Proteobacteria: Wikis


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Escherichia coli
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Stackebrandt et al., 1988 [1]

The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera. [2] Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation.

Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, the Proteobacteria are named after Proteus, the Greek god of the sea, capable of assuming many different shapes.[1] [3]



All proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding. The last include the myxobacteria, a unique group of bacteria that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. There is also a wide variety in the types of metabolism. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions. A variety of genera, which are not closely related to each other, convert energy from light through photosynthesis. These are called purple bacteria, referring to their mostly reddish pigmentation.


The group is defined primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. The Proteobacteria are divided into five sections, referred to by the Greek letters alpha through epsilon, again based on rRNA sequences. These are often treated as classes. Although it has been suggested previously that the Gammaproteobacteria are paraphyletic to the Betaproteobacteria, recent molecular data suggests that this is not so. The divisions of the proteobacteria were once regarded as subclasses (e.g. α-subclass of the Proteobacteria), but are now regarded as classes (e.g. the Alphaproteobacteria).[4].

External links


  1. ^ a b Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 321-325.
  2. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131443291.  
  3. ^ "Proteobacteria". Discover Life: Tree of Life. Retrieved 2007-02-09.  
  4. ^ Lee at al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55 (2005), 1907-1919.


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary




Greek (protos), first + (bakterion), small rod - proposed in 1988, STACKEBRANDT (E.), MURRAY (R.G.E.) and TRÜPER (H.G.) Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 321-325

Proper noun

Wikipedia has an article on:



  1. (taxonomy) A taxonomic phylum, within kingdom Bacteria - the proteobacteria.
Wikispecies has information on:


See also


Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Helicobacter sp.


Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Classes: Alpha Proteobacteria - Beta Proteobacteria - Gamma Proteobacteria - Delta Proteobacteria - Epsilon Proteobacteria


Proteobacteria Garrity et al., 2005


  • Brenner, Krieg, Staley, and Garrity (ed.), 2005: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, The Proteobacteria, Part C, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Springer, New York.
  • Garrity, G.M., J.A. Bell, & T.G. Lilburn. 2004: Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition. Release 5.0.
  • Woese, C.R. 1987: Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev., 51 :221–271.
  • Woese, C.R., E. Stackebrandt, T.J. Macke, & G.E. Fox. 1985: A phylogenetic definition of the major eubacterial taxa. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 143–151.

Vernacular names

English: Purple Bacteria & relatives
中文: 變形菌門


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