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.A prison (from Old French prisoun)[1] is a place in which people are physically confined and, usually, deprived of a range of personal freedoms.^ These include: deprivation of food, water, and air; confinement in a freezing room; setting guard dogs onto prisoners; and the use of electric cattle prods.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karma Dawa and Karma Sonam were severely beaten and placed in solitary confinement cells along with many other prisoners while rests of the inmates were dispersed to their respective cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the years the French state enforced a strict prison regime, including strict isolation and special conditions, on the prisoners from AD. The conditions of their imprisonment aimed at shattering them physically and mentally.

.Other terms are penitentiary, correctional facility, and jail (or gaol), although in the United States "jail" and "prison" refer to different subtypes of correctional facility.^ Wisconsin, with nearly 4,500 prisoners in out-of-state private facilities at a cost of $100 million in 1999, is the largest exporter of inmates in the country.

^ The use of private prisons in the United States has undergone a revival in the past decade or so.

^ State corrections officials, meanwhile, had testified that they ruled out the Fort Greely site for a new prison, favoring instead expansion of existing facilities.

.Prisons are conventionally institutions which form part of the criminal justice system of a country, such that imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime.^ The National Institute on Money in State Politics' study of the private-prisons industry looks at the industry's contributing patterns and at the role ALEC is playing as a promoter of industry-backed legislation.

^ As the act of some criminals constituted crimes of undermining the order of prison administration and of instigating others to split the State, the criminals concerned were given additional criminal punishment according to law.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Sundquist in an afternoon session the next day, J. Michael Quinlan told his audience how private prisons can contain costs and still provide quality services to criminal justice systems across the country.

.A criminal suspect who has been charged with or is likely to be charged with criminal offense may be held on remand in prison if he is denied or unable to meet conditions of bail, or is unable or unwilling to post bail.^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sheets were held up like banners and the prisoners marched into the courtyard.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A criminal defendant may also be held in prison while awaiting trial or a trial verdict. .If found guilty, a defendant will be convicted and may receive a custodial sentence requiring imprisonment.^ Those found guilty of serious charges in the context of prison rules face punishments of sentence extension, threats and blacklist.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As well as convicted or suspected criminals, prisons may be used for internment of those not charged with a crime.^ A while ago I was irritated to see a well-known Anarchist magazine use prisoner support work as an example of "single-issue" politics.

^ Require life in prison for those convicted a third time for violent or serious offenses, so-called "three-strikes" legislation; .

.Prisons may also be used as a tool of political repression to detain political prisoners, prisoners of conscience, and "enemies of the state", particularly by authoritarian regimes.^ After imprisonment, political prisoners are detained incommunicado.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Institute on Money in State Politics' study of the private-prisons industry looks at the industry's contributing patterns and at the role ALEC is playing as a promoter of industry-backed legislation.

^ The use of private prisons in the United States has undergone a revival in the past decade or so.

In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in prisons. .A prison system is the organizational arrangement of the provision and operation of prisons, and depending on their nature, may invoke a corrections system.^ In 1997, the Florida Corrections Commission, which was created in 1993 to oversee the state correctional system and advise the governor and legislators, recommended that all future prisons be built and operated by private corporations.

^ Quinlan, a former director of the federal Bureau of Prisons under presidents Reagan and Bush, is chief operations officer of Corrections Corporation of America (CCA).

^ The Missouri Prison Labor Union is an anarchist driven prison initiative that was organized by prisoners and supporters in the hope of bettering the living and working conditions in the State of Missouri prison system.

.Although people have been imprisoned throughout history, they have also regularly been able to perform prison escapes.^ They were the first of the new batch political prisoners to be imprisoned in Drapchi Prison.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

.For most of history, imprisoning has not been a punishment in itself, but rather a way to confine criminals until corporal or capital punishment was administered.^ Traditionally, those that offended against society were punished publicly, generally in the most brutal way, from the stocks to the gibbet.

.There were prisons used for detention in Jerusalem in Old Testament times.^ Use prison privatization, electronic home detention, boot camps and similar methods to see that the system works efficiently.

^ Old rukhag #3 held approximately 87 prisoners at the time, all already in a poor state of health that had been exacerbated by the extended period of intensified maltreatment.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Dungeons were used to hold prisoners; those who were not killed or left to die there often became galley slaves or faced penal transportations.^ She personally beat each prisoner before singling out those individuals for further maltreatment who she had a personal grudge.
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^ Those found guilty of serious charges in the context of prison rules face punishments of sentence extension, threats and blacklist.
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^ There are others who have died with the prison torture haunting their memories and hampering their health, after their release.
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.In other cases debtors were often thrown into debtor's prisons, until they paid their jailers enough money in exchange for a limited degree of freedom.^ Probably, the prison authorities realized that Artur's case was publicized and they are trying to destroy his morale.

^ In such cases, prisoners are either subjected to inhuman treatment or forced to do labour for extra time into the wee hours of the night.
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^ The entry of the private-prisons industry into Northwest states has proven, in several cases, to have serious effects on the communities involved.

Only in the 19th century, beginning in Britain, did prisons as we know them today become commonplace. The modern prisons system was born in London, as a result of the views of Jeremy Bentham. .The notion of prisoners being incarcerated as part of their punishment, and not simply as a holding state till trial or hanging, was at the time revolutionary.^ The struggle for the liberation of May 6 prisoners is at a crucial point, as two of them are entering a dangerous stage of the hunger strike, being held in isolation inside State hospital.

^ This trial is a direct attack on the anarchist movement in Barcelona, in the form of a repressive measure against two individuals who have been involved in supporting prisoners and fighting against the State ...

Britain practiced penal transportation of convicted criminals to penal colony in the British colonies in the Americas, from the 1610s through the American Revolution in the 1770s, and to penal colonies in Australia between 1788 and 1868. France sent criminals to tropical penal colonies including Louisiana in the early eighteenth century.[3] Penal colonies in French Guiana operated until 1951 (in particular, infamous Île du Diable (Devil's Island)). Katorga prisons were established in the 17th century in Tsardom of Russia in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East that had few towns or food sources. Since these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment.
.The first "modern" prisons of the early 19th Century were sometimes known by the term "penitentiary" (a term still used by some prisons in the USA today or the Dutch "Penitentiare Inrichting/Institution): as the name suggests, the goal of these facilities was that of penance by the prisoners, through a regimen of strict disciplines, silent reflections, and perhaps forced and deliberately pointless labor on treadwheels and the like.^ It is likely that she will have to spend some time in prison.

^ These include: deprivation of food, water, and air; confinement in a freezing room; setting guard dogs onto prisoners; and the use of electric cattle prods.
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^ On 9 December 1994, the National Peoples Congress of the PRC promulgated a Prison Law that officially replaced the term laogai (reform through labour) with the term Prison.
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This "Auburn system" of prisoner management was often reinforced by elaborate prison architectures, such as the separate system and the panopticon. .It was not until the late 19th Century that rehabilitation through education and skilled labor became the standard goal of prisons.^ Every prisoner is exposed to the two reforms re-education through labour and reform through labour.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Design and facilities

The main entrance to the Utah State Prison.
A modern jail cell.
.Male and female prisoners are typically kept in separate locations or separate prisons altogether.^ As of June 2001, there are 26 female and 103 male political prisoner serving their sentences in Drapchi Prison.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 10 am, every non-political prisoner, and over 60 female political prisoners from the new rukhag #3 and 60 male political prisoners from the new rukhag #5, were assembled in the main prison courtyard.
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^ The female prisoners are given an equal labour share to the male prisoners.
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[4] .Prison accommodation, especially modern prisons in the developed world, are often divided into wings.^ At this stage the prison had been divided into five different rukhag, or units.
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^ By 1964, Drapchi Prison had been transformed into a modern prison, and Palden Gyatso recorded that it was regarded as a model prison, the number one jail.
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.A building holding more than one wing is known as a "hall". Many prisons are divided into two sections, one containing prisoners before trial and the other containing convicted prisoners.^ This is part of the wider policy of polarisation which the Prison Service have used to divide prisoners, firstly through the Incentives and Earned Privileges Scheme, and ultimately leading to a situation where you have totally passive prisoners on Enhanced wings at one end of the spectrum, and people being brutalised and tortured in Control Units at the other.

^ Recently, he had put his isolation cell in fire (at the end of march, together with two other prisoners locked up in the same wing, who were transfered immediately after) Some weeks ago, they started 'renovating' the isolation bloc U and they are building extra secured isolation unit.

^ For more info check out Athens Indymedia, and also the letter Yiannis sent about his case in our 'Prison Struggle' section.

Amongst the facilities that prisons may have are:
  • A main entrance, which may be known as the 'gatelodge' or 'sally port' (stemming from old castle nomenclature)
  • A religious facility, which will often house chaplaincy offices and facilities for counselling of individuals or groups
  • An 'education facility', often including a library, providing adult education or continuing education opportunities
  • A gym or an exercise yard, a fenced, usually open-air-area which prisoners may use for recreational and exercise purposes
  • A healthcare facility or hospital
  • A segregation unit (also called a 'block' or 'isolation cell'), used to separate unruly, dangerous, or vulnerable prisoners from the general population, also sometimes used as punishment (see solitary confinement)
  • A section of vulnerable prisoners (VPs), or protective custody (PC) units, used to accommodate prisoners classified as vulnerable, such as sex offenders, former police officers, informants, and those that have gotten into debt or trouble with other prisoners
  • A section of safe cells, used to keep prisoners under constant visual observation, for example when considered at risk of suicide
  • A visiting area, where prisoners may be allowed restricted contact with relatives, friends, lawyers, or other people
  • A death row in some prisons, a section for criminals awaiting execution
  • A staff accommodation area, where staff and corrections officers live in the prison, typical of historical prisons
  • A service/facilities area housing support facilities like kitchens
  • Industrial or agricultural plants operated with convict labour
  • A recreational area containing a TV and pool table
A corrections officer in Finland
Prisons are normally surrounded by fencing, walls, earthworks, geographical features, or other barriers to prevent escape. .Multiple barriers, concertina wire, electrified fencing, secured and defensible main gates, armed guard towers, lighting, motion sensors, dogs, and roving patrols may all also be present depending on the level of security.^ The prisoners cell can be reached only after passing through the barriers of main prison gate and three more gates inside.
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^ There are watchtowers on all four sides of the prison with uniformed Peoples Armed Police (PAP) patrolling on 24 hours surveillance.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Remotely controlled doors, CCTV monitoring, alarms, cages, restraints, nonlethal and lethal weapons, riot-control gear and physical segregation of units and prisoners may all also be present within a prison to monitor and control the movement and activity of prisoners within the facility.^ Rukhag: Unit within the prison complex.
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^ This solidarity gathering against all prisons took place on the occasion that the prison guards told Farid Bamouhammad that they are building a new cage for him in the caves of the prison.

^ F.I.E.S. units are a prison within the prison where the prisoner is kept isolated with no contact whatsoever with the rest of the prison population, even exercise is done in complete solitude, all visits are monitored and the number of letters received is strictly limited.

.Modern prison designs have sought to increasingly restrict and control the movement of prisoners throughout the facility while permitting a maximal degree of direct monitoring by a smaller corrections staff.^ Arizona State Prison - Central Arizona Correctional Facility (CACF) .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

.As compared to traditional large landing-cellblock designs which were inherited from the 19th century and which permitted only intermittent observation of prisoners, many newer prisons are designed in a decentralized "podular" layout.^ The official designations are only used during inter or intra prison activities such as the imposed military drill competitions.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, that is a small story compared to what the last two weeks have been like at OSP. The Oregon State Penitentiary is Oregon's only maximum-security prison.

.Smaller, separate and self-contained housing units known as "pods" or "modules" are designed to hold between sixteen and fifty prisoners each, and are arranged around exercise yards or support facilities in a decentralized "campus" pattern.^ Between 1990 and January 1996, there had been sharp increase in political prisoners in Drapchi Prison and in 1995, there were 162 known current female political inmates.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any inmates suspected of becoming too friendly were immediately separated and any act of kindness between prisoners was frowned upon.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, the male political prisoner buildings, now officially designated as rukhag # 8 and # 9, are also still respectively known as the old rukhag #5 and the new rukhag #5.
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A small number of corrections officers, sometimes a single officer, is assigned to supervise each pod. .The pods contain tiers of cells arranged around a central control station or desk from which a single officer can monitor all of the cells and the entire pod, control cell doors, and communicate with the rest of the prison.^ When they entered the yard the prisoners from all the other cells in rukhag #5 lined up into four columns behind them, a total of over 150 prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karma Dawa and Karma Sonam were severely beaten and placed in solitary confinement cells along with many other prisoners while rests of the inmates were dispersed to their respective cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rest were returned to their cells and the guards then individually interrogated each prisoner.
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.Pods may be designed for high-security "indirect-supervision", in which officers in segregated and sealed control booths monitor smaller numbers of prisoners confined to their cells.^ Some prisoners who were placed in solitary confinement cells on 1 May like Norbu Phuntsok, Migmar, Kapasang etc were later transferred to TAR PSB Detention Centre and Lhasa PSB Detention Centre.
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^ In 1990, eleven solitary confinement cells were established in Drapchi Prison for undisciplined prisoners.
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^ The PAP and prison guards later placed Buchung and Gyaltsen Choephel in solitary confinement cells.
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.An alternative is "direct-supervision", in which officers work within the pod and directly interact with and supervise prisoners, who may spend the day outside their cells in a central "dayroom" on the floor of the pod.^ Failure to fulfill quotas and produce substantial results within the stipulated time lead to deduction in working hours from the total labour time due for all prisoners.
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^ Reports also indicate that there may have been an additional influencing factor of outside officials intervening and curbing the some of the excessive maltreatment inflicted by the prison officials.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some prisoners who were placed in solitary confinement cells on 1 May like Norbu Phuntsok, Migmar, Kapasang etc were later transferred to TAR PSB Detention Centre and Lhasa PSB Detention Centre.
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Movement in or out of the pod to and from exercise yards, work assignments or medical appointments can be restricted to individual pods at designated times, and is generally centrally controlled. Goods and services, such as meals, laundry, commissary, educational materials, religious services and medical care can increasingly be brought to individual pods or cells as well. .Despite these design innovations, overcrowding at many prisons, particularly in the U.S., has resulted in a contrary trend, as many prisons are forced to house large numbers of prisoners, often hundreds at a time, in gymnasiums or other large buildings that have been converted into massive open dormitories.^ Failure to fulfill quotas and produce substantial results within the stipulated time lead to deduction in working hours from the total labour time due for all prisoners.
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^ The officials ignored all these injuries as they placed many of the prisoners in hand- and leg-manacles, and into solitary confinement cells for up to one month.
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^ The number of political prisoners in Lhasa at that time were approximately seven, according to Palden Gyatso, a figure that escalated exponentially after the Lhasa demonstrations in 1987 and 1988.
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.Lower-security prisons are often designed with less restrictive features, confining prisoners at night in smaller locked dormitories or even cottage or cabin-like housing while permitting them freer movement around the grounds to work or activities during the day.^ Also around 470 prisoners from 28 jails said that they will participate in their own way (sometimes doing 2 days of hunger strike) in this movement, which seems really interesting even if it has certainly some limits in the means and methods it chooses, which Gabriel also mentions in his text, but which also may be overcome.

^ Prisoners were totally restricted to their cells and not even allowed out to empty the toilet bucket.
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^ They then pushed the prisoners around and Jigme Sangpo was knocked to the ground.
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Security levels

Dorchester Penitentiary in New Brunswick, Canada, part of Corrections Canada. Opened in 1880 as a maximum security prison, it now functions as a medium security facility.
.SuperMax. As the name implies, the custody level goes beyond Maximum by segregating the "worst of the worst" criminals and terrorists who pose a threat to national security.^ PSB: Public Security Bureau (Ch.: Gong An Ju); local level police force responsible for detaining and arresting suspects and for pre-trial custody.
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.These inmates have individual cells and are kept in lockdown for 23 hours per day.^ The prisoner is stripped of all his/her personal belongings and kept in a bare cell where even the mattress is taken out during the day.

^ The individual inmates were beaten by groups of PAP and guards, in the cells and out in the courtyard, for the next three and half-hours.
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^ A few days later the inmates of rukhag #5 were shuffled between cells to separate the groups of prisoners and interrogations commenced.
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.Meals are served through "chuck holes" in the cell door, and each inmate is permitted out of their cell for one hour of exercise per day, alone.^ The prisoner is stripped of all his/her personal belongings and kept in a bare cell where even the mattress is taken out during the day.

^ One of the competitive elements was to have inmates chant a Chinese slogan perfectly in time with the exercises.
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^ Ngawang Sungrab was transferred back to Drapchi Prison the following day regardless that he had only just undergone major surgery, and placed alone in a cell, hence denying him any possible assistance from fellow inmates.
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.They are permitted no contact with other inmates and are under constant surveillance via closed-circuit television cameras.^ Common criminals were inserted into the cells to monitor the political inmates, and surveillance cameras were installed in every cell.
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^ However the inmates were steadfast in their refusal to participate, and so they were made to stand immobile under the intense summer sun.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Maximum. A custody level in which both design and construction as well as inmate classification reflect the need to provide maximum external and internal control and supervision of inmates primarily through the use of high security perimeters and extensive use of internal physical barriers and check points.^ Although essentially designed for criminal offenders, the re-education through labour system has been widely used against political dissidents.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PSB: Public Security Bureau (Ch.: Gong An Ju); local level police force responsible for detaining and arresting suspects and for pre-trial custody.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He now languishes back in maximum security conditions in HMP Glenochil in need of support and solidarity.

Inmates accorded this status present serious escape risks or pose serious threats to themselves, to other inmates, to staff, or the orderly running of the institution. Supervision of inmates is direct and constant.
.Medium. A custody level in which design and construction as well as inmate classification reflect the need to provide secure external and internal control and supervision of inmates.^ PSB: Public Security Bureau (Ch.: Gong An Ju); local level police force responsible for detaining and arresting suspects and for pre-trial custody.
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Inmates accorded to this status may present a moderate escape risk or may pose a threat to other inmates, staff, or the orderly running of the institution. Supervision remains constant and direct. Through an inmate's willingness to comply with institutional rules and regulations, increased job and program opportunities exist.
.Minimum. A custody level in which both the design and construction as well as inmate classification reflect the goal of returning to the inmate a greater sense of personal responsibility and autonomy while still providing for supervision and monitoring of behavior and activity.^ PSB: Public Security Bureau (Ch.: Gong An Ju); local level police force responsible for detaining and arresting suspects and for pre-trial custody.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inmates within this security level are not considered a serious risk to the safety of staff, inmates or to the public.^ PSB: Public Security Bureau (Ch.: Gong An Ju); local level police force responsible for detaining and arresting suspects and for pre-trial custody.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Program participation is mandated and geared toward their potential reintegration into the community. Additional access to the community is limited and under constant direct staff supervision.
Pre-release. A custody level in which both design and construction as well as inmate classification reflect the goal of restoring to the inmate maximum responsibility and control of their own behavior and actions prior to their release. Direct supervision of these inmates is not required, but intermittent observation may be appropriate under certain conditions. .Inmates within this level may be permitted to access the community unescorted to participate in programming to include, but not limited to, work release or educational release.^ This effectively made it impossible for the inmates to ascertain the condition of injured friends in other cells and inhibited communications even within the cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alabama Work Release Centers & Community Work Camps .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

Types

Juvenile
.Prisons for juveniles (people under 17 or 18, depending on the jurisdiction) are known as young offender institutes or similar designation and hold minors who have been remanded into custody or serving sentence.^ As of June 2001, there are 26 female and 103 male political prisoner serving their sentences in Drapchi Prison.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All religious and every judicially sentenced female political prisoner, regardless of length of term, also serve out their sentence in Drapchi.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence increased by 3 years and currently serving 8 years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many countries have their own age of criminal responsibility in which children are deemed legally responsible for their actions for a crime. .Countries such as Canada may try and sentence a juvenile as an adult, but have them serve their sentence in a juvenile facility until they reach the age of majority, at which time they would be transferred to an adult facility.^ Christian Summermann, autonomous antifascist prisoner serving time for militantly opposing nazi demonstrations in Berlin, has been transferred to another prison.

^ Officials later announced that the two nuns would not receive sentence extensions, but would serve out the rest of their terms in solitary confinement.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Military
.Prisons form part of military systems, and are used variously to house prisoners of war, unlawful combatants, those whose freedom is deemed a national security risk by military or civilian authorities, and members of the military found guilty of a serious crime.^ We repost this here to spread information about the recent uprisings in the Greek prison system, caused in part by the beating of this recently imprisoned anarchist.

^ India and China were on the brink of war, and the size reduction and scattering of prisoner groups was a precaution, as the hundreds of thousands of Tibetan prisoners were seen as a risk to internal security.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prison authorities allocated 2 prisoners each green-house and expect returns at the rate of 15,000 yuan per big green-house and 10,000 yuan per small green-house.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Political
.Certain countries maintain or have in the past had a system of political prisons; arguably the gulags associated with Stalinism are best known.^ However, the political prisoners simply refused to partake in the system, throwing away the instruction booklets without even opening them.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, the male political prisoner buildings, now officially designated as rukhag # 8 and # 9, are also still respectively known as the old rukhag #5 and the new rukhag #5.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next known act of insubordination also involved female political prisoners and a hunger strike.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Psychiatric
.Some psychiatric facilities have characteristics of prisons, especially when confining patients who have committed a crime and are considered dangerous.^ Some prisoners who were placed in solitary confinement cells on 1 May like Norbu Phuntsok, Migmar, Kapasang etc were later transferred to TAR PSB Detention Centre and Lhasa PSB Detention Centre.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of prisoners are there principally because they have committed crimes against, or in pursuit of, property.

^ Even for those prisoners, who suffer from heavy sicknesses due to these conditions, dont consider renouncing in order to get out....

In addition, many prisons have psychiatric units dedicated to housing offenders diagnosed with a wide variety of mental disorders.

Rehabilitation

.Meta-analysis of previous studies shows that prison sentences do not reduce future offenses, when compared to non-residential sanctions.^ Detained 17 January 1993, sentenced to 15 years as a non-political prisoner.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] This meta-analysis of one hundred separate studies found that post-release offenses were around 7% higher after imprisonment compared with non-residential sanctions, at statistically significant levels. .Another meta-analysis of 101 separate tests of the impact of prison on crime found a 3% increase in offending after imprisonment.^ While some Anarchists may regard the prison struggle as just another single-issue, for increasing numbers of working-class people, prison is a central part of their lives....

[6] .Longer periods of time in prison make outcomes worse, not better; offending increases by around 3% as prison sentences increase in length.^ Inmates were regularly transferred between prison, between rukhag, and between cell within the rukhag, so that no groups of prisoners were together for any length of time.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All religious and every judicially sentenced female political prisoner, regardless of length of term, also serve out their sentence in Drapchi.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence increased by 3 years and currently serving 8 years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
Effective rehabilitation programs reduce the likelihood of re-offense and recidivism.[6] Effective programs are characterised by three things: first, they provide more hours for people with known offense risk factors (the Risk Principle); secondly, they address problems and needs that have a proven causal link to offending (the Needs Principle); and thirdly, they use cognitive-behavioural approaches to behaviour modification (the Responsivity Principle). Providing rehabilitation to people at lower risk of reoffending results in a 3% reduction in reoffending, while providing rehabilitation to people with a high risk of reoffending is three times as effective, resulting in a 10% reduction in subsequent offending.[6] Risk factors for reoffending are: age at first offense, number of prior offenses, level of family and personal problems in childhood and other historical factors, along with level of current needs related to offending. .Those individuals who had many personal and family problems in childhood (particularly 19 or more), started offending before puberty, and have committed multiple priors are more likely to reoffend in future, according to longitudinal studies internationally.^ In the 1980s, the Chinese started their liberalisation and open door policies, and many surviving political prisoners were eventually released those few who had managed to escape the fate of the hundreds who had succumbed to starvation, committed suicide, or were executed.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She personally beat each prisoner before singling out those individuals for further maltreatment who she had a personal grudge.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
In support of the Needs Principle, programs that specifically target criminogenic needs (causal needs and problems), see a 19% reduction in reoffending.[6] In support of the Responsivity Principle, there is a 23% reduction in reoffending after participating in programs that use cognitive-behavioural methods to bring about changes in behaviour, thinking, and relationships.[6] When all three principles are effectively applied, the impact on offending is a 26–32% reduction,[6][8] compared to a 3–7% increase in offending found with imprisonment alone.
.Residential approaches—whether in prison or some other live-in option—tend to be less effective than non-residential approaches.^ This required half of the contingent of guards to divert their attention away from the inmates of rukhag #3, and possibly saved the lives of some of the female political prisoners that day.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is in Drapchi Prison that majority of the freedom activists has been incarcerated and some have even lost their lives too.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .These researchers found that effective programs delivered in the community were followed by a 35% reduction in reoffending, whereas effective programs delivered in residential settings (such as prisons and halfway houses) were followed by a 17% reduction in reoffending.^ These include: deprivation of food, water, and air; confinement in a freezing room; setting guard dogs onto prisoners; and the use of electric cattle prods.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One very likely reason for this is that for teens and adults, mixing with antisocial peers increases the risk of offending. .In prison or residences inmates spend a great deal of time with other people immersed in criminal pursuits and beliefs, whereas in community-based programs there is more opportunity to mix with people involved in constructive, law-abiding activities.^ It is likely that she will have to spend some time in prison.

