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The prōtasēkrētis (Greek: πρωτασηκρῆτις), also found as prōtoasēkrētis or protoasecretis (πρωτοασηκρῆτις), was a senior official in the Byzantine bureaucracy, as the head of the order of the asēkrētai, the senior class of imperial notaries.

The post evolved gradually: asēkrētai are attested from the 6th century, and several patriarchs and one emperor (Anastasios II) were drawn from their ranks.[1] Aside from possibly anachronistic references to Maximus the Confessor being a prōtasēkrētis under Heraclius (r. 610–641), the earliest confirmed occurrence (as proto a secreta) comes from the Liber Pontificalis for the year 756.[2] As head of the imperial chancery (the effective successor of the late Roman primicerius notariorum), the position was highly influential: in the 899 Klētorologion, a list of precedence of imperial officials, he is placed seventh among the sekretikoi, the financial ministers of the state. From documents and sigillographic evidence, they held the dignities of prōtospatharios, patrikios and anthypatos.[3] Among others, the Patriarch Photios held the post.[2]

His subordinates included not only the asēkrētai, but also the inferior class of the imperial notarioi, under their head, the prōtonotarios, as well as the official known as dekanos, placed "in charge of the imperial papers" according to the De Ceremoniis.[1] The prōtasēkrētis seems also to have been in charge of preparing the imperial chrysobulls.[2] After 1106 however, he was moved from the chancery and assumed judicial duties, heading one of the four highest courts of the Empire (along with the megas droungarios, the dikaiodotēs and the koiaistōr).[4] Although the class of the asēkrētai is not attested after the 12th century, the post of prōtasēkrētis survived into the Palaiologan period.[2]


  1. ^ a b Bury (1911), pp. 97–98
  2. ^ a b c d Kazhdan (1991), p. 1742
  3. ^ Bury (1911), p. 97
  4. ^ Magdalino (1994), pp. 106–109


  • Bury, John B. (1911), The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos, Oxford University Publishing  
  • Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6  
  • Magdalino, Paul (1994), "Justice and Finance in the Byzantine State, Ninth to Twelfth Centuries", in Laiou, Angeliki E.; Simon, Dieter, Law and society in Byzantium, 9th-12th centuries, Dumbarton Oaks, pp. 93–116, ISBN 978-0884022220  


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