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Princess Victoria of Battenberg
Queen consort of Spain
Tenure 31 May 1906 – 14 April 1931
Spouse Alfonso XIII of Spain
Issue
Infante Alfonso, Prince of Asturias
Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia
Infanta Beatrice, Princess of Civitella-Cesi
Infanta Maria Cristina, Countess of Marone
Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona
Infante Gonzalo de Borbón y Battenberg
Full name
Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena
Father Prince Henry of Battenberg
Mother Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom
Born 24 October 1887(1887-10-24)
Balmoral Castle, Scotland, UK
Died 15 April 1969 (aged 81)
Lausanne, Switzerland
Burial El Escorial

Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena; 24 October 1887 – 15 April 1969) was queen consort of King Alfonso XIII of Spain. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. She is the first cousin of George V and Maud of Wales. The current King of Spain, Juan Carlos, is her grandson.

Contents

Early life

Victoria Eugenie was born on 24 October 1887 at Balmoral Castle, in Scotland in the United Kingdom. Her father was Prince Henry of Battenberg, the fourth child and third son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine by his morganatic wife Countess Julia von Hauke, whose mother was Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

As Prince Henry was the product of a morganatic marriage, he took his style of Prince of Battenberg from his mother, who had been created Princess of Battenberg. As such Henry's daughter would have been born Her Serene Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. She was named for her two grandmothers and for her godmother, Empress Eugénie, the Spanish-born widow of the former Emperor of the French Napoleon III, who lived in exile in the UK. The last of her given names was chosen because of her birth in Scotland (her younger brother Maurice would receive "Donald" as the last of his given names for the same reason) and due to her lineage: Princess Beatrice had written 'Eua' on the birth document (a Gaelic form of 'Eve'), but this was misread by Dr. Cameron Lees, who presided at her christening, as 'Ena'. To her family, and the British general public, she was ever afterwards known as Ena.

Victoria Eugenie grew up in Queen Victoria's household, as the British monarch had reluctantly allowed Beatrice to marry on the condition that she remain her mother's full time companion and personal secretary. She therefore spent her childhood at Windsor Castle, Balmoral, and Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Her father died while on active military service after contracting fever in Africa in 1896. After the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, the Battenbergs moved to London and took up residence in Kensington Palace. During a summer in Osborne, Victoria Eugenie met Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich of Russia, a cousin to Nicholas II. The Grand Duke felt attracted to the beautiful British princess and when they met again in Nice in 1905, he proposed marriage to her. She was about to accept but declined at the last moment.

Engagement

In 1905 King Alfonso XIII of Spain made an official visit to the UK. Victoria Eugenie's uncle, King Edward VII, hosted a dinner in Buckingham Palace, in honour of the Spanish King. Alfonso sat down between Queen Alexandra and Princess Helena, King Edward's sister. Suddenly he noticed Victoria Eugenie and he asked Princess Helena who was that princess with almost white hair. When she noticed the King's eyes upon her, Victoria Eugenie felt abashed. Everybody knew that King Alfonso was looking for a suitable bride and one of the strongest candidates was Princess Patricia of Connaught, daughter of King Edward's brother, the Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. But now Victoria Eugenie had drawn the King's attention and, as Princess Patricia seemed not to be impressed by the Spanish monarch, Alfonso's interest in Victoria Eugenie grew. So the courtship began and when Alfonso returned to Spain he constantly sent postcards to Victoria Eugenie and was very enthusiastic about her. His widowed mother, Maria Christina of Austria, did not like her son's choice, in part because she considered the Battenbergs non-Royal, because of the obscure origin of Prince Henry's mother, and in part because she wanted her son to marry within her own family, the Habsburgs from Austria. Another reason against the marriage was the religion of the British Princess (Alfonso was Roman Catholic; the British Princess was Anglican). Another reason was haemophilia, the disease that Victoria had transmitted to some of her descendants. Eugenie's brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50% probability that Victoria Eugenie would be a carrier, although the degree of risk was not yet known. Still, if Alfonso married her, their issue could be affected by the disease. However, Alfonso was not dissuaded.

After a year of rumours about which princess the King of Spain would marry, Maria Christina of Austria finally acceded to her son's selection in January 1906 and wrote a letter to Princess Beatrice, Victoria Eugenie's mother, telling her about the love Alfonso felt for her daughter and seeking unofficial contact with King Edward VII. Some days later in Windsor, King Edward congratulated his niece on her future engagement.

