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A prophecy is the message that has been communicated to a prophet[1] which the prophet then communicates to others. In general, this message can involve divine inspiration, revelation, or interpretation. More specifically, it may be a professed psychic prediction. Confusion often exists between the word "prophecy" (noun) and "to prophesy" (verb). A memory phrase to help distinguish between "prophecy" (pronounced with the long e sound as in "see") and "prophesy" (pronounced with the long i sound as in "sigh"): "When a prophet prophesies he or she utters prophecies."[2]

The concept is found throughout the religions of the world. The term has found popular acceptance in two of the world's largest religious groups, Christianity and Islam, along with many others.[3]

Contents

Definitions of Prophecy

Rabbinic scholar Maimonides, suggested that "prophecy is, in truth and reality, an emanation sent forth by the Divine Being through the medium of the Active Intellect, in the first instance to man's rational faculty, and then to his imaginative faculty."[4] This closely relates to the definition by Al-Fârâbî who developed the theory of prophecy in Islam.[5] The Catholic Encyclopedia defines prophecy as "understood in its strict sense, it means the foreknowledge of future events, though it may sometimes apply to past events of which there is no memory, and to present hidden things which cannot be known by the natural light of reason."[6] From a skeptical point of view, there is a Latin maxim: prophecy written after the fact vaticinium ex eventu [7].

Etymology

The English word "prophecy" (noun) in the sense of "function of a prophet" appeared in Europe from about 1225, from Old French profecie (12th century), and from Late Latin prophetia, Greek prophetia "gift of interpreting the will of the gods", from Greek prophetes (see prophet). The related meaning "thing spoken or written by a prophet" is from circa 1300, while the verb "to prophesy" is recorded by 1377.[8]

One of the earliest recorded uses of the term "prophecy" is nevuah, and comes from Hebrew divrei nevuah "words of prophecy", and forms the name of a major subdivision of the Tanakh, the Nevi'im [נביאים], and means "a prediction", from the root "Nuv" meaning to bear fruit, or make flourish.[9] This may relate to the nature of prophecy from the Jewish perspective where, in Rabbinic traditions, Ezra is metaphorically referred to as the "flowers that appear on the earth" signifying the springtime in the national history of Judaism.[citation needed]

Nature of prophecy

In the earliest Jewish source, the Torah, prophecy often consisted of a warning by God of the consequences should the society, specific communities or their leaders not adhere to Torah's instructions in the time contemporary with the prophet's life. Prophecies sometimes included promises of blessing for obeying God, and returning to behaviours and laws as written in the Torah. Warning prophecies feature in all Jewish works of the Tanakh.

The rabbinic teachings, notably RaMBaM, suggest there were many levels of prophecy, from the highest such as that experienced by Moses, to the lowest where the individuals were able to apprehend the Divine Will, but not respond or even describe this experience to others, such as Noah.

Maimonides' theory of prophecy contains two elements (1) an explanation of what prophecy is, and (2) a ranking of the various types of prophecy and prophecy-like phenomena. I think we can use the ranking of prophecy implicate in Maimonides to substantiate our thesis that the rationalism of Maimonides is essentially a moral rationalism.[10]

Maimonides in his work, The Guide for the Perplexed, outlines twelve modes of prophecy s:The Guide for the Perplexed (Friedlander)/Part II/Chapters#CHAPTER XLV from lesser to greater degree of clarity:

  1. Inspired actions
  2. Inspired words
  3. Allegorical dream revelations
  4. Auditory dream revelations
  5. Audiovisual dream revelations/human speaker
  6. Audiovisual dream revelations/angelic speaker
  7. Audiovisual dream revelations/Divine speaker
  8. Allegorical waking vision
  9. Auditory waking revelation
  10. Audiovisual waking revelation/human speaker
  11. Audiovisual waking revelation/angelic speaker
  12. Audiovisual waking revelation/Divine speaker (that refers implicitly to Moses)

Of the twelfth mode Maimonides, focuses his attention on its "implicit superiority to the penultimate stage in the above series", and therefore above all other prophetic and semi-prophetic modes.[10]

Experience of prophecy in the Torah and the rest of Tanakh do not restrict it to Jews, or even to human beings if one episode is to be interpreted literally. Nor is the prophetic experience restricted to the Hebrew language, since much of the prophecies of Daniel are in Aramaic.

