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Private law (Civil law) is that part of a legal system that involves relationships between individuals. This includes the law of contracts or torts and the law of obligations. It is distinguished from public law, which deals with law involving the state, including regulatory statutes, penal law and other law of public order.

In general terms, public law involves interrelations between the state and the general population, whereas private law involves interactions between private citizens.

The concept of private law in common law countries is a little more broad, in that it also encompasses private relationships between governments and private individuals or other entities. That is, relationships between governments and individuals based on the law of contract or torts are governed by private law, and are not considered to be within the scope of public law.


Another, more specific meaning of private law is a private bill enacted into law. A private law, in this sense, is a law enacted to be applied to a specific individual or corporation, as opposed to public law, which has a broader application and affects the general public.[1] Examples: [2].

Areas of private law








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