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Project 86
Project 86 performs at a concert. The entire band plays on a stage in front of a group of people, engulfed in blue lights.
Project 86 performing at Easterfest 2008 in Australia. Visible from left to right are: Randy Torres, Andrew Schwab, and Steven Dail.
Background information
Origin Orange County, California, U.S.
Genres Alternative metal
Nu metal
Years active 1996–present
Labels Atlantic Records
BEC Recordings
Tooth & Nail Records
Associated acts Crash Rickshaw
Neon Horse
Starflyer 59
Steven Dail
Andrew Schwab
Randy Torres
Former members
Alex Albert

Project 86 is an American rock band from Orange County, California, formed in 1996. As of 2009, the line-up consists of bassist Steven Dail, vocalist and songwriter Andrew Schwab, and guitarist Randy Torres. The band has released seven studio albums, which have collectively sold over 375,000 units worldwide, two EPs, and two DVDs.[1] Their music is characterized by an aggressive hardcore style, which has incorporated folk music, goth rock, metal, and hip-hop. Schwab's introspective lyrics have addressed topics like conformity and emptiness.

The band was formed by Schwab and former drummer Alex Albert as a way to inspire people to live their lives with hope. In 1998, BEC Recordings released a self-titled debut album that was well received by critics and consumers. Mainstream record labels soon approached the band with record negotiations; they signed a joint deal with Atlantic and Tooth & Nail Records, the parent company of BEC. The band's next two albums were released cooperatively. However, conflict arose when Project 86 gave precedence to their mainstream audience. Eventually, the band was dropped from both labels. After releasing an independent album, the band re-negotiated a contract with Tooth & Nail and put out three more albums, the latest being Picket Fence Cartel in summer 2009.



1996–1999: Formation and self-titled debut

Project 86 was formed in June 1996 by vocalist Andrew Schwab and drummer Alex Albert in Orange County, California.[2] Schwab had been attending Southern California College as a full time student, and was an active volunteer in his church as a youth minister. Albert also attended college at the time.[3] Both men shared a desire to positively influence people, particularly kids, and so created the band. Guitarist Randy Torres, who was attending high school, was recruited shortly after formation. After going through two bassists, high school student Stephen Dail joined in August 1997.[2]

The band was originally called "The Project"; the number 86 was added later.[4] Commenting on its inclusion, Schwab said, "The generation before us kind of used that phrase to describe when they would kick something out, give it a boot, get rid of it...Project 86 is like the whole idea of being rejected, or separate, or not going along with the group."[2] An image of a dragon was picked to represent the band simply because "it looked cool".[5] The group did not travel much initially; they decided to hone their sound and live performances before embarking on tours.[6] In 1997, Project 86 was voted one of the top independent acts of the year by HM magazine readers. At Tomfest the same year, their performance was a big hit. BEC Recordings, a Christian sublabel of Tooth & Nail Records, became interested and subsequently signed them.[2]

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Brian Carlstrom, who had overseen albums by multi-platinum outfits The Offspring and Alice in Chains, produced their self-titled debut.[9] The group stayed with a friend named Joby Harris in Burbank, California while recording; he would later collaborate with Albert and Dail in a side band.[10] Schwab drew on personal struggles he was experiencing at the time to write meaningful lyrics.[11] Sonny Sandoval, lead singer of alternative metal group P.O.D., appeared as a guest performer and helped generate interest among metal fans. The album was released in June 1998 and was well received with nu-metal crowds.[12] It sold well and gained mainstream exposure on MTV shows Road Rules and The Real World.[6]

The band was marketed as a rapcore band,[13] which drew favorable comparisons to P.O.D.[14] and Tool,[12] but elicited protest from Schwab, "There is a little bit of rapping in the music, but it's not a hip-hop influence [...] you wouldn't call Beck a rapper, even though he raps."[13] Characterized by lengthy tracks and Schwab's unique vocal delivery, Project 86 was observed by Allmusic to be the "most daring album at the time for its genre".[12] The success of their debut made Project 86 a top seller for BEC.[15]

2000–2003: Drawing Black Lines and Truthless Heroes

Promotional image of Project 86 in 2001. Visible from left to right, top: guitarist Randy Torres, vocalist Andrew Schwab, drummer Alex Albert; bottom: guitarist Corey Edelman and bassist Stephen Dail.

