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.Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be healthy for the host organism.^ Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when ingested, provide a health benefit to their host.

^ Probiotics are dietary supplements of live bacteria or yeasts that are healthy for the host organism.
  • Probiotics: Generic Prescribed Medicines and Drugs from Online Pharmacies Store 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bestdiscountedpharmacy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to improve digestive health.
  • Tag: Probiotics - Explore content tagged Probiotics on eHow.com 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO, probiotics are: "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".[1] Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics; but certain yeasts and bacilli may also be helpful.^ Probiotics may help*: Restore balance of essential friendly bacteria after antibiotic use.
  • Probiotic Supplement | Jigsaw Health | Jigsaw Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.jigsawhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ The scientific definition from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States and World Health Organisation is: “probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.” .
  • Probiotic Bacteria- Gut Flora for Human Health: Intestinal Health Through Well-Formulated Probiotic Supplements 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC nutrition.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The microbe must be alive when administered, must be documented to have a health benefit and must be administered at levels shown to confer the benefit.

.Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures; such as in yogurt, soy yogurt, or as dietary supplements.^ Are probiotic cultures different from other yogurt cultures?
  • Probiotic Food And Yogurt: Benefits Of Probiotic Foods 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.thenibble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bottom Line: Consume probiotic cultures in yogurt.

^ Sustenex is a probiotic dietary supplement.
  • Sustenex. The Prolific Probiotic - FAQs 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC sustenex.com [Source type: General]

.Etymologically, the term appears to be a composite of the Latin preposition pro ("for") and the Greek adjective βιωτικός (biotic), the latter deriving from the noun βίος (bios, "life").^ The word probiotic derives from the Greek word pro-bios, meaning 'for life'.
  • Danone Actimel - Probiotics explained 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.actimel.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Probiotics is a term derived from two Greek words “pro” and “biotic” which means “for life”.
  • Probiotics Frequently Asked Questions | 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC probioticsfaq.com [Source type: General]

^ The word probiotic comes from the Greek: “pro” meaning promoting and “biotic” meaning life.
  • PROBIOTICS 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.tibetangoji.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.At the start of the 20th century, probiotics were thought to beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, thus inhibiting pathogens and toxin producing bacteria [3].^ Probiotics are thought to be beneficial in two ways.

^ Probiotic products Probiotic bacteria are live microbial strains that, when applied in adequate doses, beneficially affect the host animal by improving its ...
  • Amazon.com: "probiotic products": Key Phrase page 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Probiotics are live beneficial bacteria.
  • Can I Take Probiotics During Pregnancy? 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.downthelane.com [Source type: General]

.Today, specific health effects are being investigated and documented including alleviation of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases,[4] prevention and treatment of pathogen-induced diarrhea,[5] urogenital infections,[6] and atopic diseases.^ Compete with pathogens to prevent their adhesion to the intestine.

^ Prevent pathogens from lining intestinal walls.
  • THE NEW PROBIOTIC WITH LONGEVITY = iFlora 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.merc-buyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there a role for Lactobacilli in prevention of urogenital and intestinal infections?

[7]

Contents

History of probiotics

.The original observation of the positive role played by certain bacteria was first introduced by Russian scientist and Nobel laureate Eli Metchnikoff, who in the beginning of the 20th century suggested that it would be possible to modify the gut flora and to replace harmful microbes by useful microbes.^ These bacteria are referred to as the gut flora .
  • Probiotics: Health Benefits Of Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.purenewyou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metchnikoff, who discovered the benefits of good bacteria, was Russian.

^ Role of the gut flora .
  • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROBIOTICS 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.albertaclassic.net [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Metchnikoff, at that time a professor at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, produced the notion that the aging process results from the activity of putrefactive (proteolytic) microbes producing toxic substances in the large bowel.^ Metchnikoff, at that time a professor at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, produced the notion that the ageing process results from the activity of putrefactive (proteolytic) microbes producing toxic substances in the large bowel.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the toxic substances are ammonia, phenols and indols produced from the consumption of proteins.

^ It was not until the beginning of this century that Metchnikoff, working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, started to put the subject on to a scientific basis.
  • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROBIOTICS 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.albertaclassic.net [Source type: Academic]

.Proteolytic bacteria such as clostridia, which are part of the normal gut flora, produce toxic substances including phenols, indols and ammonia from the digestion of proteins.^ He hypothesized that bacteria such as clostridia , which are part of the normal gut flora, produce toxic substances from the digestion of proteins.
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the toxic substances are ammonia, phenols and indols produced from the consumption of proteins.

^ These bacteria are referred to as the gut flora .
  • Probiotics: Health Benefits Of Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.purenewyou.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Metchnikoff these compounds were responsible for what he called "intestinal auto-intoxication", which caused the physical changes associated with old age.^ He believed these compounds were responsible for what he called “intestinal auto-intoxication”, which he linked to physical changes associated with old age.
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Metchnikoff these compounds were responsible for what he called “intestinal auto-intoxication”, which caused the physical changes associated with old age.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to examine the possible connection between good and bad intestinal bacteria and anxiety, the researchers tested for both physical and psychological changes in the following ways: .

.It was at that time known that milk fermented with lactic-acid bacteria inhibits the growth of proteolytic bacteria because of the low pH produced by the fermentation of lactose.^ It also produces sufficient amounts of lactic acid.
  • Fundamental Earth - Products - Probiotic - 12 Strains - 25 Billion Organisms 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.fundamentalearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also produces DL-lactic acid and amylase.
  • Lifestar Protec Probiotic 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.lifestar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lactobacillus lactis Lactobacillus lactis is a probiotic bacteria that produces lactic acid.
  • Probiotic Ingredients Glossary | Natural Supplement | ProbioticSmart.com 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.probioticsmart.com [Source type: Academic]

.Metchnikoff had also observed that certain rural populations in Europe, for example in Bulgaria and the Russian steppes who lived largely on milk fermented by lactic-acid bacteria were exceptionally long lived.^ Toxicity of lactic acid bacteria.

^ The lactic acid bacteria in health and disease.
  • Probiotics List of References || Global Health Trax 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ghthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria are two examples of probiotics.

.Based on these facts, Metchnikoff proposed that consumption of fermented milk would "seed" the intestine with harmless lactic-acid bacteria and decrease the intestinal pH and that this would suppress the growth of proteolytic bacteria.^ In the colon, these bacteria ferment a wide variety of sugars into lactic acid.
  • Probiotic Ingredients Glossary | Natural Supplement | ProbioticSmart.com 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.probioticsmart.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These are often fermented milk products.

^ Metchnikoff E. Lactic acid as inhibiting intestinal putrefaction.
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.Metchnikoff himself introduced in his diet sour milk fermented with the bacteria he called "Bulgarian Bacillus" and found his health benefited.^ He created a sour milk diet and found that it worked to improve his own health.

^ What are the health benefits of consuming friendly bacteria?
  • D'Adamo Personalized Nutrition: NAP Polyflora Probiotics 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.4yourtype.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacillus A dangerous bacteria called Bacillus Species.

