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Protestantism
95Thesen.jpg
The Reformation
History

Pre-Reformation movements

Reformation era movements
.Protestantism is one of the three major divisions within Christianity (or four, if Anglicanism is considered separately) together with the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.^ Irish Roman Catholics understood one another.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the prince was in Spain all arts were employed to bring him within the pale of the Roman Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Four committees, termed "Tables," were formed -- one for the nobility, one for the barons, a third for the boroughs, and a fourth for the Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term is most closely tied to those groups that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation.^ Some few Protestants were continued in the commission of the peace, but they were rendered useless and insignificant, being overpowered in everything by the great number of Roman Catholics joined in commission with them; and those for the most part the very scum of the people, and a great many whose fathers had been executed for theft, robbery, and murder."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was this that closed all the great conflicts of the sixteenth century.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She had become the pivot around which revolved that plot to which those monstrous times had given birth, for the extermination of the Protestant faith in all the countries of the Reformation.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The doctrines of the various Protestant denominations vary, but nearly unanimous doctrines include justification by grace through faith and not through works, the priesthood of all believers, and the Bible as the ultimate authority in matters of faith and order.^ The priests attacked the Protestant faith with all the rigor of which they were capable, and their sermons, printed by authority, were dispersed over the kingdom.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Privy Council was next changed; nearly all the Protestant members were expelled, and their seats given to Papists.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had it been as Mary believed, no long time would have elapsed till his head had fallen on the scaffold, and with it, in all human reckoning, would have fallen the Protestant Church of his native land.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

In the sixteenth century the followers of Martin Luther established the evangelical churches of Germany and Scandinavia. .Reformed churches in Switzerland were established by John Calvin and more radical reformers such as Huldrych Zwingli.^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more prominent outcome of the Reformation in England was a free State; the more immediate product of the Reformation in Scotland was a free Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Cranmer reformed the Church of England and later John Knox established a more radical Calvinist communion in the Church of Scotland.^ A second line of action was forced upon Knox, and one that not only turned the day in favor of the Reformation of Scotland, but ultimately proved a protection to the liberties and religion of England.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more tyrannical his measures, the louder James protested that he would uphold the Church of England as by law established, and hence the submission of the nation to these attacks upon its rights.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And although it flourished only for a brief space in the land where it arose, it has left its mark on Scotland, where it modified the Presbyterianism of John Knox, and stamped it with the impress of that of Westminster.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

Protestant iconoclasm: the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation.
.The term Protestant is derived from the Latin protestari [1][2] meaning publicly declare/protest which refers to the letter of protestation by Lutheran princes against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which reaffirmed the edict of the Diet of Worms in 1521, banning Martin Luther's 95 theses of protest against some beliefs and practices of the early sixteenth century Catholic Church.^ These incidental glimpses show us a Scriptural Protestantism already in Scotland, but it lacks that spirit of zeal and diffusion into which the sixteenth century awoke it.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From an early date Scotland had been in course of preparation for the part it was to act in the great movement of the sixteenth century.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against these powerful and accomplished writers was pitted, perhaps the shallowest race of Popish controversialists that ever put on harness to do battle for their Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term Protestant was not initially applied to the reformers, but later was used to describe all groups protesting Roman Catholic orthodoxy.^ She had become the pivot around which revolved that plot to which those monstrous times had given birth, for the extermination of the Protestant faith in all the countries of the Reformation.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You must all plainly see that you are only made use of as instruments to enslave the nation and ruin the Protestant religion, and when that is done, you may judge what you yourselves may expect...
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Protestant clergyman was forbidden by the Act to receive any ecclesiastical dues from Roman Catholics, and as soon as his place became vacant by admission or death, a Popish incumbent was appointed to it, who, as a matter of course, received all the tithes.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Since that time, the term Protestant has been used in many different senses, often as a general term merely to signify people who believe in Christ who worship outside the Roman Catholic or Orthodox churches.

