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Proboscidea
Fossil range: 60–0 Ma
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
N
Late Paleocene – Recent
African Bush Elephant, Loxodonta africana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Afrotheria
Order: Proboscidea
Illiger, 1811
Families

extant:
Elephantidae

survived to late Pleistocene:
Gomphotheriidae
Mammutidae
Stegodontidae

earlier extinctions:
†Amebelodontidae
Anthracobunidae
Barytheriidae
†Choerolophodontidae
Deinotheriidae
†Gnathabelodontidae
†Hemimastodontidae
Moeritheriidae
Numidotheriidae
†Palaeomastodontidae

Proboscidea is an order containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several recently extinct families, Gomphotheriidae (a subfamily of Elephantoidea), possibly Stegodontidae (depending on the assignment of Stegodon) and Mammutidae. Elephantidae contains three living species (the African Bush Elephant, African Forest Elephant, and Asian Elephant) and the now extinct mammoth species of genus Mammuthus from Eurasia and North America. Other recently extinct species that were present at the end of the last ice age include several gomphotheres in Central and South America, several stegodonts in parts of Asia, and the American mastodon of Mammutidae in North America.[1]

Going further back in time, in the late Tertiary, species present included the "shovel tuskers" like Platybelodon and Amebelodon. The earliest known proboscidean is Eritherium[2], followed by Phosphatherium, both dating from Paleocene deposits of Morocco. From the Eocene, several very primitive proboscideans are known, including the African Numidotherium, Barytherium, Moeritherium and the Anthracobunidae from the Indian subcontinent.

The extant proboscideans may be summarised as follows:[3]

Proboscidea
Elephantidae
Elephas (Asiatic)
Elephas maximus
Elephas maximus maximus
Elephas maximus indicus
Elephas maximus sumatranus
Loxodonta (African)
Loxodonta africana
Loxodonta cyclotis

References

  1. ^ Bjorn Kurten, Elaine Anderson (2005-05-17). "Pleistocene mammals of North America - Google Books". Google Book Search. http://books.google.com/books?id=f8pviaxPIKEC&pg=PA343&lpg=PA343&dq=Mammutidae+order&source=bl&ots=rCUwGCaqat&sig=ElbbZiotc3hIUnw8W6OIykNKTak&hl=en&ei=uXZLSpqSGIqWtge8g_2bDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7. Retrieved 2009-07-01.  
  2. ^ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI:10.1073/pnas.0900251106
  3. ^ Elephantidae MSW3 database. Bucknell University
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1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

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Ancient Greek πρό (pro), in front) + βόσκω (boskō), to feed).

Proper noun

Proboscidea

  1. a taxonomic order, within subclass Placentalia - the elephants

Hyponyms

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Superordo: Afrotheria
Cladus: Paenungulata
Ordo: Proboscidea
Familiae: †Deinotheriidae - Elephantidae - †Gomphotheriidae - †Jozaria - †Mammutidae - †Moeritheriidae - †Stegodontidae - Incertae sedis

Name

Proboscidea Illiger, 1811

Synonyms

  • Proboscidiae Gray, 1821
  • Probosciformes Kinman, 1994

Vernacular names

Български: Хоботни
English: Elephants
Español: Proboscídeos
Français: Proboscidiens
Italiano: Proboscidati
Magyar: Ormányosok
Nederlands: Olifantachtigen
日本語: ゾウ目
Polski: Trąbowce
Svenska: Elefantdjur
Türkçe: Hortumlular
Українська: Хоботні
中文: 長鼻目

References

  • Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edition, 2005 ISBN 0801882214
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Proboscidea on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Proboscidea
Fossil range: Late Paleocene - Recent
File:African Elephant by
African Elephant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Afrotheria
Order: Proboscidea
Illiger, 1811

Proboscidea is an order containing only one familiy of living animals, Elephantidae, the elephants, with three living species (African Forest Elephant, and Asian Elephant)[1]. During the period of the last ice age there were more, now extinct species, including a number of species of the elephant-like mammoths and mastodons.

Origins

The oldest dates from the early Tertiary period, over 50 million years ago. The evolution of the elephant-like animals mainly concerned the proportions of the cranium and jaw and the shape of the tusks and molar teeth.

Groups

†Jozaria
†Anthracobunidae
†Moeritheriidae
Euproboscidea

  • †Numidotheriidae
  • †Barytheriidae
  • †Phiomiidae
  • †Deinotheriidae
  • Elephantiformes
    • †Palaeomastodontidae
    • †Hemimastodontidae
    • Euelephantoidea
      • †Choerolophodontidae
      • †Amebelodontidae
      • †Gnathabelodontidae
      • †Gomphotheriidae
      • Elephantidae
      • †Mammutidae
      • †Stegodontidae

References

  1. Template:MSW3 Shoshani
Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Look up Proboscidea in Wikispecies, a directory of species


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