.Friends in Paris soon followed his example and physicians began prescribing the sour milk diet for their patients.^ Soon many of the Parisian physicians also prescribed the sour milk diet, particularly for those patients with diarrhea.

^ Friends in Paris soon followed his example and physicians began prescribing the sour milk diet for their patients.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He created a sour milk diet and found that it worked to improve his own health.

[8]
.Bifidobacteria were first isolated from a breast-fed infant by Henry Tissier who also worked at the Pasteur Institute.^ Henry Tissier also from the same institute was the first to isolate a Bifidobacterium.
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry Tissier, also from the Pasteur Institute, was the first to isolate a Bifidobacterium.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ In bottle-fed infants, Bifidobacteria are not predominant.
  • IMMUNECARE by Winning Team Ltd 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.immunecare.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis [9] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium.^ He isolated the bacterium from a breast fed infant and named it Bacillus bifidus communis.
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This bacterium was later renamed Bifidobacterium bifidum.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He isolated the bacterium from a breast-fed infant and named it Bacillus bifidus communis.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.Tissier found that bifidobacteria are dominant in the gut flora of breast-fed babies and he observed clinical benefits from treating diarrhea in infants with bifidobacteria.^ Bifidobacteria bifidum Both bifidobacteria are the primary bacteria found in breast fed infants.
  • Friendly Colonizer "The Repopulator" 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC centralcoastnutrition.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tissier showed that bifidobacteria are predominant in the flora of breast fed babies, and he recommended administration of bifidobacteria to infants suffering from diarrhea.
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tissier showed that bifidobacteria are predominant in the gut flora of breast-fed babies, and he recommended administration of bifidobacteria to infants suffering from diarrhea.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.The claimed effect was bifidobacterial displacement of proteolytic bacteria causing the disease.^ The mechanism claimed was that bifidobacteria would displace the proteolytic bacteria that cause the disease.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Slows the growth of disease-causing bacteria.
  • NaturVet Enzymes & Probiotics: Pet Digestive, Digestive For Dogs & Cats - 1800PetMeds 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.1800petmeds.com [Source type: General]

^ Slows the growth of disease-causing bacteria .
  • NaturVet Enzymes & Probiotics: Pet Digestive, Digestive For Dogs & Cats - 1800PetMeds 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.1800petmeds.com [Source type: General]

.During an outbreak of shigellosis in 1917, German professor Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of Escherichia coli from the feces of a soldier who was not affected by the disease.^ German professor Alfred Nissle, in 1917 isolated a strain of Escherichia coli from the feces of a First World War soldier who did not develop enterocolitis during a severe outbreak of shigellosis.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another popular probiotic is the Nissle strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli).
  • Health Benefits of Probiotics - Food Sources & Supplements 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ A German study[25] found equivalent efficacy of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and mesalazine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis.
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Forum - Heather's IBS Message Boards 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.helpforibs.com [Source type: General]

[10] .Methods of treating infectious diseases were needed at that time when antibiotics were not yet available, and Nissle used the Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain in acute gastrointestinal infectious salmonellosis and shigellosis.^ Acute infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea .
  • Gastrointestinal use of probiotics | Rotavirus Resource Center 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.pediatricsupersite.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may be used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea and acute infectious diarrhea.
  • Probiotics - November 1, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In those days, antibiotics were not yet discovered, and Nissle used the strain with considerable success in acute cases of infectious intestinal diseases (salmonellosis and shigellosis).
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

In 1920, Rettger demonstrated that Metchnikoff's "Bulgarian Bacillus", later called Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, could not live in the human intestine,[11] and the fermented food phenomena petered out. Metchnikoff's theory was disputable (at this stage), and people doubted his theory of longevity.
.After Metchnikoff’s death in 1916, the centre of activity moved to the United States.^ The American Heart Association has reported that atherosclerosis, a major component of cardiovascular disease, affects 1 in 4 persons and contributes to 39% of deaths annually in the United States.

^ After Metchnikoff's death in 1916 the centre of activity moved to the USA. The American workers showed that the yoghurt organisms could not colonise the gut and reasoned that, if the effect was to be manifested in the gut then a gut micro organism was more likely to produce the required effect.
  • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROBIOTICS 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.albertaclassic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ After Metchnikoff’s death in 1916, the centre of activity moved to the US. It was reasoned that bacteria originating from the gut were more likely to produce the desired effect in the gut, and in 1935 certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were found to be very active when implanted in the human digestive tract.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.It was reasoned that bacteria originating from the gut were more likely to produce the desired effect in the gut, and in 1935 certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were found to be very active when implanted in the human digestive tract.^ Lactobacillus acidophilus as a dietary adjunct to aid lactose digestion in humans.
  • Do probiotics reduce adult lactose intolerance? A systematic review — The Journal of Family Practice 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.jfponline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells.

^ Strains that naturally occur in the human digestive tract are called resident strains.
  • Definition probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.vitaminlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Trials were carried out using this organism, and encouraging results were obtained especially in the relief of chronic constipation.^ Trials were carried out using this organism, and encouraging results were obtained, especially in the relief of chronic constipation.
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encouraging results were obtained especially in the relief of chronic constipation.
  • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROBIOTICS 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.albertaclassic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Trials were carried out using this organism, and encouraging results were obtained especially in the relief of chronic constipation.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

.The term "probiotics" was first introduced in 1953 by Kollath (see Hamilton-Miller et al.^ This term was first introduced in 1953 by Kollath.
  • ISPUB - Probiotics: Friendly Microbes For Better Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The term “probiotics” was first introduced in 1953 by Kollath (see Hamilton-Miller et al 2003).
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ It is generally believed that the term probiotics was first introduced in 1953 by Werner Kollath to describe supplements given to people “suffering from a form of malnutrition resulting from eating too much highly refined foods”.

2003). .Contrasting antibiotics, probiotics were defined as microbially derived factors that stimulate the growth of other microorganisms.^ Contrasting antibiotics, probiotics were defined as microbially derived factors that stimulate the growth of other microorganisms.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotics can kill probiotic microorganisms.

^ Probiotics are generally defined as live microbial organisms that are used medicinally to help improve the intestinal bacterial flora.

.In 1989 Roy Fuller suggested a definition of probiotics which has been widely used: "A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance".[13] Fuller's definition emphasizes the requirement of viability for probiotics and introduces the aspect of a beneficial effect on the host.^ The intestinal microflora can be replenished with friendly bacteria by using probiotic supplements.

