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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A problem is an "issue" or obstacle which makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal, objective or purpose. It refers to a situation, condition, or issue that is yet unresolved. In a broad sense, a problem exists when an individual becomes aware of a significant difference between what actually is and what is desired.

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Problem solving

Every theoretical problem asks for an answer or solution. Trying to find a solution to a problem is known as problem solving. That is, a problem is a gap between an actual and desired situation. The time it takes to solve a problem is a way of measuring complexity.[1] Many problems have no discovered solution and are therefore classified as an open problem.

From the mid 20th century, the field of theoretical computer science has explored the use of computers to solve problems.

Examples

  • Mathematical problem is a question about mathematical objects and structures that may require a distinct answer or explanation or proof. Examples include word problems at school level or deeper problems such as shading a map with only four colours.
  • In society, a problem can refer to particular social issues, which if solved would yield social benefits, such as increased harmony or productivity, and conversely diminished hostility and disruption.
  • In business and engineering, a problem is a difference between actual conditions and those that are required or desired. Often, the causes of a problem are not known, in which case root cause analysis is employed to find the causes and identify corrective actions.
  • In chess, a problem is a puzzle set by somebody using chess pieces on a chess board, for others to get instruction or intellectual satisfaction from determining the solution.
  • In theology, there is what is referred to as the Synoptic Problem, which includes in its discourse a concern for assumptions of historical accuracy that are challenged by apparent contradictions in the Gospels' accounts of allegedly historical events.
  • In academic discourse a problem is a challenge to an assumption, an apparent conflict that requires synthesis and reconciliation. It is a normal part of systematic thinking, the address of which adds to or detracts from the veracity of a conclusion or idea.
  • An optimization problem is finding the best solution from all feasible solutions. A good example of this type of problem is the travelling salesperson problem which is based on calculating the most efficient route between many places
  • In computability theory a decision problem requires a simple yes-or-no answer.
  • In rock climbing a problem is a series of rocks that forces the climber to climb.
  • In reading, a problem is a combination of a series of words with the overall plotline, which the reader must attempt to decipher.
  • In walking, a mobility problem is presented. Motion is achieved via mechanical interaction of the legs and a surface.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Puzzle Master. Alexandria, Virginia, USA: Time-Life Books. 1989. pp. 32. ISBN 0809709287. 

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Problem prideleni koleje na VSE Praha:

1. pri posuzovani zadosti je zohlednovana jenom prima vzdalenost do mista trvaleho bydlisce, ne vzdalenost dojizdeni

2. pridelovani ubytovani v lete behem prazdnin neni reseno v electronicke forme

3. pri pridelovani nejsou zohledneny studijny vysledky studenta (prumer znamek), ale jenom pocet ziskanych kreditu.

4. potencialni "zakazniky" nemaji dostatecnej pristup k iformacnimu systemu (k poctu volnych mist v jednotlivych kolejich)

5. je běžná určitá "korupce", kdy si student u doktora neprávem získá potvrzení o zdravotní nezpůsobilosti a získá 1000b,čímž je automaticky ubytován

6.na rozmísťování studentů má vliv kolejní rada, jenž je z řad studentů, čili zisk určité koleje je důsledkem určitého kamarádíčkování

7.IS suz je netransparentní a málo informativní(není znám klíč podle kterého se přiděluje určitá kolej atd.)


PREDEM SE OMLOUVAM ZA CESTINU, NENI TO ZADNA PESNICKA ALE PISU TO NARYCHLE A SNAD TOMU POCHOPITE kurzivou sou poznamky [[ !MY MUSIME JEN POPSAT PROBLEM, NIKOLIV JEHO RESIT..TENTO PROBLEM SE DA POPSAT HEZKY A DLOUHO, A POTOM AT SE TIM LAME HLAVU RESICI TYM :)]]


CIzinecka policie- to je jen par odkazu alwe tych je hodne:

http://www.czech.cz/cz/ceska-republika/bezpecnost/bezpecnostni-slozky/policie-ceske-republiky/

http://www.cizinci.cz/clanek.php?lg=1&id=180

http://www.dfens-cz.com/view.php?cisloclanku=2007072902

http://www.blisty.cz/art/10049.html

http://zpravy.idnes.cz/cizinecka-policie-si-pred-schengenem-cistila-stit-fvd-/domaci.asp?c=A071218_200706_domaci_adb


1. situace vnimana jako problematicka. Nestruktorovany problem.

Kazdy cizinec, dlouhodobe zijici v CR drive nebo pozdej potkava problem navstevy cizinecke policie. V podstate veskere dokumenty a papiry cizincu na uzemi CR spravuje prave tento urad.

V cizinecke policie se vydava vizy, registruje se misto bydleni a jeho zmena, vydavaji se rad podtvrzeni a dokumentu, podstatnych pro zivot cizostatneho prislusnika na uzemi CR (napr., podtvrzeni o legalnim pobytu na uzemi CR, pozvani pro cleny rodiny atd). Okrem toho na tomto urade se registruji kratkodoby navstevy CR, a take se ziskavaji informace, tykajici se pobytu a pravach cizincu v Ceske Republice.