^ On 9 December 1994, the National Peoples Congress of the PRC promulgated a Prison Law that officially replaced the term laogai (reform through labour) with the term Prison.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other inmates eventually persuaded him that it was more important to be released and get the information to people outside Drapchi, than to partake and face the expected sentence extensions with the others.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antisocial peers in prisons and residences can form a very powerful pressure group, subtly and not so subtly influencing the behavior of other inmates.^ Karma Dawa and Karma Sonam were severely beaten and placed in solitary confinement cells along with many other prisoners while rests of the inmates were dispersed to their respective cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the same year he also co-formed a group called Snowlands Youth for Tibetan Independence with three other prisoners, political prisoner Ganden Tashi, and non-political prisoners Migmar Tashi, and Dawa.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Resocialization

Resocialization is a sociological concept dealing with the process of mentally and emotionally "re-training" a person so that he or she can operate in an environment other than that which he or she is accustomed to. Resocialization into a total institution involves a complete change of personality. .Key examples include the process of resocializing new recruits into the military so that they can operate as soldiers (or, in other words, as members of a cohesive unit) and the reverse process, in which those who have become accustomed to such roles return to society after military.^ When they entered the yard the prisoners from all the other cells in rukhag #5 lined up into four columns behind them, a total of over 150 prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words another re-working of the age-old divide and rule / carrot and stick policies, with Woodhill Unit being the stick for anybody who doesnt want to play along.

^ When Franco died, there were negogtiations with those prisoners who denominated themselves political, there was also lots of riots on the outside, they managed to get the majority of them released, but not all of them......

Population statistics

World map showing number of prisoners per 100,000 citizens
As of 2006, it is estimated that at least 9.25 million people are currently imprisoned worldwide.[9] It is believed that this number is likely to be much higher, in view of general under-reporting and a lack of data from various countries, especially authoritarian regimes.
.In absolute terms, the United States currently has the largest inmate population in the world, with more than 2½ million[10] or more than one in a hundred adults[11] in prison and jails.^ Currently serving 9 and half years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antonio Ferreira de Jesus, 64 years old, has spent more than 11 years imprisoned in the prison of Vale de Judeus, Portugal.

^ Between 1990 and January 1996, there had been sharp increase in political prisoners in Drapchi Prison and in 1995, there were 162 known current female political inmates.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although the United States represents less than 5% of the world's population, over 25% of the people incarcerated around the world are housed in the American prison system. .Pulitzer Prize winning author Joseph T. Hallinan wrote in his book Going Up the River: Travels in a Prison Nation, "so common is the prison experience that the federal government predicts one in eleven men will be incarcerated in his lifetime, one in four if he is black."^ This regime continued for the next four days, with prisoners allowed only one ten minute break for food and toilet needs per day.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they entered the yard the prisoners from all the other cells in rukhag #5 lined up into four columns behind them, a total of over 150 prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The guards who came to investigate the matter, ordered the four men to take over the body to prison infirmary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2002, both Russia and China also had prison populations in excess of 1 million.[12] .By October 2006, the Russian prison population declined to 869,814 which translated into 611 prisoners per 100,000 population.^ The prison authorities allocated 2 prisoners each green-house and expect returns at the rate of 15,000 yuan per big green-house and 10,000 yuan per small green-house.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a percentage of total population, the United States also has the largest imprisoned population, with 739 people per 100,000 serving time, awaiting trial or otherwise detained.^ The facts speak for themselves; whilst black people make up just 2 per cent of the total population in England and Wales, black inmates make up more than 14 per cent of the total prison population.....

[13]
In March 2007, the United Kingdom had 80,000 inmates (up from 73,000 in 2003 and 44,000 in 1985) in its facilities, one of the highest rates among the western members of the European Union (EU) (a record formerly held by Portugal). The highest imprisonment rates among the larger EU members include that of Poland, which in August 2007 had about 90,000 inmates, i.e. 234 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants,[14] while the highest rates are in the Baltic states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with estimated rates of 240, 292 and 333 respectively in 2006.[13]
.The high proportion of prisoners in some developed countries is from various causes, but the attitude toward drug-taking plays a considerable part.^ The 'Sagada 11' are a group of anarchist/eco/punk prisoners falsely accused of taking part in attack by communist guerillas on a military outpost in the northern philippines.

^ While some Anarchists may regard the prison struggle as just another single-issue, for increasing numbers of working-class people, prison is a central part of their lives....

^ Taking into consideration the gravity of the prisoners condition, the report also intends to appeal to the United Nations, and various international organisations, to bear pressure on the Chinese government to release political prisoners and to stop the inhuman treatment meted out to them.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In undeveloped countries, rates of incarceration are often lower, though this is not a rule. .In general, such societies have less goods to steal and a more community based social system, with less judicial law-enforcement.^ They clearly reflect the race and class divisions of the system, and are an obvious form of social control aimed at the most precarious sectors of society...

Also their economies may not support the high cost of incarceration.
Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants[9]
United States
of America
Russian
Federation
New
Zealand
United
Kingdom
Netherlands Australia Canada Italy South Korea Germany Turkey France Sweden Denmark Japan Iceland India
756[15] 611 186 148 128 157 107 104 104 95 91 85 82 77 62 40 22

Countries

The main cell block of Fremantle Prison, Western Australia.

Asia and Oceania

Australia
Many prisons in Australia were built by convict labour in the 1800s. .During the 1990s, various state governments in Australia engaged private sector correctional corporations to build and operate prisons whilst several older government run institutions were decommissioned.^ Eight political prisoners have since died due to severe torture inflicted during the protest incident.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without any legal trial, these protestors were distributed to various prisons and labour camps, and subjected to severe torture and beatings.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Operation of Federal detention centres was also privatised at a time when a large influx of illegal immigrants began to arrive in Australia.
Japan
New Zealand
Mount Eden Prison is a 19th century brick stockade located just south of the Auckland CBD, a very populous (and affluent) neighbourhood of Mt Eden in Auckland, New Zealand.
.New Zealand currently maintains 19 prisons around the country.^ She is currently the longest-serving female prisoner in the new rukhag #3.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Department of Corrections has an annual budget of NZD$748 million and assets worth over NZD$1.7 billion. .Official statistics show (as of June 30, 2007) that there are currently 7,605 prisoners within the New Zealand correctional system.^ Once again the common criminals proved to be valuable allies and showed their support of the political prisoners by smuggling in news and medicine to the inmates of rukhag #5.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1990 and January 1996, there had been sharp increase in political prisoners in Drapchi Prison and in 1995, there were 162 known current female political inmates.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports also indicate that there may have been an additional influencing factor of outside officials intervening and curbing the some of the excessive maltreatment inflicted by the prison officials.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(5,490 Sentenced Prisoners and 1,552 Remanded Prisoners) + 5,795 staff. .Breakouts are only at 0.15 per 100 prisoners and there is a rate of only 15% positive drug results during random drug testing in NZ prisons.^ This regime continued for the next four days, with prisoners allowed only one ten minute break for food and toilet needs per day.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prison authorities allocated 2 prisoners each green-house and expect returns at the rate of 15,000 yuan per big green-house and 10,000 yuan per small green-house.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official designations are only used during inter or intra prison activities such as the imposed military drill competitions.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Europe

France
France has 194 prisons in mainland and the overseas territories. As of 1 January 2009, statistics showed approximately 52,000 available places, with around 58,000 "hosted" prisoners.[17] .France is home to Fleury-Mérogis Prison, Europe's largest correctional facility.^ Arizona State Prison - Central Arizona Correctional Facility (CACF) .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

Germany
Germany has 194 prisons (of which 19 are open institutions). Official statistics showed 80,214 places on March 31, 2007. On the same day, there were 75,719 prisoners (of which 13,168 pre-trial; 60,619 serving sentences; 1,932 others, i.e. mainly civil prisoners; 4,068 were female). This is less than the highest value of 81,176 prisoners on March 31, 2003.[18][19]
Ireland
.Most jails in the Republic of Ireland were built in the 19th century, including Kilmainham Gaol (no longer in use), Mountjoy Prison and Portlaoise Prison.^ These prisoners along with Ngawang Sungrab, who by this stage could no longer speak, were then transported to hospital.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political prisoners have no bed, instead they must use discarded clothes as their bed.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A new €30m prison is planned at Thornton Hall to replace Mountjoy.
Poland
.As of the end of August 2007, Poland officially declared 90,199 prisoners (13,374 pre-trial; 76,434 serving sentences; 391 others; 2,743 prisoners were female), giving an imprisonment rate per 100,000 inhabitants of about 234. The overpopulation rate (number of prisoners held compared to number of places for prisoners) was estimated by the official prison service as 119%.^ Although officially allocated the designations in 1998 of rukhag # 6 for the older serving female political prisoners, and rukhag #7 for the newer serving prisoners, they are still commonly referred to by the inmates as the old rukhag #3 and new rukhag #3 respectively.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other prisoners immediately joined in, but the two instigators were removed by officials and subjected to interrogations and beatings before being placed in solitary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.The growth rate of imprisonment in Poland during 2006–2007 was approximately 4% annually, based on the August 2007 estimate of 90,199 prisoners and the June 2005 estimate of 82,572 prisoners.^ Contrary to the recent Chinese officials claim of 115 political prisoners currently n Tibet , TCHRD estimated 252 political prisoners as of June 2001, who are currently imprisoned in various prisons, detention centres and labour camps.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
Turkey
Prisons in Turkey are classified as closed, semi-open and open prisons. .Closed prisons are separated into different kinds according to its structure and the number of prisoners held.^ The sheets were held up like banners and the prisoners marched into the courtyard.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any inmates suspected of becoming too friendly were immediately separated and any act of kindness between prisoners was frowned upon.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of political prisoners in Lhasa at that time were approximately seven, according to Palden Gyatso, a figure that escalated exponentially after the Lhasa demonstrations in 1987 and 1988.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples are A type, B type, E type and F type. F types are high security prisons, known in the USA as Supermax.
United Kingdom
England and Wales
Northern Ireland
Scotland

North America

Canada
.The 52 penitentiaries in Canada are operated by the federal government, and are for those who have been sentenced to serve more than 2 years of custody.^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other inmates eventually persuaded him that it was more important to be released and get the information to people outside Drapchi, than to partake and face the expected sentence extensions with the others.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detained 1 July 1997, sentenced to five years for replacing the nameplates of the Peoples Government County Headquarters with pro-independent posters and demonstration.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The boundary of two years separating provincial and federal custody underlies the sentencing of some offenders to "two years less a day", so they can serve their sentences in provincial correctional institutions.^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence extension of two years in 1998 for 4 May protest.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence extension of 4 years in 1998 for participation in the May protests, and solitary confinement for two months.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jamaica

Jails in the United States

.In the United States penal system, a jail is a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the state, including accused persons awaiting trial and those who have been convicted of a crime and are serving a sentence of less than one year.^ Sentence extension of one year for May 1998 protest.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detained 1 December 1996, sentenced to seven years for possession of wooden block prints used for pro-independence leaflets.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deprived of the right to counsel or to a hearing, the accused may be detained for up to three years, with a one-year possibility of extension for failure to reform.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][22] .Jails are generally small penitentiaries run by individual counties and cities,[22] though some jails in larger communities may be as large and hold as many inmates as regular prisons.^ This required half of the contingent of guards to divert their attention away from the inmates of rukhag #3, and possibly saved the lives of some of the female political prisoners that day.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karma Dawa and Karma Sonam were severely beaten and placed in solitary confinement cells along with many other prisoners while rests of the inmates were dispersed to their respective cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some former prisoners have to seek regular medical treatment long after release putting enormous strain on their already lean financial resources.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As with prisons, some jails have different wings for certain types of offenders, and have work programs for inmates who demonstrate good behavior.^ A fellow prisoner who had some medical training immediately attempted to stem the bleeding with a piece of cloth but to no avail.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This required half of the contingent of guards to divert their attention away from the inmates of rukhag #3, and possibly saved the lives of some of the female political prisoners that day.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The female inmates, who were too weak to join in the protest, were immediately returned to their cells and remained locked in with some of the guards.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jails are typically operated by city or county governments, and house prisoners who are being detained before trial or serving sentences less than one year.^ Sentence increased by 3 years and currently serving 8 years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increase of five years and serving total of 15 years prison sentence.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] Approximately half of the U.S. jail population consists of pretrial detainees who have not been convicted or sentenced. .Prisoners serving terms longer than one year are typically housed in correctional facilities operated by state governments.^ Currently serving 9 and half years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence increased by 3 years and currently serving 8 years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1997, 64,000 state and federal prisoners were housed in private correctional facilities.

.Unlike most state prisons, a jail usually houses both men and women in separate portions of the same facility.^ Men's State Prison - Georgia .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Arizona State Prison - Central Arizona Correctional Facility (CACF) .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Texas State Jails & Private Prison Forums .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

.Some jails lease space to house inmates from the federal government, state prisons or from other counties for profit.^ As the act of some criminals constituted crimes of undermining the order of prison administration and of instigating others to split the State, the criminals concerned were given additional criminal punishment according to law.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karma Dawa and Karma Sonam were severely beaten and placed in solitary confinement cells along with many other prisoners while rests of the inmates were dispersed to their respective cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travis County State Jail - Texas .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

In 2005, a report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that 62 percent of people in jails have not been convicted, meaning many of them are awaiting trial.[24] As of 2005, local jails held or supervised 819,434 individuals. .Nine percent of these individuals were in programs such as community service, work release, weekend reporting, electronic monitoring, and other alternative programs.^ Alabama Work Release Centers & Community Work Camps .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

[22]
.In the United States, as compared to regular 'mainline' state and federal prisons, in which prisoners have already been investigated and classified by corrections personnel before being assigned to a level of security, in which many of the prisoners are committed for longer periods of time, and in which the population is on average older, jails usually house prisoners who are on average younger and have varying or unknown histories and propensities for violence or disciplinary problems.^ He was transferred to a solitary cell at Outridu Prison for four months before being returned to Drapchi Prison to a six year extended sentence of 14 years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, other guards went into the cells yelling at the prisoners, who has killed your man?
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result, many jails operate their booking and receiving units at a relatively high level of correctional security, and also witness a disproportionately large amount of violence and disciplinary problems as compared to mainline facilities.

Management

There are three main management styles common in most U. S. jails. The first and oldest style is Intermittent Surveillance. Intermittent Surveillance involves rows of cells along security corridors. These corridors are patrolled by staff providing periodic observation. Most problems occur between these intermittent patrols. The second supervisory style is Remote Surveillance. .Remote Surveillance involves cells and their corresponding dayrooms divided into "pods" which are under constant supervision by jail staff from a central control room.^ Common criminals were inserted into the cells to monitor the political inmates, and surveillance cameras were installed in every cell.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Staff in the central control room commonly observe three to four "pods" at one time. The third and most recently conceived supervisory style is Direct Supervision.[25] Direct Supervision involves a dayroom with numerous cells under constant and direct supervision by staff who are stationed inside the housing unit. Staff are constantly interacting with inmates and controlling inmate behavior. The success of Direct Supervision relies on the staff's ability to control this behavior and for facility management to create detention environments that facilitate the staff's effectiveness. This style is also the most cost effective of the three.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, retrieved on 2009-10-12.
  2. ^  "Prisons". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Prisons. 
  3. ^ Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. Penguin: London(2001).
  4. ^ International Profile of Women’s Prisons (144p), International Centre for Prison Studies, April 2008
  5. ^ a b Smith et al., 2002.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Andrews and Bonta, 2003.
  7. ^ e.g., Moffit T E, Caspi A, Harrington H and Milne B J (2002) Males on the life-course persistent and adolescence-limited pathways: Follow-up at age 26, Development and Psychopathology, 14: 179–207.
  8. ^ Andrews et al., 1990.
  9. ^ a b Walmsley, Roy (October 2006). "World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition)" (PDF). http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/downloads/world-prison-pop-seventh.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-15. 
  10. ^ Harrison, Paige M., Allen J. Beck (June 2006). "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005". Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/pjim05.htm. 
  11. ^ "One in100: Behind Bars in America 2008" (PDF). Pew Charitable Trusts. 2008-02-28. http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/One%20in%20100.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  12. ^ "Prison population statistics". http://inhisserviceweb.com/prison_statistics.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  13. ^ a b "World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition)" (PDF). http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/downloads/world-prison-pop-seventh.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  14. ^ a b "Statistics - August 2007" (in Polish) (pdf). Prison Service, Poland (Służba Więzienna). August 2007. http://www.sw.gov.pl/images//1190276229.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  15. ^ This value includes 501 prisoners per 100,000 in prisons ("US Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisons". 2005. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/prisons.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-15. ) and 256 prisoners per 100,000 in jails ("US Bureau of Justice Statistics, Jails". June 2006. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/jails.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-15. ).
  16. ^ Corrections Department NZ - Facts and statistics.
  17. ^ "Les Chiffres Clés de l’Administration Pénitentiaire" (in French) (pdf). Ministère de la Justice. 2009-06-02. http://www.justice.gouv.fr/art_pix/Chiffresclesjanv2009.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-24. 
  18. ^ Official Prison Statistics of Germany (from the German statistics office).
  19. ^ Prison Archive (from the University of Bremen).
  20. ^ "Statistics June 2006" (in Polish) (pdf). Prison Service, Poland (Służba Więzienna). June 2006. http://www.sw.gov.pl/images/1153208229.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  21. ^ "Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in Court". The Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia. 2003-12-16. http://www.courts.state.va.us/glossary_of_court_terms.html. Retrieved 2007-04-21. 
  22. ^ a b c "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005". Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/pjim05.htm. 
  23. ^ Doris J. James, Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002, 2 (Bureau of Justice Statistics 2002) available online.
  24. ^ Number of US Inmates Rises Two Percent, By Elizabeth White, The Associated Press, Monday 22 May 2006
  25. ^ a b Stephen I. Saunders, III, Direct Supervision Jails: A Management Model for the 21st Century, 1990.

Further reading

.
  • Carlson, Peter M.; Garrett, Judith Simon, Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1999.
  • David Denborough, Beyond the Prison: Gathering Dreams of Freedom, Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications 1996.
  • Diiulio, John J., Governing Prisons: A Comparative Study of Correctional Management, Simon and Schuster, 1990. ISBN 0029078830.
  • George Jackson, Soledad brother, ISBN 978-1556522307.
  • Heinz Sobota, Der Minus-Mann.^ In the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997, Congress told the Attorney General to study the privatization of prisons and its feasibility.

    ^ In a letter dated 24 February 1999, the Chinese government responded to an urgent appeal by a coalition of U. N. Special Rapporteurs relating to Drapchi Prison.
    • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ U.S. General Accounting Office, Private and Public Prisons: Studies Comparing Operational Costs and/or Quality of Service, August 1996, GGD-96-158.

    .Heyne Verlag 1980, ISBN 345301111.
  • James (Jim) Bruton, Big House: Life Inside a Supermax Security Prison, Voyageur Press (July, 2004), hardcover, 192 pages, ISBN 0-89658-039-3.
  • Marek M. Kaminski (2004) Games Prisoners Play.^ The prison authorities allocated 2 prisoners each green-house and expect returns at the rate of 15,000 yuan per big green-house and 10,000 yuan per small green-house.
    • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11721-7.
  • Mark L. Taylor. The Executed God: The Way of the Cross in Lockdown America. .Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-8006-3283-4.
  • Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, New York: Random House 1975.
  • Paula C. Johnson, Inner Lives: Voices of African American Women in Prison, New York University Press 2004.
  • Stover H, "Overview study.^ New York Prison News & Events .
    • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the Northwest, where the privatization of prisons is relatively new, the study found that some states are planning to use private contractors heavily: .

    ^ Other New York Prisons & Jails .
    • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

    An assistance to drug users in European prisons", "EMCDDA", 2001, 305p, ISBN 1 902114 03 5.
  • Ted Conover. Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing. Knopf, 2001. Trade paperback, 352 pages, ISBN 0-375-72662-4.

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.A prison is a place in which individuals are physically confined and deprived of a range of personal freedoms.^ She personally beat each prisoner before singling out those individuals for further maltreatment who she had a personal grudge.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include: deprivation of food, water, and air; confinement in a freezing room; setting guard dogs onto prisoners; and the use of electric cattle prods.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karma Dawa and Karma Sonam were severely beaten and placed in solitary confinement cells along with many other prisoners while rests of the inmates were dispersed to their respective cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


IS where people that are convicted of a criminal offence has the chance to get a 5 star room at the expence of the tax payer. They are fed three times a day, Recieve qulifications and have there very own entertainment system in there room, IE: PS3/XBOX 360.

Unsourced

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up Prison in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.PRISON (derived through the Fr.^ PRISON (derived through the Fr.

from the Lat. .prehensio, seizure), a place for the confinement or compulsory restraint of XXII. 12 a persons after arrest or sentence by arbitrary authority or process of law.^ XXII. 12 a persons after arrest or sentence by arbitrary authority or process of law.

^ Arrested on 7 May 1996 for political activities, sentenced to 12 years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sargent Binkley and California's Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Laws Under California's strict mandatory minimum sentencing laws, US Army Captain Sargent Binkley is facing at least 12 years in state prison.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest object sought in imprisonment was to secure the person of the accused to ensure his appearance before his judges for trial, and after conviction to produce him Early to take his punishment.^ The earliest object sought in imprisonment was to secure the person of the accused to ensure his appearance before his judges for trial, and after conviction to produce him Early to take his punishment.

^ The appearance of a convict ship at the Cape of Good Hope nearly produced a revolt.

.They were applied to other P Y PP uses less justifiable or defensible; they served to execute the will of the despotic master upon all who set themselves in opposition to his authority, or were decreed, more or less wisely but still arbitrarily, by a government in the best interests of society, organized for the general good.^ They were applied to other P Y PP uses less justifiable or defensible; they served to execute the will of the despotic master upon all who set themselves in opposition to his authority, or were decreed, more or less wisely but still arbitrarily, by a government in the best interests of society, organized for the general good.

^ Unfortunately, they are unable to receive sufficient funding from the government to even feed the prisoners, much less initiate changes.

^ Capture refers to cases in which regulators come to be more concerned to serve the interests of the industry with which they are in regular contact than the more remote and abstract public interest (Grabosky and Braithwaite, 2986: 198; quoted from Harding, 1997: 33).
  • Dollars and Sins: Privatized Prisons and the "Tough on Crime" Penology, by Tim Hambourger 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Coercion and intimidation slowly came to be leading ideas, the infliction of a lesser penalty than the capital.^ Coercion and intimidation slowly came to be leading ideas, the infliction of a lesser penalty than the capital.

.The deprivation of liberty under irksome circumstances, rough lodging, hard fare and perpetual labour was after all a milder measure than death, although long years elapsed before the prison was so used.^ The deprivation of liberty under irksome circumstances, rough lodging, hard fare and perpetual labour was after all a milder measure than death, although long years elapsed before the prison was so used.

^ One of the executioners involved in last year's botched attempt to put a man to death was under-trained and failed to attend all the required rehearsals for the Sept.
  • Prison News - Topix 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Reginald Muldrew, who is linked to more than 200 sexual attacks, served sixteen years and was released from prison, only to create trouble agai...
  • Free prison Essays 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Penal codes depended rather upon shorter and more cruel methods; the scaffold was in constant use, with all manner of physical pain, torture before and after sentence, shameful exposure, hideous mutilation, exile, selling into bondage as slaves.^ Penal codes depended rather upon shorter and more cruel methods; the scaffold was in constant use, with all manner of physical pain , torture before and after sentence, shameful exposure, hideous mutilation , exile, selling into bondage as slaves.

^ F.I.E.S. units are an experiment of different degrees of psychological torture and dehumanisation of the individual together with regular and constant physical torture, beatings and insults.

^ FDOC investigation reports now allege that more than one prisoner was abused and imply that actual torture, sexual and physical abuse of prisoners was common at the prison.

.Incarceration was no doubt practised by irresponsible masters, regardless of personal rights, callous to the sufferings of their victims, to which death by starvation or horrible neglect was a welcome relief.^ Incarceration was no doubt practised by irresponsible masters, regardless of personal rights, callous to the sufferings of their victims, to which death by starvation or horrible neglect was a welcome relief.

^ This angered person wants these criminals to suffer like their victims suffer(ed).
  • Top 10 Deadliest Prisons in the World | Top 10 Lists | TopTenz.net 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.toptenz.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But consignment to a prison for lengthened periods was, as a penalty, of more recent introduction, and of still later date is the recognition of the duties incumbent upon the authority to use its powers mercifully by humane endeavours to reform and improve those on whom it laid hands.^ But consignment to a prison for lengthened periods was, as a penalty, of more recent introduction, and of still later date is the recognition of the duties incumbent upon the authority to use its powers mercifully by humane endeavours to reform and improve those on whom it laid hands.

^ We needed nuclear power plants to generate electricity: the population was increasing and people were using more electricity than before.
  • BBC - The Editors: Panorama producer imprisoned 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ They were applied to other P Y PP uses less justifiable or defensible; they served to execute the will of the despotic master upon all who set themselves in opposition to his authority, or were decreed, more or less wisely but still arbitrarily, by a government in the best interests of society, organized for the general good.

.The progress made can only be realized by considering what prisons once were.^ The progress made can only be realized by considering what prisons once were.

^ In two prisons in Bangkok, Thailand, the majority of the 112 prisoners diagnosed within prison were only diagnosed once they had developed an opportunistic infection.
  • Prisons, prisoners and HIV/AIDS 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.avert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An American worker who once upon a time made $8/hour, loses his job when the company relocates to Thailand where workers are paid only $2/day.
  • CRG -- The Prison-Industrial Complex and the Global Economy 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The shocking picture drawn by John Howard of the state of prisons at the latter end of the 18th century will last for all time.^ The shocking picture drawn by John Howard of the state of prisons at the latter end of the 18th century will last for all time.