Many of the Tanakh prophecies are accompanied by radical changes in the life of the prophets, and their experience is often accompanied by physiological change, including physical stress, experience of extrasensory perception (visions), physical collapse, and changes in their psychological state as a result of the encounter with the Divine.[citation needed]

The prophetic experience is always bestowed on the individual, usually unprepared for the experience, by the Divine, and this often causes the prophet to undergo travel, and often privations and persecution due to the unwelcome contents of the message he or she bring to those for whom it is intended.[citation needed]

In the Christian New Testament prophecy is referred to as one of the spiritual gifts that accompany the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. From this many Christians believe that prophecy is the supernatural ability to receive and convey a message from God or the divine. The purpose of the message may be to "edify, exhort and comfort" the members of the church or an individual believer. In this context, not all prophecies contain predictions about the future. The Apostle Paul also teaches in First Corinthians that prophecy is for the benefit of the whole Church and not just the individual exercising the gift.[1 Cor. 14:22]

A recognized form of prophecy is the 'Prophetic Drama'. Here, F.W.Dillistone said there is a, "metaphorical conjunction between present situations and future events"[11]

Instances of prophecy

Ancient Civilizations

Prophesy is by no means new or limited to any one culture. It is a common property to all known ancient societies around the world, some more than others. Many systems and rules about prophesy have been proposed over several millennia.

China

In ancient Chinese, prophetic texts are known as Chen(谶). In contemporary Chinese "yuyan"(预言).

Judaism

The Jewish Bible Tanakh contains prophecies from various Hebrew prophets (55 in total) who communicated messages from God to the nation of Israel, and later the population of Judea and elsewhere.

Malachi, whose full name was Ezra Ha'Sofer (the scribe), is acknowledged to have been the last prophet of Israel if one accepts the opinion that Nechemyah died in Babylon before 9th Tevet 3448 (313 BCE).[12]

New Testament

Gospels

There are instances in the Gospel writings where individuals are described as being prophets or prophesying. Some examples include Simeon, Anna, and John the Baptist.[Matt. 21:26] The Gospel literature shows several instances where Jesus prophesied. An example of this is the gospel of John which shows that whilst passing through Samaria, Jesus encountered a woman who had been married five times. In the story, Jesus relates to her details of her personal life. The woman states that "I can see you are a prophet."[John 4:19] Jesus prophesies about his pending death,[Matt. 16:27-28] and about the end times.[Matt. 10:5-7] [10:23] [28:64]

Acts Throughout the book of Acts, there are numerous references to individuals prophesying in different ways and contexts. Examples include where the church in Antioch is described as having both prophets and teachers.13:1;&version=TNIV; Acts  13:1

Pauline Epistles In the Pauline Epistles, the prophet, is referred to as one of the fivefold ministries: Apostles; Prophets; Evangelists; Pastors and Teachers.[Eph. 4:11]

Other Epistles The Epistle of Jude contains a verifiable citation from the Book of Enoch,[13] which not a part of the Canon of Scripture for most of the Christian Churches, which has "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" having "prophesied to" false teachers.[14][15]

Later Christianity

Prophecy in the Later History The gift of prophecy was recognized in the churches after the death of the apostles. In his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin Martyr argues that prophets were no longer among Trypho's nation (Israel) but were in the church. The Shepherd of Hermas, written around the mid second century, describes the way prophecy was used in the church of that time. Ireneaus confirms the existence of spiritual gifts like foreknowledge in his work 'Against Heresies.' Though some modern commentators claim that Montanus was rejected because he claimed to be a prophet, a careful examination of history shows that the great church accepted prophecy in the time of Montanus, and that he was controversial because of the manner in which he prophesied, and for appointing rival bishops.

Though there are various examples of prophecy and similar gifts throughout history, including in Protestant history (particularly among the Scottish Covenanters like'[Prophet Peden] and John Wishart.) However, this and other gifts were somewhat rarely acknowledged throughout history. From 1904 to 1906, the Azusa Street Revival occurred in Los Angeles California and is sometimes considered the birthplace of the Pentecostal movement. This revival is well-known for the speaking in tongues that occurred there. Some participants of the Azusa Street Revival also prophesied. Pentecostals believe in prophecy and other gifts. The Charismatic movement, which began as a movement in mainline denominations, also accepts spiritual gifts like speaking in tongues and prophecy.

Many evangelical churches make room for prophecy, but it is generally accepted that all prophecy should be tested against scripture to determine if the source was truly God, as scripture warns about false Christs that would rise up to deceive many.2 Tim. 3:16 and 1 Thess. 5:19-22

Amerindian prophecy

Several cases of claimed prophecy exist among the Amerindian populations, notably the three Dogrib prophets who claimed to have been divinely inspired to bring the message of Christianity's God to their people.[16] This prophecy among the Dogrib involves some shamanic elements such as dances and trance-like states.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has many prophets, the founding prophet of which was Joseph Smith, who had been guided by an angel found gold tablets on a drumlin near Manchester, New York, which he interpreted through divination and restored The Church of Jesus Christ.