^ The use of probiotics as farm animal feed supplements dates back to the 1970's.
  • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROBIOTICS 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.albertaclassic.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics, live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, are quickly gaining interest as functional foods in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine.
  • MEDLINE Abstracts: Probiotic Therapy 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the following decades intestinal lactic acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties have been introduced as probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus johnsonii.^ Lactobacillus casei Lactobacillus casei is a probiotic bacteria.
  • Probiotic Ingredients Glossary | Natural Supplement | ProbioticSmart.com 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.probioticsmart.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lactobacillus lactis Lactobacillus lactis is a probiotic bacteria that produces lactic acid.
  • Probiotic Ingredients Glossary | Natural Supplement | ProbioticSmart.com 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.probioticsmart.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid producing probiotic.
  • Probiotic Ingredients Glossary | Natural Supplement | ProbioticSmart.com 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.probioticsmart.com [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Potential benefits

.Experiments into the benefits of probiotic therapies suggest a range of potentially beneficial medicinal uses for probiotics.^ Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits.
  • Probiotics - November 1, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice".
  • Probiotics List of References || Global Health Trax 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ghthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Experiments into the benefits of probiotic therapies suggest a range of potentially beneficial medicinal uses for probiotics.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Probiotic diet as biomedical intervention for Autism and Aspergers syndrome 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

.For many of the potential benefits, research is limited and only preliminary results are available.^ Research continues to uncover many potential benefits of probiotics.
  • Probiotics, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Colon Cleansing 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.puristat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Probiotics - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For many of the potential benefits, research is limited and only preliminary results are available.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]
  • Autism, PDD-NOS & Asperger's fact sheets | Probiotic diet as biomedical intervention for Autism and Aspergers syndrome 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.autism-help.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To truly understand the potential benefit to your body, you have to research the difference between Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus .
  • Howstuffworks "Do probiotics really do anything?" 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HowStuffWorks "Probiotic Bacteria" 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should be noted that the effects described are not general effects of probiotics.^ In general, most agree that in a healthy individual child or adult, probiotics should not cause harm.
  • The Informed Parent | Article 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.informedparent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As probiotic effects are strain dependent, as described above, it is necessary to mention the proper bacterial name and strain.
  • Food-Info.net : Probiotics 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.food-info.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probiotics offer different strains of friendly bacteria that have been scientifically proven to generate restorative and healing effects in the body.

.Recent research on the molecular biology and genomics of Lactobacillus has focused on the interaction with the immune system, anti-cancer potential, and potential as a biotherapeutic agent in cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, travellers' diarrhoea, pediatric diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.^ Inflammatory bowel disease .
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-specific interactions with the immune system.
  • B.E. Wholegrain Liquid - Cultured Drink Probiotic 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.earthincommon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacterial flora in irritable bowel syndrome .
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Forum - Heather's IBS Message Boards 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.helpforibs.com [Source type: General]

[15]
.All effects can only be attributed to the individual strain(s) tested.^ All effects can only be attributed to the strain(s) tested, not to the species, nor to the whole group of LAB (or other probiotics).
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) Practice Guidelines on Probiotics and Prebiotics, the potential probiotic health benefits "can only be attributed to the strain or strains tested, and not to the species or the whole group of lactic acid bacterias or other probiotics."
  • Bifantis.com — About Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.bifantis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bifantis.com — About Bifantis® 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.bifantis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there always remains the possibility that probiotic consumption can cause infection or other side effects and that individuals will respond in different ways to a specific strain.
  • CSA - Discovery Guides, How Probiotics Keep Us Healthy 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.csa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Testing of a supplement does not indicate benefit from any other strain of the same species, and testing does not indicate benefit from the whole group of LAB (or other probiotics).^ Testing L. acidophilus for the same benefit -- not so much.
  • Alternative Health Newsletter: Probiotic Benefits Revisited, Part 1 by Jon Barron 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Details on other probiotic strains from the table .

^ Lactobacillus acidophilus and other probiotics supplements.

[16]

Managing lactose intolerance

.As lactic acid bacteria actively convert lactose into lactic acid, ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than what they would have otherwise.^ What they are Probiotics are strains of bacteria and yeast that are helpful to the human body.

^ The lactic acid bacteria in health and disease.
  • Probiotics List of References || Global Health Trax 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ghthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintaining Lactose Intolerance: Since LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria) could easily convert lactose to lactic acid, its consumption allows individuals with lactose intolerance to tolerate more lactose.
  • Probiotics | What are Probiotics? | Acidophilus 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.myfit.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Prevention of colon cancer

.In laboratory investigations, some strains of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) have demonstrated anti-mutagenic effects thought to be due to their ability to bind with heterocyclic amines, which are carcinogenic substances formed in cooked meat.^ In laboratory investigations, some strains of LAB have demonstrated anti-mutagenic effects thought to be due to their ability to bind with heterocyclic amines, which are carcinogenic substances formed in cooked meat.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain.
  • The Probiotic Solution for Colitis 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.newhope.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In laboratory investigations, LAB have demonstrated anti-mutagenic effects thought to be due to their ability to bind with heterocyclic amines; carcinogenic substances formed in cooked meat.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

[18] .Animal studies have demonstrated that some LAB can protect against colon cancer in rodents, though human data is limited and conflicting.^ Animal studies have demonstrated that LAB can protect against colon cancer in rodents, though human data is limited and conflicting.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Protective against colon cancer and colon tumor.
  • Probiotics in Yogurt 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC 1stprobiotics.com [Source type: General]

^ Animal studies have demonstrated that some LAB can protect against colon cancer in rodents, though human data is limited and conflicting.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

[19] .Most human trials have found that the strains tested may exert anti-carcinogenic effects by decreasing the activity of an enzyme called β-glucuronidase[19] (which can generate carcinogens in the digestive system).^ Strains that naturally occur in the human digestive tract are called resident strains.
  • Definition probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.vitaminlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most human trials have found that LAB may exert anti- carcinogenic effects by decreasing the activity of an enzyme called ß-glucuronidase [7] (which can generate carcinogens in the digestive system).
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Colon Cancer : Some studies have found that probiotics may exert anti-carcinogenic effects by decreasing the activity of an enzyme called b-glucuronidase, which is ca[able of generating carcinogens in the digestive system .
  • How probiotics help intestinal health - by Lisa Marie Mercer - Helium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: General]

.Lower rates of colon cancer among higher consumers of fermented dairy products have been observed in one population study.^ Some dairy products are fermented and some are not.
  • Foods Containing Probiotics | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Lower rates of colon cancer among higher consumers of fermented dairy products have been observed in some population studies.
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Fermented dairy products, dietary calcium and colon cancer: a case-control study.

[17]

Lowering cholesterol

.Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a range of LAB to be able to lower serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut, thus inhibiting its reabsorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol).^ Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a range of lactobacilli to be able to lower serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut , thus inhibiting its reabsorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol).Some, but not all human trials have shown that dairy foods fermented with LAB can produce modest reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels in those with normal levels to begin with, however trials in hyperlipidemic subjects are needed.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a range of LAB to be able to lower cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut, thus inhibiting its re-absorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol).
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regularizing cholesterol levels in the blood.
  • Probiotic Food 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, but not all human trials have shown that dairy foods fermented with specific LAB can produce modest reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels in those with normal levels to begin with, however trials in hyperlipidemic subjects are needed.^ Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a range of lactobacilli to be able to lower serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut , thus inhibiting its reabsorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol).Some, but not all human trials have shown that dairy foods fermented with LAB can produce modest reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels in those with normal levels to begin with, however trials in hyperlipidemic subjects are needed.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Helps maintain normal cholesterol levels.