^ DALLAS — The United States may soon see its prison population drop for the first time in almost four decades, a milestone in a nation that locks up ...

^ Indeed, The New York Times reported last month that the Arizona state government is planning to sell nine of its 10 prisons to Corrections Corporation of America.

.They were for the England. most part pestiferous dens, overcrowded, dark, foully dirty, not only ill ventilated, but deprived altogether of fresh air.^ It is dark, damp and ill-ventilated.

^ The physicians for the most part seem to have been honest and humane but even if they had been skilful they could have accomplished little in the absence of a proper diet, bedding and medicines for the sick.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It's sad to say but Prison Break only has 3 new episodes left to air before they join the other tv shows in the land of darkness.
  • Prison Break - Boxxet 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: General]

.The wretched inmates were dependent for food upon the caprice of their gaolers or the charity of the benevolent; water was denied them except in the scantiest proportions; their only bedding was putrid straw.^ The wretched inmates were dependent for food upon the caprice of their gaolers or the charity of the benevolent; water was denied them except in the scantiest proportions; their only bedding was putrid straw .

^ The floor was so vile and infested with rat droppings, the infant only has the steel bed on which the mother and baby sleep to move upon.

^ Studies of prison inmates in America have revealed that only a small percentage of those who had been taking ARVs within prison continued taking the drugs upon their release.
  • Prisons, prisoners and HIV/AIDS 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.avert.org [Source type: Academic]

.Every one in durance, whether tried or untried, was heavily ironed.^ Every one in durance , whether tried or untried, was heavily ironed.

.All alike were subject to the rapacity of their gaolers and the extortions of their fellows.^ All alike were subject to the rapacity of their gaolers and the extortions of their fellows.

.Gaol fees were levied ruthlessly - "garnish" also, the tax or contribution paid by each individual to a common fund to be spent by the whole body, generally in drink.^ Gaol fees were levied ruthlessly - " garnish " also, the tax or contribution paid by each individual to a common fund to be spent by the whole body, generally in drink.

.Idleness, drunkenness, vicious intercourse, sickness, starvation, squalor, cruelty, chains, awful oppression and everywhere culpable neglect - in these words may be summed up the state of the gaols at the time of Howard's visitation.^ Idleness, drunkenness , vicious intercourse, sickness, starvation, squalor, cruelty , chains, awful oppression and everywhere culpable neglect - in these words may be summed up the state of the gaols at the time of Howard's visitation .

^ Again, I quote from an English paper: "It is time that these gentlemen understood that they are Priests of a State Church.
  • Sermon on the Imprisonment of English Priests for Conscience Sake 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The shocking picture drawn by John Howard of the state of prisons at the latter end of the 18th century will last for all time.

.At this time prisons were primarily places of detention, not of punishment, peopled by accused persons, still innocent in the eyes of the law, and debtors guilty only of breaches of the financial rules of a commercial country, framed chiefly in the interest of the creditor.^ At this time prisons were primarily places of detention, not of punishment, peopled by accused persons, still innocent in the eyes of the law, and debtors guilty only of breaches of the financial rules of a commercial country, framed chiefly in the interest of the creditor.

^ You can only be in one place at one time.

^ The rules of the prison at a minimum control when you can move from point A to point B. They may be as strict as to say you can only shower three times a week, regardless of the fact that it may be over 90 degrees inside and outside of the prison.

.Freedom from arrest was guaranteed by Magna Carta, save on a criminal charge, yet thousands were committed to gaol on legal fictions and retained indefinitely for costs far in excess of the original debt.^ Freedom from arrest was guaranteed by Magna Carta , save on a criminal charge, yet thousands were committed to gaol on legal fictions and retained indefinitely for costs far in excess of the original debt.

^ With the launch of Strike Hard campaign by the Chinese government in 1983, many Tibetans from Lhasa were arrested and imposed heavy prison sentences imposed on them for alleged criminal charges.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The impecunious were locked up and deprived of all hope of earning means to obtain enlargement; while their families and persons dependent on them shared their imprisonment and added to the overcrowding.^ I hope I never get locked up – ever.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The impecunious were locked up and deprived of all hope of earning means to obtain enlargement; while their families and persons dependent on them shared their imprisonment and added to the overcrowding.

^ Neither imprisonment or the life after should mean the loss of all the rights and attributes of citizenship.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prisons were always full.^ The prisons were always full.

.Gaol deliveries were of rare occurrence, even when tardy trial ended in acquittal release was delayed until illegal charges in the way of fees had been satisfied.^ Gaol deliveries were of rare occurrence, even when tardy trial ended in acquittal release was delayed until illegal charges in the way of fees had been satisfied.

^ Keep dangerous defendants off the streets by allowing judges to deny bail to dangerous offenders, end pre-trial release and require secured bail for violent and repeat offenders; .

^ The trial of the three of the guards accused of murdering inmate Frank Valdes at FSP ended in an acquittal on February 15, 2002 in Bradford County.
  • FLORIDA STATE PRISON 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the article Deportation it is shown how the discoveries in the southern seas led to the adoption of penal exile in preference to other suggested improvements in the English prison systems.^ What other systems have prison nurseries?
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the article Deportation it is shown how the discoveries in the southern seas led to the adoption of penal exile in preference to other suggested improvements in the English prison systems.

^ At least 25% of inmates in the federal prison system today will be subject to deportation when their sentences are completed.
  • CRG -- The Prison-Industrial Complex and the Global Economy 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The penitentiary scheme proposed by Howard was not, however, abandoned.^ The penitentiary scheme proposed by Howard was not, however, abandoned.

It was revised and kept alive by Jeremy Bentham in his fanatical scheme for a "panopticon or inspection house," described as "a circular building, an iron cage glazed, a glass lantern as large as Ranelagh, with the cells on the outer circumference." His plan was to keep every inmate of every cell under constant close observation, and all were to be reformed by solitude and seclusion while constantly employed in remunerative labour, in the profits of which they were to share. .The scheme hung fire, owing, it was alleged, to the personal hostility of George III.^ The scheme hung fire, owing, it was alleged, to the personal hostility of George III .

to .Bentham as an advanced radical.^ Bentham as an advanced radical.

Lands were, however, purchased which were eventually taken over by the government and utilized for the erection of Millbank penitentiary, begun in 1813 and partially completed in 1816. It was now fully recognized that the reformation of prisoners could best be attempted by seclusion, "employment and religious instruction." Millbank, as a new and most enlightened undertaking in prison affairs, was opened with much eclat. .It was to be governed by a specially appointed committee of distinguished personages, the chairman being the Speaker of the House of Commons.^ It was to be governed by a specially appointed committee of distinguished personages, the chairman being the Speaker of the House of Commons.

^ Jeff Piccola, Republican chairman of the Pennsylvania House Judiciary Committee.

.The sum total expended upon the buildings amounted to half a million of money, and the yearly charges of the establishment were a heavy burden on the exchequer.^ The sum total expended upon the buildings amounted to half a million of money, and the yearly charges of the establishment were a heavy burden on the exchequer .

.The erection of Millbank was a step in the right direction.^ The erection of Millbank was a step in the right direction.

^ The end goal is to be as comfortable as possible and finding the perfect cell mates is a step in the right direction.

.The energy with which it was undertaken was the more remarkable because elsewhere throughout the United Kingdom the prisons, with few exceptions, remained deplorably bad.^ The energy with which it was undertaken was the more remarkable because elsewhere throughout the United Kingdom the prisons, with few exceptions, remained deplorably bad.

^ "More than 9.25 million people are held in penal institutions throughout the world, mostly as pre-trial detainees (remand prisoners) or as sentenced prisoners.
  • Prisons, Jails & Probation - Overview | Drug War Facts 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.drugwarfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a word, as regards discipline, labour, treatment, exactly the same system obtains in the "local" prisons throughout the United Kingdom.

.J. Neild, who in 1812 followed in the footsteps of John Howard, found that the old conditions remained unchanged.^ J. Neild, who in 1812 followed in the footsteps of John Howard, found that the old conditions remained unchanged.

^ This will measures be best understood if we follow those who break the law through all the stages from that of arrest, through conviction, to release, conditional or complete.

."The great reformation produced by Howard," to use Neild's own words, "was merely temporary.^ "The great reformation produced by Howard," to use Neild's own words, "was merely temporary.

.. prisons were relapsing into their former horrid state of privation, filthiness, severity and neglect." .Yet the legislature was alive to the need for prison reform.^ Yet the legislature was alive to the need for prison reform.

^ Yet some union officials have worked with prison administrators and reformers to establish meaningful training programs.

^ Yet this was in 1818, when the legislature was setting a praiseworthy example - when half a million had been spent in providing large airy cells for a thousand prisoners.

.Besides the building of Millbank it had promulgated many acts for the amelioration of prisoners.^ Besides the building of Millbank it had promulgated many acts for the amelioration of prisoners.

^ Besides this, convict labour has been usefully employed in the erection of prison buildings at new points or in extension of those at the old.

^ Besides, ‘Prison Break’ was also not placed on Fox’s midseason schedule, fanning many speculations.

.Gaol fees were once more distinctly abolished; the appointment of chaplains was insisted upon, and the erection of improved prison buildings was rendered imperative upon local authorities.^ Gaol fees were once more distinctly abolished; the appointment of chaplains was insisted upon, and the erection of improved prison buildings was rendered imperative upon local authorities.

^ The question will arise some day whether it is really necessary to maintain fifty-six local prisons, with all their elaborate paraphernalia , their imposing buildings and expensive staff, to maintain discipline in daily life and insist upon the proper observance of customs and usages, many of them of purely modern invention.

^ On top of this; one in four women in prison have spent time in local authority care as a child and sixty percent are imprisoned outside of their home region 18 .
  • Prison and Prison System Design 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisondesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But these, with other and much older acts, remained in abeyance.^ But these, with other and much older acts, remained in abeyance .

.Thus an act which provided for the classification of prisoners had remained a dead letter; even the separation of the males from the females was not a universal rule.^ Thus an act which provided for the classification of prisoners had remained a dead letter; even the separation of the males from the females was not a universal rule.

^ These issues are not confined to male prisoners; due to the high proportion of injecting drug users within prisons, female inmates have also been severely affected by HIV/AIDS. .
  • Prisons, prisoners and HIV/AIDS 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.avert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He saw, however, great difficulties in making this the universal rule, chief among which was the enormous expense of providing suitable prisons.

.Roused by these crying evils, a small band of earnest men formed themselves into an association for the improvement of prison discipline.^ Roused by these crying evils, a small band of earnest men formed themselves into an association for the improvement of prison discipline.

^ Perez Hilton is reporting that the Prison Break star is not only into men, but he’s been dating a ...
  • Prison Break - Boxxet 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.boxxet.com [Source type: General]

^ Prison Radio Prison Radio's mission is to challenge mass incarceration and racism by airing the voices of men and women in prison by bringing their voices into the public dialogue on crime and punishment.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They perambulated the country inspecting the prisons; they issued lengthy interrogatories to prison officials; they published periodical reports giving the result of their inquiries, with their views on the true principles of prison management, and much sound advice, accompanied by elaborate plans on the subject of prison construction.^ They perambulated the country inspecting the prisons; they issued lengthy interrogatories to prison officials; they published periodical reports giving the result of their inquiries, with their views on the true principles of prison management, and much sound advice, accompanied by elaborate plans on the subject of prison construction.

^ Indeed, The New York Times reported last month that the Arizona state government is planning to sell nine of its 10 prisons to Corrections Corporation of America.

^ The United Nations issued a report calling on the United States to either try the approximately 500 inmates at the Guantánamo Bay prison for their crimes or release them.
  • Prison (Harper's Magazine) 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The labours of this society brought out into strong relief the naked deformity of the bulk of the British gaols.^ The labours of this society brought out into strong relief the naked deformity of the bulk of the British gaols.

.Speaking of St Albans from his personal observation Mr (afterwards Sir T. F.) Buxton, a most active member of the society, said: "All were in ill health; almost all were in rags; almost all were filthy in the extreme.^ Speaking of St Albans from his personal observation Mr (afterwards Sir T. F.) Buxton , a most active member of the society, said: "All were in ill health; almost all were in rags; almost all were filthy in the extreme.

^ These statistics build up a picture where some of the women in our prisons are amongst the most tragic and vulnerable members of society.
  • Prison and Prison System Design 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisondesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mental Health Care in U.S. Prisons A map of the most recent information available on mental health care for all 50 state adult prison systems.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The state of the prison, the desperation of the prisoners, broadly hinted in their conversation and plainly expressed in their conduct, the uproar of oaths, complaints and obscenity, the indescribable stench, presented together a concentration of the utmost misery and the utmost guilt." The reports of the society laid bare the existence of similar horrors in numbers of other gaols. .Yet this was in 1818, when the legislature was setting a praiseworthy example - when half a million had been spent in providing large airy cells for a thousand prisoners.^ Yet this was in 1818, when the legislature was setting a praiseworthy example - when half a million had been spent in providing large airy cells for a thousand prisoners.

^ After one and half week spent in the prison of Lichtenberg, Andrea has been transferred by surprise on the 11th to the prison of Pankow.

^ Corrections Director Rick Day asked the 1997 Legislature for $103 million -- $53 million in new funds for overcrowding and $50 million to build additional prison cells.

.Even in London itself, within easy reach of the palatial Millbank penitentiary, the chief prison of the city, Newgate, was in a disgraceful condition.^ Even in London itself, within easy reach of the palatial Millbank penitentiary, the chief prison of the city, Newgate, was in a disgraceful condition.

^ This effectively made it impossible for the inmates to ascertain the condition of injured friends in other cells and inhibited communications even within the cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The text actually describes the liberation of Newgate prison, London, during the Gordon Riots of 1780.

.This had been exposed by a parliamentary inquiry as far back as 1814, but nothing had been done to remedy the evils laid bare.^ This had been exposed by a parliamentary inquiry as far back as 1814, but nothing had been done to remedy the evils laid bare.

.The state of the female side had already attracted the attention of that devoted woman, Mrs Fry, whose ministrations and wonderful success no doubt encouraged, if they did not bring about, the formation of the Prison Society.^ The state of the female side had already attracted the attention of that devoted woman, Mrs Fry , whose ministrations and wonderful success no doubt encouraged, if they did not bring about, the formation of the Prison Society.

^ Stimulated by the success achieved by Mrs Fry, the Prison Discipline Society continued its labours.

^ Known as the POA, this professional trades union represents and safeguards Prison Officers on a daily basis If you are already in the POA think about encouraging others to consider this issue read the thread on this .
  • Prison Officer.Org.UK • Index page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisonofficer.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mrs Fry went first to Newgate in 1813, but only as a casual visitor.^ Mrs Fry went first to Newgate in 1813, but only as a casual visitor.

.It was not until 1817 that she entered upon the noble work with which her name will ever be associated.^ It was not until 1817 that she entered upon the noble work with which her name will ever be associated.

.She worked a miracle there in an incredibly short space of time.^ She worked a miracle there in an incredibly short space of time.

^ At any given time there are 188,000 people in hospitals, leaving 1,212,000 to do the work.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was never a vanguardist, I have always believed in the mass action of the organised working class, but there was a time when I was involved in the armed struggle.....

The ward into which she penetrated was like a den of wild beasts; it was filled with women unsexed, fighting, swearing, dancing, gaming, yelling and justly deserved its name of "hell above ground." Within a month it was transformed, and presented, says an eyewitness, "a scene where stillness and propriety reigned." .The wild beasts were tamed.^ The wild beasts were tamed.

.Movements similar to that which Mrs Fry headed were soon set on foot both in England and on the Continent, and public attention was generally directed to the urgent necessity for prison reform.^ Movements similar to that which Mrs Fry headed were soon set on foot both in England and on the Continent, and public attention was generally directed to the urgent necessity for prison reform.

^ The state of the female side had already attracted the attention of that devoted woman, Mrs Fry , whose ministrations and wonderful success no doubt encouraged, if they did not bring about, the formation of the Prison Society.

^ "The public believes the prison population reflects the crime rate," says James Austin, a corrections consultant who has served on several prison-reform panels in California.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.Stimulated by the success achieved by Mrs Fry, the Prison Discipline Society continued its labours.^ Stimulated by the success achieved by Mrs Fry, the Prison Discipline Society continued its labours.

^ The state of the female side had already attracted the attention of that devoted woman, Mrs Fry , whose ministrations and wonderful success no doubt encouraged, if they did not bring about, the formation of the Prison Society.

^ In a word, as regards discipline, labour, treatment, exactly the same system obtains in the "local" prisons throughout the United Kingdom.

.Hostile critics were not wanting; many voices were raised in protest against the ultra-humanitarianism which sought to make gaols too comfortable and tended to pamper criminals.^ Hostile critics were not wanting; many voices were raised in protest against the ultra-humanitarianism which sought to make gaols too comfortable and tended to pamper criminals.

^ He joined many collective protests, hunger strikes, rebellions, etc and suffered many tortures and reprisals as a direct consequence of his permanent confrontational attitude against the system.

^ The indoor manufactures followed in British prisons are not so varied as the foregoing and have been limited by the protests and objections raised by free or outside labour against alleged unfair competition.

.But the society pursued its objects, undeterred by sarcasm.^ But the society pursued its objects, undeterred by sarcasm .

.Many of these are now accepted as axioms in prison treatment; for instance, that female officers only should have charge of female prisoners, that prisoners of both sexes should be kept apart and constantly employed.^ Many of these are now accepted as axioms in prison treatment; for instance, that female officers only should have charge of female prisoners, that prisoners of both sexes should be kept apart and constantly employed.

^ BECOME A PRISON OFFICER! Many people fail the JSAC process simply because they do not prepare effectively.
  • Prison Officer.Org.UK • Index page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisonofficer.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eight charged had been formerly employed at Hendry CI, a minimum to medium security 605 bed men’s prison located near Ft.

.Yet these principles were unacknowledged at that time and were first enunciated in acts such as the 4 Geo.^ Yet these principles were unacknowledged at that time and were first enunciated in acts such as the 4 Geo.

^ This information is updated every week Offender records that are exempt from publication for legal reasons, such as those sentenced under Georgia's First Offender Act, are not included in these statistics .
  • || GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS || 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC www.dcor.state.ga.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The First Offenders Act in 1887 had the effect of postponing sentence and sparing these offenders from incarceration subject to their good conduct.

IV. c. 65 and the 5 Geo. IV. c. .85 (1823-1824), the passing of which were mainly due to the strenuous exertions of the Prison Discipline Society.^ Stimulated by the success achieved by Mrs Fry, the Prison Discipline Society continued its labours.

^ Prison Discipline Society.

.It was laid down in these that over and above safe custody it was essential to preserve health, improve morals, and enforce hard labour on all prisoners sentenced to it.^ It was laid down in these that over and above safe custody it was essential to preserve health, improve morals, and enforce hard labour on all prisoners sentenced to it.

^ The deprivation of liberty under irksome circumstances, rough lodging, hard fare and perpetual labour was after all a milder measure than death, although long years elapsed before the prison was so used.

^ In some states economic considerations have carried the day; in others the stringency of labour laws under the pressure of labour associations has paralysed all prison industry.

.Irons were strictly forbidden except in cases of "urgent and absolute necessity," and it was ruled that every prisoner should have a bed to himself - if possible a separate cell, the last being the first formal statement of a principle upon which all future prison discipline was to be based.^ Prison laws and regulations are enforced to discipline the prisoners and every prisoner has to strictly abide by it.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irons were strictly forbidden except in cases of "urgent and absolute necessity," and it was ruled that every prisoner should have a bed to himself - if possible a separate cell, the last being the first formal statement of a principle upon which all future prison discipline was to be based.

^ In all cases the bricks have been made, the stone quarried and dressed, the timber sawn, the iron cast, forged and wrought by the prisoners.

.The importance of these acts cannot be over-estimated as supplying a legal standard of efficiency by which all prisons could be measured.^ The importance of these acts cannot be over-estimated as supplying a legal standard of efficiency by which all prisons could be measured.

^ "Of those known to be HIV positive in all U.S. prisons at yearend 2004, an estimated 6,027 were confirmed AIDS cases, up from 5,944 in 2003.
  • Prisons, Jails & Probation - Overview | Drug War Facts 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.drugwarfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The act establishes standards for identifying, investigating, and eliminating prison rape in the United States.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Still the progress of improvement was extremely slow, and the managers of gaols still evaded or ignored the acts.^ Still the progress of improvement was extremely slow, and the managers of gaols still evaded or ignored the acts.

.Many local authorities grudged the money to rebuild or enlarge their gaols; others varied much in their interpretation of the rules as to hard labour and the hours of employment.^ Many local authorities grudged the money to rebuild or enlarge their gaols; others varied much in their interpretation of the rules as to hard labour and the hours of employment.

^ Gaol fees were once more distinctly abolished; the appointment of chaplains was insisted upon, and the erection of improved prison buildings was rendered imperative upon local authorities.

^ The amount of exercise allowed varied greatly; there was no universal rule as to employment.

.One great drawback to general reform was that a large number of small prisons lay beyond the reach of the law.^ One great drawback to general reform was that a large number of small prisons lay beyond the reach of the law.

^ This ensured the quick spread of news relating to the protest throughout Lhasa, which generated a large amount of public support for the prisoners, and was probably a major reason that such intense measures were taken in 1998 to prevent information relating to the protests reaching the general public.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a fact that a large percentage of the total number employed at trades learnt them in prison.

.Those under small jurisdictions in the boroughs and under the petty corporate bodies continued open to the strongest reprobation, and thus remained until they were swept away by the measure which brought about the reform of the municipal corporations in 1835. But by this time a still more determined effort had been made to establish some uniform and improved system of prison discipline.^ Those under small jurisdictions in the boroughs and under the petty corporate bodies continued open to the strongest reprobation, and thus remained until they were swept away by the measure which brought about the reform of the municipal corporations in 1835.

^ But by this time a still more determined effort had been made to establish some uniform and improved system of prison discipline.

^ These commissioners had power to consolidate by closing superfluous prisons, to establish one system of discipline, and generally by watchful supervision, aided by the experience of specialists, to maintain that muchdesired uniformity which had been so long and unsuccessfully sought.

.In 18 3 a select committee of the House of Commons went into the whole subject of secondary punishment and reported that, as the difficulties in the way of an effective classification of prisoners were insurmountable, they were strongly in favour of the confinement of prisoners in separate cells, recommending that the whole of the prisons should be altered accordingly and the expense borne by the public exchequer.^ In 18 3 a select committee of the House of Commons went into the whole subject of secondary punishment and reported that, as the difficulties in the way of an effective classification of prisoners were insurmountable, they were strongly in favour of the confinement of prisoners in separate cells, recommending that the whole of the prisons should be altered accordingly and the expense borne by the public exchequer.

^ Once again guards went into the cells and began beating the prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They speedily relapsed into crime; their numbers, as the years passed, became so great and their depredations so serious, especially in garrotte robberies, that a cry of indignation was raised against the system, which led to its arraignment before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1863.

.There can be little doubt that this committee was greatly struck by 4he superior methods of prison discipline pursued in the United States.^ There can be little doubt that this committee was greatly struck by 4he superior methods of prison discipline pursued in the United States .

^ Indeed, he continued, we have been indulgent in allowing them to be supplied by their friends at home with comforts superior to those enjoyed by their captors while "the most revolting inhumanity has characterized the conduct of the United States towards prisoners held by them."
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The note struck first in the Walnut Street penitentiary began a new era in prison treatment, and the methods adopted were destined to extend over the whole world.

.The best American prisons had recently been visited by two eminent Frenchmen, J. A. de Beaumont and A. de Tocqueville, who spoke of them in terms of the highest praise.^ The best American prisons had recently been visited by two eminent Frenchmen, J. A. de Beaumont and A. de Tocqueville, who spoke of them in terms of the highest praise.

^ After visiting  American prisons Tocqueville and his traveling companion, Gustave de Beaumont, wrote that social reformers in the United States had been swept up in "the monomania of the penitentiary system," convinced that prisons were "a remedy for all the evils of society."
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With two wars raging, economic recovery stagnating and the final season of “Lost” beckoning, Americans have neither time for, nor interest in, prison reform.

.It was with the object of appropriating what was best in the American system that Mr W. Crawford was despatched across the Atlantic on a special mission of inquiry.^ It was with the object of appropriating what was best in the American system that Mr W. Crawford was despatched across the Atlantic on a special mission of inquiry.

^ Reviewing the merits and demerits of each system, Mr Crawford gave his adhesion to that of unvarying solitude as pursued in the Eastern penitentiary in Pennsylvania.

^ Mr Crawford came back from the United States an ardent champion of the solitary system.

.His exhaustive report, published in 1834, was a valuable contribution to the whole question of penal discipline.^ His exhaustive report, published in 1834, was a valuable contribution to the whole question of penal discipline.

.Another select committee, this time of the House of Lords, returned to the subject in 1835, and after a long investigation re-enunciated the theory that all prisoners should be kept separate from one another.^ Another select committee, this time of the House of Lords, returned to the subject in 1835, and after a long investigation re-enunciated the theory that all prisoners should be kept separate from one another.

^ But Mr. Schwarzenegger was way off the mark when he suggested that the answer was to privatize prison services or to pass yet another constitutional amendment, this time to limit prison spending.

