England
1240-1275
1240–1272 Henry III 1251 Alexander III of Scotland
1241-1286
Eleanor of England
1269-1298
1272–1298 Edward I 1293 Henry III of Bar
1259-1302
Joan of Acre
1272-1307
1298–1307 Edward I 1290 Gilbert de Clare
1243–1295
Became eldest daughter of the king then living when her sister died.
1297 Ralph de Monthermer
c. 1270-1325
Margaret Plantagenet
1275-1333?
Apr.-Jul. 1307 Edward I 1290 John II of Brabant
1275-1312
Very briefly eldest living daughter of the king between her sister's and her father's deaths.
Eleanor of Woodstock
1318-1355
1318–1327 Edward II 1332 Reginald II of Guelders
1295-1343
Isabella de Coucy
1332-1379/82
1332–1377 Edward III 1365 Enguerrand VII de Coucy
1340-1397
Blanche of England
1392-1409
1399–1409 Henry IV 1402 Louis III of Germany
(son of King Rupert)
1378-1436
Philippa of England
1394-1430
1409–1413 Henry IV 1406 Eric of Pomerania
King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
1382-1459
Eldest living daughter of the king after her sister's death.
Elizabeth of York
1466-1503
1466–1483 Edward IV 1486 Henry VII of England
1457-1509
Heiress presumptive 1466-70
Margaret Tudor
1489-1541
1489–1509 Henry VII 1503 James IV of Scotland
1473-1513
Heiress presumptive 1509-11, 1511-16. Great-grandmother of James I.
Mary I of England
1516-1558
1516-1547
declared illegitimate 1533
Henry VIII 1554 Philip II of Spain
1527-1598
Heiress presumptive 1516-34 and 1547–53; Queen of England and Ireland 1553-58.
Elizabeth of Bohemia
1596-1662
1603–1625 James I 1613 Frederick V, Elector Palatine
1596-1632
Heiress presumptive 1625-30. Grandmother of George I.
Mary, Princess Royal 1631–1649 See above.
Mary II of England
1662-1694
1685–1689 James II 1677 William III of Orange
1650-1702
Heiress presumptive 1685-88, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland 1689-94.

References


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