^ Some dairy products are fermented and some are not.
  • Foods Containing Probiotics | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[17]

Lowering blood pressure

.Several small clinical trials have indicated that consumption of milk fermented with various strains of LAB may result in modest reductions in blood pressure.^ LAB can result in modest reductions in blood pressure .
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High Blood Pressure : Some studies show that milk fermented with probiotics can cause a modest reduction in blood pressure .
  • How probiotics help intestinal health - by Lisa Marie Mercer - Helium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: General]

^ Results may vary per person.

.It is thought that this is due to the ACE inhibitor-like peptides produced during fermentation.^ It is thought that this is due to the ACE inhibitor like peptides produced during fermentation.
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is thought that this is due to the ACE inhibitor -like peptides produced during fermentation.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ingestion of powdered milk fermented with L. helveticus was shown to decrease blood pressure due to the presence of manufactured tripeptides that have ACE inhibitor activity.
  • BioKult Advanced Probiotic Formula 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC biokult.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]

Improving immune function and preventing infections

.LAB are thought to have several presumably beneficial effects on immune function.^ LAB are thought to have several presumably beneficial effects on immune function.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics are thought to have several beneficial effects on immune function.
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them are considered beneficial, crowding out harmful bacteria, speeding digestion and perhaps even enhancing immune function.
  • Probiotics for Cancer Prevention? 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may protect against pathogens by means of competitive inhibition (i.e., by competing for growth) and there is evidence to suggest that they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells, increasing or improving phagocytosis as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells.^ They compete with harmful organisms for nutrients and may also produce substances that inhibit growth of harmful organisms in the gut.
  • Probiotics - Integrative Practitioner 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.integrativepractitioner.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin C will enhance immune function and inhibits the growth of E. coli.

^ A number of studies suggest that various probiotics can enhance immune function .

[20][21] .Clinical trials have demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections[22] and dental caries in children.^ Probiotics: From clinical trial to health claims s...

^ Clinical trials have also demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections and dental caries in children.
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most human trials have found that LAB may exert anti- carcinogenic effects by decreasing the activity of an enzyme called ß-glucuronidase [7] (which can generate carcinogens in the digestive system).
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] .LAB foods and supplements have been shown to be aid in the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea, and in decreasing the severity and duration of rotavirus infections in children and travelers' diarrhea in adults.^ Preventing diarrhea due to traveling.
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LAB foods and supplements have been shown to be effective in the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea, and in decreasing the severity and duration of rotavirus infections in children and travelers' diarrhea in adults.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ There is tentative support for probiotics to prevent diarrhea in adults and children.
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

[20][21]
.A 2010 study suggested that the anecdotal benefits of probiotic therapies as beneficial for preventing secondary infections, a common complication of antibiotic therapy, may be because keeping the immune system primed by eating foods enhanced with "good" bacteria may help counteract the negative effects of sickness and antibiotics.^ Probiotics may help*: Restore balance of essential friendly bacteria after antibiotic use.
  • Probiotic Supplement | Jigsaw Health | Jigsaw Health 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.jigsawhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Probiotics are vital for our immune system, too.

^ Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) - food that helps to keep the friendly bacteria hardy .
  • Dr. Ohhira's Probiotic - Best Probiotic - Probiotic Benefits 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC drbenkim.com [Source type: General]

.It was thought that antibiotics may turn the immune system "off" while probiotics turns it back on "idle", and more able to quickly react to new infections.^ Probiotics are vital for our immune system, too.

^ Probiotics help in stimulating the immune system thereby reducing infections.
  • Probiotic Food 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do Probiotics stimulate the immune system?
  • About Symbion Probiotics from SYMBiON for Life 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.symbionforlife.com [Source type: Academic]

[24]

Helicobacter pylori

.LAB are also thought to aid in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections (which cause peptic ulcers) in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments.^ The bacteria Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of ulcers in the stomach and duodenum.

^ LAB are also thought to aid in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections (which cause peptic ulcers) in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ "The role of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection".
  • Probiotics List of References || Global Health Trax 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ghthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

However more studies are required into this area.[25]

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

.Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.^ Antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

^ Loizeau E. Can antibiotic-associated diarrhea be prevented?
  • Probiotics twelve plus Dr Ohhira VSL3 Primal Defense Jordan Rubin 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC buyprobiotics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.naturesbounty.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This may cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), which in its serious forms can result in hospitalization.
  • Types Of Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.thenibble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microbiota alteration changes carbohydrate metabolism with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and an osmotic diarrhea as a result.^ Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids .
  • Probiotics in Infant Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ifm.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This might be by the short-chain fatty acids created from the oligosaccharides in the colon.
  • Probiotics and Prebiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.labreports.info [Source type: Academic]

^ They are involved in the production of several "gut nutrients," such as short-chain fatty acids, and the amino acids , arginine , cysteine , and glutamine .
  • Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another consequence of antibiotic therapy leading to diarrhea is overgrowth of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Clostridium difficile.^ Decreased incidence and duration of diarrhea (antibiotic associated, Clostridium difficile, travelers, and rotaviral); 7.

^ Studies have shown reuterin produced by L. reuteri is useful against a wide array of harmful bacteria such as pathogenic E. coli strains, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, and many others.
  • Probiotics Rx probiotic supplement - probiotics prebiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.maxamlabs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Potential mechanisms of action include modification of colonic microflora and suppression of organisms, synthesis of antimicrobial substances or competition with pathogenic organisms for nutrients or intestinal binding sites.
  • Gastrointestinal use of probiotics | Rotavirus Resource Center 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.pediatricsupersite.com [Source type: Academic]

.Probiotic treatment can reduce the incidence and severity of AAD as indicated in several meta-analyses.^ The incidence of “traveler’s diarrhea,” caused by pathogenic bacteria in drinking water or undercooked foods, can be reduced by the preventive use of probiotics.

^ Research has shown that the incidence of traveler's diarrhea (from drinking water or undercooked foods) can be reduced by the preventive use of probiotic supplements.
  • Probiotics Education at Life Enthusiast Co-op 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC life-enthusiast.com [Source type: General]

^ The incidence of traveler's diarrhea, caused by pathogenic bacteria in drinking water or undercooked foods, can be reduced by the preventive use of probiotics.

[26][27][28][29][29][30] .However, further documentation of these findings through randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials are warranted.^ A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study.
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DESIGN: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
  • Probiotic Abstracts 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.anapsid.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled.

.Efficacy of probiotic AAD prevention is dependent on the probiotic strain(s) used and on the dosage.^ Effectiveness depends on probiotic strain and dosage .
  • Probiotics - November 1, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because efficacy is dependent on the viability and type of probiotic used.
  • Buy Probiotics & Acidophilus | The Perfect Probiotic Supplement 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC theperfectprobiotic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using probiotics to prevent or eliminate Candida .
  • probiotics news and articles 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • probiotic news and articles 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31][32] Up to a 50% reduction of AAD occurrence has been found.[30] .No side-effects have been reported in any of these studies.^ Few side effects have been reported in studies.
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No adverse side effects have been reported in the majority of studies reviewed.