^ According to the Department of Justice, studies of recidivism reveal that "the amount of time inmates serve in prison does not increase or decrease the likelihood of recidivism, whether recidivism is measured as parole revocation, re-arrest, reconviction, or return to prison."
  • Prisons, Jails & Probation - Overview | Drug War Facts 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.drugwarfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also urged in strong terms the necessity for one uniform system of treatment, more especially as regarded dietaries, labour and education, and strongly recommended the appointment of official inspectors to enforce obedience to the acts.^ It also urged in strong terms the necessity for one uniform system of treatment, more especially as regarded dietaries, labour and education, and strongly recommended the appointment of official inspectors to enforce obedience to the acts.

^ The most notable change however was in regard to labour, the quantity and value of which was to be regulated in future by the so-called " mark-system ."

^ But by this time a still more determined effort had been made to establish some uniform and improved system of prison discipline.

.These recommendations were eventually adopted and formed the basis of a new departure.^ These recommendations were eventually adopted and formed the basis of a new departure.

.For fifty years transportation (see Deportation) had been in England the principal form of secondary punishment for crime.^ For fifty years transportation (see Deportation ) had been in England the principal form of secondary punishment for crime .

^ Having thus traced the history of secondary punishments and prison discipline in England, it will be well to describe the system now actually in force.

.Primary or capital punishment still existed, but to a greatly modified extent.^ Primary or capital punishment still existed, but to a greatly modified extent.

.The pious Quakers of Pennsylvania at the end of the 18th century had realized a deeper duty towards the offenders than their extinction, and sought to amend and reform the living.^ The pious Quakers of Pennsylvania at the end of the 18th century had realized a deeper duty towards the offenders than their extinction, and sought to amend and reform the living.

^ For more than a century Folsom and San Quentin were the end of the line in California's penal system they were the state's only maximum security penitentiaries.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shocking picture drawn by John Howard of the state of prisons at the latter end of the 18th century will last for all time.

.The note struck first in the Walnut Street penitentiary began a new era in prison treatment, and the methods adopted were destined to extend over the whole world.^ The note struck first in the Walnut Street penitentiary began a new era in prison treatment, and the methods adopted were destined to extend over the whole world.

^ The United States at the time was renowned in Europe for having created a whole new social institution: the penitentiary.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Editors' note: the treatment of captured prisoners was highly charged emotionally and politically during and after the Civil War.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This was the germ of the nearly universal principle of individual confinement, and the origin of what some advanced thinkers have denounced as the greatest crime of the present age, the invention of the separate cell.^ This was the germ of the nearly universal principle of individual confinement, and the origin of what some advanced thinkers have denounced as the greatest crime of the present age, the invention of the separate cell.

^ But it was not until 1839 that an act was passed which laid it down that individuals might be confined separately in single cells.

^ The cells inhabited by prisoners (and separate cellular confinement was now very general) were of different dimensions - variously lighted, warmed and ventilated.

.It was and still is held by many that the criminal may be best and most effectually weaned from his evil ways by shutting him up for lengthy periods between four walls, and subjecting him, when most susceptible, to curative processes, to constant exhortation and searching introspection, changing his nature and restoring him to society a reformed man.^ It was and still is held by many that the criminal may be best and most effectually weaned from his evil ways by shutting him up for lengthy periods between four walls, and subjecting him, when most susceptible, to curative processes, to constant exhortation and searching introspection , changing his nature and restoring him to society a reformed man.

^ After visiting  American prisons Tocqueville and his traveling companion, Gustave de Beaumont, wrote that social reformers in the United States had been swept up in "the monomania of the penitentiary system," convinced that prisons were "a remedy for all the evils of society."
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may be that it helps to restore feelings of liberty to a victim, their family or society as a whole.
  • Prison and Prison System Design 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisondesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It must be at once admitted that the system of isolation has produced no remarkable results.^ It must be at once admitted that the system of isolation has produced no remarkable results.

^ These results are no doubt greatly aided by the judicious stimulus given to the highest effort of the mark system.

.Solitary confinement has neither conquered nor appreciably diminished crime, even where it has been applied with extreme care, as in Belgium, and more recently in France, where it obtains strict and unbroken for long terms of years.^ Solitary confinement has neither conquered nor appreciably diminished crime, even where it has been applied with extreme care, as in Belgium , and more recently in France , where it obtains strict and unbroken for long terms of years.

^ It was adopted in France by the Berenger law of 1891, and in Belgium, where 14% of sentences of imprisonment in one year and a-half were postponed.

^ Sentence extension of 4 years in 1998 for participation in the May protests, and solitary confinement for two months.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cloistered seclusion is an artificial condition quite at variance with human instincts and habits, and the treatment, long continued, has proved injurious to health, inducing mental breakdown.^ Cloistered seclusion is an artificial condition quite at variance with human instincts and habits, and the treatment, long continued, has proved injurious to health, inducing mental breakdown.

^ David Conn, senior vice president for treatment provider Mental Health Systems, Inc., said the state made the cuts only reluctantly.
  • men and prison 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Malandrino is a prison where prisoners spend long sentences under human humiliation and extremely hard conditions...

.A slow death may be defended indeed on moral grounds if regeneration has been compassed, ' but it is only another form of capital punishment.^ A slow death may be defended indeed on moral grounds if regeneration has been compassed, ' but it is only another form of capital punishment.

^ Death Penalty Information Center The Death Penalty Information Center is a non-profit organization serving the media and the public with analysis and information on issues concerning capital punishment.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Even those who support capital punishment are finding it increasingly more difficult to endorce it in its current form.
  • men and prison 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: Original source]

.Still the measures introduced in the United States and the action taken upon them fill a large page in prison history and must be recorded here.^ Still the measures introduced in the United States and the action taken upon them fill a large page in prison history and must be recorded here.

^ The 185-page opinion also accused the state of fostering “criminogenic” conditions, compelling former prisoners to commit more crimes and feed a cycle of recidivism.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Repeat violent offenders should be dealt with using tough measures and perhaps, farmed out to private (even out of state) facilities where 25-k per prisoner would still suffice.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.Several states in the Union followed the lead of Pennsylvania.^ Several states in the Union followed the lead of Pennsylvania.

^ Mr Crawford, whose mission to the United States has been already referred to, was in favour of solitary confinement, but he could not deny that several cases of suicide followed this isolation.

^ And editors and lawyers on this side of the water, with still less thorough knowledge in a matter so new to them, and with the crudest notions as to the union of Church and State follow suit.
  • Sermon on the Imprisonment of English Priests for Conscience Sake 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.That of New York built the great Auburn penitentiary in 1816 to carry out the new principles.^ That of New York built the great Auburn penitentiary in 1816 to carry out the new principles.

^ Seventh —Whether the principles that governed the Duke of Alva and the Spanish Inquisition shall be reasserted and carried out practically, so far as they can be, in the year 1881.
  • Sermon on the Imprisonment of English Priests for Conscience Sake 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.There every prisoner was kept continuously in complete isolation.^ There every prisoner was kept continuously in complete isolation.

^ Look for studies on the success of prison; there aren't any, yet we continue to lock folks up and ignore the recidivism rate.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.He saw no one, spoke to no one, and did no work.^ He saw no one, spoke to no one, and did no work.

^ I have not worked at all in the mess hall for last two months, and no one has told me anything.

.Within a short period very deplorable results began to show themselves.^ Within a short period very deplorable results began to show themselves.

.Many prisoners became insane; health was generally impaired and life greatly endangered.^ Many prisoners became insane; health was generally impaired and life greatly endangered.

^ Re: Prison overcrowding - upwards of 20% - 25% are unlawful aliens or 1st generation Mexicans from broken families, w no respect for this American or human life.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know what it's all about: Starke, like all small towns the prison builders choose, soon became totally reliant on the prison economy, the money it generates.
  • FLORIDA STATE PRISON 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mr Crawford, whose mission to the United States has been already referred to, was in favour of solitary confinement, but he could not deny that several cases of suicide followed this isolation.^ Mr Crawford came back from the United States an ardent champion of the solitary system.

^ Mr Crawford, whose mission to the United States has been already referred to, was in favour of solitary confinement, but he could not deny that several cases of suicide followed this isolation.

^ The state of the female side had already attracted the attention of that devoted woman, Mrs Fry , whose ministrations and wonderful success no doubt encouraged, if they did not bring about, the formation of the Prison Society.

.Some relaxation of the disastrous severity seemed desirable, and out of this grew the second great system, which was presently introduced at Auburn and afterwards at the no less renowned prison of Sing Sing.^ Some relaxation of the disastrous severity seemed desirable, and out of this grew the second great system, which was presently introduced at Auburn and afterwards at the no less renowned prison of Sing Sing.

^ A fellow prisoner who had some medical training immediately attempted to stem the bleeding with a piece of cloth but to no avail.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That of New York built the great Auburn penitentiary in 1816 to carry out the new principles.

.It was called the silent system.^ It was called the silent system.

.While the prisoners were still separated at night or meals, they were suffered to labour in association, but under a rule of silence ruthlessly and rigorously maintained.^ While the prisoners were still separated at night or meals, they were suffered to labour in association, but under a rule of silence ruthlessly and rigorously maintained.

^ In some states economic considerations have carried the day; in others the stringency of labour laws under the pressure of labour associations has paralysed all prison industry.

^ Baden has a well-known cellular prison at Bruchsal , but separation is not imposed for more than four years and associated labour is carried out in another quarter of the prison.

.The latter, entrusted to irresponsible subordinates, degenerated into a despotism which brought the system into great discredit.^ The latter, entrusted to irresponsible subordinates, degenerated into a despotism which brought the system into great discredit.

.All discipline officers were permitted to wield the whip summarily and without the slightest check.^ All discipline officers were permitted to wield the whip summarily and without the slightest check.

.Under such a system the most frightful excesses were possible and many cases of brutal cruelty were laid bare.^ Under such a system the most frightful excesses were possible and many cases of brutal cruelty were laid bare.

^ In many cases it's easier to remain in the penal system than to live outside of it, that and the stupid drug laws, plus the three strikes lock em away laws.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.Reviewing the merits and demerits of each system, Mr Crawford gave his adhesion to that of unvarying solitude as pursued in the Eastern penitentiary in Pennsylvania.^ Reviewing the merits and demerits of each system, Mr Crawford gave his adhesion to that of unvarying solitude as pursued in the Eastern penitentiary in Pennsylvania.

^ Mr Crawford came back from the United States an ardent champion of the solitary system.

^ It was with the object of appropriating what was best in the American system that Mr W. Crawford was despatched across the Atlantic on a special mission of inquiry.

.Mr Crawford came back from the United States an ardent champion of the solitary system.^ Mr Crawford came back from the United States an ardent champion of the solitary system.

^ Reviewing the merits and demerits of each system, Mr Crawford gave his adhesion to that of unvarying solitude as pursued in the Eastern penitentiary in Pennsylvania.

^ Moreover, some private prisons offer programs, such as drug treatment and vocational training, that a number of state systems have cut back.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He saw, however, great difficulties in making this the universal rule, chief among which was the enormous expense of providing suitable prisons.^ He saw, however, great difficulties in making this the universal rule, chief among which was the enormous expense of providing suitable prisons.

^ Breaking law is against the moral duties of a responsible citizen but games provide us a fun way to break the barriers of rules and make our own ones.

^ In the United States the policy varies between the two extremes of making prisoners self-supporting and of leaving them in idleness so that the whole weight of expense falls upon the state.

.Some modification of the rule of unbroken solitude would be inevitable; but he strongly urged its adoption for certain classes, and he was equally convinced of the imperative necessity for giving every prisoner a separate sleeping cell.^ Some modification of the rule of unbroken solitude would be inevitable; but he strongly urged its adoption for certain classes, and he was equally convinced of the imperative necessity for giving every prisoner a separate sleeping cell.

^ In the state's Level 4 prisons almost every cell is now double bunked.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holland has followed her nearest neighbour Belgium and has now at command separate cells sufficient to receive the whole number of her prison population.

.It is clear that the government endorsed Mr Crawford's views.^ It is clear that the government endorsed Mr Crawford's views.

.Where it was possible they gave effect to them at once.^ Where it was possible they gave effect to them at once.

.At Millbank, with its spacious solitary cells, the rule of seclusion was more and more strictly enforced.^ At Millbank, with its spacious solitary cells, the rule of seclusion was more and more strictly enforced.

^ Six inmates who had been the more active protesters were identified and placed in solitary confinement cells.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Belgium, where penal administration has received the closest attention for a number of years, the regime of cellular imprisonment has been long carried to its farthest limits, and solitary confinement ranging over ten years and in some cases much more has been strictly enforced.

.Ere long permissive legislation strove to disseminate the new principles.^ Ere long permissive legislation strove to disseminate the new principles.

.In 1830 Lord John Russell had given it as his opinion that cellular separation was desirable in all prisons.^ In 1830 Lord John Russell had given it as his opinion that cellular separation was desirable in all prisons.

^ Baden has a well-known cellular prison at Bruchsal , but separation is not imposed for more than four years and associated labour is carried out in another quarter of the prison.

^ The cells inhabited by prisoners (and separate cellular confinement was now very general) were of different dimensions - variously lighted, warmed and ventilated.

.But it was not until 1839 that an act was passed which laid it down that individuals might be confined separately in single cells.^ But it was not until 1839 that an act was passed which laid it down that individuals might be confined separately in single cells.

^ The cells inhabited by prisoners (and separate cellular confinement was now very general) were of different dimensions - variously lighted, warmed and ventilated.

^ With the arrival of other guards, the inmates were confined into a single cell.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even now the executive did not insist upon the construction of prisons on a new plan.^ Even now the executive did not insist upon the construction of prisons on a new plan.

^ Frankfurt has a good prison on the Pentonville (London) plan; so has Hamburg ; and new buildings have been erected at Wohlan, Siegburg , Breslau and Munster .

^ Yeah, and get ready to spend your Monday evenings without Prison Break episodes until it returns with the new episodes in January, 2009.

.It only set a good example A merican Progress. by undertaking the erection of one which should serve as a model for the whole country.^ It only set a good example A merican Progress.

^ The non violent, example drug users or other less dangerous offences should be set into a work camp where they share their revenue with the prison.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1840 the first stone of Pentonville prison was laid, and after three years of considerable outlay, its cells, Sao in number, were occupied on the solitary, or more exactly the separate system - the latter being somewhat less rigorous and irksome in its restraints.^ In 1840 the first stone of Pentonville prison was laid, and after three years of considerable outlay, its cells, Sao in number, were occupied on the solitary, or more exactly the separate system - the latter being somewhat less rigorous and irksome in its restraints.

^ Pentonville was available for the first phase; Millbank was also pressed into the service, and accommodation was hired in some of the best provincial prisons, as at Wakefield and Leicester .

^ Sweden, which adopted the cellular system in 1842, has now cells sufficient for prisoners sentenced to two years and less., There are three principal central prisons, one at Langholm near Stockholm , a second at Malmo and a third at Mya Varfet near Gothenburg .

.To the credit of many local jurisdictions, they speedily followed the lead of the central authority.^ To the credit of many local jurisdictions, they speedily followed the lead of the central authority.

^ Many local authorities grudged the money to rebuild or enlarge their gaols; others varied much in their interpretation of the rules as to hard labour and the hours of employment.

^ Both points were contested by the Union authorities and a long and voluminous correspondence full of mutual recrimination followed together with many ex-parte statements and report.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Within half a dozen years no fewer than fifty-four new prisons were built on the Pentonville plan, which now began to serve generally as a "model" for imitation, not in England alone, but all over the world.^ Currently serving 9 and half years prison term.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisons can be built in clusters of four or more, built on (More …) .
  • Prison and Prison System Design 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisondesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within half a dozen years no fewer than fifty-four new prisons were built on the Pentonville plan, which now began to serve generally as a "model" for imitation, not in England alone, but all over the world.

.Sir Joshua Jebb, who presided over its erection, may fairly claim indeed to be the author and originator of modern prison architecture.^ Sir Joshua Jebb, who presided over its erection, may fairly claim indeed to be the author and originator of modern prison architecture .

^ Gear magazine devotes 10 pages on their May issue to the writings of Michael Lee Wood, a probably lifer who has been in prison since he was 18.
  • men and prison 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.menstuff.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vice-President Stephens urged such a plan on Howell Cobb who as major-general of the Georgia Reserves had a supervision of the Andersonville prisoners.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The building of Pentonville was epoch-making.^ The building of Pentonville was epoch-making.

.The modern prison dates from it.^ The modern prison dates from it.

.The penal discipline of to-day, much modified and varied it is true, may be largely traced to it.^ The penal discipline of to-day, much modified and varied it is true, may be largely traced to it.

^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, indeed the much loved show Prison Break may be over, but its essence can certainly be felt in the upcoming episodes of True Blood.

.The "cell" scheme of individual separation holds the ground, and countries which can afford the outlay have built or are building cellular prisons.^ The "cell" scheme of individual separation holds the ground, and countries which can afford the outlay have built or are building cellular prisons.

^ Holland has followed her nearest neighbour Belgium and has now at command separate cells sufficient to receive the whole number of her prison population.

^ Baden has a well-known cellular prison at Bruchsal , but separation is not imposed for more than four years and associated labour is carried out in another quarter of the prison.

.France has made steady progress in this respect.^ France has made steady progress in this respect.

.Great additions have been made to La Sante prison in Paris, and a new prison on gigantic lines has been opened at Fresnes les Rungis, on the outskirt of the metropolis, to replace the obsolete Mazas, and to give cellular accommodation to the large numbers always on hand in Paris.^ Great additions have been made to La Sante prison in Paris , and a new prison on gigantic lines has been opened at Fresnes les Rungis, on the outskirt of the metropolis , to replace the obsolete Mazas, and to give cellular accommodation to the large numbers always on hand in Paris.

^ The well-known products, styled articles de Paris, prison-made, find a large sale, and many objects of high art, fine paintings, cloisonné enamels and gold lacquer are among the beautiful products from Japanese prisoners.

^ Simply to remain at double capacity the state will need to open at least one new prison a year, every year, for the foreseeable future.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany has embarked on penitentiary reforms with the provision of several new prisons; it is the same with the United States, Austria, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Norway, Sweden.^ Germany has embarked on penitentiary reforms with the provision of several new prisons; it is the same with the United States, Austria , Holland , Spain , Portugal , Denmark , Norway , Sweden .

^ Indeed, The New York Times reported last month that the Arizona state government is planning to sell nine of its 10 prisons to Corrections Corporation of America.

^ After visiting  American prisons Tocqueville and his traveling companion, Gustave de Beaumont, wrote that social reformers in the United States had been swept up in "the monomania of the penitentiary system," convinced that prisons were "a remedy for all the evils of society."
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Italy a comprehensive scheme has been drawn up so that cellular imprisonment may become a general rule.^ In Italy a comprehensive scheme has been drawn up so that cellular imprisonment may become a general rule.

^ Where the sentence passes beyond two years it ceases to be styled imprisonment and becomes penal servitude, which may be inflicted for any period from three years to life.

^ Although accepting the principle of cellular imprisonment, Italy has not adopted it largely, partly from want of funds and not a little because the current of thought has set against it.

.In Belgium, where penal administration has received the closest attention for a number of years, the regime of cellular imprisonment has been long carried to its farthest limits, and solitary confinement ranging over ten years and in some cases much more has been strictly enforced.^ In Belgium, where penal administration has received the closest attention for a number of years, the regime of cellular imprisonment has been long carried to its farthest limits, and solitary confinement ranging over ten years and in some cases much more has been strictly enforced.

^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the more substantial returns cannot always be expected with the sedentary employments and single-handed effort inseparable from the regime of cellular imprisonment.

.Of late years however a new school has arisen in Belgium which expresses strong doubts of the wisdom or efficacy of prolonged cellular confinement.^ Of late years however a new school has arisen in Belgium which expresses strong doubts of the wisdom or efficacy of prolonged cellular confinement.

^ In Belgium, where penal administration has received the closest attention for a number of years, the regime of cellular imprisonment has been long carried to its farthest limits, and solitary confinement ranging over ten years and in some cases much more has been strictly enforced.

.In England, moreover, which, if not the first to adopt separation in principle, certainly gave the largest effect to it in practice, continuous cellular confinement for short terms is ceasing to be the inevitable rule; and although it has been retained in cases of penal servitude for the first six months, it was in 1899 practically abandoned for lesser sentences, and all prisoners after the first month work together in association under surveillance.^ In England, moreover, which, if not the first to adopt separation in principle, certainly gave the largest effect to it in practice, continuous cellular confinement for short terms is ceasing to be the inevitable rule; and although it has been retained in cases of penal servitude for the first six months, it was in 1899 practically abandoned for lesser sentences, and all prisoners after the first month work together in association under surveillance.

^ The deprivation of liberty under irksome circumstances, rough lodging, hard fare and perpetual labour was after all a milder measure than death, although long years elapsed before the prison was so used.

^ In all cases the bricks have been made, the stone quarried and dressed, the timber sawn, the iron cast, forged and wrought by the prisoners.

.In July 1910 the home secretary announced his intention to reduce it to one month in all cases, except those of recidivists (see RECinivisM).^ In July 1910 the home secretary announced his intention to reduce it to one month in all cases, except those of recidivists (see RECinivisM).

^ "Of those known to be HIV positive in all U.S. prisons at yearend 2004, an estimated 6,027 were confirmed AIDS cases, up from 5,944 in 2003.
  • Prisons, Jails & Probation - Overview | Drug War Facts 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.drugwarfacts.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still milder and more humanitarian prison treatment was that put forward by the home secretary in 1910 in his speech already referred to.

.The bias of modern practice, in short, is towards milder methods, not only in treatment, but in those anticipatory processes which may render imprisonment unnecessary.^ The bias of modern practice, in short, is towards milder methods, not only in treatment, but in those anticipatory processes which may render imprisonment unnecessary.

^ The treatment that some seriously ill patients have received on very rare occasions helps relieve the illness only for a short while with no long-term benefits.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To understand the existing British prison system it is necessary to consider its gradual growth and the steps taken to establish it.^ What has become of prison revolts in the British prison system?

^ To understand the existing British prison system it is necessary to consider its gradual growth and the steps taken to establish it.

^ But by this time a still more determined effort had been made to establish some uniform and improved system of prison discipline.

.Its foundations were laid by Sir George Grey, home secretary, when transportation ended rather abruptly by the refusal of the chief colonies to continue to be the dumping ground for British convicts.^ Its foundations were laid by Sir George Grey , home secretary, when transportation ended rather abruptly by the refusal of the chief colonies to continue to be the dumping ground for British convicts.

^ The distances involved in this huge migration at times made it reminiscent of the eighteenth century transport schemes that shipped British convicts and debtors to Australia.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sir George Grey sought to deal with the difficulty as a whole, and to provide for all classes of criminals, the most heinous deserving severe correction and the minor offenders in the earliest stages of misconduct.^ Sir George Grey sought to deal with the difficulty as a whole, and to provide for all classes of criminals, the most heinous deserving severe correction and the minor offenders in the earliest stages of misconduct.

^ With this and the workhouse theres little wonder that to this day most working class people still have an all-pervading fear of debt...

^ Another change was the power given to courts of law to differentiate between offenders by ordering them one of three classes of treatment ranging from severe to less rigorous.

.For the first there was some urgency, the latter was still the business of the local jurisdictions.^ For the first there was some urgency, the latter was still the business of the local jurisdictions.

^ There was International, National, and New York, all in that first section which is still how my Monday to Saturday papers come.

.The system now introduced consisted of three principal parts: (1) of a limited period of separate confinement in a home prison or penitentiary, accompanied by industrial employment and moral training; (2) of hard labour at some public works prison either at home or abroad; and (3) of exile to a colony with a conditional pardon or ticket-of-leave.^ A sentence of penal servitude as now administered consists of three distinct periods or stages: (I) that of probation endured in separate confinement at a so-called "close" prison; (2) a period of labour in association at a public works prison; and (3) conditional release for the unexpired portion of the sentence upon licence or ticket-of-leave.

^ The system now introduced consisted of three principal parts: (1) of a limited period of separate confinement in a home prison or penitentiary, accompanied by industrial employment and moral training; (2) of hard labour at some public works prison either at home or abroad; and (3) of exile to a colony with a conditional pardon or ticket-of-leave .

^ This industry was to be measured by marks earned by hard labour at the public works, after a short probational term of close "separate" confinement.

.No pains were spared to give effect to this plan.^ No pains were spared to give effect to this plan.

.Pentonville was available for the first phase; Millbank was also pressed into the service, and accommodation was hired in some of the best provincial prisons, as at Wakefield and Leicester.^ Pentonville was available for the first phase; Millbank was also pressed into the service, and accommodation was hired in some of the best provincial prisons, as at Wakefield and Leicester .

.Few facilities existed for carrying out the second stage, but they were speedily improvised.^ Few facilities existed for carrying out the second stage, but they were speedily improvised.

^ When ‘Prison Break’ returned with the second season , guys were again on run; they were incarcerated in Sona and in the third season , they once again tried to break out of the prison.

^ Seventh —Whether the principles that governed the Duke of Alva and the Spanish Inquisition shall be reasserted and carried out practically, so far as they can be, in the year 1881.
  • Sermon on the Imprisonment of English Priests for Conscience Sake 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the hulks at home had been condemned, convict establishments in which these floating prisons still formed the principal part were organized at Bermuda and Gibraltar.^ Although the hulks at home had been condemned, convict establishments in which these floating prisons still formed the principal part were organized at Bermuda and Gibraltar .

^ Similarly, Ngawang Sungrab was subjected to an interrogation session by prison guards although still undergoing treatment at the hospital.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still milder and more humanitarian prison treatment was that put forward by the home secretary in 1910 in his speech already referred to.