Islam

Muslims maintain that Muhammad experienced a prophetic phenomena equated with interpretation of dreams, visions and remote viewing, and thus identify him as a prophet.[citation needed] Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 87, Number 112: Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle Muhammad said, "A good dream (that comes true) of a righteous man is one of forty-six parts of prophetism."

Bahá'í Faith

In 1863, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to be the promised messianic figure of all previous religions, and a Manifestation of God,[17] a type of prophet in the Bahá'í writings that serves as intermediary between the divine and humanity and who speak with the voice of God.[18] Bahá'u'lláh claimed that while being imprisoned in the Siyah-Chal in Iran he underwent a series of mystical experiences including having a vision of the Maid of Heaven who told him of his divine mission, and the promise of divine assistance;[19] in Bahá'í belief the Maid of Heaven is a representation of the divine.[20]

Other belief systems

Prophecy has been claimed for, but not by, Michel de Nostredame popularly referred to as Nostradamus who was a converted Christian. However, it is known that he had travelled widely, had suffered several tragedies in his life, and had been persecuted to some degree for his suggestions about the future, reportedly derived through a use of a crystal ball. These are consistent with experiences of earlier individuals who claimed prophecy.

Scepticism about prophecy

According to skeptics, many apparently fulfilled prophecies can be explained as coincidences (possibly aided by the prophecy's own vagueness), or that some prophecies were actually invented after the fact to match the circumstances of a past event ("postdiction"). Whitcomb in The Magician's Companion observes,

One point to remember is that the probability of an event changes as soon as a prophecy (or divination) exists. . . . The accuracy or outcome of any prophecy is altered by the desires and attachments of the seer and those who hear the prophecy.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Prophecy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  2. ^ http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/prophecy.html "prophecy" v "prophesy"
  3. ^ "Prophets and Prophecy" at JewishEncyclopedia.com
  4. ^ (Rambam, The Guide p.225)
  5. ^ http://www.csulb.edu/~dsteiger/maimonides.htm The influence of Islamic Philosophy on Maimonides's Thought, Diana Steigerwald Religious Studies, California State University (Long Beach)
  6. ^ "Prophecy" in the Catholic Encyclopedia
  7. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0411/is_3-4_53/ai_n14730101 as at 29-08-08
  8. ^ "Prophecy" in the Online Etymology Dictionary
  9. ^ p.1596, The Complete Hebrew - English dictionary, Reuben Alcalay
  10. ^ a b http://www.meru.org/Advisors/Sunwall/RambamProphecy.html The Suprarational Grounds of Rationalism: Maimonides and The Criteria of Prophecy, Mark R. Sunwall
  11. ^ F.W.Dillstone; Christianity and Symbolism; London 1955, p275; referenced in 'The function of prophetic drama'in "The place is too small for us": the Israelite prophets in recent scholarship By R. P. Gordon, 1995 Eisenbrauns, USA http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Mf3ZeuTyXiUC&pg=PA112&lpg=PA112&dq=what+is+a+prophetic+drama&source=bl&ots=NfLtlVKgBy&sig=1GrZpBKboiyfwQSiXa43Hr9NhiM&hl=en&ei=EcpTS6epIs6GkAX30rWrCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CBcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=what%20is%20a%20prophetic%20drama&f=false (cf Galatians 4:24)
  12. ^ Babylonian Talmud, San.11a, Yom.9a/Yuch.1.14/Kuz.3.39,65,67/Yuch.1/Mag.Av.O.C.580.6 
  13. ^ Jude 14 is a citation of 1En1:9, itself a midrash of De.33:2, see Nickelsburg, G. Book of Enoch under 1En1:9.
  14. ^ see note on Greek grammar of Jude 14 under main article on Book of Enoch
  15. ^ Letter of Jude with also a probable reference in Peter%203:19,20;&version=TNIV; 1 Peter 3:19,20 to Enoch 6-36, especially 21, 6; 2 Enoch 7:1-5
  16. ^ p.27, Helm
  17. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Bahá'u'lláh – Theological Status". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 78–79. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  18. ^ Hatcher, W.S.; & Martin, J.D. (1998). The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. San Francisco: Harper & Row. pp. 116–123. ISBN 0877432643. 
  19. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Bahá'u'lláh – Life". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 73. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  20. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Maid of Heaven". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 230. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  21. ^ [1] The James Randi Educational Foundation
  • Online Etymological Dictionary [2]