Princess Beatrice and her daughter arrived in Biarritz on 22 January and stayed at the Villa Mauriscot where some days later King Alfonso met them. At the Villa Mauriscot, the King and his future bride had a three-day-romance. Then, Alfonso took Victoria Eugenie and her mother to San Sebastián to meet Maria Christina of Austria. On 3 February, the King left San Sebastian to go to Madrid and Victoria Eugenie and her mother went to Versailles where the Princess would be instructed in the Catholic faith; as the future Queen of Spain, she had to change her Anglican religion for the Catholic one. The official reception of Victoria Eugenie into the Catholic faith took place on 5 March 1906 at Miramar Palace in San Sebastián.

The terms of the marriage were settled by two agreements, a public treaty and a private contractual arrangement. The treaty was executed between Spain and the United Kingdom in London on 7 May 1906 by their respective plenipotentiaries, the Spanish Ambassador to the Court of St. James's Don Luis Polo de Bernabé, and the British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, Bt. Ratifications were exchanged on 23 May following. Among other conditions, the treaty stipulated:

BE it known unto all men by these Present that whereas His Catholic Majesty Alfonso XIII, King of Spain, has judged it proper to announce his intention of contracting a marriage with Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena, niece of His Majesty Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and daughter of Her Royal Highness the Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg)...Article I. It is concluded and agreed that the marriage between His said Majesty King Alfonso XIII and Her said Royal Highness the Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena shall be solemnized in person at Madrid as soon as the same may conveniently be done. II. His said Majesty King Alfonso XIII engages to secure to Her said Royal Highness the Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena from the date of her marriage with His Majesty, and for the whole period of the marriage, an annual grant of 450,000 pesetas. His said Majesty King Alfonso XIII also engages, if, by the will of Divine Providence, the said Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena should become his widow, to secure to her, from the date of his death, an annual grant of 250,000 pesetas, unless and until she contracts a second marriage, both these grants having already been voted by the Cortes. The private settlements to be made on either side in regard to the said marriage will be agreed upon and expressed in a separate Contract, which shall, however, be deemed to form an integral part of the present Treaty...III. The High Contracting Parties take note of the fact that Her Royal Highness the Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena, according to the due tenor of the law of England, forfeits for ever all hereditary rights of succession to the Crown and Government of Great Britain...[1]

The treaty's reference to the forfeiture of Ena's British succession rights reflected neither the British government's censure of the alliance, nor to any renunciation made by her. Rather, it was an explicit recognition of the fact that by marrying a Roman Catholic, Ena lost any right to inherit the British crown as a consequence of Britain's Act of Settlement. This exclusion was personal and limited: those among her descendants who do not become Roman Catholic remain in the Line of succession to the British Throne.

The treaty did not constitute compliance with the Royal Marriages Act of 1772, which requires that descendants of King George II obtain the British sovereign's prior permission to marry by Order-in-Council. While an exception to this requirement exists for descendants of royal daughters that marry "into foreign families", Ena's father had been naturalised a British subject prior to his wedding. Nevertheless, concern about reaction to the marriage among Protestants prompted the British government to avoid having the King consent to the marriage in his Privy Council. This omission would have rendered the marriage void in Britain, but the Government took the position that Ena was not bound by the Royal Marriages Act, apparently relying upon the law's use of the flexible construction "foreign families", since Prince Henry's father had been German and his mother Polish.

In any event, prior to her marriage to King Alfonso XIII of Spain in May 1906, Ena was styled Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. On 3 April 1906, King Edward VII, in order to elevate her standing prior to her wedding, raised her status to Royal Highness per royal warrant which read: "Our Will and Pleasure is and we do hereby declare and ordain that from and after the date of this Warrant our Most Dear Niece Princess Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena, only daughter of Our Most Dear Sister Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg) shall be styled entitled and called "Her Royal Highness" before her name and such Titles and Appellations which to her belong in all Deeds Records Instruments or Documents whatsoever wherein she may at any time hereafter be named or described. And We do hereby authorize and empower Our said Most Dear Niece henceforth at all times to assume and use and to be called and named by the Style, Title and Appellation of "Her Royal Highness" accordingly. Given at Our Court of Saint James's, the Third day of April 1906: in the Sixth Year of Our Reign. By His Majesty's Command. M Gladstone"[2] This was accompanied by a formal published declaration which read: "Whitehall 3 April 1906. The KING has been graciously pleased to declare and ordain that His Majesty's niece, Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena, daughter of Her Royal Highness the Princess Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore (Princess Henry of Battenberg), shall henceforth be styled and called "Her Royal Highness"; And to command that the said Royal concession and declaration be registered in His Majesty's College of Arms." [3]

Queen of Spain

Victoria Eugenie married King Alfonso at the Royal Monastery of San Geronimo in Madrid on 31 May 1906. Present at the ceremony were her widowed mother as well as her cousins, the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King George V and Queen Mary of the United Kingdom),

After the wedding ceremony, the royal procession was heading back to the Royal Palace when an assassination attempt was made on the King and his new consort (now called "Queen Victoria Eugenia" or, less formally, "Queen Ena"). Anarchist Mateu Morral threw a bomb from a balcony at the royal carriage. Ena's life was saved because, at the exact moment the bomb exploded, she turned her head in order to see St. Mary's Church, which Alfonso was showing her. She escaped injury, although her dress was spotted with the blood of a guard who was riding beside the carriage.