.Neither of these was a conspicuous success; they were too remote for effective supervision; and although they lingered on for some years they were finally abolished.^ Neither of these was a conspicuous success; they were too remote for effective supervision; and although they lingered on for some years they were finally abolished.

^ Although they will not detect all cases of TB, these radiographic images identify persons with communicable disease who require immediate treatment and isolation.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These are not the crude views of some obscure village editor, but they and the like are reiterated again and again by the great journals of England, metropolitan and provincial.
  • Sermon on the Imprisonment of English Priests for Conscience Sake 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.The chief efforts of the authorities were directed to the formation of public works prisons at home, and here the most satisfactory results were soon obtained.^ The chief efforts of the authorities were directed to the formation of public works prisons at home, and here the most satisfactory results were soon obtained.

^ On top of this; one in four women in prison have spent time in local authority care as a child and sixty percent are imprisoned outside of their home region 18 .
  • Prison and Prison System Design 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC prisondesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Movements similar to that which Mrs Fry headed were soon set on foot both in England and on the Continent, and public attention was generally directed to the urgent necessity for prison reform.

.The construction of a harbour of refuge at Portland had been recommended in 1845; in 1847 an act was passed to facilitate the purchase of land there, and a sum of money was taken in the estimates for the erection of a prison which was begun next year.^ The construction of a harbour of refuge at Portland had been recommended in 1845; in 1847 an act was passed to facilitate the purchase of land there, and a sum of money was taken in the estimates for the erection of a prison which was begun next year.

^ John Bowden There are important lessons to be learned from last year's successful campaign in support of prisoner John Bowden, and in defence of the Anarchist Black Cross.

^ Twenty five years ago the North Country had two prisons now it has eighteen correctional facilities, and a nineteenth is under construction.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At another point, Dartmoor, a prison already stood available, although it had not been occupied since the last war, when ten thousand French and American prisoners had been incarcerated in it.^ At another point, Dartmoor , a prison already stood available, although it had not been occupied since the last war, when ten thousand French and American prisoners had been incarcerated in it.

^ With two wars raging, economic recovery stagnating and the final season of “Lost” beckoning, Americans have neither time for, nor interest in, prison reform.

^ This is apparently the first prisoner transfer since last September, and it indicates that the CIA continues to operate its network of prisons.
  • Secret Prisons Timeline - dKosopedia 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: News]

.A little reconstruction made Dartmoor into a modern gaol, and in the waste lands around there was ample labour for any number of convict hands.^ A little reconstruction made Dartmoor into a modern gaol, and in the waste lands around there was ample labour for any number of convict hands.

^ Reference is made to the police at the time of conviction, and the duty of looking into previous and present character is very strictly performed.

^ The state's backlog of arrest warrants now stands at about 2.6 million  the number of arrests that have not been made, the report says, largely because there's no room in the jails.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dartmoor was opened in 1850; two years later a convict prison was established at Portsmouth in connexion with the dockyard, and another of the same class at Chatham in 1856. The third stage in Sir George Grey's scheme contemplated the enforced emigration of released convicts, whom the discipline of separation and public works was supposed to have purged and purified, and who would have better hopes of entering on a new career of honest industry in a new country than when thrown back among vicious associations at home.^ The third stage in Sir George Grey's scheme contemplated the enforced emigration of released convicts, whom the discipline of separation and public works was supposed to have purged and purified, and who would have better hopes of entering on a new career of honest industry in a new country than when thrown back among vicious associations at home.

^ Six months later he was convicted of another violent crime and sent back to the same prison.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dartmoor was opened in 1850; two years later a convict prison was established at Portsmouth in connexion with the dockyard, and another of the same class at Chatham in 1856.

.The theory was good, the practice impossible.^ The theory was good, the practice impossible.

.No colony would receive these ticket-of-leave men.^ No colony would receive these ticket-of-leave men.

^ All prisoners serving more than 25 years would be transported to one of these colonies.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

Van Diemen's Land positively refused to do so, even though this denial cut off the su p ply of labour, now urgently needed. .The appearance of a convict ship at the Cape of Good Hope nearly produced a revolt.^ The appearance of a convict ship at the Cape of Good Hope nearly produced a revolt.

^ The earliest object sought in imprisonment was to secure the person of the accused to ensure his appearance before his judges for trial, and after conviction to produce him Early to take his punishment.

.Although Earl Grey addressed a circular letter t3 all colonial governments offering them the questionable boon c c transportation, only one, the comparatively new colony of Western Australia, accepted.^ Surprisingly this deal is usually offered only to new inmates, so take advantage of all the offers you can; it’s a buyers market!
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ As of the end of 2003, one fifth of all inmates in the United States known to be HIV infected were in New York prisons.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But not only one but both Convocations, that of York: and that of Canterbury, distinctly rejected this new court.
  • Sermon on the Imprisonment of English Priests for Conscience Sake 29 September 2009 16:28 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

.But this single receptacle could not absorb a tithe of the whole number of convicts awaiting exile.^ But this single receptacle could not absorb a tithe of the whole number of convicts awaiting exile.

It became necessary therefore to find some other means for their disposal. Accordingly, in 1853 the first Penal Servitude Act was passed, substituting certain shorter sentences of penal servitude for transportation. .It was only just to abbreviate the terms; under the old sentence the transportee knew that if well conducted he would spend the greater part of it in comparative freedom.^ It was only just to abbreviate the terms; under the old sentence the transportee knew that if well conducted he would spend the greater part of it in comparative freedom.

^ But I realize that the only way to do that would be through some incredibly hard, no short term payoff, and very little monetary gain while getting to that point.

^ Malandrino is a prison where prisoners spend long sentences under human humiliation and extremely hard conditions...

.But although sentences were shortened it was not thought safe to surrender all control over the released convict; and he was only granted a ticket-of-leave for the unexpired portion of his original sentence.^ He is released, but only conditionally, on licence or ticket-of-leave.

^ But although sentences were shortened it was not thought safe to surrender all control over the released convict; and he was only granted a ticket-of-leave for the unexpired portion of his original sentence.

^ A sentence of penal servitude as now administered consists of three distinct periods or stages: (I) that of probation endured in separate confinement at a so-called "close" prison; (2) a period of labour in association at a public works prison; and (3) conditional release for the unexpired portion of the sentence upon licence or ticket-of-leave.

.No effective supervision was maintained over these convicts at large.^ No effective supervision was maintained over these convicts at large.

^ Neither of these was a conspicuous success; they were too remote for effective supervision; and although they lingered on for some years they were finally abolished.

They speedily relapsed into crime; their numbers, as the years passed, became so great and their depredations so serious, especially in garrotte robberies, that a cry of indignation was raised against the system, which led to its arraignment before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1863.
Meanwhile prison discipline in the elementary stage, as inflicted on lesser offenders, was continually discussed. .The subject was referred to many committees for inquiry, and it was shown that there was a lamentable want of uniformity in the enforcement of legal penalties.^ The subject was referred to many committees for inquiry, and it was shown that there was a lamentable want of uniformity in the enforcement of legal penalties.

.The processes and treatment varied with the localities.^ The processes and treatment varied with the localities.

.Dietaries differed, here too ample, there meagre to starvation.^ Dietaries differed, here too ample, there meagre to starvation.

.The amount of exercise allowed varied greatly; there was no universal rule as to employment.^ The amount of exercise allowed varied greatly; there was no universal rule as to employment.

^ Many local authorities grudged the money to rebuild or enlarge their gaols; others varied much in their interpretation of the rules as to hard labour and the hours of employment.

^ The administration of prisons rests mainly with the various state authorities, and there is no federal or general system which would introduce uniformity of treatment.

.In some prisons hard labour was insisted upon, and embraced tread-wheels or the newly-invented cranks; in some it did not exist at all.^ Some of the Prisoners are nice not all are bad.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Failure to fulfill quotas and produce substantial results within the stipulated time lead to deduction in working hours from the total labour time due for all prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of this hard labour, the prison officials have witnessed substantial increases in their annual profit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cells inhabited by prisoners (and separate cellular confinement was now very general) were of different dimensions - variously lighted, warmed and ventilated.^ The cells inhabited by prisoners (and separate cellular confinement was now very general) were of different dimensions - variously lighted, warmed and ventilated.

^ His physical welfare is watched over by competent medical men; close attention is paid to the sanitary condition of prisons; strict rules govern the size of cells, with their lighting , warming and ventilation .

^ In the state's Level 4 prisons almost every cell is now double bunked.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The time spent in these cells was not invariably the same, and as yet no authoritative decision had been made between the solitary and silent systems.^ The time spent in these cells was not invariably the same, and as yet no authoritative decision had been made between the solitary and silent systems.

^ Yet these principles were unacknowledged at that time and were first enunciated in acts such as the 4 Geo.

^ It, the phenomenon of going no-where, can also happen with Prison Break as how many times the same stuff, breaking the prisons and running away, can be repeated?

.The first named had been tried at Pentonville, but the period had been greatly reduced.^ The first named had been tried at Pentonville, but the period had been greatly reduced.

.The duration had been at first fixed at eighteen months, but it was proved that the prisoners' minds had become enfeebled by this long isolation, and the period was limited to nine months.^ The duration had been at first fixed at eighteen months, but it was proved that the prisoners' minds had become enfeebled by this long isolation, and the period was limited to nine months.

^ When the prison first opened, there were no hospital facilities; a chief surgeon did not arrive until a month later.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These three classes begin with cellular confinement, but for varying periods; the first for three months, the second six months and the third for nine months, in all cases subject to a medical report upon mental and physical condition.

.In many jurisdictions however the silent system, or that of associated labour in silence, was still preferred; and there might be prisons within a short distance of each other at which two entirely different systems of discipline were in force.^ In many jurisdictions however the silent system, or that of associated labour in silence, was still preferred; and there might be prisons within a short distance of each other at which two entirely different systems of discipline were in force.

^ India retains association as the system most suitable for its criminal classes, with other methods generally abandoned in Great Britain, such as the employment of wellconducted prisoners as auxiliaries in prison discipline and service; deportation is still the penalty for the worst offences and is carried out on a large scale and with satisfactory results in the Andaman Islands .

^ There were numerous subplots and supporting story arcs, however Prison Break never deviated from the main storyline which remained focused on the struggle of two brothers who set out to correct the wrongs done to them by the government agencies.

.In 1849 Mr Charles Pearson, M.P., moved for a select committee to report upon the best means of securing some uniform system which should be at once punitive, reformatory and self-supporting.^ In 1849 Mr Charles Pearson , M.P., moved for a select committee to report upon the best means of securing some uniform system which should be at once punitive, reformatory and self-supporting.

^ In the United States the policy varies between the two extremes of making prisoners self-supporting and of leaving them in idleness so that the whole weight of expense falls upon the state.

^ The committee was dissatisfied with the moral results achieved and thought that more attention should be paid to reformatory processes.

.He urged that all existing plans were inefficacious, and he advocated a new scheme by which the labour of all prisoners should be applied to agriculture in district prisons.^ He urged that all existing plans were inefficacious, and he advocated a new scheme by which the labour of all prisoners should be applied to agriculture in district prisons.

^ Frankfurt has a good prison on the Pentonville (London) plan; so has Hamburg ; and new buildings have been erected at Wohlan, Siegburg , Breslau and Munster .

^ In some states economic considerations have carried the day; in others the stringency of labour laws under the pressure of labour associations has paralysed all prison industry.

.The result of a full inquiry was the reiteration of views already accepted in theory but not yet generally adopted in practice.^ The result of a full inquiry was the reiteration of views already accepted in theory but not yet generally adopted in practice.

^ The unified German Empire has not as yet adopted one system of prison treatment, and its various component kingdoms still retain independence in views and practice.

.Thirteen more years elapsed and still no such steps had been taken.^ There can be no such thing as justice in any court and there is no justice in the men of the law who dish out years and years of jail day after day.

A new committee sat in 1863, and in its report again remarked in no measured terms upon the many and wide differences that still existed in the gaols of Great Britain as regards construction, diet, labour and general discipline, "leading to an inequality, uncertainty and inefficiency of punishment productive of the most prejudicial results." Matters could only be mended by the exercise of legislative authority, and this came in the Prison Act of 1865, an act which consolidated all previous statutes on the subject of prison discipline, many of its provisions being still in force. .Yet the years passed and uniformity was still far from secured; it was impossible indeed while prison administration was still left to a number of local authorities, no two of which were often of the same mind.^ Yet the years passed and uniformity was still far from secured; it was impossible indeed while prison administration was still left to a number of local authorities, no two of which were often of the same mind.

^ The first was far less than the work free men did for a livelihood, the second larger, the third excessive, so that convicts often left prisons with thirty, forty, even eighty pounds in their pockets.

^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The legislature had tried its best, but had failed.^ The legislature had tried its best, but had failed.

.It had exercised some supervision through its inspectors, had forbidden cells to be used until duly certified as fit, and had threatened to withhold exchequer contributions from prisons of which unfavourable reports were received.^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reports also indicate that there may have been an additional influencing factor of outside officials intervening and curbing the some of the excessive maltreatment inflicted by the prison officials.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Guardian reported that the U.S. Navy has operated secret prisons onboard some of its ships.
  • Secret Prisons Timeline - dKosopedia 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: News]

.Such penalties had exercised no sufficient terrors.^ Such penalties had exercised no sufficient terrors.

.It began to be understood, moreover, that the prisons under local jurisdictions were not always conveniently and economically situated.^ As of December 31, 2004, nearly 7 million people in the United States lived under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system, and more than 2.2 million were in jail or prison.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The economic impact of the prisons extends beyond the wages they pay and the local services they buy.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crime, with the many facilities offered for rapid locomotion to those who committed it, had ceased to be merely local, and the whole state rather than individual communities ought to be taxed; prison charges should be borne by the public exchequer and not by local rates.^ Crime, with the many facilities offered for rapid locomotion to those who committed it, had ceased to be merely local, and the whole state rather than individual communities ought to be taxed; prison charges should be borne by the public exchequer and not by local rates.

^ Facilities with individual cells are more expensive than those with dormitories.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These considerations gained strength and led at length to the introduction of the Prison Bill which became law in 1877, by which the control of all gaols was vested in a body of prison commissioners appointed by and responsible to the home secretary.^ These considerations gained strength and led at length to the introduction of the Prison Bill which became law in 1877, by which the control of all gaols was vested in a body of prison commissioners appointed by and responsible to the home secretary.

^ In some states economic considerations have carried the day; in others the stringency of labour laws under the pressure of labour associations has paralysed all prison industry.

^ The Republican Party controlled the state senate, and prison construction became part of the political give and take with the Cuomo administration.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These commissioners had power to consolidate by closing superfluous prisons, to establish one system of discipline, and generally by watchful supervision, aided by the experience of specialists, to maintain that muchdesired uniformity which had been so long and unsuccessfully sought.^ Nevada Prison Watch Voices from Nevada's prison system.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These commissioners had power to consolidate by closing superfluous prisons, to establish one system of discipline, and generally by watchful supervision, aided by the experience of specialists, to maintain that muchdesired uniformity which had been so long and unsuccessfully sought.

^ But we owe something to the Irish practice which first popularized the idea of maintaining a strict supervision over convicts in a state of conditional release, and it reconciled us to a system which was long wrongfully stigmatized as espionage.

.At the same time the co-operation of the local magistrates was invited so far as advice and assistance were concerned; but all real power and control has passed from their hands into that of the commissioners of prisons.^ At the same time the co-operation of the local magistrates was invited so far as advice and assistance were concerned; but all real power and control has passed from their hands into that of the commissioners of prisons.

^ These considerations gained strength and led at length to the introduction of the Prison Bill which became law in 1877, by which the control of all gaols was vested in a body of prison commissioners appointed by and responsible to the home secretary.

^ Most people don’t really need a gym membership or any equipment at all to get into great shape!
  • Prison Workout | Mark's Daily Apple 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The system established by the act of 1877 is that now in force.^ The system established by the act of 1877 is that now in force.

^ Having thus traced the history of secondary punishments and prison discipline in England, it will be well to describe the system now actually in force.

.As for penal servitude, the punishment reserved for the gravest offences, great changes had been introduced.^ As for penal servitude, the punishment reserved for the gravest offences, great changes had been introduced.

^ The committee last quoted gave it as their opinion that "penal servitude as at present administered is on the whole satisfactory; it is effective as a punishment and free from serious abuses.

.We left this branch of the subject at a parliamentary inquiry.^ We left this branch of the subject at a parliamentary inquiry.

^ Germany's three main opposition parties (Green, FDP and Left) united to demand a parliamentary inquiry into actions of the BND foreign intelligence service.
  • Secret Prisons Timeline - dKosopedia 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: News]

.The verdict given was in the main satisfactory; but doubts were expressed as to the severity of the discipline inflicted, the principal features of which were moderate labour, ample diet and substantial gratuities.^ The verdict given was in the main satisfactory; but doubts were expressed as to the severity of the discipline inflicted, the principal features of which were moderate labour, ample diet and substantial gratuities.

.The first was far less than the work free men did for a livelihood, the second larger, the third excessive, so that convicts often left prisons with thirty, forty, even eighty pounds in their pockets.^ The first was far less than the work free men did for a livelihood, the second larger, the third excessive, so that convicts often left prisons with thirty, forty, even eighty pounds in their pockets.

^ Prisoners who participated often lived in separate and superior housing units, ate better food, earned more money than was available for other prison work, and were offered hope of parole.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At Borstal a line of forty intended to protect Chatham on the south and west have been erected by convicts; they have also built magazines at Chattenden on the left bank of the Medway .

Penal servitude, to use the words of the lord chief justice Sir Alexander Cockburn, one of the members of the committee, "was hardly calculated to produce on the mind of the criminal that salutary dread of the recurrence of the punishment which may be the means of deterring him and, through his example, others from the commission of crime." The chief recommendation put forward to mend the system comprised lengthening of all sentences, a diminution in the dietaries, the abolition of large gratuities, and, speaking broadly, a general tightening of the reins. The most notable change however was in regard to labour, the quantity and value of which was to be regulated in future by the so-called "mark-system." This plan had originated with Captain Maconochie, at one time superintendent in Norfolk Island, who had recommended that the punishment inflicted upon criminals should be measured, not by time, but by the amount of labour actually performed. .In support of his theory he devised an ingenious system of recording the convicts' daily industry by marks, which on reaching a given total would entitle them to their release.^ In support of his theory he devised an ingenious system of recording the convicts' daily industry by marks, which on reaching a given total would entitle them to their release.

^ No doubt the problem has been in a measure solved in England by that useful incentive to industry, the mark system.

^ These results are no doubt greatly aided by the judicious stimulus given to the highest effort of the mark system.

.This mark system had already been tried with good results in Ireland, where the Irish system, as it was called, introduced by Sir Walter Crofton, had attracted widespread attention.^ This mark system had already been tried with good results in Ireland , where the Irish system, as it was called, introduced by Sir Walter Crofton, had attracted widespread attention.

^ The most notable change however was in regard to labour, the quantity and value of which was to be regulated in future by the so-called " mark-system ."

^ The mark system, as recommended by the committee of 1863 and as subsequently introduced, had however little in common with either Maconochie's or the Irish plan.

.There had been a very marked diminution in crime, attributable it was supposed to this system, which was in almost all respects the same as the English, although the Irish authorities had invented an "intermediate stage" in which convicts worked in a state of semi-freedom and thus practised the self-reliance which in many produced reform.^ There had been a very marked diminution in crime, attributable it was supposed to this system, which was in almost all respects the same as the English, although the Irish authorities had invented an "intermediate stage" in which convicts worked in a state of semi-freedom and thus practised the self-reliance which in many produced reform.

^ But we owe something to the Irish practice which first popularized the idea of maintaining a strict supervision over convicts in a state of conditional release, and it reconciled us to a system which was long wrongfully stigmatized as espionage.

^ After visiting  American prisons Tocqueville and his traveling companion, Gustave de Beaumont, wrote that social reformers in the United States had been swept up in "the monomania of the penitentiary system," convinced that prisons were "a remedy for all the evils of society."
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a matter of fact the diminution in crime was traceable to general causes, such as a general exodus by emigration, the introduction of a poor law and an increase in the facilities for earning an honest livelihood.^ As a matter of fact the diminution in crime was traceable to general causes, such as a general exodus by emigration, the introduction of a poor law and an increase in the facilities for earning an honest livelihood.

^ They usually earn much more than their counterparts in the public sector a fact that greatly increases the potential for conflicts of interest and official corruption.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, it is always about money and profits and resources and unrealistic laws that do nothing to treat the causes of the "democratic" crimes committed in free societies.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.It may be added here that judged by later experience the Irish system had no transcendent merits, and it is now extinct.^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But we owe something to the Irish practice which first popularized the idea of maintaining a strict supervision over convicts in a state of conditional release, and it reconciled us to a system which was long wrongfully stigmatized as espionage.^ But we owe something to the Irish practice which first popularized the idea of maintaining a strict supervision over convicts in a state of conditional release, and it reconciled us to a system which was long wrongfully stigmatized as espionage.

^ These commissioners had power to consolidate by closing superfluous prisons, to establish one system of discipline, and generally by watchful supervision, aided by the experience of specialists, to maintain that muchdesired uniformity which had been so long and unsuccessfully sought.

^ This will measures be best understood if we follow those who break the law through all the stages from that of arrest, through conviction, to release, conditional or complete.

.The mark system, as recommended by the committee of 1863 and as subsequently introduced, had however little in common with either Maconochie's or the Irish plan.^ The mark system, as recommended by the committee of 1863 and as subsequently introduced, had however little in common with either Maconochie's or the Irish plan.

^ The most notable change however was in regard to labour, the quantity and value of which was to be regulated in future by the so-called " mark-system ."

^ This mark system had already been tried with good results in Ireland , where the Irish system, as it was called, introduced by Sir Walter Crofton, had attracted widespread attention.

.It was similar in principle and that was all.^ It was similar in principle and that was all.

According to the committee, every convict should have it in his power to earn a remission - in other words, to shorten his sentence by his industry. .This industry was to be measured by marks earned by hard labour at the public works, after a short probational term of close "separate" confinement.^ This industry was to be measured by marks earned by hard labour at the public works, after a short probational term of close "separate" confinement.

^ It has been said by a trustworthy authority,' "We are convinced also that severe labour on public works is most beneficial in teaching criminals habits of industry and training them to such employments as digging, road-making and brick-making - work of a kind which cannot be carried on in separate confinement."

^ A sentence of penal servitude as now administered consists of three distinct periods or stages: (I) that of probation endured in separate confinement at a so-called "close" prison; (2) a period of labour in association at a public works prison; and (3) conditional release for the unexpired portion of the sentence upon licence or ticket-of-leave.

But the remission gained did not mean absolute release. .All males were to be sent, during the latter part of their sentence, "without disguise to a thinly peopled colony," to work out their time and their own rehabilitation.^ All males were to be sent, during the latter part of their sentence, "without disguise to a thinly peopled colony," to work out their time and their own rehabilitation.

^ I can only disagree with the “working out” part.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Intercommunication no doubt takes place; men working together in quarry , brickfield or barrow -run, and out of earshot of their guardians, may and do converse at times.

.The committee still clung to the old theory of transportation, and this in spite of the lively protests of some of its members.^ Some were former gang members some were lifers because of a third strike; some were getting too old for prison violence some were in protective custody because of their celebrity, their snitching, or their previous occupation.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The one outlet remaining, however, that of Western Australia, was soon afterwards (1867) closed to convict emigrants; and this part of the committee's recommendations became a dead letter.^ The one outlet remaining, however, that of Western Australia , was soon afterwards (1867) closed to convict emigrants; and this part of the committee's recommendations became a dead letter.

^ Although Earl Grey addressed a circular letter t3 all colonial governments offering them the questionable boon c c transportation, only one, the comparatively new colony of Western Australia , accepted.

^ The mark system, as recommended by the committee of 1863 and as subsequently introduced, had however little in common with either Maconochie's or the Irish plan.

.Not so the mark system, or the plan of earning remission by steady industry.^ Not so the mark system, or the plan of earning remission by steady industry.

^ The mark system, as recommended by the committee of 1863 and as subsequently introduced, had however little in common with either Maconochie's or the Irish plan.

^ No doubt the problem has been in a measure solved in England by that useful incentive to industry, the mark system.

.This was carried out on a broad and intelligent basis by officials prompt to avail themselves of the advantages it offered.^ This was carried out on a broad and intelligent basis by officials prompt to avail themselves of the advantages it offered.

Thus in1877-1878efforts were made to minimize contamination by segregating the worst criminals and restricting conversation at exercise. .A special class was formed in 1880, in which all convicts "not versed in crime," first offenders and comparatively innocent men, are now kept apart from the older and more hardened criminals.^ A special class was formed in 1880, in which all convicts "not versed in crime," first offenders and comparatively innocent men, are now kept apart from the older and more hardened criminals.

^ In 1996 more than 325,000 inmates were released early from California jails in order to make room for offenders arrested for more serious crimes.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, steps have been taken in the classification of convicts when undergoing sentence with a view to dealing more effectually with habitual criminals.

.The committee last quoted gave it as their opinion that "penal servitude as at present administered is on the whole satisfactory; it is effective as a punishment and free from serious abuses.^ The committee last quoted gave it as their opinion that "penal servitude as at present administered is on the whole satisfactory; it is effective as a punishment and free from serious abuses.

^ As for penal servitude, the punishment reserved for the gravest offences, great changes had been introduced.

^ The views of this committee were embodied in a Penal Servitude bill which was long debated, but became law in 1898.