^ No adverse effects were reported.
  • BioGaia Probiotic Drops for Babies with Colic 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.colichelp.com [Source type: Academic]

.Caution should, however, be exercised when administering probiotic supplements to immunocompromised individuals or patients who have a compromised intestinal barrier.^ Who should not use Babys Only Essentials Probiotic Supplement?

^ However, this same barrier can impede probiotic supplementation.

^ Probiotic Miracle™ is a non-dairy probiotic supplement for dogs containing a patented probiotic strain which is clinically proven to pass through the stomach acid and implant in your dog's intestines.
  • Probiotics for Dogs - Dog Probiotic Supplement - Top Products 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC probioticsfordogs.com [Source type: General]

Reducing inflammation

.LAB foods and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function.^ Cytokines are messenger molecules that regulate our inflammatory and immune response.

^ LAB foods and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LAB foods and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function.Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as improve milk allergies and decrease the risk of atopic eczema in children.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

[20] .Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults,[20] as well as improve milk allergies.^ Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults, [8] as well as improve milk allergies [16] and decrease the risk of atopic eczema in children.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has particularly been associated with the prevention or alleviation of diverse intestinal disorders such as lactose intolerance, viral and bacterial diarrhea, adverse effects of abdominal radiotherapy, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergy The "Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology" notes that it "has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity."
  • Cultura Advanced Probiotic. 5 Billion/7 Different Strains 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.zoeliving.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LAB foods and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function.Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as improve milk allergies and decrease the risk of atopic eczema in children.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

[33] .They are not effective for treating eczema, a persistent skin inflammation.^ If probiotics are beneficial for childhood eczema, they are probably more effective at preventing the condition rather than treating it.

^ This was suggested in a study of infants with early onset atopic eczema (an inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction), who were treated with Bifidobacteria supplementation.

^ After two years, the children were 25 percent less likely than those given a placebo to develop eczema, a type of allergic skin inflammation.
  • Probiotics Information - Learn More about Probiotics! 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Probiotics 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.peertrainer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]. .How probiotics counteract immune system overactivity remains unclear, but a potential mechanism is desensitization of T lymphocytes, an important component of the immune system, towards pro-inflammatory stimuli [35].^ How do Probiotics stimulate the immune system?
  • About Symbion Probiotics from SYMBiON for Life 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.symbionforlife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gina: How do probiotics promote a healthy immune system?
  • allergymoms.com : : Blog » Food Allergies: Are probiotics the answer? 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.allergymoms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do Probiotics stimulate the Immune system?
  • About Symbion Probiotics from SYMBiON for Life 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.symbionforlife.com [Source type: Academic]

Improving mineral absorption

.It is hypothesized that probiotic lactobacilli may help correct malabsorption of trace minerals, found particularly in those with diets high in phytate content from whole grains, nuts, and legumes.^ It is hypothesized that probiotic lactobacilli may help correct malabsorption of trace minerals, found particularly in those with diets high in phytate content from whole grains, nuts, and legumes.
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Note: Probiotics may be unreliable in content.
  • Safety of Probiotics Used to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease: Review Protocol 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is hypothesized that probiotic lactobacilli may help correct malabsorption of trace minerals, found particularly in those with diets high in phytate content from whole grains , nuts , and legumes .
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

[36]

Preventing harmful bacterial growth under stress

.In a study done to see the effects of stress on intestinal flora, rats that were fed probiotics had little occurrence of harmful bacteria latched onto their intestines compared to rats that were fed sterile water.^ Probiotics May Help Stressed Gut - WebMD, 4/25/06 - "Harmful bacteria latched onto cells in the intestinal wall and nearby lymph nodes of stressed rats with sterile drinking water ...
  • Lactobacillius Acidophilus and other Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC qualitycounts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics are the healthy bacteria that live in the intestines.
  • probiotics news and articles 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • probiotic news and articles 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect of probiotics on H. pylori has been studied.

[37]

Irritable bowel syndrome and colitis

.B. infantis 35624, sold as Align, was found to improve some symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in women in a recent study.^ B. infantis 35624, sold as Align, was found to improve some symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in women in a recent study.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial supplementaion in the irritable bowel syndrome.

^ Irritable bowel syndrome is not a disease.
  • Probiotic Blends – High potency, multiple strain probiotics supplement 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC probioticblends.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Another probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, was also found to be effective in reducing IBS symptoms.^ Another probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum 299V, was also found to be effective in reducing IBS symptoms.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Related: probiotics , microorganisms , lactobacillus helveticus , health , chocolate , bifido bacterium longum .
  • Probiotics on Shine 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC shine.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GoodBelly is an organic fruit juice-based probiotic beverage that contains a patented probiotic called Lactobacillus plantarum 299v , which was developed in the U.K. and has tested well for its effects on Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
  • Probiotic Food - Which Foods Are Probiotic 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.thenibble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Additionally, a probiotic formulation, VSL#3, was found to be safe in treating ulcerative colitis, though efficacy in the study was uncertain.^ Probiotics (VSL#3) in arthralgia in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: A pilot study.

^ Probiotics for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.

^ The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of S. boulardii in ulcerative colitis patients.
  • Probiotics : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., probiotics benefits probiotics research 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

[40] .Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 may help.^ Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 may help.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, a probiotic formulation, VSL3, was found to be effective in treating ulcerative colitis [22] Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 may help.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics, particularly Bifidobacterium infantis , Sacchromyces boulardii , Lactobacillus plantarum and combination probiotics may help regulate how often people with IBS have bowel movements.
  • AGA | Patient Center | Diet and Medications | Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.gastro.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .For maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis, Mutaflor (E.coli Nissle 1917) there are 3 controlled, randomized, double blind clinical studies which have proven equivalence of Mutaflor and mesalazine (5-ASAs).^ Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study [translated from German].

^ There is a clinical study, right?

^ A prospective double-blind study.
  • Probiotics in Infant Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ifm.net [Source type: Academic]

[42]

Managing urogenital health

.Several in vitro studies have revealed probiotics' potential in relieving urinary tract infections[43] and bacterial vaginosis.^ Infections are another area with potential for probiotics.

^ More studies are needed to determine effectiveness of probiotics in urinary and urogenital tract infections.

^ Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Results have been varied on these studies, and in vivo studies are still required in this area to determine efficacy.^ The results from these studies have been extremely variable.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results were followed by another mouse study where all the mice were fed a diet high in fat.
  • PROBIOTIC EDUCATION - What They Are, How They Work & Why We Need Them 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC drunkenpenguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, controlled studies are needed to determine the efficacy of each specific strain of probiotic to determine its usefulness in clinical situations.
  • ISPUB - Probiotics And Antibiotics: A Brief Overview 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

Potentially adverse effects

.While the oral use of probiotics is considered safe and even recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) under specific guidelines,[1] in some specific situations (such as critically ill patients) they could be potentially harmful.^ The use of probiotics offers the potential to improve this situation.
  • A Five-Strain Probiotic Combination Reduces Pathogen Shedding and Alleviates Disease Signs in Pigs Challenged with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium -- Casey et al. 73 (6): 1858 -- Applied and Environmental Microbiology 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC aem.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While the oral use of probiotics is considered safe and even recommended by World Health Organization under specific guidelines.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ E. faecium is safe, and has been researched extensively by the World Health Organization.

