Filename extension  .pgf 

Developed by  xeraina GmbH 
Type of format  waveletbased bitmapped image format 
PGF (Progressive Graphics File) is a waveletbased bitmapped image format that employs lossless and lossy data compression. PGF was created to improve upon and replace the JPEG format. It was developed at the same time as JPEG 2000 but with a different focus: speed over compression ratio.
PGF can operate at higher compression ratios without taking more encoding/decoding time and without generating the characteristic 'blocky and blurry' artifacts of the original DCTbased JPEG standard ^{[1]}. It also allows more sophisticated progressive downloads.
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PGF supports a wide variety of color models:
There are several claimed advantages of PGF over the ordinary JPEG standard:
The aim of PGF is not only improved compression quality over JPEG but also adding (or improving) features such as scalability. In fact, PGF's improvement in compression performance relative to the original JPEG standard is actually rather modest and should not ordinarily be the primary consideration for evaluating the design. Moreover, very low and very high compression rates (including lossless compression) are also supported in PGF. In fact, the ability of the design to handle a very large range of effective bit rates is one of the strengths of PGF. For example, to reduce the number of bits for a picture below a certain amount, the advisable thing to do with the first JPEG standard is to reduce the resolution of the input image before encoding it — something that is ordinarily not necessary for that purpose when using PGF because of its wavelet scalability properties.
The PGF process chain contains the following four steps:
Initially, images have to be transformed from the RGB color space to another color space, leading to three components that are handled separately. PGF uses a fully reversible modified YUV color transform. The transformation matrices are:
The chrominance components can be, but do not necessarily have to be, downscaled in resolution.
The color components are then wavelet transformed to an arbitrary depth, in contrast to JPEG 1992 which uses an 8x8 blocksize discrete cosine transform. PGF uses one reversible wavelet transform: a rounded version of the biorthogonal CDF 5/3 wavelet transform. This wavelet filter bank is exactly the same as the reversible wavelet used in JPEG 2000. It uses only integer coefficients, so the output does not require rounding (quantization) and so it does not introduce any quantization noise.
After the wavelet transform, the coefficients are scalarquantized to reduce the amount of bits to represent them, at the expense of a loss of quality. The output is a set of integer numbers which have to be encoded bitbybit. The parameter that can be changed to set the final quality is the quantization step: the greater the step, the greater is the compression and the loss of quality. With a quantization step that equals 1, no quantization is performed (it is used in lossless compression). In contrast to JPEG 2000 PGF uses only powers of two, therefore the parameter value i represents a quantization step of 2^{i}. Just using powers of two makes no need of integer multiplication and division operations.
The result of the previous process is a collection of subbands which represent several approximation scales. A subband is a set of coefficients — integer numbers which represent aspects of the image associated with a certain frequency range as well as a spatial area of the image.
The quantized subbands are split further into blocks, rectangular regions in the wavelet domain. They are typically selected in a way that the coefficients within them across the subbands form approximately spatial blocks in the (reconstructed) image domain and collected in a fixed size macroblock.
The encoder has to encode the bits of all quantized coefficients of a macroblock, starting with the most significant bits and progressing to less significant bits. In this encoding process, each bitplane of the macroblock gets encoded in two socalled coding passes, first encoding bits of significant coefficients, then refinement bits of significant coefficients. Clearly, in lossless mode all bitplanes have to be encoded, and no bitplanes can be dropped.
Only significant coefficients are compressed with an adaptive runlength/Rice (RLR) coder, because they contain long runs of zeros. The RLR coder with parameter k (logarithmic length of a run of zeros) is also known as the elementary Golomb code of order 2^{k}.
The JPEG 2000 is slightly more spaceefficient in the case of natural images. The PSNR for the same compression ratio is on average 3% better than the PSNR of PGF. Its small advantage in compression ratio is paid with a clearly higher encoding and decoding time.
The original PGF source code is open (not patented) and available under LGPL.
The PNG (Portable Network Graphics) format is still more spaceefficient in the case of images with many pixels of the same color. It can be expected that PNG will be more heavily used for compressing diagramtype images and PGF for photographtype images.