Several mainstream record labels, including Roadrunner and Atlantic, listened to the band's debut and became interested. Project 86 signed an exclusive deal with the latter; Tooth & Nail would retain control of Christian market exposure and Atlantic would control the mainstream market.[16] The group worked on their sophomore record with producer Garth "GGGarth" Richardson.[17] An emphasis was placed on melody and singing while keeping their sound aggressive. Schwab wrote lyrics about worldwide issues in contrast to his personal strife: "The new album deals a lot less with me, and more with the world around us. Issues out there, people, society, culture".[11] A second guitarist named Corey Edelman was recruited for a short time but later departed for private reasons.[4]

In March 2000, Project 86 released their second album Drawing Black Lines.[18] The record peaked at #37 on Heatseekers,[19] and was well received by critics.[18][20][15][21] By this time, listeners in Christian and secular audiences had amassed a sizable fanbase.[22] Despite heavy reliance on tour dates and word of mouth to inform people of its release, the album experienced some commercial success when it eventually sold over 110,000 copies.[23][24] Project 86 traveled nationwide with P.O.D., Hed PE, and Linkin Park on the "Kings Of The Game" tour in October 2000.[25] They also played a string of shows with Queensrÿche.[26] Afterward, the band took a break. Albert and Dail collaborated with Harris in an alternative rock band called Crash Rickshaw. Their demo tape caught the ear of Tooth & Nail, who released a self-titled album in summer 2001.[10]

In 2002, Project 86 teamed with Slayer producer Matt Hyde to record their next album. The record was envisioned as a critique of American society and the entertainment industry. Formatted as a concept album, it told the story of a character attempting to find fulfillment in modern society. Project 86 conjured the basic premise first and then wrote songs around it. "Songs were written and assembled with a certain ebb and flow in mind," said Schwab, "We approached the album like writing chapters in a book."[22] The group spent over 14 months recording demos for Atlantic, which invested $500,000 in the project. The label encouraged them to produce a radio friendly sound, but they resisted catering to a particular consumer base.[27] Schwab was particularly frustrated with the recording process. He hoped commercial success would remedy his feelings.[28]

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Truthless Heroes was released in September 2002 and peaked at #146 on the Billboard 200. Their first and only single, "Hollow Again", peaked at #35 on Mainstream Rock Tracks.[19] Atlantic refused to release the second single because they claimed the lyrics conflicted with the Iraq War effort.[27] While lauded by critics for its pounding criticism of the media and entertainment industry,[29][30][31] the album proved to be controversial, particularly the promotional website.[32] Additionally, many Christians felt alienated by its dark material;[33] one young fan deemed the album "too depressing".[34] Fans also complained that the record was "overproduced" and lacked the raw energy present in Drawing Black Lines.[27] In a later interview, Schwab expressed disappointment about the record, stating he had "different aspirations for [it] than what came out."[35] The group performed with Taproot on their self-titled tour in fall 2002.[36]

During this time, Project 86 distanced themselves from the Christian market; according to Andree Farias of Christianity Today, "their commitment with Atlantic required them to give precedence to their newfound mainstream audience." This led to conflict with Tooth & Nail and eventually Atlantic bought their share in the contract.[37] Shortly after, Project 86 was dropped from the lineup. Various reasons subsequently arose to explain why this happened; Farias stated Project 86 failed to produce marketable singles,[37] while Cross Rhythms writer Tony Cummings suggested nu-metal was simply no longer popular, a genre the band had become associated with. Schwab personally explained it was a culmination of items which included "timing, corruption, politics, 9–11, [and] The Donnas".[38]

2003–2006: Songs to Burn Your Bridges By and ...And the Rest Will Follow

The departure from Atlantic was a big disappointment for the band. "All of the hype about our future successes turned out to be just that – hype, " said Schwab in an interview, "We did not go platinum [...] the record fell short of expectations and did not come close to the impact of our previous effort." The band parted with their management company and did not tour for several months. Expectations were high that they would break up.[38] Instead, Project 86 started an independent label called "Team Black Recordings". Work began on a new album after Hyde was convinced to produce again.[39] Their fourth album, Songs to Burn Your Bridges By, was made available exclusively on their website in Fall 2003.[32]