.In a therapeutic clinical trial conducted by M. Besselink and colleagues in The Netherlands, the consumption of a cocktail containing genetically modified strains of probiotic bacteria, increased the death rate of patients with acute pancreatitis.^ In one therapeutic clinical trial, a probiotic cocktail increased the death rate of patients with acute pancreatitis.
  • Probiotics and the Horse 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.hiform.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important to understand that probiotic supplements contain different strains of bacteria.
  • BioGaia Probiotic Drops for Babies with Colic 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.colichelp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis.

[45] .Probiotics have been shown to be beneficial for other types of patients.^ The use of beneficial microorganisms or other substances in a probiotic is not a medicine, and no claims are made here as to the medical benefits of the product.
  • The best probiotic available 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.energystore.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probiotics are dietary supplements containing beneficial bacteria or yeast that when added to the diet have shown a range of potentially beneficial health benefits.
  • PROBIOTICS 12 PLUS|Dr Ohira's Probiotics|Probiotics Information and Products|Essential Formulas|Choose to be Healthy| 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC probiotics12plus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (This is the reason probiotics are so beneficial to Lyme Disease patients as discussed in Part 2) .
  • PROBIOTIC EDUCATION - What They Are, How They Work & Why We Need Them 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC drunkenpenguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47]
.In a clinical trial conducted at the University of Western Australia, aimed at showing the effectiveness of probiotics in reducing childhood allergies, Dr Susan Prescott and her colleagues gave 178 children either a probiotic or a placebo for the first six months of their life.^ Their newborn children then received either probiotics or placebo for six months.

^ Clinical trials have also demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections and dental caries in children.
  • foodreactions.org: The Digestive System 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.foodreactions.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinical trials have demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections [10] and dental caries in children [11] LAB foods and supplements have been shown to be effective in the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea ; decreasing the severity and duration of rotavirus infections in children as well as travelers diarrhea in adults.
  • Probiotics - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Those given the good bacteria were more likely to develop a sensitivity to allergens.^ Science indicates that as the body ages, the intestinal tract becomes more rigid at only accepting intestinal flora it recognizes; it is difficult for body to recognize or tolerate new good bacteria.
  • Dannon Yogurt Lawsuit Probiotic Health Claims 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.yourlawyer.com [Source type: News]

^ Harmful bacteria include those like E. coli (Escherichia col), etc, but there are many bacteria...
  • probiotics news and articles 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • probiotic news and articles 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When over-the-counter products like Pepto Bismol may do more harm than good .
  • The Blaylock Wellness Report: Probiotics: The Answer to Many Mystery Illnesses 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC w3.newsmax.com [Source type: General]

[48]
.Some hospitals have reported treating lactobacillus septicaemia which is a potentially fatal disease caused by the consumption of probiotics by people with lowered immune systems or who are already very ill.^ Probiotics are vital for our immune system, too.

^ How do Probiotics stimulate the immune system?
  • About Symbion Probiotics from SYMBiON for Life 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.symbionforlife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotics and the immune system .
  • Alternative Health Newsletter: Probiotic Benefits Revisited, Part 1 by Jon Barron 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: Academic]

[48][49]

Strains

.Live probiotic cultures are available in fermented dairy products and probiotic fortified foods.^ Live cultures in dairy foods carry a positive image .

^ Dairy Free Food - Sans dairy products ...
  • Probiotic Food 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Majority of the probiotic food available in the market is fermented partially.
  • Probiotic Food 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, tablets, capsules, powders and sachets containing the bacteria in freeze dried form are also available.^ Previously, the bacteria have been added in freeze-dried form.
  • JUICE BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC BACTERIA - Patent application - Fruit juice beverages comprising probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides may be used for promoting 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Probiotics are also available in tablet, spray, capsule, or powder forms.
  • Prebiotics and Probiotics | The Calorie Control Council 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.caloriecontrol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Supplements are widely available in powder, liquid, capsule, or tablet form.

Probiotic Research and Producer Information[50]
Strain Brandname Producer Potential effect in humans
Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 GanedenBC30 Ganeden Biotech Improves abdominal pain and bloating in IBS patients..[51] Increases immune response to viral challenge.^ In a study of tumour growth in DMH treated mice, yoghurt was found to suppress the inflammatory immune response with an increase in IgA secreting cells and in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

^ However the structure and compounds of the cell wall are believed to increase the immune responses.
  • Probiotics and Prebiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.labreports.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Human LGG, administered orally, has been shown to increase various markers of immune response.
  • The Probiotic Solution for Colitis 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.newhope.com [Source type: Academic]

[52]
Bifidobacterium LAFTI® B94 Bifidobacterium sp LAFTI B94 Institut Rosell-Lallemand Protects against Salmonella typhimurium in mice18,20
Utilises prebiotics for improved colonisation20,21 Facilitates apoptotic response when used in combination with resitant starch in a colon cancer model19 Reduces inflammation and incidence of diarrhoea in an IBD model22 Reduces allergic responses in an allergy model23 Reduces the severity of H.pylori infection of the stomach mucosa24 Inhibits pathogenic bacteria (H. pylori7; List monocytogenes; E. coli8,13,16; Salmonella typhimurium16,18 ) Survives in the conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract5 Adheres to human intestinal cells4 Utilises prebiotics5,6 Synthesises and utilizes folate in yoghurt25|-
Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10 Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10 Institut Rosell-Lallemand Enhances clearance of Candida albicans by induction of
an immune response9 Reduces allergic responses in an allergy model11,23 Protects against Listeria monocytogenes in the gastro- intestinal tract of mice8 Reduces the incidence of tumour formation and the size of intestinal tumors in rats14 Utilises prebiotics for improved colonisation21 Reduces inflammation in an IBD model22 Inhibits pathogenic bacteria (H. pylori 7; List. monocytogenes; E. coli 8,13,16; Salmonella typhimurium16) Superior survival in the conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract compared to other probiotics1,2 Adheres to human intestinal cells4 Produces anti-microbial substances like H202 Utilises prebiotics6|-
Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26 Lactobacillus casei LAFTI L26 Institut Rosell-Lallemand Protects against Salmonella typhimurium in mice12, 20
Utilises prebiotics for improved colonisation20,21 Reduces inflammation in an IBD model22 Reduces allergic responses in an allergy model23 Reduces the severity of H.pylori infection of the stomach mucosa24 Inhibits pathogenic bacteria (H. pylori7; List. monocytogenes; E. coli8,13,16; Salmonella typhimurium16,20) Survives in the conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract12 Adheres to human intestinal cells4 Utilises prebiotics6|-
.Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.^ The method of claim 29, wherein the composition comprises at least two probiotic species selected from Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises at least two probiotic species selected from Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Among the probiotics that may be included in a supplement, are Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. infantis, B. animalis subsp.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