.. a sentence of penal servitude is now generally an object of dread to the criminal population." .Since then, steps have been taken in the classification of convicts when undergoing sentence with a view to dealing more effectually with habitual criminals.^ Since then, steps have been taken in the classification of convicts when undergoing sentence with a view to dealing more effectually with habitual criminals.

^ Thirteen more years elapsed and still no such steps had been taken.

^ The number of women sentenced to a year or more of prison has grown  twelve fold since 1970.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Having thus traced the history of secondary punishments and prison discipline in England, it will be well to describe the system now actually in force.^ Having thus traced the history of secondary punishments and prison discipline in England, it will be well to describe the system now actually in force.

^ Prussia having declared for the cellular system constructed the well-known Moabit prison in Berlin , also those of Ratibor in Silesia and of Herford in Westphalia , while those of Graudenz , Breslau , Werden and Cologne have been added since.

^ Wackenhut Corrections is now under contract to operate Doncaster prison, in England; three prisons  in Australia; and a prison in Scotland.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This will measures be best understood if we follow those who break the law through all the stages from that of arrest, through conviction, to release, conditional or complete.^ This will measures be best understood if we follow those who break the law through all the stages from that of arrest, through conviction, to release, conditional or complete.

^ Agricultural labour for convicts has been tried in colonies of coatti (or those provisionally released) planted out in the islands of the Italian archipelago .

^ Farid, who was arrested on January 23 at Vierzon with his companion Isa, has also been released under judicial control, but Isa is still being detained at the prison of Lille-Sequedin.

.After a short detention in a police cell, an offender, unless disposed of summarily, passes into one of His Majesty's prisons, there to await his trial at sessions or assizes.^ After a short detention in a police cell, an offender, unless disposed of summarily, passes into one of His Majesty's prisons, there to await his trial at sessions or assizes.

^ The officials ignored all these injuries as they placed many of the prisoners in hand- and leg-manacles, and into solitary confinement cells for up to one month.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisons hold inmates convicted of federal or state crimes; jails hold people awaiting trial or serving short sentences.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The period thus spent in the provinces will never exceed three months; in London, with the frequent sitting at Clerkenwell and of the Central Criminal Court, it is seldom more than one month.^ The period thus spent in the provinces will never exceed three months; in London, with the frequent sitting at Clerkenwell and of the Central Criminal Court, it is seldom more than one month.

^ One last point, I would say that volume wise I put more words on paper than Abby, but that again is part of the budget thing.

^ More than any other  state, California was dedicated to the rehabilitative ideal, to the belief that a prison could take a criminal and "cure" him, set him on the right path.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While awaiting trial the prisoner may wear his own clothes, provide his own food, see and communicate with his friends and legal adviser so as to prepare fully for his defence.^ While awaiting trial the prisoner may wear his own clothes, provide his own food, see and communicate with his friends and legal adviser so as to prepare fully for his defence.

^ Prisoners who had money were permitted to buy food and clothing and sympathizing relatives and friends at the North sent boxes of these articles which under certain restrictions as to clothing were delivered to the men for whom they were intended.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ CRs work seeks to demonstrate how providing basic necessities such as food, shelter, and freedom makes our communities secure, not incarceration, prisons, and other forms of social control.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His fate after conviction depends on his sentence.^ His fate after conviction depends on his sentence.

.If this be "imprisonment," so called to distinguish it from "penal servitude," although both mean deprivation of liberty and are closely akin, it is undergone in one of the "local" prisons - the prisons till 1878 under local jurisdiction, but now entirely controlled by the state through the home secretary and the commissioners of prisons.^ These are entirely under state management.

^ If this be "imprisonment," so called to distinguish it from "penal servitude," although both mean deprivation of liberty and are closely akin, it is undergone in one of the "local" prisons - the prisons till 1878 under local jurisdiction, but now entirely controlled by the state through the home secretary and the commissioners of prisons.

^ One of his sons is now a lieutenant at a down state prison.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The regime undergone is cellular; able-bodied prisoners are kept in strict separation for at least a month, and during that time subjected to severe labour; although the term of first-class hard labour and of purely penal character no longer exists.^ The regime undergone is cellular; able-bodied prisoners are kept in strict separation for at least a month, and during that time subjected to severe labour; although the term of first-class hard labour and of purely penal character no longer exists.

^ The deprivation of liberty under irksome circumstances, rough lodging, hard fare and perpetual labour was after all a milder measure than death, although long years elapsed before the prison was so used.

^ The first of these divisions was akin to that of former first-class misdemeanants; the second division was allotted to persons guilty of trivial offences not amounting to moral depravity, the third division was apportioned to serious crime calling for severe repression, involving strict separation for the first twenty-eight days with "hard labour" (now an obsolete expression, since all prison labour is nowadays accounted "hard").

.The tread-wheel has also been abolished.^ The tread- wheel has also been abolished.

.A system of progressive stages based on the mark system has been adopted in the local prisons, and the prisoner's progress through each depends on his own industry and good conduct.^ A system of progressive stages based on the mark system has been adopted in the local prisons, and the prisoner's progress through each depends on his own industry and good conduct.

^ Prisonsucks.com Prisonsucks.com is a clearinghouse for useful, reliable statistics about prisons, the criminal justice system, and the crime control industry.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a word, as regards discipline, labour, treatment, exactly the same system obtains in the "local" prisons throughout the United Kingdom.

.During the first month he sleeps on a plank bed, a wooden frame raised from the floor, with bedding but without mattress.^ During the first month he sleeps on a plank bed, a wooden frame raised from the floor, with bedding but without mattress .

^ These stages are applicable to females except as regards the plank bed; youths under sixteen and old men above sixty are also allowed mattresses.

^ The inmates when returned to their cells were deprived even of thin mattresses and forced to sleep on bare concrete floor.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When he has earned the proper number of marks, which at the earliest cannot be until one month has elapsed, he passes into the second stage and is allowed better diet and a mattress twice a week.^ When he has earned the proper number of marks, which at the earliest cannot be until one month has elapsed, he passes into the second stage and is allowed better diet and a mattress twice a week.

^ The third stage, at the end of the third month, gives him further privileges as regards diet and bed.

^ A small gratuity may be earned during the second and three following stages, amounting in the aggregate to ten shillings.

.The third stage, at the end of the third month, gives him further privileges as regards diet and bed.^ The third stage, at the end of the third month, gives him further privileges as regards diet and bed.

^ These stages are applicable to females except as regards the plank bed; youths under sixteen and old men above sixty are also allowed mattresses.

.The fourth stage concedes to the prisoner a mattress every night, and the privilege, if well conducted, to communicate by letter or through visits with his friends outside.^ The fourth stage concedes to the prisoner a mattress every night, and the privilege, if well conducted, to communicate by letter or through visits with his friends outside.

^ The buses leave through the night and arrive in time for visiting hours on Saturday.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisoners and family and friends of prisons can contact the organizers through the website.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These stages are applicable to females except as regards the plank bed; youths under sixteen and old men above sixty are also allowed mattresses.^ These stages are applicable to females except as regards the plank bed; youths under sixteen and old men above sixty are also allowed mattresses.

^ The third stage, at the end of the third month, gives him further privileges as regards diet and bed.

^ During the first month he sleeps on a plank bed, a wooden frame raised from the floor, with bedding but without mattress .

.A small gratuity may be earned during the second and three following stages, amounting in the aggregate to ten shillings.^ A small gratuity may be earned during the second and three following stages, amounting in the aggregate to ten shillings.

^ But after ten years they may enter the "C" division, earn a special gratuity therein, and enjoy the various privileges accorded to the "B" or habitual criminals' division with the additional advantage that there is no interference with their remission.

^ Three days later, the prison authorities attempted to stage another almost identical ceremony for International Youth Day on 4 May 1998.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The labour, too, may be industrial, and include instruction in tailoring, shoemaking, basket-making, bookbinding, printing, and many more handicrafts.^ The labour, too, may be industrial, and include instruction in tailoring, shoemaking, basket -making, bookbinding , printing , and many more handicrafts.

^ Most trades and handicrafts are practised, such as shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry , the work of whiteand Report of the Royal Commission on Penal Servitude (1878-1879).

.Throughout the sentence the prisoner has the advantage of religious and moral instruction; he attends divine service regularly, and whatever his creed is visited by a chaplain professing it, and receives educational assistance according to his needs.^ All religious and every judicially sentenced female political prisoner, regardless of length of term, also serve out their sentence in Drapchi.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is what happened on 1 and 4 May 1998, according to Tibetan political prisoners involved in the prisons patriotism education programme.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CA's Women in Prison Project will distribute the guide to women incarcerated in New York's correctional facilities, as well as women in alternative to incarceration programs and transitional services programs throughout New York State.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His physical welfare is watched over by competent medical men; close attention is paid to the sanitary condition of prisons; strict rules govern the size of cells, with their lighting, warming and ventilation.^ The sanitary condition of the prisoners is as wretched as can be.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His physical welfare is watched over by competent medical men; close attention is paid to the sanitary condition of prisons; strict rules govern the size of cells, with their lighting , warming and ventilation .

^ Current and former CIA oficers speaking to ABC News on the condition of confidentiality said that the secret prisons in Europe were closed and the prisoners moved after Human Rights Watch reported their existence in Poland and Romania .
  • Secret Prisons Timeline - dKosopedia 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dkosopedia.com [Source type: News]

.Dietaries are everywhere the same; they are calculated with great nicety according to the time of durance, and afford variety and ample nutrition without running into excess.^ Dietaries are everywhere the same; they are calculated with great nicety according to the time of durance, and afford variety and ample nutrition without running into excess.

^ At the same time, prisoners must accept the Chinese laws and regulations, renounce what they have done in the past, and agree to accept the laws in the future.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a word, as regards discipline, labour, treatment, exactly the same system obtains in the "local" prisons throughout the United Kingdom.^ In a word, as regards discipline, labour, treatment, exactly the same system obtains in the "local" prisons throughout the United Kingdom.

^ A private prison has exactly the same incentive.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most notable change however was in regard to labour, the quantity and value of which was to be regulated in future by the so-called " mark-system ."

.Where the sentence passes beyond two years it ceases to be styled imprisonment and becomes penal servitude, which may be inflicted for any period from three years to life.^ Where the sentence passes beyond two years it ceases to be styled imprisonment and becomes penal servitude, which may be inflicted for any period from three years to life.

^ A Texas prisoner serving a 2-year term was sentenced to life in prison after being convicted of spitting at a prison guard.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was adopted in France by the Berenger law of 1891, and in Belgium, where 14% of sentences of imprisonment in one year and a-half were postponed.

.The prisoner becomes a convict and undergoes his penalty in one or more of the convict prisons.^ The prisoner becomes a convict and undergoes his penalty in one or more of the convict prisons.

^ A month later two Utah prisoners, one of them a convicted murderer, escaped from the same facility.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are entirely under state management.^ These are entirely under state management.

.A sentence of penal servitude as now administered consists of three distinct periods or stages: (I) that of probation endured in separate confinement at a so-called "close" prison; (2) a period of labour in association at a public works prison; and (3) conditional release for the unexpired portion of the sentence upon licence or ticket-of-leave.^ He is released, but only conditionally, on licence or ticket-of-leave.

^ A sentence of penal servitude as now administered consists of three distinct periods or stages: (I) that of probation endured in separate confinement at a so-called "close" prison; (2) a period of labour in association at a public works prison; and (3) conditional release for the unexpired portion of the sentence upon licence or ticket-of-leave.

^ This industry was to be measured by marks earned by hard labour at the public works, after a short probational term of close "separate" confinement.

.1. In the first stage, which was limited to six months, but which it is proposed to reduce to one month, the convict passes his whole time in his cell apart from other prisoners, engaged at 'some industrial employment.^ It is likely that she will have to spend some time in prison.

^ In the first stage, which was limited to six months, but which it is proposed to reduce to one month, the convict passes his whole time in his cell apart from other prisoners, engaged at 'some industrial employment.

^ Female convicts pass the first three months of their sentence in separate cells.

.He exercises and goes to chapel daily in the society of others, but holds no communication with them; his only intercourse with his fellow-creatures is when he is visited by the governor, chaplain, schoolmaster or trade instructor.^ He exercises and goes to chapel daily in the society of others, but holds no communication with them; his only intercourse with his fellow-creatures is when he is visited by the governor, chaplain, schoolmaster or trade instructor.

^ They have lived in long-term isolation—no phone calls, no communal activity, no contact visits.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "No other society in human history has ever  imprisoned so many of its own citizens for the purpose of crime control."
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This period of almost unbroken solitude is of a painful character, and its duration has therefore been wisely limited.^ This period of almost unbroken solitude is of a painful character, and its duration has therefore been wisely limited.

^ The duration had been at first fixed at eighteen months, but it was proved that the prisoners' minds had become enfeebled by this long isolation, and the period was limited to nine months.

.2. The second is a longer stage and endures for the whole or a greater part of the remainder of the sentence, its duration being governed by the power a convict holds in his own hands to earn a remission.^ The second is a longer stage and endures for the whole or a greater part of the remainder of the sentence, its duration being governed by the power a convict holds in his own hands to earn a remission.

^ All males were to be sent, during the latter part of their sentence, "without disguise to a thinly peopled colony," to work out their time and their own rehabilitation.

^ Prisons hold inmates convicted of federal or state crimes; jails hold people awaiting trial or serving short sentences.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is now passed at a public works prison; either at Aylesbury (females), Borstal, Dartmoor, Parkhurst or Portland.^ It is now passed at a public works prison; either at Aylesbury (females), Borstal, Dartmoor, Parkhurst or Portland.

^ Either you are involved in the day to day maintenance of the prison itself - cleaning floors, picking up litter, working in the laundry or kitchens.

^ The chief efforts of the authorities were directed to the formation of public works prisons at home, and here the most satisfactory results were soon obtained.

.While cellular separation, except at work, at prayers or exercise, is strictly maintained, labour is in association under the close and constant supervision of officials.^ While cellular separation, except at work, at prayers or exercise, is strictly maintained, labour is in association under the close and constant supervision of officials.

^ While the prisoners were still separated at night or meals, they were suffered to labour in association, but under a rule of silence ruthlessly and rigorously maintained.

^ His plan was to keep every inmate of every cell under constant close observation, and all were to be reformed by solitude and seclusion while constantly employed in remunerative labour, in the profits of which they were to share.

.Intercommunication no doubt takes place; men working together in quarry, brickfield or barrow-run, and out of earshot of their guardians, may and do converse at times.^ Intercommunication no doubt takes place; men working together in quarry , brickfield or barrow -run, and out of earshot of their guardians, may and do converse at times.

^ The con would be wished good luck, and a perfunctory handshake would take place as a show that there was no remaining ill-feeling.....

^ Several masked up men belonging to the anti-terrorist police stormed the place where he was working and forced him into a van.

.But the work is too arduous to allow of long and desultory conversation; the chance of contamination is now minimized by the careful separation of the less hardened from the old offenders.^ But the work is too arduous to allow of long and desultory conversation; the chance of contamination is now minimized by the careful separation of the less hardened from the old offenders.

^ Imprisonment was not sufficiently deterrent to the habitual criminal class, and small attention was paid to the reclamation of less hardened offenders.

^ Thus in1877-1878efforts were made to minimize contamination by segregating the worst criminals and restricting conversation at exercise.

.There is no reason to suppose that any great evils arise from this association, and without it the execution of the many important national public works which now attest its value would have been impossible.^ There is no reason to suppose that any great evils arise from this association, and without it the execution of the many important national public works which now attest its value would have been impossible.

^ The spirit of every age is manifest in its public works, in the great construction projects that leave an enduring mark on the landscape.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England for many years past, in adopting the principle of Public Works Prisons after a certain short period spent in separation, has pronounced in favour of open-air employment in association.

.Among these may be mentioned the following: the quarrying of stone for the great Portland breakwater, nearly 2 m.^ Among these may be mentioned the following: the quarrying of stone for the great Portland breakwater , nearly 2 m.

in length and between 50 and 60 ft. deep in the sea, with the defensive works on the .Verne, batteries, case, ments and barracks intended to render the island of Portland impregnable, and the enlargement and extension of the dock, yards at Chatham and Portsmouth.^ Verne, batteries, case, ments and barracks intended to render the island of Portland impregnable, and the enlargement and extension of the dock , yards at Chatham and Portsmouth.

.At Borstal a line of forty intended to protect Chatham on the south and west have been erected by convicts; they have also built magazines at Chattenden on the left bank of the Medway.^ At Borstal a line of forty intended to protect Chatham on the south and west have been erected by convicts; they have also built magazines at Chattenden on the left bank of the Medway .

.Besides this, convict labour has been usefully employed in the erection of prison buildings at new points or in extension of those at the old.^ Besides this, convict labour has been usefully employed in the erection of prison buildings at new points or in extension of those at the old.

^ Frankfurt has a good prison on the Pentonville (London) plan; so has Hamburg ; and new buildings have been erected at Wohlan, Siegburg , Breslau and Munster .

^ Agricultural labour for convicts has been tried in colonies of coatti (or those provisionally released) planted out in the islands of the Italian archipelago .

.In all cases the bricks have been made, the stone quarried and dressed, the timber sawn, the iron cast, forged and wrought by the prisoners.^ In all cases the bricks have been made, the stone quarried and dressed, the timber sawn, the iron cast, forged and wrought by the prisoners.

^ Again on August (1) Captain Wirz wrote: "The prison although a large addition has been made is too crowded; almost daily large numbers of prisoners arrive; all internal improvements.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The great merit of this system is the skill.^ The great merit of this system is the skill.

acquired in handicrafts by so many otherwise idle and useless hands. .Convict mechanics are rarely found ready made.^ Convict mechanics are rarely found ready made.

.It is a fact that a large percentage of the total number employed at trades learnt them in prison.^ It is a fact that a large percentage of the total number employed at trades learnt them in prison.

^ Belle Isle, which has the appearance of being "a military camp" with a large number of prisoners now confined there .
  • Belle Isle Prison 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.mdgorman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A total number of 27 deaths and sentence extensions of 47 political prisoners have been recorded since 1987 in Drapchi Prison alone.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These results are no doubt greatly aided by the judicious stimulus given to the highest effort of the mark system.^ These injuries were repeatedly misdiagnosed and mistreated by the military medical system, resulting in Sargent's downward spiral of addiction.
  • The Real Cost of Prisons Project 15 September 2009 2:14 UTC realcostofprisons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief objection to enforced labour has been the difficulty in ensuring this; but the convict nowadays eagerly tries his best, because only thus can he win privileges while in prison and an earlier release from it.^ The chief objection to enforced labour has been the difficulty in ensuring this; but the convict nowadays eagerly tries his best, because only thus can he win privileges while in prison and an earlier release from it.

^ Agricultural labour for convicts has been tried in colonies of coatti (or those provisionally released) planted out in the islands of the Italian archipelago .

^ Besides this, convict labour has been usefully employed in the erection of prison buildings at new points or in extension of those at the old.

.Every day's work is gauged and marks recorded according to its value; upon the total earned depends his passage through the stages or classes which regulate his diet and general treatment, and more especially his interviews and communications with his relations and friends.^ Every day's work is gauged and marks recorded according to its value; upon the total earned depends his passage through the stages or classes which regulate his diet and general treatment, and more especially his interviews and communications with his relations and friends.

^ The most notable change however was in regard to labour, the quantity and value of which was to be regulated in future by the so-called " mark-system ."

^ With this and the workhouse theres little wonder that to this day most working class people still have an all-pervading fear of debt...

Yet more; steady willing labour continuously performed will earn a remission of a fourth of the sentence. .It must be borne in mind that the marks thus earned may be forfeited at any time by misconduct, but affect remission to this extent only.^ Certain circumstances must be borne in mind.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What happens during that time behind bars may affect how he or she will behave upon release.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The full remission in a five years' sentence is one year and ninety-one days; in seven years, one year two hundred and seventy-three days; in fourteen, three years one hundred and ninety-seven days; in twenty, four years one hundred and 'ninety days.^ Sentenced to five years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentenced to three years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentenced in December 2000 to seven years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Lifers" cannot claim any remission, but their cases are brought forward at the end of twenty years and then considered on their merits.^ "Lifers" cannot claim any remission, but their cases are brought forward at the end of twenty years and then considered on their merits.

^ Had the war ended with the year 1863, the treatment of poisoners North and South could have been considered dispassionately with substantial agreement in the conclusions of candid inquirers.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The full remission in a five years' sentence is one year and ninety-one days; in seven years , one year two hundred and seventy-three days; in fourteen, three years one hundred and ninety- seven days ; in twenty, four years one hundred and 'ninety days.

.3. Having earned his remission the convict enters upon the third stage of his punishment.^ In 1980 about half the people entering state prison were violent offenders; in 1995 less than a third had been convicted of a violent crime.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He is released, but only conditionally, on licence or ticket-of-leave.^ After being moved to 'open' conditions last year, and being let out for fortnightly home-leaves, the indications were that John would be released on licence this June.

.This permission to be at large may easily be forfeited by fresh breaches of;the law.^ This permission to be at large may easily be forfeited by fresh breaches of;the law.

.Stringent conditions are endorsed upon the licence and well known to every licence holder (see Ticket-Of-Leave).^ Stringent conditions are endorsed upon the licence and well known to every licence holder (see Ticket-Of-Leave ).

^ A while ago I was irritated to see a well-known Anarchist magazine use prisoner support work as an example of "single-issue" politics.

^ He is released, but only conditionally, on licence or ticket-of-leave.

.Further modifications have been introduced from time to time in the British penal system, tending mostly to milder discipline, more intelligent classification of prisoners and a certain amelioration of their lot.^ Further modifications have been introduced from time to time in the British penal system, tending mostly to milder discipline, more intelligent classification of prisoners and a certain amelioration of their lot.

^ For a look at the big picture, check out our special package on the American penal system: "Slammed: The Coming Prison Meltdown."
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The AIDS prevalence in 2003 was more than 3 times higher in state and federal prisons (0.51%) than in the general U.S. population (0.15%).
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In its general outlines the system as set forth above has been maintained, but the departmental committee appointed in 1895 made some important recommendations which were presently adopted in part.^ In its general outlines the system as set forth above has been maintained, but the departmental committee appointed in 1895 made some important recommendations which were presently adopted in part.

^ The one outlet remaining, however, that of Western Australia , was soon afterwards (1867) closed to convict emigrants; and this part of the committee's recommendations became a dead letter.

^ But by this time a still more determined effort had been made to establish some uniform and improved system of prison discipline.

.The committee was dissatisfied with the moral results achieved and thought that more attention should be paid to reformatory processes.^ The committee was dissatisfied with the moral results achieved and thought that more attention should be paid to reformatory processes.

.They believed that "few inmates left prison better than when they came in."^ They believed that "few inmates left prison better than when they came in."

^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies have identified transmission of HIV in prison, based on serial serotesting for HIV antibody, some identifying seroconversion in inmates after more than 5 years of continuous incarceration.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

Recommittals were frequent and recidivism on the increase. Imprisonment was not sufficiently deterrent to the habitual criminal class, and small attention was paid to the reclamation of less hardened offenders. The views of this committee were embodied in a Penal Servitude bill which was long debated, but became law in 1898. It emphasized the excellence of the system devised in 1879 for the segregation of the comparatively innocent from convicts hardened in crime. .The system of the "star" class as originally established provided that the prisoner never previously convicted should be kept absolutely apart, at chapel, labour, exercise and in quarters, from his less fortunate fellows who had already been imprisoned.^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He appointed a special overseer for the prison system and ordered the state to provide at least forty square feet of living space for each inmate.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legislation also included a provision that established a mandatory prison sentence for many second felony convictions, regardless of the crime or its circumstances.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rule was strictly enforced and with the most conspicuous results, so that little more than 1% of "stars" have been re-convicted when once more at large.^ Condoms have been available in most European prisons for more than 10 years.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Convicts will look down on a loner, and, some may look at that as disrespect or that you’re better than others.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The disproportionate burden of HIV infection among racial minorities is more pronounced in prison than in the community at large.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The privilege of the "star" is only accorded after careful inquiry and reasonable proof that the individual has never before been sent to prison.^ She personally beat each prisoner before singling out those individuals for further maltreatment who she had a personal grudge.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One important thing to remember is prison and a “bullpen” (where you go in the courthouse before being sent to shitland) are 2 very different experiences.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In contrast, a federal court upheld mandatory testing and segregation in the Alabama state prison in 1990 and stated that prisoners who requested zidovudine treatment were not entitled to "state of the art" treatment, only reasonable care according to the community standard.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Reference is made to the police at the time of conviction, and the duty of looking into previous and present character is very strictly performed.^ The distances involved in this huge migration at times made it reminiscent of the eighteenth century transport schemes that shipped British convicts and debtors to Australia.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inquiry is continuous and may be prolonged into the sentence; then, if necessary, correction is applied.^ In May 2005, a number of anarchists from Lecce, Italy were arrested and accused of terrorism (initially five people were arrested but then others were dragged into the investigation as the police investigation continued).

But as a matter of fact very few mistakes are made. It is obvious that wrongful admission into the "star" class might be fraught with mischievous consequences, and it is well known that a first sentence does not necessarily mean absolute unacquaintance with crime. .For administrative convenience the "stars" - whose name comes from the scrap of crimson cloth worn on cap and jacket sleeve - have been generally concentrated at Portland, and employed in labours specially allotted to them, for the most part demanding a higher rate of intelligence than the general average shown by convicts.^ The AIDS prevalence in 2003 was more than 3 times higher in state and federal prisons (0.51%) than in the general U.S. population (0.15%).
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is there a higher than normal incidence of BPH among incarcerated men than there is among men in general?
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The average salary of a correctional officer in New York State is about $36,000 more than 50 percent higher than the typical salary in the North Country.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moulders, blacksmiths, carpenters, tinsmiths, stonemasons, bookbinders, painters and various other trades and handicrafts are the peculiar province of the "stars." .The Prison Act of 1898 made some marked changes in penal discipline.^ Some prisoners were made to grovel on the floor like dogs whilst guards simulated sex with them, some made to sing fascist songs and salute pictures of Mussolini.