Brandon Ebel, founder and president of Tooth & Nail, heard the new record and became excited. Contract negotiations followed suit; and the following year, Project 86 re-signed with their old label.[39] Songs to Burn Your Bridges By was re-released in June 2004. The album was remixed and remastered by Aaron Sprinkle and J.R. McNeely, featured new artwork, and included three new songs.[37] The release peaked at #36 on Heatseekers,[19] and was met with positive reviews by critics.[32][37][40] According to Schwab, the album was written to "tell people who were soured by Truthless Heroes why Truthless Heroes was the way it was."[35] The group performed at Purple Door, a Christian music festival, later that year. The playground was particularly muddy that season due to heavy rainfall.[41] When Project 86 played their set, moshers threw mud everywhere and covered the stage and musical equipment. Thousands of dollars worth of musical equipment was damaged.[42]

In Spring 2005, Project 86 reunited with Drawing Black Lines producer Garth Richardson to record their fifth album, ...And the Rest Will Follow.[43] After spending several days recording demos, the band flew to Vancouver, British Columbia, to record at The Farm Studios Compound. The band filmed the entire production and later released a DVD documentary entitled Subject to Change: The Making of ...And the Rest Will Follow.[44] The album marked a spiritual change for the group who felt humbled by their past experiences. "The record is about growing up and becoming a man (or woman) and taking responsibility for your past mistakes," stated Schwab, "[We are] refocusing our goals back to what they were when we started, reaching kids and inspiring them to live lives with hope and purpose.”[33]

To promote the album, Project 86 released a new song on PureVolume every Monday until the release date.[45] ...And the Rest Will Follow was released in September 2005[46] and debuted at #131 on the Billboard 200.[19] Critics were positive about the release.[46][47][48] The band began a fall release tour and traveled with Spoken, Number One Gun, The Fold, and Mourning September.[49] In January 2006, a live performance of the single "My Will Be A Dead Man" was broadcast on Attack of the Show!.[50] A collaboration with synth pop group The Echoing Green resulted in a remix of the song "Something We Can't Be". The song appeared on MySpace alongside a remix of "From December" later that year.[51]

2007–2008: Rival Factions, The Kane Mutiny EP, and This Time of Year EP

Vocalist Andrew Schwab performing at Cornerstone Festival 2007.

In March 2007, Project 86 announced that Alex Albert had parted with the band on friendly terms to pursue other interests.[52] Instead of searching for a full-time replacement, the band recruited Jason Gerkin, formerly of Shiner, to play drums on tour.[53] Production of their sixth album, entitled Rival Factions, followed suit with Deftones producer Ulrich Wild.[54] The album proved to be a large departure from their edgier material by sporting a distinct 1980s sound influenced by goth rock.[55]

The majority of writing took place while the band took a break; Dail got married in the Netherlands, while Schwab and Torres worked in Southern California and Seattle respectively. The men collaborated by emailing MP3s they recorded. In the end, 40 songs were amassed for the new record, but only ten were used.[56] According to Schwab, the album's title was chosen to represent "the tension that exists in everybody [...] the flesh and the spirit." It was also representative of their new musical direction, an attempt to polarize themselves from other heavy rock acts.[53] Similarly to their last record, a documentary was filmed that detailed the recording process, entitled I Want Something You Have: Rival Factions The DVD.[57]

Rival Factions was released in June 2007[58] and peaked at #123 on the Billboard 200, the band's highest debut to date.[19] The record sold 6,000 copies in the first week[59] and was well received by critics, who made favorable comparisons to Duran Duran, Billy Idol, and the Killers.[54][58][60] The band proceeded to tour with labelmates MXPX, Showbread, and Sullivan on the summer Tooth & Nail Tour.[61] A performance also took place at the annual Christmas Rock Night event in Ennepetal, Germany that December.[62]

Several tracks were recorded and mixed that were not included on Rival Factions.[63] These songs were compiled with their previous remixes to form an EP. A cover of "Lucretia, My Reflection" by the Sisters of Mercy was also included. The Kane Mutiny EP was released exclusively on iTunes in November 2007.[64] Shortly after its release, the band uploaded a cover of "This Time of the Year" by Brenda Lee on iTunes. "Our version was a little bit more like A Nightmare Before Christmas [sic]," declared Schwab.[63] The single was well received and led Project 86 to build an entire album around the Christmas concept. This Time of Year EP was released in November 2008. Unlike the previous EP, This Time of Year was made available in digital and physical formats.[65] Jason Martin of indie rock outfit Starflyer 59 helped produce both albums.[66]