lactis BB-12
Chr. Hansen [citation needed]
Bifidobacterium breve Yakult Bifiene Yakult [citation needed]
Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 Align Procter & Gamble Showed significant improvement for abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating/distention, and/or bowel movement difficulty. [53]
.Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.^ The method of claim 29, wherein the composition comprises at least two probiotic species selected from Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises at least two probiotic species selected from Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Among the probiotics that may be included in a supplement, are Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. infantis, B. animalis subsp.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

lactis HN019 (DR10)
Howaru Bifido Danisco [citation needed]
Bifidobacterium longum BB536 Morinaga Milk Industry [citation needed]
Escherichia coli M-17 ProBactrix BioBalance [citation needed]
Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Mutaflor Ardeypharm [citation needed]
Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 Nebraska Cultures[54] [citation needed]
Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 Chr. Hansen [citation needed]
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Danisco [citation needed]
Lactobacillus casei DN114-001 (Lactobacillus casei Immunitas(s)/Defensis) Actimel/DanActive Danone [citation needed]
Lactobacillus casei 431 Chr. Hansen [citation needed]
Lactobacillus casei F19 Cultura Arla Foods [citation needed]
Lactobacillus casei Shirota Yakult Yakult [citation needed]
Lactobacillus paracasei St11 (or NCC2461)[55] Lactobacillus fortis Nestlé
Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (= Lactobacillus LC1, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533) Nestlé [citation needed]
Lactococcus lactis L1A Norrmejerier Immune stimulation, improves digestive health, reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea[56]
Lactobacillus plantarum 299v GoodBelly / ProViva/ TuZen Probi [citation needed]
Lactobacillus reuteri ATTC 55730 (Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112) BioGaia Biologics Diarrhea prevention and mitigation in children.[57][58], eradication of H. pylori infection[59], amelioration of gingivitis[60], general illness prevention in children[61] and adults[62].^ Lactobacillus is also used for other types of infections including urinary tract infections (UTIs), vaginal yeast infections and to prevent respiratory infections in children attending daycare centers.
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study found that regular use of probiotics could help prevent gastrointestinal infections in adults.

^ It is important to keep our numbers of good bacteria up as we get older to help prevent infection and illness.
  • PROBIOTIC EDUCATION - What They Are, How They Work & Why We Need Them 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC drunkenpenguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53013 (discovered by Gorbach & Goldin) LGG, Vifit and others Valio [citation needed]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB21 Verum Norrmejerier Immune stimulation, improves digestive health, reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea[56]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (boulardii) lyo DiarSafe and others Wren Laboratories and others against antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and .Clostridium difficile infections; to treat acute diarrhoea in adults & children.^ Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus GG for treating acute diarrhoea in children.
  • Probiotics List of References || Global Health Trax 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.ghthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that not all commercially available probiotic preparations are effective in children with acute diarrhoea, say the authors.
  • Probiotics Side Effects - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors concluded that probiotics appear to be a useful adjunct to rehydration therapy in treating acute infectious diarrhea in adults and children.
  • Probiotics - November 1, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[63].[64].[65]
tested as mixture:
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 & Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14
Bion Flore Intime Jarrow Fem-Dophilus Chr. Hansen Oral ingestion results in vaginal colonisation and prevention of vaginitis
tested as mixture:
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM & Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12
Florajen3 American Lifeline, Inc Reduction of .C. difficile–associated disease (CDAD)[2].^ Standard treatment of C. difficile –associated intestinal disease, which involves either vancomycin or metronidazole, can be expensive and difficult.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clostridium difficile –associated intestinal disease.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several alternative treatments have been used in C. difficile –associated intestinal disease.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

tested as mixture:
Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 & Lactobacillus casei
Bio-K+ CL1285 Bio-K+ International Improves digestive health. Prevents Antiobic Associated Diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium Difficile (C Difficile).[67]
.In vitro inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.^ In vitro studies have shown that L. acidipholus can inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sarcina lutea.
  • JUICE BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC BACTERIA - Patent application - Fruit juice beverages comprising probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides may be used for promoting 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lactic acid bacteria have been demonstrated to inhibit the in vitro growth of many enteric pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile and have been used in both humans and animals to treat a broad range of gastrointestinal disorders (Meurman et al.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Enteric pathogens such as, but not limited to, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterotoxigeneic E. coli (ETEC), Salmonella enteriditis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes must be able to successively colonize an animal's intestinal tract in order to cause disease.
  • Prebiotic and preservative uses of oil-emulsified probiotic encapsulations - Patent 7214370 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.Reduction of symptoms of lactose intolerance and immune stimulation.^ Yogurt and other conventional starter cultures and probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products improve lactose digestion and eliminate symptoms of intolerance in lactose maldigesters.
  • MEDLINE Abstracts: Probiotic Therapy 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fourth, many individuals with symptoms of lactose intolerance do not meet the definition of diagnosis as measured by breath hydrogen testing (SOR: B ).
  • Do probiotics reduce adult lactose intolerance? A systematic review — The Journal of Family Practice 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.jfponline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When you properly digest lactose, you may notice many of your symptoms of lactose intolerance, such as gas, loose stools and bloating, go away.
  • Fundamental Earth - Products - Probiotic - 12 Strains - 25 Billion Organisms 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.fundamentalearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]
Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 & Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 A'Biotica and others Institut Rosell [citation needed]
Some other bacteria mentioned in probiotic products: (yoghurt bacteria):
Some fermented products containing similar lactic acid bacteria include:

Multi-probiotic

.
Research is emerging on the potential health benefits of multiple probiotic strains as a health supplement as opposed to a single strain.
^ Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits.
  • Probiotics - November 1, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics.
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These bacterial strains have been clinically shown to normalize colon function and implant in higher numbers than some bacteria used in probiotic supplements.
  • BioSET® System - Products: Enzymes and Remedies 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.bioset.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77][78] .The human gut is home to some 400-500 types of microbes.^ It has been estimated that more than 1000 different species, or types, of bacteria make their homes on humans ref .

^ My next major article will discuss gut bacteria in greater detail and may clarify some of your questions related to gut microbes and the MP. .
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is thought that this diverse environment may benefit from multiple probiotic strains; different strains populate different areas of the digestive tract, and studies are beginning to link different probiotic strains to specific health benefits.^ Probiotics are microorganisms with potential health benefits.
  • Probiotics - November 1, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro studies also support the diversity of actions of different probiotics.
  • Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks? -- Boyle et al. 83 (6): 1256 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics.
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

Supplement products that contain more than one probiotic strain:
Company Product Probiotic Strains Strain Qty
Enzymatic Therapy Acidophilus Pearls Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum 2
Kyolic Kyo-Dophilus Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum 3
New Chapter Probiotic Colon Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 10
OptiBac Probiotics For daily wellbeing Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175, Lactococcus lactis Rosell-1058, Bifidobacterium breve Rosell-70, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell-11, Lactobacillus acidophilus Rosell-52, Bifidobacterium bifidum rosell-71 6
Renew Life Flora Smart Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius 10
Sedona Labs iFlora Multi-Probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus 16

Synbiotics

.As probiotics are mainly active in the small intestine and prebiotics are only effective in the large intestine,[79] the combination of the two may give a synergistic effect.^ Combinations of probiotics and prebiotics can result in additive or synergistic effects on gastrointestinal function.