Ale navsteva policie pro vyrizovani toho ci jineho papiru nebo reseni i toho nejmensiho problemu neni zrovna snadna a lehka zalezitost. Jednorazova navsteva tohoto uradu muze stat navstevnikovi spoustu casu a nervu (pripadne i penez). Dav, kterej se akumuluje pred dvery policie od rana Po az Ct (v patek je to zavrene) je neuveritelne obrovskej. Zacatek akumulace davy je kolem (PREDPOKLADAM) pul4-4 - prichazi prvni klienti. Pri pohledu na takove mnozstvi lidi, stlacenych do takove koncentrace, nechce se verit ze se to deje uprostred Evropy v civilizovane zeme. Po otevreni dveri (kolem 7.30, obcas ponekud drive) - snaha se dostat dovnitr pripomina valku o zivot. Hodne navstevniku a besprostrednich ucastniku teto procedury vstoupeni do dveri zminovali, ze v nejakej okamzik meli obavy o svoje zdravi a zejmena o koncetiny (NEDELAM LEGRACE).

Takze nestrukturovanej problem zni: jakym zpusobem (jakymy zpusoby) se da minimalizovat cas (a respektive civilizovat process), stravenej cizincem na tomto urade,za predpokladu ze veskere potrebne papiry, dokumenty a zalezitosti si cizinec uspesne vyridi.

2. Pohled jednotlivych subjektu:


1. cizinci, ktere se da rozdelit na 2 skupiny - Clenove EU a clenove tretich zeme (pricemz do clenu tretich zeme patri prekvapive nejenom ukrajincy apod, ale i americane, kanadane a tp). Clenove EU sice maji problem zmirnenej, protoze chodi do jinych prepazek a ani tam nemusi chodit vubec - ale i ty jestli potrebuji neco vyridit - stravi tam az moc hodne casu (a vyrizovat musi, protoze pro normalni zivot v CR potrebuji splnit radu pozadavku i ziskat nekolik papiru, napr, prehodny pobyt).


2. Cesi - blizke cizincu. Ackoliv nemaji za potrebu na policie chodit, vetsinou jsou nuceni se do vetsi nebo mensi miry zucastnovat pochodu na policie, takze zazivaji stejne emoce jako i bezprostredne dotycne cizincy.

3. Obyvatele okolnich domu/pracovniki vedlejsich firem. Tyto subjekty take zremne nejsou scestne ze vedle jejich domu kazde rano se vyskytuje obrovskej dav cizincu, zdaleka ne vsichni z kterych vypadaji pratelsky a bespecne. Kdyby se povedlo tento dav zmensit - byli by bezpochybne scastnejsi a dokonce snad i cena jejich nemovitosti by ponekud vzrostla (coz nejsem si jista, ale kdo vi, dalo by se to zijstit, nebo aspon zkusit).

4. pracovniky uradu. Ty by meli ze zmenseni front uzitek a skodu: lepe by se jim pracovalo, protoze by lidi-zakazniky byli klidnejsi a ne natolik nervni, ale zas by se zmensilo mnozstvi uplatku

5. stinove pracovnici - lidi, ktere maji kvazi-zamestnani tam. Nejsou oficialnimi pracovniky, ale tezi se situaci v urade. Za urcitej poplatek vyridi cokoliv (krome trvaleho pobytu, ale i ten se da, jen je to trochu drahe a riskantni)a "zakaznik se tam ani nemusi objevit. "

6. Poskytovatele a pracovnici firem verejnych sluzeb (uklid, doprava) - vlivem te fronty se zvetsuje zatez a naroky na jejich prace (zejmena uklid).

7. Retail obchodniky, majici ddrobne podnikani v okoli (eg. trafiky, potraviny, etc.) - zvetsuje se poptavka po jejich zbozi

8. Ponekud i siroka verejnost - korupce a vseobecne situace na cizinecke policie je popularni tema pro diskuse, clanky v mass media a vseobecne

K tomu jeste patri nejakej nacmaranej obrazecek, ale to uz je zalezitost jakehosi braistormingu

3. Relevantni system - cizinecka policie

X: System, ktery plni funkce kontrolniho a dohledniho urada pro cizince: vyrizovani viz, povoleni k pobytu, registrace bydliste, vydavani podtvrzeni bla bla bla (musim popremyslet)

Y: za pouziti predpisu (jakych -musim zijstit) a i pomoci uredniku (jake plni funkce a kdo je kdo-?)

Z: aby upravovat pobyt cizincy na uzemi CR.

CATWOE:

customers: cizinci(ztraceji)/stinove pracovnici(vyhravaji) actors: pracovnici,

transformation: cizinec bez papiru => cizinec s papirem

weltanshaung: motivace cizincu k legalnimu pobytu v CR, stimulovani teto motivace

owners: vedeni Policie

enviroment: public opinion, legislativa, mass media


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Problem article)

From Wikisource

The Problem
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The Problem may refer to:


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also problem

German

Pronunciation

Noun

Problem n. (genitive Problems or Problemes, plural Probleme)

  1. problem

Simple English

A problem is a situation which is difficult to deal with. The word comes from a Greek word meaning an "obstacle" (something that is in your way). If someone has a problem, they have to find a way of solving the problem. The way to solve it is called a solution.

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Examples

"John has locked his car keys inside his car so that he cannot get at them. John has a problem".

Social examples

We can also talk about a child with "behaviour problems".

Entertainment examples

Some problems are made up for fun. These are like puzzles. Some of them can be solved with logic, others can be solved by trial and error (this is called heuristic).

Mathematical examples

Here is an example of a mathematical problem: "John is three times as old as Mary. In three years time he will be twice as old as Mary. How old are John and Mary?" (9 and 3)

Children often like to give one another problems that can be solved by "lateral thinking". This means using the imagination rather than strict logic. Here is an example:

"Peter, Ruth, Samuel and Jessica live in the same house. Peter and Ruth went out. When they returned they found Jessica lying dead, surrounded by glass. They were sure Samuel had done it. Why did they not call the police?" The answer is: Samuel was the cat and Jessica was a goldfish.








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