Sources

  • Alcalay, Reuben., The Complete Hebrew - English dictionary, Hemed Books, New York, 1996 ISBN 978-965-448-179-3
  • Tucker, T.G., Etymological dictionary of Latin, Ares Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1985 ISBN 978-0-89005-172-6
  • Helm, June., Prophecy and Power among the Dogrib Indians, University of Nebraska Press, 1994 [3]

Further reading

  • Jim Thompson. 2008. Prophecy Today - A further word from God? Does God-given prophecy continue in today's church, or doesn't it?. (Evangelical Press), ISBN 978-0-85234-673-0
  • Marcus Tullius Cicero. 1997. De divinatione. (Trans. Arthur Stanley Pease), Darmstadt: Wissenschaflliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • David Edward Aune. 1963. Prophecy in early Christianity and the ancient Mediterranean world. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-3584-8.
  • Christopher Forbes. 1997. Prophecy and inspired speech: In early Christianity and its Hellenistic environment. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, ISBN 1-56563-269-9.
  • Clifford S. Hill. 1991. Prophecy, past and present: An exploration of the prophetic ministry in the Bible and the church today. Ann Arbor, MI: Vine, ISBN 0-8028-0635-X.
  • Jürgen Beyer. 2002. 'Prophezeiungen', Enzyklopädie des Märchens. Handwörterbuch zur historischen und vergleichenden Erzählforschung (English - Encyclopedia of the fairy tale. Handy dictionary for historical and comparative tale research), vol. 10. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter, col. 1419-1432
  • Stacey Campell. 2008. Ecstatic Prophecy Grand Rapids, MI: Chosen Books/Baker Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8007-9449-1.

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


or prediction, was one of the functions of the prophet. It has been defined as a "miracle of knowledge, a declaration or description or representation of something future, beyond the power of human sagacity to foresee, discern, or conjecture." (See PROPHET.)

The great prediction which runs like a golden thread through the whole contents of the Old Testament is that regarding the coming and work of the Messiah; and the great use of prophecy was to perpetuate faith in his coming, and to prepare the world for that event. But there are many subordinate and intermediate prophecies also which hold an important place in the great chain of events which illustrate the sovereignty and all-wise overruling providence of God.

Then there are many prophecies regarding the Jewish nation, its founder Abraham (Gen 12:1-3; 13:16; 15:5; 17:2, 4-6, etc.), and his posterity, Isaac and Jacob and their descendants (12:7; 13:14, 15, 17; 15:18-21; Ex 3:8, 17), which have all been fulfilled. The twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy contains a series of predictions which are even now in the present day being fulfilled. In the writings of the prophets Isaiah (2:18-21), Jeremiah (27:3-7; 29:11-14), Ezekiel (5:12; 8), Daniel (8; 9:26, 27), Hosea (9:17), there are also many prophecies regarding the events which were to befall that people.

There is in like manner a large number of prophecies relating to those nations with which the Jews came into contact, as Tyre (Ezek 26:3-5, 14-21), Egypt (Ezek 29:10, 15; 30:6, 12, 13), Ethiopia (Nah 3:8-10), Nineveh (Nah 1:10; 2:8-13; 3:17-19), Babylon (Isa 13:4; Jer 51:7; Isa 44:27; Jer 50:38; 51:36, 39, 57), the land of the Philistines (Jer 47:4-7; Ezek 25:15-17; Amos 1:6-8; Zeph 2:4-7; Zech 9:5-8), and of the four great monarchies (Dan 2:39, 40; 7:17-24; 8:9).

But the great body of Old Testament prophecy relates directly to the advent of the Messiah, beginning with Gen 3:15, the first great promise, and extending in ever-increasing fulness and clearness all through to the very close of the canon. The Messianic prophecies are too numerous to be quoted. "To him gave all the prophets witness." (Comp. Mic 5:2; Hag 2:6-9; Isa 7:14; 9:6, 7; 11:1, 2; 53; 60:10, 13; Ps 1611; 68:18.)

Many predictions also were delivered by Jesus and his apostles. Those of Christ were very numerous. (Comp. Mt 10:23:24; 11:23; 19:28; 21:43, 44; 24; 25:31-46; 26:17-35, 46, 64; Mk 9:1; 10:30; 13; 11:1-6, 14; 14:12-31, 42, 62; 16:17, etc.)

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

A prophecy is a claim on how the future will be like, which is not based on any ordinary source of information. In some ways, prophecies are similar to religion. They are often hard to understand and need interpretation. Very often, they concern one very specific event. In earlier times, people who made prophecies were called prophets. In Ancient Greece, people who made prophecies were called oracles, most notably the Oracle of Delphi. In modern times, people like Nostradamus made prophecies.








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