2009–present: Picket Fence Cartel

In early 2009, the band returned to the studio with Martin and Ulrich Wild to record their seventh album, Picket Fence Cartel. Time was spent leisurely crafting the album; previous endeavors had been limited by deadlines. "This time around, we said, 'Look, let's not just put out another record,'" said Schwab, "'Let's make sure we get the record to a place that we're happy with it.'"[66] The band focused on a heavy metal sound. However, they did not entirely jettison their 1980s influences as synthesizers percolated several songs. Schwab's lyrics focused on his belief that power and corruption often "run hand-in-hand when it comes to human souls." "The world is teaching us that fame is to be sought after; that recognition will equal success, fortune and, ultimately, peace," he said, "But the search for and attainment of fame and wealth usually destroy us in the end."[67]

The record was released in July 2009 and peaked at #137 on the Billboard 200.[68] Critics praised the title for its barrage of heavy rock and spiritually minded lyrics.[69][70][71] Later that summer, Project 86 traveled nationwide on the Scream The Prayer Tour with metalcore outfits The Chariot, Haste The Day, and Gwen Stacy.[72] Torres did not accompany the entire tour because he was performing studio work in Seattle with producer Aaron Sprinkle. His absence led to rumors that he had left the band, which Schwab promptly dismissed. Dail filled his position on guitar while a stand-in played bass.[66] Coming mid-October, Project 86 started the Picket Fence Cartel Tour with Children 18:3, Showbread, The Wedding, and Yearling,[73] and added a part 2 of the tour in 2010 with Flatfoot 56 and Wavorly in what they said was an "attempt to reach a new audience".

Musical style

Guitarist Randy Torres performing with Project 86 in San Luis Obispo, California in 2006. Bassist Stephen Dail is seen in the background.

Project 86's music is characterized by heavy rock[74] and Schwab's "loud, eerie, and atmospheric" vocal style.[32] Their sound has been likened to rock groups Helmet, Korn, Limp Bizkit, Rage Against the Machine, and Tool.[6] The moniker "intense" has frequently been used as a description.[6][46][33][24] Rick Anderson of Allmusic called the music "dense and crunchy",[75] while Albuquerque Journal writer Ron Gonzales declared it a "blisteringly heavy sound."[74] Commenting on their musical style, Schwab stated "Our goal as a band has been to never make the same record twice. The only rule is that there are no rules. If there is a rule, it’s that we try not to over-think things, that the music that comes out is honest and real, spontaneous and from our heart.”[56]

When Project 86 released their self-titled record, they were generally acknowledged to be a rapcore band.[13] Schwab has maintained it was never intentional, "I think we got lumped in with that music because we [had] toured with P.O.D. and Linkin Park."[55] According to writer Mark Allan Powell, the music featured "cryptic, down-tuned guitars" and "half-spoken, half-rapped" vocals.[14] Drawing Black Lines saw their style adopt elements of traditional metal, groove metal, and hard rock.[15] The band used their song "Pipedream" as a blueprint to build the album: "We knew that was one of the brightest spots on the album," said Schwab, "I just wanted to take what we did in 'Pipedream' and go further with it".[76] Experimentation with noise occurred in track "Chapter 23",[21] and would be revisited on their fourth album with "Circuitry".[37]

Truthless Heroes and Songs To Burn Your Bridges By generally focused on a "dark and intense musical direction". The group strayed from the style for their fifth album ...And The Rest Will Follow, opting to flirt with melodies and harmonies.[46] Rival Factions marked a great departure when they embraced 1980s music and utilized keyboards.[56] The band was inspired to write experimental songs after Dail penned "Evil (A Chorus of Resistance)". "[It] was way different than anything we’d done before," stated Torres, "everything after that [had] to be as different as possible from things we’d done prior."[55] Their signature hardcore sound was reinstated for Picket Fence Cartel. "We have had a great time adding more melody along the way," insisted Schwab, "but in our hearts, we still really enjoy playing aggressive songs".[67] Even so, some songs retained synthesizers while others boasted folk influences.[67][71]