^ In most cases, even if viability is not required, it is likely correlated with most effects because it is a useful indicator of the number of cells present, regardless of what cell component may be active.
  • Considerations for Use of Probiotic Bacteria to Modulate Human Health -- Sanders 130 (2): 384 -- Journal of Nutrition 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After passage through the stomach and small intestine, some probiotics survive and become established transiently in the large bowel, where the colon's fermentation capacity is positively modified.
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Appropriate combinations of pre- and probiotics are synbiotics.^ Where a prebiotic is combined with a probiotic, the resulting supplement is sometimes referred to as a "synbiotic."
  • Probiotic oral dosage forms - Patent application - Provided are probiotic compositions that have enhanced stability under various storage conditions 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A probiotic can be combined with a prebiotic to form what is called a synbiotic (Gibson and Roberfroid 1995 , Lewis and Freedman 1998 ).
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The synbiotic concept must be tested more rigorously as must the use of multiple probiotic strain combinations.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

Research

.Research about probiotics shows benefits.^ A lot of research has indicated the therapeutic benefit of probiotics to reduce accosiated diarrhea, promote regularity as well as overall health and well-being.

^ ABSTRACT: Although the promotion of Probiotics, and more specifically Lactobacillus GG, as a way maintain good health might seem novel, research showing its benefits can be traced back to the turn of this century.

^ The way alternative docs keep prescribing Probiotics to me, I thought it was all well researched and have always been confused about my own lack of response to taking them.
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A study in 2004 testing the immune system of students given either milk or Actimel over a 6 week exam period (3 weeks of studying, 3 weeks of exams) tested 19 different biomarkers.^ You can activate or turn off the immune system, depending on which part of the immune system you are measuring and what pathogen you are testing.

^ Research suggests that probiotics, especially those in milk or food, may help boost the immune system.
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High dose antibiotics impact the immune system is a very different way than pulsed, low-dose antibiotics.
  • Pondering Probiotics 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these 19 biomarkers only 2 were shown to be different between the two groups, increased production of lymphocytes and increased production of CD56 cells.^ Different etiologic agents may have involved in these two locations, but this possibility was not examined.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most acidophilus capsules on the market contain 2 1/2 billion viable cells  per capsule and only one or two different cultures.
  • FLORA SOURCE and the PROBIOTIC REVOLUTION 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.merc-buyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newcomer measured only symptoms, showing no significant difference between L acidophilus milk and unaltered milk.
  • Do probiotics reduce adult lactose intolerance? A systematic review — The Journal of Family Practice 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.jfponline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The tests were not blind and show that certain probiotic strains may have no overall effect on the immune system or on its ability.^ Although much remains to be learned regarding the mechanisms of action and the appropriate administration of probiotic strains, it is clear that different strains can have very specific effects.
  • Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks? -- Boyle et al. 83 (6): 1256 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ L. paracasei regulates the immune system and curtails the formation of certain cancers.
  • Fundamental Earth - Products - Probiotic - 12 Strains - 25 Billion Organisms 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.fundamentalearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors suggest that a stimulation of the immune system by the lactobacilli may be an important factor in its effect on the patients.

[80]
.A 2007 study at University College Cork in Ireland showed that a diet including milk fermented with Lactobacillus bacteria prevented Salmonella infection in pigs.^ A number of intestinal infections, including those caused by salmonella and shigella, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea may be prevented or treated by fermented dairy products and lyophilized lactobacilli preparations.

^ Lactobacillus is also used for other types of infections including urinary tract infections (UTIs), vaginal yeast infections and to prevent respiratory infections in children attending daycare centers.
  • Probiotics (LACTOBACILLUS): Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Here, we investigate the effects of oral treatment of pigs with a defined lactic acid bacteria culture mixture on both clinical and microbiological signs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection.
  • A Five-Strain Probiotic Combination Reduces Pathogen Shedding and Alleviates Disease Signs in Pigs Challenged with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium -- Casey et al. 73 (6): 1858 -- Applied and Environmental Microbiology 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC aem.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[81]
.A 2007 clinical study at Imperial College London showed that preventive consumption of a commercially available probiotic drink containing L casei DN-114001, L bulgaricus, and S thermophilus can reduce the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and C difficile-associated diarrhea.^ Probiotics are useful for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea.

^ Administration of probiotics has also been shown to reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea in children and adults.
  • JUICE BEVERAGES WITH PROBIOTIC BACTERIA - Patent application - Fruit juice beverages comprising probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides may be used for promoting 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

[82]
.The efficacy and safety of a daily dose of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 in the prevention of AAD was demonstrated by Montreal’s Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, in a clinical study of hospitalized patients.^ Study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Forum - Heather's IBS Message Boards 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC www.helpforibs.com [Source type: General]

^ Clinical evaluation of the addition of lyophilized, heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children.

^ Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventive in travelers.

[67]

Criticisms

.Some experts are skeptical on the efficacy of many strains and believe not all subjects will benefit from the use of probiotics.^ Some of the probiotic benefits include: .
  • Fundamental Earth - Products - Probiotic - 12 Strains - 25 Billion Organisms 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.fundamentalearth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many microorganisms have been used or considered for use as probiotics.
  • The Role of Probiotic Cultures in the Control of Gastrointestinal Health -- Rolfe 130 (2): 396 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 February 2010 11:23 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These bacterial strains have been clinically shown to normalize colon function and implant in higher numbers than some bacteria used in probiotic supplements.
  • BioSET® System - Products: Enzymes and Remedies 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC www.bioset.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] .A criticism of probiotic supplements is the cost and value of probiotics products.^ Product review: probiotic supplements and foods (including lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium ).

^ Probiotic-containing dietary supplements frequently indicate a viable count per dose contained in the product at time of manufacture, not at end of shelf life.
  • Considerations for Use of Probiotic Bacteria to Modulate Human Health -- Sanders 130 (2): 384 -- Journal of Nutrition 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotic bacteria can be found worldwide in a variety of products, including conventional food products, dietary supplements and medical foods.
  • Considerations for Use of Probiotic Bacteria to Modulate Human Health -- Sanders 130 (2): 384 -- Journal of Nutrition 16 January 2010 20:13 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

[83]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria (October 2001). [www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/en/probiotics.pdf "Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria"]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization. www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/en/probiotics.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  2. ^ Hamilton-Miller, Professor J. M. T.; G. R. Gibson, W. Bruck. [http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FBJN%2FBJN90_04%2FS0007114503001946a.pdf&code=a5bb6b0c0d0a37101d84a553e6b92ef1 "Some insights into the derivation and early uses of the word ‘probiotic’"]. British Journal of Nutrition 2003 (90): 845. doi:10.1079/BJN2003954. http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FBJN%2FBJN90_04%2FS0007114503001946a.pdf&code=a5bb6b0c0d0a37101d84a553e6b92ef1. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Metchnikoff, E. 1907. Essais optimistes. Paris. The prolongation of life. Optimistic studies. Translated and edited by P. Chalmers Mitchell. London: Heinemann, 1907.
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