.One was the strict limitation of corporal punishment to offences of mutiny and gross personal violence to officers, where previously it might be inflicted for many forms of misconduct, and it can only now be adjudged under great restrictions.^ One of the correctional officers in the video had previously lost his job at a Texas state prison and served time on federal charges for beating an inmate.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the only obligation many offenders on probation must now fulfill is mailing a postcard that gives their home address.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was feared that the removal of this powerful deterrent would adversely affect discipline, but on the contrary, the yearly average of prison offences has diminished from 147 to 131 per thousand prisoners, and it has been felt by the authorities that the limitation was salutary and wise.^ The prison authorities allocated 2 prisoners each green-house and expect returns at the rate of 15,000 yuan per big green-house and 10,000 yuan per small green-house.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, thousands of prisoners have already signed petitions with their demands, despite the terrorism of the prison authorities that have already reacted with violent mass transfers and night invasions inside cells.

^ Governor Reagan used the Adult Authority to reduce the size of California's inmate population, giving thousands of prisoners an early release and closing one of the state's prisons.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another change was the power given to courts of law to differentiate between offenders by ordering them one of three classes of treatment ranging from severe to less rigorous.^ Another Gaden monk, Tsering Phuntsok suffered the same treatment, as did Ngawang Dorjee when the guards identified him as one of the instigators.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first of these divisions was akin to that of former first-class misdemeanants; the second division was allotted to persons guilty of trivial offences not amounting to moral depravity, the third division was apportioned to serious crime calling for severe repression, involving strict separation for the first twenty-eight days with "hard labour" (now an obsolete expression, since all prison labour is nowadays accounted "hard").^ Several settlements modified strict policies of segregation of HIV-positive inmates by prisons, including those in Connecticut and California.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Failure to fulfill quotas and produce substantial results within the stipulated time lead to deduction in working hours from the total labour time due for all prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1993, fourteen female political prisoners of rukhag #3 undertook a protest that has been probably the most far reaching and heartfelt of all political expressions of defiance to date.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The scheme was judicious, but courts have been slow to make use of its provisions. .Yet a third improvement was permission conceded to prisoners locked up in default of payment of fine, to obtain a reduction of time proportionate to part payment of the fine.^ On the way to assembly ground, the prisoners were made to chant in time with their marching the now standard slogans regarding reformation, and then were lined up in front of the flag dais.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I  asked each inmate how many of the other men in the yard deserved to be locked up in this prison, and the usual response was "These guys?
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1986 Judge Justice threatened the state with a fine of $800,000 a day unless it came up with a plan to ease the overcrowding in its prisons.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The numbers under both categories are considerable, and taken together show a steady increase in the ten years from 1892 (when the acts first came into effect) to 1902, the figures being 33,802 in 1892 and 51,302 in 1902.
.Imprisonment, albeit somewhat modified and diluted, continues to be used as the chief penalty and most trusted panacea for all crime.^ The number of drug offenders imprisoned in the state today is more than twice the number of inmates who were imprisoned for all crimes in 1978.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The medicine is so simple in application and so easily available that it is served out almost automatically and indifferently, to every law-breaker; the pickpocket and the burglar are locked up next door to the clergyman at variance with his bishop; the weak-kneed and self-indulgent drunkard rubs shoulders with the political zealot who has endangered the peace of nations.^ All religious and every judicially sentenced female political prisoner, regardless of length of term, also serve out their sentence in Drapchi.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re-education through Labour Management Committee is made up of PSB representatives, who determine the nature and length of sentences for these political suspects.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Came out clean and ended up serving 2 yrs.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.There is .an enormous mass of so-called crime in England which is not crime at all, and still is perpetually penalized by an infliction of imprisonment for such short periods as to be perfectly futile.^ The week of solidarity called for June 9 to 16 is obviously still on, for the freedom of Isa and all the other prisoners.

^ With this and the workhouse theres little wonder that to this day most working class people still have an all-pervading fear of debt...

^ The number of drug offenders imprisoned in the state today is more than twice the number of inmates who were imprisoned for all crimes in 1978.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bulk of the offences for which it is meted out are trivial and unimportant. Eighty-three per cent of the annual convictions, summarily and on indictment, followed by committal to gaol, are for misconduct that is distinctly non-criminal, such as breaches of municipal by-laws and police regulations, drunkenness, gaming and offences under the vagrancy acts. The leniency of the sentences indicates the comparatively trifling character of the wrongdoing. Forty per cent. of the males and .39% of the females were sent to prison for periods of a week or less; on the other hand, no more than 4% were sentenced to six months and under, only 2% were imprisoned for terms between six months and one year; and.^ Sentenced to six years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover there was more sickness, especially scurvy, than there ought to have been with a proper application of the prison fund.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

.75% to more than one year.^ At least half a dozen other executives at Wackenhut Corrections were paid more last year than the head of the Federal Bureau of  Prisons.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several studies have identified transmission of HIV in prison, based on serial serotesting for HIV antibody, some identifying seroconversion in inmates after more than 5 years of continuous incarceration.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Condoms have been available in most European prisons for more than 10 years.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The question will arise some day whether it is really necessary to maintain fifty-six local prisons, with all their elaborate paraphernalia, their imposing buildings and expensive staff, to maintain discipline in daily life and insist upon the proper observance of customs and usages, many of them of purely modern invention.^ Some of the Prisoners are nice not all are bad.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This solidarity gathering against all prisons took place on the occasion that the prison guards told Farid Bamouhammad that they are building a new cage for him in the caves of the prison.

.Of course there is in most cases the alternative of a fine, the non-payment of which entails the imprisonment; yet a penalty imposed on the pocket is so clearly the proper retribution for such misdeeds that better methods should be devised for the collection of fines.^ At the beginning of last month (April 2007) Zhenya Shimanskiy, a vegetarian anti-fascist and animal rights activist from Minsk was arrested for non payment of a $1400 fine imposed after he was found guilty of spray painting animal rights slogans.

.The chief aim of penal legislation should indeed be either to keep gaols empty or to use them only where distinct reduction in the number of offenders, whether by regeneration or by continuous withdrawal from noxious activity, can be obtained.^ The official designations are only used during inter or intra prison activities such as the imposed military drill competitions.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An axiom based upon this view has been formulated, and although paradoxical it may well be quoted here. .The great aim and object of all penal processes, it has been said, should be the recognition of the general principle of dividing all offenders into two categories: (1) those who ought never to enter a gaol, and (2) those who ought never to be allowed to leave it.^ The system should be sub divided into at least two categories.
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they entered the yard the prisoners from all the other cells in rukhag #5 lined up into four columns behind them, a total of over 150 prisoners.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Violent offenders, who need such programs most of all, are usually  ineligible for them.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Praiseworthy efforts to compass the first end have been made in recent legislation. The First Offenders Act in 1887 had the effect of postponing sentence and sparing these offenders from incarceration subject to their good conduct. .An average of about 4500 thus escaped imprisonment in the five years between 1893 and 1897, and an average of 550o the five following years.^ In retaliation each person involved received a sentence extension of between five and nine years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following year thirty five inmates and one staff member were killed.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pay phone at a prison can generate as much as $15,000 a year about five times the  revenue of a typical pay phone on the street.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gain in this was great, seeing that no more than 6 to 8% were actually sent to gaol after the commission of a second offence, and that there was therefore a very distinct saving in expense of maintenance of prisoners incarcerated.^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AIDS prevalence in 2003 was more than 3 times higher in state and federal prisons (0.51%) than in the general U.S. population (0.15%).
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For more info check out Athens Indymedia, and also the letter Yiannis sent about his case in our 'Prison Struggle' section.

The value of this act is to be seen in its wide adoption. It is in force in some of the states of the American Union. .It was adopted in France by the Berenger law of 1891, and in Belgium, where 14% of sentences of imprisonment in one year and a-half were postponed.^ Sentenced to 14 years for political activities.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentenced to 14 years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence extension of one and half years for May 1998 protest.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In some countries the concession has been accompanied by admonition. .The Summary Jurisdiction Acts, by which large numbers of minor offenders were discharged on bail, or subjected to fines or very brief terms of imprisonment, have also tended to diminish the prison population enormously.^ The disproportionate burden of HIV infection among racial minorities is more pronounced in prison than in the community at large.
  • HIV Transmission and Prevention in Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rouillan and Abdallah are long-term political prisoners of the French State, imprisoned for their communist ideas and actions ...

^ The number of drug offenders imprisoned in the state today is more than twice the number of inmates who were imprisoned for all crimes in 1978.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The number annually discharged increased from 33,000 in 1893 to 51,302 in 1902. This excellent system has commended itself to many countries and it is now adopted by the bulk of governments and jurisdictions owing allegiance to the British Crown.
.Two new systems of applying imprisonment have commended themselves to English administrators, and both have been effected by the Prevention of Crime Act 1908. The first is a new method for educating and reforming young offenders, already on the frontiers of habitual crime, no longer children, but at an age still susceptible of permanent improvement; the second is the legal acceptance of the principle of indefinite detention, the willingness to inflict an indeterminate sentence on those who have already forfeited the right to be at large.^ They insisted that they had committed no crime and that there was nothing to reform.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among those arrested for drug crimes, the proportion who are African American men has tripled.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both these measures originated in the United States. .The Borstal scheme of a juvenile-adult reformatory has been to some extent planned on the institutions of Elmira reformatory in the state of New York and of Concord in Massachusetts (see Juvenile Offenders).^ The average salary of a correctional officer in New York State is about $36,000 more than 50 percent higher than the typical salary in the North Country.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Mario Cuomo was first elected governor of New York, in 1982, he confronted some difficult choices.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the next twelve years Mario Cuomo added more prison beds in New York than all the previous governors in the state's history combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Side by side with the new processes introduced, the idea of the indeterminate sentence was started and put in practice, by which release was made to depend upon reasonable hope of amendment and sentences were prolonged until it was more or less certain that the treatment had resulted in cure.^ The broad range of potential sentences gave enormous power to the parole board, known as the Adult Authority; a prisoner's release depended on its evaluation of how well his   "treatment" was proceeding.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other inmates eventually persuaded him that it was more important to be released and get the information to people outside Drapchi, than to partake and face the expected sentence extensions with the others.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many prisoners in Italy also made a hungerstrike against prison terms of more than 20 years or more ('life sentence').

.Other measures are set forth in the new classification of convicts, prescribed by the secretary of state in the rules submitted by him to the House of Commons in 1904. All convicts are classed in three categories, viz.^ More than any other  state, California was dedicated to the rehabilitative ideal, to the belief that a prison could take a criminal and "cure" him, set him on the right path.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(A) the Ordinary division; (B) the Habitual Offenders' division; and (C) the Long Sentence division.^ Loving a Long-term Sentenced Offender .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

.The "A" or Ordinary division comprises all ordinary convicts under old rules who are still separated into the three classes of "star," intermediate and recidivist, as provided by the act of 1898. The qualifications for each class are clearly laid down.^ Farid, who was arrested on January 23 at Vierzon with his companion Isa, has also been released under judicial control, but Isa is still being detained at the prison of Lille-Sequedin.

^ All three are kept under detention (up to 18 months in prison before any trial)....

^ They clearly reflect the race and class divisions of the system, and are an obvious form of social control aimed at the most precarious sectors of society...

Only those never previously convicted, or known as of not habitually criminal or corrupt habits, are eligible for the "star" class. The intermediate class takes those not previously convicted but deemed unsuitable as "stars" from antecedents and generally unsatisfactory character. .The recidivist class is for those previously sentenced to penal servitude or whose record shows them to have been guilty of grave and persistent crime.^ Those found guilty of serious charges in the context of prison rules face punishments of sentence extension, threats and blacklist.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These three classes begin with cellular confinement, but for varying periods; the first for three months, the second six months and the third for nine months, in all cases subject to a medical report upon mental and physical condition.^ The officials ignored all these injuries as they placed many of the prisoners in hand- and leg-manacles, and into solitary confinement cells for up to one month.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six months later, three prisoners practically walked out of Parkhurst maximum security prison on the Isle of Wight, Britains Alcatraz....

^ Over the years the French state enforced a strict prison regime, including strict isolation and special conditions, on the prisoners from AD. The conditions of their imprisonment aimed at shattering them physically and mentally.

.Female convicts pass the first three months of their sentence in separate cells.^ Detained 15 February 1995, sentenced to seven years for participation in a demonstration in Lhasa, which included 22 months period in a solitary confinement cell.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was transferred to a solitary cell at Outridu Prison for four months before being returned to Drapchi Prison to a six year extended sentence of 14 years.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prisoners cell can be reached only after passing through the barriers of main prison gate and three more gates inside.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "B" division indicates the worst penalties to be inflicted upon habitual criminals. .There is no recognition whatever of the principle of the indeterminate sentence.^ Why are prisoners serving life sentences because apprehended shoplifting, in which there is generally no loss to the merchant, can be counted as a third strike?
  • California's Prison Disaster | Mother Jones 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there be any evidence for this conclusion, which is doubtful, it is entitled to no credit whatever.
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

The law merely prescribes the forfeiture of all remission. .The convict is not eligible for release or licence, but when the time of conditional liberation would have formerly arrived the case is submitted to the authorities and dealt with on its merits.^ At this particular time to release all rebel prisoners North would insure Sherman's defeat and would compromise our safety here."
  • Civil War Prisons 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After being moved to 'open' conditions last year, and being let out for fortnightly home-leaves, the indications were that John would be released on licence this June.

^ Now Amadeu thinks that it's time to be released, but the prison authorities don't want to release him, so he decided to take a step forward again and started an indefinite hunger strike.

.Early release depends upon the reports on industry and conduct, and the prospect of his keeping straight if set free.^ Nonetheless, the report concluded that "the industry appears to have excellent prospects."
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He may have to "do" his whole time but not an hour beyond it.
Certain privileges are conceded to the "B" division to compensate those in it for the loss of remission. .They wear a special dress, a band of blue cloth on the left arm; they may earn an extra gratuity and spend a part of it in buying extra food or articles of comfort and relaxation; they may take their meals in association, converse at them or at exercise, but not at labour.^ The relatives of the prisoner can pay monthly visits where they can supply extra food, if they produce a required pass.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had paper placed under one arm and between their knees, and a cup of water positioned on their head, and any loss of these articles resulted in beatings.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "C" division has been designed for convicts serving long sentences, who have gained all possible privileges in the early years of sentence and have little or nothing to expect further until the last year of their sentence, when they may earn an additional gratuity.^ Sentence increase of 4 years to 8 years for 1 May protest.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional sentence of 2 years for May 1998 Protest in Drapchi.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence increase of 4 years to 9 years for 1 May protest.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But after ten years they may enter the "C" division, earn a special gratuity therein, and enjoy the various privileges accorded to the "B" or habitual criminals' division with the additional advantage that there is no interference with their remission.^ They insisted that they had committed no crime and that there was nothing to reform.
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^ There can be no such thing as justice in any court and there is no justice in the men of the law who dish out years and years of jail day after day.

^ Sentence increase in October 1993 of 6 years, additional increase in July 1996 of 8 years, increase in 1998 for participation in the May protests of 4 years, to a current total of 21 years.
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.Still milder and more humanitarian prison treatment was that put forward by the home secretary in 1910 in his speech already referred to.^ Similarly, Ngawang Sungrab was subjected to an interrogation session by prison guards although still undergoing treatment at the hospital.
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^ Meanwhile, the number of drug treatment slots in American  prisons has declined by more than half since 1993.
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^ Some former prisoners have to seek regular medical treatment long after release putting enormous strain on their already lean financial resources.
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.In it he suggested that the following reforms should be carried out, some by administrative order and some by future legislation: (1) time for the payment of fines inflicted for minor offences; (2) disciplinary treatment outside prison for all offenders under 21 years of age; (3) punishment of those guilty of offences not involving moral turpitude to be relieved of all degrading features; (4) the reduction of the period of solitary confinement to a maximum of one month; (5) and the abolition of the ticket-of-leave system.^ Some of the Prisoners are nice not all are bad.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Increase of 18 months to 5 years, solitary confinement for 2 months at Gutsa Prison.
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^ It is likely that she will have to spend some time in prison.

.It was also proposed to give four lectures or concerts a year in convict prisons.^ As liberalism gave way to demands for law and order, California judges began to send a larger proportion of convicted felons to prison and to give longer sentences.
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^ He was transferred to a solitary cell at Outridu Prison for four months before being returned to Drapchi Prison to a six year extended sentence of 14 years.
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^ Novey has proposed keeping some nonviolent offenders out of prison, allowing judges to give them suspended sentences and a term of probation instead.
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Table of contents

Prisons in other Countries

.The general progress made in prison treatment will be best realized by a brief survey of penal institutions in the principal countries of the world.^ "No matter what the question has been in American criminal justice over the last generation," says Franklin E. Zimring, the director of the Earl Warren Legal Institute, "prison has been the answer."
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It will be convenient to take them alphabetically.
1. Austria-Hungary. - .The regime of cellular confinement has not been universally adopted; only six prisons are built on that principle and no more than 15% of the whole number of prisoners can be subjected to the system.^ And the state's prison system was more overcrowded than it had been when the prison boom began.
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^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
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^ The number of women sentenced to a year or more of prison has grown  twelve fold since 1970.
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.Cellular separation is not inflicted for long periods, the minimum being six months and the maximum three years.^ Ngawang Sangdrol and Phuntsok Pema were held in solitary for between three to six and a half months.
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^ Detained 15 February 1995, sentenced to seven years for participation in a demonstration in Lhasa, which included 22 months period in a solitary confinement cell.
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^ He was transferred to a solitary cell at Outridu Prison for four months before being returned to Drapchi Prison to a six year extended sentence of 14 years.
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.The bulk of the prisoners live and labour in common.^ To extract profit through subjecting prisoners to excessive labour has been the most common way of financial gain in Chinese prisons.
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.A great feature has been the execution of public works by prisoners in a state of semi-liberty beyond prison walls - the practical adoption of the so-called "Irish" or intermediate prison - and good results are seen in road-making and the improvement of river courses.^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
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^ Failure to fulfill quotas and produce substantial results within the stipulated time lead to deduction in working hours from the total labour time due for all prisoners.
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^ Today at least twenty seven states make use of private prisons, and approximately 90,000 inmates are being held in prisons run for profit.
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2. Belgium

.This country has spared neither pains nor money in carrying out penal processes, and the Belgian prisons are examples of the cellular system prolonged to the utmost limits of human endurance.^ You should never tell on your fellow prisoners – if it is found out you can enter a whole new world of pain.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The state has built fourteen other prisons exactly  like it a form of penal mass production that saves a good deal of money.
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^ Another prisoner then demanded that a post mortem be carried out in the presence of a prisoner representative, and, shrewdly, the Head then allowed each prisoner to speak their grievances.
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.There is a minimum of ten years, but the individual may elect to continue in separation, or be transferred to partial association.^ Subsequent to the 4 May protests individual interrogations continued until 3 June 1998.
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.A new school of Belgian criminologists has been headed by M. Prins, the chief of the prison department, who has protested that to hope the vicious, hardened offender, after a long detention, "surrounded with every attention, soaked with good counsel, will leave his cell regenerated," is a Utopian dream.^ Some prisoners who were placed in solitary confinement cells on 1 May like Norbu Phuntsok, Migmar, Kapasang etc were later transferred to TAR PSB Detention Centre and Lhasa PSB Detention Centre.
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^ Legally the state's new prisons were owned by the Urban Development Corporation and leased to the Department of  Corrections.
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^ After the company  decided to enter the private prison industry, it hired Norman Carlson, who had headed the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
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3. British Dominions beyond the Sea

.The principle of cellular separation was accepted as far back as 1836 and the model prison of Pentonville, opened in 1842, has since been copied throughout the civilized world.^ John Bowden back in open prison .

^ U.S. prisoner abuse has run rampant throughout the world.

.The cellular system has been adopted in all British colonies with various modifications, and prisons built on modern principles are to be found in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Cape of Good Hope.^ What has become of prison revolts in the British prison system?

^ During the past two decades roughly a thousand new prisons and jails have been built in the United States.
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^ You should never tell on your fellow prisoners – if it is found out you can enter a whole new world of pain.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.India retains association as the system most suitable for its criminal classes, with other methods generally abandoned in Great Britain, such as the employment of wellconducted prisoners as auxiliaries in prison discipline and service; deportation is still the penalty for the worst offences and is carried out on a large scale and with satisfactory results in the Andaman Islands.^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
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^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
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^ More than any other  state, California was dedicated to the rehabilitative ideal, to the belief that a prison could take a criminal and "cure" him, set him on the right path.
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.In Egypt since the establishment of British control a very marked change has been introduced in prison affairs.^ We think it's still up-to-date, since not much has changed in the case of the AD prisoners.

4. Denmark

.In Denmark all convicted prisoners pass through several stages, from cellular treatment to the intermediate prison and conditional liberty.^ Please read and pass on all text in support & in show of solidarity for communist political prisoners being brutalized in Spanish and French prisons......

^ All the prisoners underwent individual interrogation after severe beatings by the guards.
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^ All the prisoners were consequently reprimanded but upon learning that the non-political convicts had been particularly harshly dealt with, the political prisoners decided to cease the protest.
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.Two new prisons on the latest model have been erected at Copenhagen, ene for males and the other for females.^ Other prisoners immediately joined in, but the two instigators were removed by officials and subjected to interrogations and beatings before being placed in solitary.
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^ It has become somewhat mandatory for prison guards to impose these two-fold reforms to every new prisoner at gun-point.
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^ Except for the inmates from the old rukhag and the two new rukhags, all the non-political prisoners were designated to attend the meeting.
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The smaller gaols for short terms are mostly on the cellular plan.
5. France. - .France has devoted very considerable attention to prison matters and is now practising the two extremes of treatment, the strict cellular isolation of the Belgian system and the penal exile or transportation which was long the English rule.^ The biggest self-organised action initiated by prisoners inside german jails for a long time to date, is now ended since over a month.

^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
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^ Please spread information about this case as much as possible -- they have been in prison for 7 months now, and have recieved very little international support ...

6. Germany

.The unified German Empire has not as yet adopted one system of prison treatment, and its various component kingdoms still retain independence in views and practice.^ Similarly, Ngawang Sungrab was subjected to an interrogation session by prison guards although still undergoing treatment at the hospital.
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^ Their "reintegration into society" still goes on in the System's death-traps called prisons, so this text goes for them.....

^ Moreover, some private prisons offer programs, such as drug treatment and vocational training, that a number of state systems have cut back.
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.Baden has a well-known cellular prison at Bruchsal, but separation is not imposed for more than four years and associated labour is carried out in another quarter of the prison.^ I spent years in and out of scotish prisons ?
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
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^ For more info check out Athens Indymedia, and also the letter Yiannis sent about his case in our 'Prison Struggle' section.

.Bavaria has four cellular prisons, the chief being at Munich and Nuremberg, but the collective system also obtains.^ He was transferred to a solitary cell at Outridu Prison for four months before being returned to Drapchi Prison to a six year extended sentence of 14 years.
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^ By the mid-1990s thousands of inmates from across the United States were being transported from overcrowded prison systems to "rent-a-cell" facilities in small Texas towns.
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.Prussia having declared for the cellular system constructed the well-known Moabit prison in Berlin, also those of Ratibor in Silesia and of Herford in Westphalia, while those of Graudenz, Breslau, Werden and Cologne have been added since.^ It seems like we are being one of the first experiments of the mossos d'esquadra and of their fight against what they call "anti-system movements, and it looks like they have their lessons well learned, since, without having any real evidence, they have managed to keep us in prison inventing and falisfying evidences......

^ We think it's still up-to-date, since not much has changed in the case of the AD prisoners.

^ After spending $5.2 billion on prison  construction over the past fifteen years, California now has not only the largest but also the most overcrowded prison system  in the United States.
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.The total number of separate cells to-day is 11,041 against 3247 in 1869. Two new cellular prisons, Luttringhausen and Saarbruck, have recently been added.^ This solidarity gathering against all prisons took place on the occasion that the prison guards told Farid Bamouhammad that they are building a new cage for him in the caves of the prison.

^ Except for the inmates from the old rukhag and the two new rukhags, all the non-political prisoners were designated to attend the meeting.
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^ The prisoner is stripped of all his/her personal belongings and kept in a bare cell where even the mattress is taken out during the day.

.Frankfurt has a good prison on the Pentonville (London) plan; so has Hamburg; and new buildings have been erected at Wohlan, Siegburg, Breslau and Munster.^ This solidarity gathering against all prisons took place on the occasion that the prison guards told Farid Bamouhammad that they are building a new cage for him in the caves of the prison.

^ In the Northwest, where the privatization of prisons is relatively new, the study found that some states are planning to use private contractors heavily: .

^ Corrections Director Rick Day asked the 1997 Legislature for $103 million -- $53 million in new funds for overcrowding and $50 million to build additional prison cells.