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Project 86 has many times been labeled a "Christian band". Although every member professes Christianity, they have remained uncomfortable with the assertion. "We're not going to go in there and say 'Hey we're the Christian band.'" stated Schwab in a 2004 interview. "We're going to carry ourselves like a normal band. Hopefully people will like our music and investigate into the band [...] and they will learn our beliefs."[74] In a 2007 interview, he further opined "We always tell people that the goal has been to just write music that we love, and write music hopefully that is challenging and inspiring to people and doesn't sound like everything else out there."[53]


Rock bands have largely influenced the band like the Deftones, Sepultura, Sick of It All, and Snapcase.[2][55] Torres expressed a particular affinity for The Beatles and Led Zeppelin: "I just love to listen to their albums over and over and pick apart stuff here and there that is amazing," he said, "It is a huge influence on me musically." Dail has revealed The Clash, Fugazi, and Rocket from the Crypt to be personally influential.[78] At an early age, Schwab listened to Slayer, S.O.D., and Metallica.[79] He later discovered East Coast hip hop.[2] During the recording of Rival Factions, the band took heavy influence from goth rock groups Depeche Mode, Joy Division, Psychedelic Furs, and Sisters of Mercy.[55] Some of their favorite bands are The Cure, Portishead, Quicksand, Shiner, and Sunny Day Real Estate.[80]

Some musicians have cited Project 86 as an influence. Jessy Ribordy, lead singer and songwriter for alternative rock band Falling Up, has been affected by Schwab's writings. "Andrew’s lyrics have always been a source of inspiration to me,” he told CCM Magazine. “I’ve tried to use more imaginative metaphors and things that are more symbolic, so that the songs can mean more things and have a bigger impact.”[55] 38th Parallel, a short lived Christian rap rock group, also acknowledged the band's influence.[81]


Vocalist Andrew Schwab has remained the band's lead lyricist.[46] Schwab has stated most lyrics are based on his emotions.[63] He also tries to incorporate social commentary from literature.[78] Prominent influences include comic book artist Chris Ware and writers Chris Bachelder, Don DeLillo, Aldous Huxley, George Orwell, and T. S. Eliot.[78] He has written lyrics around a variety of topics that include alcohol abuse ("One-Armed Man"),[17] conformity ("S.M.C."),[31] emptiness ("Evil (A Chorus of Resistance)"),[53] greed ("Cold and Calculated"),[77] nightlife ("Molotov"),[53] and spirituality ("Chapter 2").[17] Controversial issues like pornography ("P.S.") and child molestation ("Sioux Lane Spirits") have also been addressed.[32][17]

According to John DiBase, president of Jesus Freak Hideout, early lyrics reflected "anger, frustration, and often hopelessness."[46] Some journalists interpreted it as cynicism; Sean Richardson writing for The Phoenix called it "overbearing" and hoped "positive vibes" from P.O.D. and Blindside would rub off,[36] while Losey believed it to be a longtime "burden" being carried.[33] "It is easy to give in to these types of [cynical] feelings when you have been wronged,” Schwab told CCM Magazine, "It’s a very selfish mentality that chokes you off from being proactive in your gifts and purpose."[33] Critics have noted that Schwab's later material contains more optimistic perspectives.[46][54][69][70]

Honesty is highly regarded by Schwab; he has stated "I don't want to be known or remembered as a positive band, but as a band that was sort of honest and had a quiet sense of hope."[78] He has sometimes used humor to convey his feelings. "Salem's Suburbs" and "Your Heroes Are Dead" satirically examine how society blindly accepts opinions found on television and the internet.[31] "Caveman Jams" was directed at critics who claimed their music was too aggressive. The song tells how a fan was inspired to leave a life of self-destruction. "That song was written to be funny,” stated Schwab, "[It] was definitely written as a response to some experiences we’ve had as a band over the years, but in such a way that we’re having fun with it. I tried to approach it comically."[56]


Studio Albums

Year Title Label Chart peaks
US 200 US Christ US Heat
1998 Project 86 BEC Recordings
2000 Drawing Black Lines BEC Recordings
Atlantic Records
2002 Truthless Heroes Tooth & Nail Records
Atlantic Records
Songs to Burn Your Bridges By Team Black Recordings
Tooth & Nail Records
2005 ...And the Rest Will Follow Tooth & Nail Records 131 7 3
2007 Rival Factions 124 5
2009 Picket Fence Cartel 137 7


