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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  • a descriptive comprehensive and fundamental law, doctrine, or assumption,
  • a normative rule or code of conduct, or
  • a law or fact of nature underlying the working of an artificial device.

Contents

Principle as cause

The principle of any effect is the cause that produces it.

Depending on the way the cause is understood the basic law governing that cause may acquire some distinction in its expression.

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Principle of Causality, as efficient cause

The efficient cause is the one that produces the necessary effect, as long as the necessary and sufficient conditions are provided.

The scientific process generally consists of establishing a cause by analyzing the effects upon an object, in this way a description can be established to explain the brought about change. For this reason the principle of cause is considered to be a determining factor in the production of the facts.

Each science establishes the type of principles or causes that determine their investigation, on which they establish their method.

With the belief that "every effect has a cause", it's considered that everything that exists must have a cause. This is considered as the principle of causality. It was formulated by Aristotle as "Everything that moves is moved by another". This principle has been frequently used as a demonstration of God's existence, along with the principle of sufficient reason.

Principle as a final cause

Final cause is the end, or goal, which guides one to take the necessary actions to obtain it.

For that there needs to be an intelligence capable of conceiving the end and realizing that certain actions must be taken to achieve the goal.

Science does not recognize the finality of the natural causes as a guiding principle of investigation.

It is also understood therefore that the principle guides the action as a norm or rule of behavior, which produces two types of principles.

Utility and Morality

When the means subordinate themselves to the ends in order to be affective, the principle acts as a guide to the action; "To achieve this goal, this and that should be done". This is the "principle of utility".

It supposes the conditionality of the norm in its relation to the action, only the norm is effective "in condition to" what wants to be achieved at the end.
If the principle is established as socially obligatory in the realization of a value not governed by the written juridic law, "morality" is established.
It also presumes the indetermination of the cause as free action and the acceptance of the norm for the membership to the social group.

Principle as law

Principle as scientific law

Laws Physics. Laws Statistics. Laws Biological. Laws of nature are those that can not be proven explicitly, however we can measure and quantify them observing the results that they produce.

Principle as moral law

It represents a set of values that orientate and rule the conduct of a concrete society. The law establishes an obligation in the individual's conscience that belongs to the cultural field in which such values are accepted. It supposes the liberty of the individual as cause, that acts without external coercion, through a process of socialization.

Principle as a juridic law

It represents a set of values that inspire the written norms that organize the life of a society submitting to the powers of an authority, generally the State. The law establishes a legal obligation, in a coercive way; it therefore acts as principle conditioning of the action that limits the liberty of the individuals.

Principle as axiom or logical fundament

Principle of Sufficient Reason

This is based on the truth or intelligibility of the being. The being has an identity and is intelligible, in virtue that it is. (The intelligibility is the identity of the being with intelligence.) That in virtue of which the being is intelligible, is called the reason or fundament of being. Here is the ontological principle: ‘’Every being has enough reason’’. Without this enough reason, the identity with oneself would be lost, becoming a non-being and therefore nothing. If a being lacked enough reason, of explication, it wouldn't be intelligible, conceiving itself as an absurd unreal non-being.

Principle of Identity

This comes in consequence from the characteristic of identity of the being. The being is the being, and whoever denies that statement would be against the previously exposed. However, saying "what is, is what is" would seem, as a trial, merely analytical (A = A), but one realizes that in every sentence there is a direct relation between the predicate and the subject. To say "the earth is round", corresponds to a direct relation between the subject and the predicate. Taking this to the sentence "the being is the being", we realize the principle of identity that the being possesses.

Principle of contradiction

"One thing can't be and not be at the same time, under the same aspect." Example: It is not possible that in the exact same moment it rains and doesn't rain (in the same place).

Principle of the excluding third

The principle of the excluding third or "principium tertium exclusum" is a principle of the traditional logic formulated canonically by Leibniz as: either A is B or A isn't B. It is read the following way: either P is true, or its denial ¬P is. It is also known as "tertium non datur" ('A third (thing) is not). Classically it is considered to be one of the most important fundamental principles or laws of thought (along with the principles of identity, no contradiction and sufficient reason).

Why should you need to include parenthesis when stating your belief of an idea. Are you making the assumption that not all readers would understand this reasoning? If you are writing an article for whom everyone is to read, why should you or anybody need to include inside jokes?

See also


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