.Separate cells in Prussia had increased in 1896 from 3247 to 6573. The cellular regime is applicable to prisoners between 18 and 30, and to first offenders of 50 years of age, the term being fixed by the governor of the gaol, but never exceeding three years.^ Sentence increased by 3 years and currently serving 8 years prison term.
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^ Increase of 18 months to 5 years, solitary confinement for 2 months at Gutsa Prison.
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^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
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Saxony established a penitentiary at Zwickau in 1850 and in its earlier management exhibited exaggerated kindness to its inmates. Both the cellular and the associated systems obtain.
Wurttemberg has accepted the cellular system. .There are prisons for females at Heilbronn, and for males at Ludwigsburg and Stuttgart; in Wurttemberg itself the regime is collective.^ As of June 2001, there are 26 female and 103 male political prisoner serving their sentences in Drapchi Prison.
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^ I imagine UK female prisons are considerably better than USA male jails.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Between 1990 and January 1996, there had been sharp increase in political prisoners in Drapchi Prison and in 1995, there were 162 known current female political inmates.
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.7. Holland has followed her nearest neighbour Belgium and has now at command separate cells sufficient to receive the whole number of her prison population.^ In the state's Level 4 prisons almost every cell is now double bunked.
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^ The inmate population of New York's prisons had indeed grown by roughly that number during his first term in office.
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^ The rukhag cells were also rearranged so that friends were separated, causing additional feelings of loneliness and sadness amongst the prisoners recovering from injuries that had been inflicted over the two days of protests.
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The system of unbroken seclusion, prolonged to five years, is maintained with strictness.
8. Italy. - Although accepting the principle of cellular imprisonment, Italy has not adopted it largely, partly from want of funds and not a little because the current of thought has set against it. The really penal establishments are 77 in number, the great ergastolo of San Stefano being one. Agricultural labour for convicts has been tried in colonies of coatti (or those provisionally released) planted out in the islands of the Italian archipelago.

9. Norway

.The separation of Norway, as an independent state, from Sweden has produced no great change in its prison institutions, which still follow the lines of the neighbouring country.^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
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^ The National Institute on Money in State Politics' study of the private-prisons industry looks at the industry's contributing patterns and at the role ALEC is playing as a promoter of industry-backed legislation.

^ And new prisons tend to be much less expensive to operate than the old prisons still used in many states.
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10. Portugal. - .There are three or more cellular prisons at Lisbon, Coimbra and Santarem, and the system of strict separation when first adopted in 1884 was expected both to amend and deter.^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
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^ They both have been separated as a way to make their life in prison even more unbearable, destroying the little relationship they are able to create.....

^ The prisoners cell can be reached only after passing through the barriers of main prison gate and three more gates inside.
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Sweden

Prince Oscar of Sweden was one of the earliest adherents of cellular imprisonment, and at his urgent representation penitentiary reform was warmly espoused in 1841. His influence is still felt, and the system in force in Norway and Sweden is progressive from strict separation to working outside the cell. .Sweden, which adopted the cellular system in 1842, has now cells sufficient for prisoners sentenced to two years and less., There are three principal central prisons, one at Langholm near Stockholm, a second at Malmo and a third at Mya Varfet near Gothenburg.^ Sentenced to three years.
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^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sentence extension of two years in 1998 for 4 May protest.
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12. United States. - .The penal system of the United States varies between being the most advanced and the most backward in the civilized world.^ For more than a century Folsom and San Quentin were the end of the line in California's penal system they were the state's only maximum security penitentiaries.
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^ Factories for Crime LEXIS de Tocqueville's Democracy in America is one of the most famous books ever written about the politics and culture of the United States.
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^ Perhaps no other region in the United States has so wide a gulf between its urban and rural populations.
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At one end of the scale are the numerous bad.
county gaols and the horrors of the convict .lease system in the southern states, now nearly extinct; at the other such modern and well-equipped reformatories as Elmira and Concord (see Juvenile Offenders).^ Offenders who might once have been sent to a local jail or a halfway house were now sent to a state prison.
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^ Moreover, some private prisons offer programs, such as drug treatment and vocational training, that a number of state systems have cut back.
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^ After spending $5.2 billion on prison  construction over the past fifteen years, California now has not only the largest but also the most overcrowded prison system  in the United States.
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.The worst feature is the indiscriminate association sometimes seen of all inmates, bond and free, the convicted and accused; even witnesses against whom there is no shadow of a charge are sometimes imprisoned among felons.^ You know NOTHING about adult prisons and yet you shoot off your mouth like u seen it all done it all and been there.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The business has become so lucrative that MCI installed its inmate phone service, Maximum Security, throughout the California prison system at no charge.
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^ The same evening, the inmates of new rukhag #3 commenced a hunger strike that was to last six days, in protest against the beatings and solitary confinements.
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Nor is it only in distant corners of the great continent that this criticism applies, though constant improvements are removing the grounds for it. .It is only a short time since the local gaol in the city of New York, "the Tombs," a house of detention for prisoners awaiting trial, was described in an official report to the state legislature as "a disgraces.^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
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^ State corrections officials, meanwhile, had testified that they ruled out the Fort Greely site for a new prison, favoring instead expansion of existing facilities.

^ The biggest self-organised action initiated by prisoners inside german jails for a long time to date, is now ended since over a month.

It is defective in every modern appliance. It is dark, damp and ill-ventilated. .. worst of all is the hideous system of keeping two or three men in a cell; ... a means of indescribable torture to a decent man and a prolific source of vice and crime to a criminal. Such treatment of dogs would be gross cruelty." .This building has, however, now been pulled down, and a new and better one has taken its place.^ Likewise, the male political prisoner buildings, now officially designated as rukhag # 8 and # 9, are also still respectively known as the old rukhag #5 and the new rukhag #5.
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^ Majority of those arrested for political reasons in Lhasa and other nearby regions were taken to Drapchi prison, which is now considered as one of the biggest prisons in Tibet.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of his sons is now a lieutenant at a down state prison.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The administration of prisons rests mainly with the various state authorities, and there is no federal or general system which would introduce uniformity of treatment.^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correctional officers in these private prisons usually earn lower wages than officers employed by state governments, while receiving fewer benefits and no pension.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He now worries that if California's prison system becomes much more overcrowded, a federal  judge may order a large scale release of inmates.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The federal government has no influence or control except for offences against the federal laws, regulating coinage, postal service, the revenue and so forth.^ This law, as well as efforts to privatize major elements of the federal government, were policy hallmarks of the Reagan presidency.

.Prison management is essentially a local concern, but some general features are common to all states, such as the rule that while petty offenders and prisoners awaiting trial are under county and city jurisdiction, the state takes charge of all persons convicted of serious crimes.^ The Republican Party controlled the state senate, and prison construction became part of the political give and take with the Cuomo administration.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases prisoners are charged as criminals and administrative detention is imposed by local authorities without the supervision of an independent judiciary.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those found guilty of serious charges in the context of prison rules face punishments of sentence extension, threats and blacklist.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The state prisons receive by far the largest proportion of the criminal population, more than half the general total being imprisoned therein.^ And the state's jails are even more overcrowded than its prisons.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the state's prison system was more overcrowded than it had been when the prison boom began.
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^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of them are models of cleanliness and good order, built on the best and most imposing lines with large comfortable cells and an abundance of light and air.^ The media said that order had been restored when policemen had guided the prisoners back to their cells, using "light coercion"...

.The earnest desire of most prison administration is to develop industrial training and trade profits side by side with mildness of treatment.^ The move by the private-prisons industry into the Northwest is a recent development.

^ Private prison companies are the most obvious, the most controversial, and the fastest growing segment of the prison industrial complex.
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^ To extract profit through subjecting prisoners to excessive labour has been the most common way of financial gain in Chinese prisons.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter sometimes lapses into methods which are not usually thought compatible with prison discipline, such as the permission to play on musical instruments, the holding of concerts, the privilege of smoking and chewing tobacco, of receiving baskets of provisions, novels and newspapers from friends outside.^ Correctional officers in these private prisons usually earn lower wages than officers employed by state governments, while receiving fewer benefits and no pension.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political prisoners are frequently prohibited from receiving rations provided by their relatives, while other prisoners have no restrictions on such rations.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such cases, prisoners are either subjected to inhuman treatment or forced to do labour for extra time into the wee hours of the night.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is worthy of note that prison architecture in the United States misses many of the gloomy features common to such constructions.^ The use of private prisons in the United States has undergone a revival in the past decade or so.

^ The failure to spend enough on relatively inexpensive sanctions, such as drug treatment and probation, has forced the state to increase spending on prisons.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The private companies that now transport thousands of inmates across the United States every day face even less government oversight than private prison companies.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The newest prisons are generally lighter, more roomy, better ventilated and on the whole more comfortable than even the best British prisons.^ And the state's jails are even more overcrowded than its prisons.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state holds more inmates in  its jails and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined.
  • THE PRISON INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thetalkingdrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many prisoners in Italy also made a hungerstrike against prison terms of more than 20 years or more ('life sentence').

In 1900 Sir E. Ruggles Brise, the English expert on prisons, declared that "the purity of the air and the cleanliness of the American prisons are admirable, and under a very elaborate system of warming by hot air, a regular and uniform temperature is sustained throughout the year, which, considering the varying nature of the climate from extreme heat to cold many points below zero, is a considerable engineering triumph." Prison Industries. - It is an axiom in prison science that enforced labour cannot easily be made productive. No doubt the problem has been in a measure solved in England by that useful incentive to industry, the mark system. But the more substantial returns cannot always be expected with the sedentary employments and single-handed effort inseparable from the regime of cellular imprisonment. .England for many years past, in adopting the principle of Public Works Prisons after a certain short period spent in separation, has pronounced in favour of open-air employment in association.^ The strikers were demanding that prisoners should be freed from certain work, such as cleaning up toilets, and that prisoners of the fourth "suit" (caste), that of the "sky blues" or "roosters", should be kept separate from the other prisoners......

^ Sentenced to six years on account of arsonary charges of a work-team vehicle and for pasting posters opposing the monasterys work-team.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detained 22 November 1996, sentenced to eight years for the arson of a work-team vehicle and the pasting of posters opposing the monastery work-team.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although the system still has many hostile critics its value cannot be contested. It has been said by a trustworthy authority,' "We are convinced also that severe labour on public works is most beneficial in teaching criminals habits of industry and training them to such employments as digging, road-making and brick-making - work of a kind which cannot be carried on in separate confinement." .A good proof of the value of the system as remunerative and healthful, morally and physically, is seen in the growing desire of other countries to follow our lead.^ The same power thats disguised as the absolute truth, as religion, as democracy, as other authoritarian systems, which continue their existence and the government of our lives.

.Very similar operations have been carried out in Austria-Hungary, where large tracts of land have been brought into cultivation, and watercourses have been diverted successfully despite serious difficulties, climatic and physical; in Russia convict labour has been largely used in the construction of the Trans-siberian railway; the military operations in the Sudan were greatly aided by convict labourers engaged in useful work at the base and all along the line; Italy passed a law in 1904 enacting outdoor labour for the reclamation and draining of waste lands by prisoners under long sentence; and France, although much wedded to cellular imprisonment, is beginning to favour extra-mural employment of prisoners under strict regulations.^ I used to work in the infirmary at a prison.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ California's burgeoning prisons are to some degree a legacy of the 1980s, a decade during which strict enforcement of drug laws and harsh sentences resulted in an inmate-growth rate of 263 percent, the highest rate among all states and more than twice the national rate.

^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The subject was discussed at the Penitentiary Congress at Budapest in 1905, and a resolution passed recommending extra-mural employment for prisoners of rural origin, vagrants and drunkards, and those subject to tuberculous disease, "so largely the concomitant of cellular confinement." Prison industries continue to be largely sedentary in character; they cover a wide range, although the conditions of life are for the most part artificial. Most trades and handicrafts are practised, such as shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry, the work of whiteand Report of the Royal Commission on Penal Servitude (1878-1879).
blacksmiths; skilful and intelligent workmen, such as the French and Japanese, find a wide outlet for their versatile and artistic talent. .The well-known products, styled articles de Paris, prison-made, find a large sale, and many objects of high art, fine paintings, cloisonné enamels and gold lacquer are among the beautiful products from Japanese prisoners.^ Many prisoners in Italy also made a hungerstrike against prison terms of more than 20 years or more ('life sentence').

^ Amadeu Casellas is a well known anarchist prisoner.

^ A while ago I was irritated to see a well-known Anarchist magazine use prisoner support work as an example of "single-issue" politics.

.The indoor manufactures followed in British prisons are not so varied as the foregoing and have been limited by the protests and objections raised by free or outside labour against alleged unfair competition.^ Without any legal trial, these protestors were distributed to various prisons and labour camps, and subjected to severe torture and beatings.
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^ Following the Lhasa demonstrations, outside knowledge of protests within Drapchi has increased dramatically as new information is constantly emerging, albeit at irregular intervals, with the former political prisoners that escape into exile.
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^ While in Drapchi Prison however, Lobsang Tenzin constantly protested in various ways against Chinese rule in Tibet.
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.Accordingly, the production of goods has been largely curtailed for the open market and prison labour is restricted nowadays to supplying articles required for current use by public departments - such as the navy, army, post office and, of course, all prison establishments.^ The group of prisoners marched towards the main office building, less than 100 yards from the rukhag, but that distance seemed like miles, such was the courage required to cover it.
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^ Open letter by the life prisoners from Spoleto (Italy) to all life prisoners and prisoners of Europe .

^ This ensured the quick spread of news relating to the protest throughout Lhasa, which generated a large amount of public support for the prisoners, and was probably a major reason that such intense measures were taken in 1998 to prevent information relating to the protests reaching the general public.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prison labour has found an outlet, therefore, in such work as service blanket making, hammock making, mail-bag making, the manufacture of cartridge cases, flags, chopping firewood for barracks and so on, having been diverted almost entirely from mat-making, once an exclusive prison trade originally invented indeed by prison task-masters.^ In such cases, prisoners are either subjected to inhuman treatment or forced to do labour for extra time into the wee hours of the night.
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^ She found that contrary to some expectations, women were well suited for work in a maximum security prison.
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^ It cited a 1996 Texas case in which the community found out the prison had 244 dangerous sex offenders from Oregon only after two had escaped.

.The total annual value of the labour applied in English prisons has varied.^ As a result of this hard labour, the prison officials have witnessed substantial increases in their annual profit.
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^ Failure to fulfill quotas and produce substantial results within the stipulated time lead to deduction in working hours from the total labour time due for all prisoners.
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^ Without any legal trial, these protestors were distributed to various prisons and labour camps, and subjected to severe torture and beatings.
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.In1896-1897the total accruing from manufactures, farm operations and the ordinary service of the prison was £213,812, the prison population in local and convict prisons being 17,614; in1903-1904the total amounted to £244,518, the prison population on the 31st of March 1904 being 21,117. The gross expenditure was £524,289 for 1896-1897, as against £615,656 for 1903-1904. Figures are not available for any exact comparison of outlay and return in other countries, but the earnings in European countries generally run to about half the expenditure.^ Collaborate with the guards against other prisoners .
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Do not collaborate with the guards against other prisoners .
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Do not tell other prisoners about your private life.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.In the United States the policy varies between the two extremes of making prisoners self-supporting and of leaving them in idleness so that the whole weight of expense falls upon the state.^ The United States at the time was renowned in Europe for having created a whole new social institution: the penitentiary.
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^ Prisoners who have been sentenced to life imprisonment or execution after two years imprisonment are held in the first unit.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of private prisons in the United States has undergone a revival in the past decade or so.

.In some states economic considerations have carried the day; in others the stringency of labour laws under the pressure of labour associations has paralysed all prison industry.^ Some of the Prisoners are nice not all are bad.
  • Top 10 Prison Survival Tips - Listverse 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ California's burgeoning prisons are to some degree a legacy of the 1980s, a decade during which strict enforcement of drug laws and harsh sentences resulted in an inmate-growth rate of 263 percent, the highest rate among all states and more than twice the national rate.

^ Three decades after the war on crime began, the United States has developed a prison industrial complex a set of bureaucratic, political, and economic interests that encourage increased spending on imprisonment, regardless of the actual need.
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.In the first mentioned, the contract system, by which a contractor hires the prisoner's labour from the state, has proved very profitable, but at the sacrifice of discipline and neglect of reformatory processes upon the individual.^ He appointed a special overseer for the prison system and ordered the state to provide at least forty square feet of living space for each inmate.
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^ A standard-bearer for prison privatization, Sundquist's early efforts supporting CCA and its proposal to take over the Tennessee state prison system were met by stiff opposition.

^ The pressures to expand the prison system increased dramatically in 1996, shortly after Montana first contracted with the Bobby Ross Group of Texas to house 251 Montana inmates in its Texas facility for $3.6 million a year.

.This leasing-out system has been carried further in some of the southern states, and has produced the convict camps, which have been much criticized and condemned from the harshness of the discipline enforced, the many abuses that exist and the meagre results other than monetary that have been obtained.^ California's burgeoning prisons are to some degree a legacy of the 1980s, a decade during which strict enforcement of drug laws and harsh sentences resulted in an inmate-growth rate of 263 percent, the highest rate among all states and more than twice the national rate.

^ More than any other  state, California was dedicated to the rehabilitative ideal, to the belief that a prison could take a criminal and "cure" him, set him on the right path.
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^ According to a report this year by the state's Little Hoover Commission, in many counties offenders who are convicted of  a crime and given sentences of less than ninety days will not even be sent to jail.
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The modern movement in favour of industrial employment combined with humane and intelligent considerations has swept away the more or less barbaric method of enforcing labour by automatic machinery such as the treadmill, crank and shot drill (see Treadmill).

Authorities

.John Howard, State of Prisons in England and Wales (1784); Cesare Lombroso, L' Uomo delinquente, &c.^ Systematic Child Abuse BY The State - John Bowden writes from Noranside Prison .

^ Over the past ten years the prison population in England and Wales has risen rapidly to a point where it is now being described as having reached epidemic proportions.

.(1899) Beaumont and A. de Tocqueville, Systeme penitentiaire aux E tatsUnis (1837); Crawford, Report on Penitentiaries (U.S.A., 1838); Maconochie, Prison Discipline (1856); Dr Guillaurne, Progress of Prison Discipline in Switzerland (1872); Arthur Griffiths, Memorials of Millbank (1873), Chronicles of Newgate (1882); Armingol y Cornet, Prisons and Prison Discipline in Spain (1874); Stevens, Regime des etablissements pe'nitentiaires en Belgique (1875); F. V. Holtzendorf and von Jagemann, Handbuch des Gefcingniswesens (1877); Scaglia Beltrani, Reforma penitenzaria in Italia (1879); Sir Edmund F. Du Cane, Punishment and Prevention of Crime (1885); Braco, Estudos penitenciarios e criminaes (Lisbon, 1888); Garofalo, Studio sul delitto, sulle sui cause e sui mezzi di repressione (1890); Adolphe Guillot, Les Prisons de Paris (1890); Tallack, Preventive and Penological Principles (1896); Salillas, Vida penal en Espana (Madrid).^ After visiting  American prisons Tocqueville and his traveling companion, Gustave de Beaumont, wrote that social reformers in the United States had been swept up in "the monomania of the penitentiary system," convinced that prisons were "a remedy for all the evils of society."
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^ Roberto comes from Spain where had to serve 18 years in prison, of which he did 14 years in the infamous FIES-isolation regime.

^ There are others who have died with the prison torture haunting their memories and hampering their health, after their release.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(A. G.)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

The first occasion on which we read of a prison is in the history of Joseph in Egypt. .Then Potiphar, "Joseph's master, took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound" (Gen 39:20ff).^ Also in 1996, CCA put $31,000 into the unsuccessful campaign of Indiana gubernatorial candidate Stephen Goldsmith, a private-prisons advocate and mayor of Indianapolis.

^ The prison police officers took measures to put down the situation according to provisions of the Prison Law.
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^ Shortly after the meeting, two friends of Sonam Tsewangs organised a meeting amongst the prisoners to protest to the authorities, and were also placed into solitary and received the obligatory beatings.
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The Heb. word here used (sohar) means properly a round tower or fortress. .It seems to have been a part of Potiphar's house, a place in which state prisoners were kept.^ By 1997, 64,000 state and federal prisoners were housed in private correctional facilities.

^ Arizona CCA Prisons Housing Out of State Inmates .
  • Husbands & Boyfriends in Prison - Prison Talk 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.prisontalk.com [Source type: General]

The Mosaic law made no provision for imprisonment as a punishment. In the wilderness two persons were "put in ward" (Lev 24:12; Num 15:34), but it was only till the mind of God concerning them should be ascertained. Prisons and prisoners are mentioned in the book of Psalms (Ps 6933; Ps 7911; Ps 1427). Samson was confined in a Philistine prison (Jdg 16:21ff). .In the subsequent history of Israel frequent references are made to prisons (1 Kg 22:27; 2Kg 17:4; 2Kg 25:27ff; 2Chr 16:10; Isa 42:7; Jer 32:2).^ The week of solidarity called for June 9 to 16 is obviously still on, for the freedom of Isa and all the other prisoners.

.Prisons seem to have been common in New Testament times (Mt 11:2; Mt 25:36, Mt 25:43).^ Losar 1997 triggered the next hunger strike staged by the female political prisoners, this time from the new rukhag #3.
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^ Once again the common criminals proved to be valuable allies and showed their support of the political prisoners by smuggling in news and medicine to the inmates of rukhag #5.
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^ Liz Ruskin, Tom Bell, Lisa Demer, New Plan for Prisons in Alaska, Anchorage Daily News , April 11, 1997, A1.

.The apostles were put into the "common prison" at the instance of the Jewish council (Acts 5:18, Acts 5:23; Acts 8:3); and at Philippi Paul and Silas were thrust into the "inner prison" (Acts 16:24; comp.^ Also in 1996, CCA put $31,000 into the unsuccessful campaign of Indiana gubernatorial candidate Stephen Goldsmith, a private-prisons advocate and mayor of Indianapolis.

^ Put into solitary confinement following the May 1998 protest and died 23 May 1998 from torture.
  • Drapchi Prison : Tibet's Most Dreaded Prison- TCHRD - Publications 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.tchrd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Acts 4:3; Acts 12:4f).
This article needs to be merged with Imprisonment.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|The Prison at a police station in Germany]]

A prison is a building where convicted criminals are held.

Prisons are run by the government. People held in prisons are called inmates or convicts. Other words for prison include "penitentiary", "jail" or "gaol" (pronounced like "jail"), and "correctional facility". A person who has been charged with a crime may be sent to prison if the court thinks that the person may not come to their trial, if the court thinks that the person may be a risk to the community, or the person has been sentenced to death.

In some countries, prisons are also used for political prisoners (people who disagree with the country's leader or government). In times of war, prisoners of war may also be held in prisons.

Contents

Prison buildings and facilities

Male and female inmates are usually kept in separate locations or in separate prisons. Prisons are usually surrounded by walls and gates. There are usually many locked gates inside the prison to control the inmates.

The inmates sleep in small locked rooms called cells. Cells have a bunk bed, a toilet, and a sink. Inmates are allowed to leave their cell every day for exercise. Some inmates work in the prison during the day, either in a factory or doing cooking or cleaning. Law enforcement officers called prison guards watch the inmates. The manager of a prison is called the warden.

Prisons usually also include other buildings and facilities, such as a chapel, a library, an exercise yard, a gymnasium, an infirmary (small hospital), visiting rooms (for visits from family and lawyers), kitchens, and accommodation for prison staff.

Prisons for young people

There are special prisons for people under the age of 18 who commit crimes. These inmates are called young offenders or juvenile offenders.

Controversy

Prisons are a controversial topic that people have different views about.

  • People who think that we should have prisons say that removing people who commit crimes from society prevents them from committing more crimes and punishes them for their behavior. They also say that putting people in prison may also prevent others who are likely to commit similar crimes from committing them.
  • People who think that we should not put people in prisons say that being put in prison makes people more violent and angry. People who commit minor crimes that are sent to prison meet violent criminals. As well, when people are sent to prison, they cannot see their family or children, which can cause problems for their family.

Number of people in prison

As of 2006, there are nine million people are currently in prison in the world. The United States currently has the most people in prison; there are more than 2 million people in prison.In 2002, both Russia and China also had over 1 million people in prison. In 2003, the United Kingdom had 73,000 people in prison; France and Germany having a similar number of people in prison.

Famous prisons in history

  • Alcatraz, San Francisco (historical)
  • Attica Correctional Facility, Attica (town), New York, scene of the most infamous prison riot in United States history
  • The Bastille, Paris, France (historical) In French
  • Devil's Island, French Guiana (historical)
  • Leavenworth, Kansas, site of a federal prison and the military's primary prison, the United States Disciplinary Barracks.
  • Rikers Island, New York City, US (since 1884)
  • Sing Sing Correctional Facility, Ossining, New York, U.S. (since 1828)
  • The Tower of London, London, England (historical)

Cultural references to prisons and prison life

There are many books and poems about prisons or prison life, such as The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, père and The Ballad of Reading Gaol by Oscar Wilde.

There are also films that depict prison life, including:

  • A Clockwork Orange (1971) Directed by Stanley Kubrick
  • Stir Crazy (1975) Directed by Sidney Poitier
  • Midnight Express (1978) Directed by Alan Parker
  • Escape from Alcatraz (1979) Directed by Don Siegel
  • The Shawshank Redemption (1994) Directed by Frank Darabont
  • Dead Man Walking (1995) Directed by Tim Robbins
  • The Green Mile (1999) Directed by Frank Darabont

There have also been television programs, such as Prisoner (1979-1986) and Prison Break (2005-present).

Further reading

  • Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, New York: Random House 1975.

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Prison, which are similar to those in the above article.








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