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The interior of the Auditorium Building in Chicago built in 1887. The rectangular frame around the stage is the proscenium "arch".

A Proscenium theatre is a theatre space whose primary feature is a large frame or arch (called the proscenium arch even though it is frequently not a rounded archway at all), which is located at or near the front of the stage. The use of the term "proscenium arch" is explained by the fact that in Latin, the stage is known as the "proscenium", meaning "in front of the scenery."

In a proscenium theatre, the audience directly faces the stage, which is typically raised several feet above front row audience level, and views the performance through the proscenium "arch". The main stage is the space behind the proscenium arch, often marked by a curtain which can be lowered or drawn closed. The space in front of the curtain is called the "apron". The areas obscured by the proscenium arch and any curtains serving the same purpose (often called legs or tormentors) are called the wings. Any space not viewable to the audiences is collectively referred to as offstage. Proscenium stages range in size from small enclosures to several stories tall.

In general practice, a theatre space is referred to as a "proscenium" any time the audience directly faces the stage, with no audience on any other side, even if there is not a formal proscenium arch over the stage. Because it seems somewhat incongruous to refer to a proscenium theatre when no proscenium arch is present, these theatres are sometimes referred to as "end-on" theatre spaces.

Contents

Origin

View of the seating area and part of the stage at the Teatro Olimpico (1585) in Vicenza, Italy. No proscenium arch divides the seating area from the "proscenium" (stage), and the space between the two has been made as open as possible, without endangering the structural integrity of the building.
The "proscenium" (stage) at the Teatro Olimpico. The central archway in the scaenae frons (or proscenio) was too small to serve as a proscenium arch in the modern sense, and was in practice always part of the backdrop to the action onstage.

In ancient Rome, the stage area in front of the scaenae frons was known as the "proscenium", meaning "in front of the scenery". In the Roman theater, no proscenium arch existed, in the modern sense. However, Roman theaters were similar to modern proscenium theaters in the sense that the entire audience had a restricted range of views on the stage--all of which were from the front, rather than the sides or back.

The oldest surviving indoor theater of the modern era, the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza (1585), is sometimes incorrectly proposed as the first example of a proscenium theatre. The Teatro Olimpico was an academic reconstruction of an outdoor Roman theater. This emulation of the Roman model extended to referring to the stage area as the "proscenium", and some writers have incorrectly referred to the theater's scaenae frons as a proscenium, and have even suggested that the central archway in the middle of the scaenae frons was the inspiration for the later development of the full-size proscenium arch.[1] There is no evidence at all for this assumption (indeed, contemporary illustrations of performances at the Teatro Olimpico clearly show that the action took place in front of the scaenae frons, and that the actors were rarely framed by the central archway).

The confusion is probably the result of the fact that the Italian word for a scaenae frons is "proscenio." One modern translator explains the wording problem: "[In this translation from Italian,] we retain the Italian proscenio in the text; it cannot be rendered proscenium for obvious reasons; and there is no English equivalent....It would also be possible to retain the classical frons scaenae. The Italian "arco scenico" has been translated as "proscenium arch."[2]

In practice however, the stage in the Teatro Olimpico runs from one edge of the seating area to the other, and only a very limited framing effect is created by the coffered ceiling over the stage and by the partition walls at the corners of the stage where the seating area abuts the floorboards. The result is that in this theater "the architectural spaces for the audience and the action . . . are distinct in treatment yet united by their juxtaposition; no proscenium arch separates them."[3]

However, the Teatro Olimpico's exact replication of the open and accessible Roman stage was the exception rather than the rule in sixteenth-century theatre design. Engravings suggest that the proscenium arch was already in use as early as 1560 at a production in Siena.[4] The most likely candidate for the first true proscenium arch in a permanent theatre is the Teatro Farnese in Parma (1618). A clearly defined "arco scenico"--more like a picture frame than an arch, but serving the same purpose--outlines the stage and separates the audience from the action onstage.

Function

The proscenium arch creates a "window" around the scenery and performers. The advantages are that it gives everyone in the audience a good view because the performers need only focus on one direction rather than continually moving around the stage to give a good view from all sides. A proscenium theatre layout also simplifies the hiding and obscuring of objects from the audience's view (sets, performers not currently performing, and theatre technology). Anything that is not meant to be seen is simply placed outside the "window" created by the proscenium arch.

The side of the stage that faces the audience is referred to as the "fourth wall". The phrase "breaking the proscenium" refers to when a performer addresses the audience directly as part of the dramatic production (is also known as breaking the fourth wall). The phrase can also refer to when a member of the cast or crew walks onto the stage or into the house when there is an audience inside, also breaking the fourth wall.

Proscenium theatres have fallen out of favor in some theatre circles because they perpetuate the fourth wall concept. The staging in proscenium theatres often implies that the characters performing on stage are doing so in a four-walled environment, with the "wall" facing the audience being invisible. Many modern theatres attempt to do away with the fourth wall concept and so are instead designed with a thrust stage that projects out of the proscenium arch and "reaches" into the audience (technically, this can still be referred to as a proscenium theatre because it still contains a proscenium arch, however the term thrust stage is more specific and more widely used).

Other forms of theatre staging

  • Alley Theatre: The stage is surrounded on two sides by the audience.
  • Thrust: The stage is surrounded on three sides (or 270˚) by audience. Can be modification of proscenium staging. Sometimes known as "three quarter round".
  • Theatre in the round: The stage is surrounded by audience on all sides.
  • Site-specific theatre (a.k.a. environmental theatre): The stage and audience either blend together, or are in numerous or oddly shaped sections. Includes any form of staging that is not easily classifiable under the above categories.
  • Black box theatre: The black box theatre is a relatively recent innovation consisting of a large square room with black walls and a flat floor. The seating is typically composed of loose chairs on platforms, which can be easily moved or removed to allow the entire space to be adapted to the artistic elements of a production.
  • Studio theatre layout: Not technically a form of staging, rather a theatre that can be reconfigured to accommodate many forms of staging.
  • Reverse in the round: A variant of theatre in the round however the audience sits in a central room and the action happens around them. This variant is usually used in promenade theatre

See also

References

  1. ^ Licisco Magagnato, "The Genesis of the Teatro Olimpico, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtald Institutes, Vol. XIV (1951), p. 215.
  2. ^ Translator's note in Licisco Magagnato, "The Genesis of the Teatro Olimpico, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtald Institutes, Vol. XIV (1951), p. 213.
  3. ^ Caroline Constant, "The Palladio Guide". Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Architectural Press, 1985, p. 16.
  4. ^ Licisco Magagnato, "The Genesis of the Teatro Olimpico, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtald Institutes, Vol. XIV (1951), p. 215.

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