After the inauspicious start to her tenure as Queen of Spain, Ena became isolated from the Spanish people and was unpopular in her new land. Her married life improved when she gave birth to a son and heir to the kingdom, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias. However, while the baby prince was being circumcised, the doctors noted that he did not stop bleeding — the first sign that the infant heir had haemophilia. Ena was the obvious source of the condition, which was inherited by her eldest and youngest sons. Contrary to the response of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose son and heir by another granddaughter of Queen Victoria was similarly afflicted, Alfonso is alleged never to have forgiven Ena nor to have come to terms with what had happened. In all, King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia had seven children, five sons and two daughters. Neither of their daughters is known to have been a carrier of haemophilia.

After the birth of her children, Ena's relationship with Alfonso deteriorated, and he had numerous affairs. It has been said that he had a dalliance with Ena's British-born cousin, Infanta Beatrice de Orleans-Borbón, but this is not true. There is some evidence that Alfonso tried to seduce Beatrice, but she didn't give in. The king, in anger, expelled her and her husband from Spain. Then the king's circle started to spread false rumours saying that Beatrice had been expelled because of her bad behaviour, which was not true. All this situation was very painful for Ena, who couldn't do anything to help her cousin.

Ena devoted herself to work for hospitals and services for the poor, as well as to education. She was also involved in the reorganization of the Spanish Red Cross.

She was the 976th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa. In 1923, Pope Pius XI conferred upon her the Golden Rose which was the first time this honor had been awarded on an British-born princess since 1555 when Pope Julius III conferred one upon Queen Mary I of England [1]

Exile

The Spanish royal family went into exile on 14 April 1931 after municipal elections brought Republicans to power in most of the major cities, leading to the proclamation of the second Spanish Republic. Alfonso XIII had hoped that his voluntary exile might avert a civil war between the Republicans and the Nationalists. The royal family went to live in France and later Italy. Ena and Alfonso later separated, and she lived partly in the UK and partly in Switzerland. She purchased a chateau, the Vieille Fontaine, outside of Lausanne.

In 1938, the whole family gathered in Rome for the baptism of Don Juan's eldest son, Juan Carlos of Spain. On 15 January 1941, Alfonso XIII, feeling his death was near, transferred his rights to the Spanish crown to his son Don Juan de Borbon, Count of Barcelona. On 12 February, Alfonso suffered a first heart attack. Alfonso died on 28 February 1941.

Ena returned briefly to Spain in February 1968, to stand as godmother at the baptism of her great-grandson, Infante Don Felipe, the son of Infante Don Juan Carlos de Borbón y Borbón Dos-Sicilias (later King Juan Carlos I of Spain) and Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark (later Queen Sofia).

Later life

Ena died in Lausanne on 15 April 1969, aged 81, exactly 38 years after she had left Spain for exile. She was interred in the church of Sacré Coeur in Lausanne. On 25 April 1985, her remains were returned to Spain and reinterred in the Royal Vault in the Escorial, outside Madrid, next to the remains of her husband, Alfonso XIII, and her sons, Infante Don Alfonso, Infante Don Jaime, and Infante Don Gonzalo.

Ena's grandson Juan Carlos is the present King of Spain. She was also the godmother of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, the reigning Sovereign Prince of Monaco.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

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Titles and styles

  • 24 October 1887 – 3 April 1906: Her Serene Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
  • 3 April[4] – 31 May 1906: Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
  • 31 May 1906 – 14 April 1931: Her Majesty The Queen of Spain
  • 14 April 1931 – 15 April 1969: Her Majesty Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain

Arms

Arms of Queen Victoria Eugenie.

The Victoria Eugenie's coat of arms as Queen of Spain were the former Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain used by the House of Bourbon, impaled with the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (in the English version), overall an inescutcheon with the arms of her father Prince Henry of Battenberg; quarterly 1st and 4th, Hesse (modified), 2nd and 3rd, Battenberg. The Prince Henry's arms modified by a bordure charged with the lions of England (eight).