Year Title Label Chart peaks
US 200 US Christ
2007 The Kane Mutiny EP Tooth & Nail Records
2008 This Time of Year EP Team Black Recordings


Year Title Album Chart peaks
Main Rock
2002 Hollow Again Truthless Heroes 35


  • 2004: Subject to Change: The Making of ...And the Rest Will Follow
  • 2007: I Want Something You Have: Rival Factions The DVD


  1. ^ Tooth & Nail staff 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f McGovern 1998, p. 1.
  3. ^ McGovern 1998, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b Schwab 2004, p. 109.
  5. ^ Schwab 2004, p. 108.
  6. ^ a b c d Dillon 2009.
  7. ^ Dodd 2000, pp. 20–21.
  8. ^ Bandoppler 1999, p. 21.
  9. ^ Carlstrom 2009.
  10. ^ a b Huey 2009.
  11. ^ a b Bandoppler 1999, p. 19.
  12. ^ a b c Taylor 2009.
  13. ^ a b c Bandoppler 1999, p. 18.
  14. ^ a b Powell 2002, p. 731.
  15. ^ a b c Figgis 2000.
  16. ^ Dodd 2001, p. 37.
  17. ^ a b c d Powell 2002, p. 732.
  18. ^ a b Losey 2009.
  19. ^ a b c d e All Music Guide staff 2009.
  20. ^ DiBase 2000.
  21. ^ a b Richardson 2000.
  22. ^ a b Daugherty 2002, p. 11.
  23. ^ Schwab 2004, p. 172.
  24. ^ a b Winters 2005, p. 129.
  25. ^ Mancini 2000.
  26. ^ Schwab 2004, pp. 82–83.
  27. ^ a b c Schwab 2004, p. 173.
  28. ^ Schwab 2004, p. 174.
  29. ^ a b DiBase 2002.
  30. ^ a b Torreano 2009.
  31. ^ a b c Argyrakis 2002.
  32. ^ a b c d e Taylor 2003.
  33. ^ a b c d e Losey 2005.
  34. ^ Schwab 2004, pp. 171–172.
  35. ^ a b Chamberlain 2004.
  36. ^ a b Richardson 2002.
  37. ^ a b c d e Farias 2003.
  38. ^ a b Cummings 2008.
  39. ^ a b Jesus Freak Hideout staff 2004.
  40. ^ Francz 2003.
  41. ^ Markowitz 2004.
  42. ^ DiBase 2009c.
  43. ^ Cromwell 2005a.
  44. ^ DiBase 2005a.
  45. ^ Cromwell 2005b.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g DiBase 2005b.
  47. ^ Argyrakis 2004.
  48. ^ Spenceley 2005.
  49. ^ DiBase 2005c.
  50. ^ Morgan 2006.
  51. ^ DiBase 2007c.
  52. ^ Cross Rhythms staff 2007.
  53. ^ a b c d e DiBase 2007a.
  54. ^ a b c Lex 2007.
  55. ^ a b c d e f Newcomb 2007, p. 33.
  56. ^ a b c d Newcomb 2007, p. 32.
  57. ^ DiBase 2007b.
  58. ^ a b c Greene 2009.
  59. ^ Harris 2007.
  60. ^ Farias 2007.
  61. ^ Jesus Freak Hideout staff 2007a.
  62. ^ Jesus Freak Hideout staff 2007b.
  63. ^ a b c DiBase 2008a.
  64. ^ Cromwell 2007.
  65. ^ DiBase 2008b.
  66. ^ a b c DiBase 2009a.
  67. ^ a b c Argyrakis 2009.
  68. ^ Billboard staff 2009.
  69. ^ a b c Chamberlain 2009.
  70. ^ a b Goforth 2009.
  71. ^ a b Sendra 2009.
  72. ^ Van Pelt 2009a.
  73. ^ Van Pelt 2009b.
  74. ^ a b c Gonzales 2004, p. 2D.
  75. ^ Anderson 2009.
  76. ^ Dodd 2000, p. 21.
  77. ^ a b DiBase 2009b.
  78. ^ a b c d Harris 2002.
  79. ^ Schwab 2004, p. 86.
  80. ^ Schwab 2004, p. 152.
  81. ^ McCreary 2002, p. 24.


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