Blazon:

Quarterly, first and fourth Gules, a three towered castle Or, masoned Sable and ajouré Azure (for Castile), second and third Argent, a lion rampant Purpure (blazoned Gules) crowned Or (for León), enté en point; Argent, a pomegranate proper seeded Gules, supported, sculpted and leafed in two leaves Vert (for Granada), overall an inescutcheon Azure a bordure Gules, three fleurs-de-lys Or (for Bourbon-Anjou); impaled with quarterly, first and fourth Gules three lions passant gardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure (for England), second quarter Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland), third quarter Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland), overall an inescutcheon quarterly, first and fourth Azure a lion rampant barry of ten argent and gules, armed or a bordure compony Argent and Gules (for Hesse, modified), second and third Argent, two pallets Sable (for Battenberg), a bordure Gules charged with eight lions passant gardant Or armed and langued Azure (for England).[5][6]

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
HRH Infante Don Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg, Prince of Asturias, later Count of Covadonga 10 May 1907 6 September 1938) renounced all rights to the Spanish throne for himself and his descendants (because of his intended unequal marriage), 11 June 1933; m. 1st 1933 (div. 1937) Edelmira Ignacia Adriana Sampedro y Robato (5 March 1906 – 23 May 1994); m. 2nd 1937 (div. 1938) Marta Ester Rocafort y Altazarra (18 September 1913 – 4 February 1993). He died in a car crash in 1938
HRH Infante Don Jaime de Borbón y Battenberg, Duke of Segovia, later Duke of Anjou, Madrid, and Segovia 23 June 1908 20 March 1975 renounced all rights to the Spanish throne (because of his physical infirmities), 21 June 1933; m. 1st Rome 1935 (div. 1947 and 1949) Emanuela de Dampierre (b. 8 November 1913); m. 2nd 1949 Charlotte Tiedemann (2 January 1919 – 3 July 1979). At the age of four he suffered from double mastoiditis and the resulting operation left him deaf; his speech never developed properly
HRH Infanta Doña Beatriz de Borbón y Battenberg 22 June 1909 22 November 2002 m. 1935 Don Alessandro Torlonia, 5th Prince di Civitella-Cesi (7 December 1911 – 12 May 1986)
HRH Infante Fernando de Borbón y Battenberg 21 May 1910 21 May 1910 stillborn
HRH Infanta Doña María Cristina de Borbón y Battenberg 12 December 1911 23 December 1996 m. 1940 Count Enrico Marone (15 March 1895 – 23 October 1968), and had issue
HRH Infante Don Juan, Count of Barcelona 20 June 1913 1 April 1993 recognized as heir apparent to the Spanish throne and held the title Prince of Asturias from 21 June 1933, but preferred to use the title Count of Barcelona; renounced his claim to the throne in favour of his son, Juan Carlos on 14 May 1977; m. 1935 HRH Princess Maria de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (23 December 1910 – 2 January 2000), and had issue
HRH Infante Don Gonzalo de Borbón y Battenberg 24 October 1914 13 August 1934 also a haemophiliac. He died in a car accident in Austria

Ancestry

References

  • "Queen Victoria Eugénie, Granddaughter of Queen Victoria (Obituary)", The Times, 16 April 1969, p. 12, column E.
  • "Franco at Bourbon Prince's Baptism", The Times, 9 February 1968, p. 4, column 4.
  • Eilers, Marlene A. (1987). Queen Victoria's Descendants. New York: Atlantic International. ISBN 0-938311-04-2. 

Notes

  1. ^ "Hoelseth's Royal Corner". Spanish royal family links. Dag Trygsland Hoelseth. http://www.geocities.com/dagtho/spain-mt-19060507.html. Retrieved 2006-11-11. 
  2. ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness_docs.htm#1864
  3. ^ http://news.webshots.com/photo/2840607590081543377YuoQez
  4. ^ Supplement to the London Gazette, 4 April 1906
  5. ^ Bouza, Antonio L. (1990), El Ex-Libris Tratado general. Su historia en la corona española, Madrid: Patrimonio Nacional, ISBN 978-84-7120-142-3 
  6. ^ Queen Victoria Eugenie's Arms, Ex libris Bookplates, bookplate-jvarnoso.blogspot.com

External links

Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
Cadet branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt
Born: 24 October 1887 Died: 15 April 1969
Spanish royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Maria Christina of Austria
Queen consort of Spain
1906–1931
Vacant
Title next held by
Sophia of Greece and Denmark
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Herself
as Queen Consort of Spain
— TITULAR —
Queen consort of Spain
14 April 1931 – 15 January 1941
Reason for succession failure:
Monarchy abolished in 1931
Succeeded by
Maria Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Vacant
Title last held by
Maria Christina of Austria
— TITULAR —
Queen consort of the two Sicilies
Queen consort of Jerusalem
Queen consort of Sardinia
Queen consort of Gibraltar
etc...

1906 – 15 January 1941

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