Luther's 95 theses

In 1517, Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on the church door in the university town of Wittenberg. That act was common academic practice of that day. It served as an invitation to debate. Luther’s propositions challenged some portions of Roman Catholic doctrine and a number of specific practices.
Luther had been especially appalled by a common church practice of the day, the selling of indulgences. These indulgences were papal documents sold to penitents and promised them the remission of their sins. To Luther and other critics it appeared that selling indulgences was tantamount to selling salvation, something that cannot be done. At the time, Rome enthusiastically supported the use of the sale of indulgences as a means to raise money for a massive church project, the construction of St. Peter’s basilica.
.Luther's 95 theses debated and criticized the Church and the Pope, concentrating upon the sale of indulgences, the doctrines of purgatory, and the authority of the Pope.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Luther maintained that justification (salvation) was granted by faith alone, saying that good works and the sacraments were not necessary in order to be saved.^ These ran: "That a man is not justified by works, but by faith alone," and "that good works do not make a good man, but that a good man makes good works."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

There was nothing secret about Luther’s challenges. .He sent a copy of his challenges to his bishop, who in turn forwarded the theses to Rome.^ The bishops turned their eyes to the northern counties in quest of men to succeed the pious and learned ministers who had been ejected.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Protestant doctrines

Although the doctrines of Protestant denominations are far from uniform, some beliefs extending across Protestantism are the doctrines of sola scriptura and sola fide.
  • Sola scriptura maintains that the Bible (rather than church tradition or ecclesiastical interpretations of the Bible)[4] is the final source of authority for all Christians.
  • Sola fide holds that salvation comes by faith alone in Jesus as the Christ, rather than through good works.
Protestant churches generally reject the Catholic and Orthodox doctrines of apostolic succession and the sacramental ministry of the clergy.[5] .Exceptions are found mostly in countries, such as in the southern parts of Europe, that came under non-Catholic influences long before the Reformation.^ After a long and sharp debate between the Reformer and the secretary, the "cruelty upon a greater multitude," for which the summons served on the two Protestants would, it was affirmed, prepare the way, came next under discussion.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not long till the echoes of these bold words came back in thunder from all parts of Scotland.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some made their escape; others were released on signing a bond of non-resistance; others were freed when found to be sinking under wounds, or diseases contracted by exposure.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Protestant ministers and church leaders have somewhat different roles and authority in their communities than do Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox priests and bishops.^ No sooner had the Protestant nobles left Edinburgh than the regent issued a proclamation prohibiting all persons from preaching or dispensing the Sacraments without authority from the bishops.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Conservative/Liberal

Protestantism has both conservative and liberal theological strands within it. .Protestant styles of public worship tend to be simpler and less elaborate than those of Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and Eastern Christians, sometimes radically so, though there are exceptions to this tendency.^ In his wars among the Tatars and Turks his naturally cruel disposition had been rendered utterly callous; in short he had grown not less the Turk than any of those with whom he did battle.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To the indications the king had already given that he was meditating a change of the Constitution, another sign was added, not less ominous than those that had gone before it.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Standing on the threshold of his great enterprise, he again protested that he had no other objects than those set forth in his declaration.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Dissension in the ranks of Protestantism

.The reformers soon disagreed among themselves and divided their movement according to doctrinal differences—first between Luther and Zwingli, later between Martin Luther and John Calvin—consequently resulting in the establishment of different and rival Protestant denominations such as the Lutheran, Reformed, Anabaptist, and others.^ The triumph of Luther at Worms secured the commencement of the Reformation, that of Calvin in St. Pierre its consummation, and that of Knox in Holyrood its preservation.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If so, the Protestant establishment it had set up was also illegal, and no man could doubt that it was the queen's intention, so soon as she was able, to overthrow it and restore the Romish hierarchy.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While other countries had established their Reformation Scotland lingered on the threshold, and now it found itself in danger of losing not only its Reformation, but its very nationality.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

History

Fundamental principles

The three fundamental principles of traditional Protestantism are the following:
  • Authority of Scripture
The belief in the Bible as the primary source of faith. .The early churches of the Reformation believed in a critical, yet serious, reading of Scripture and holding the Bible as a source of authority higher than that of Church Tradition.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Brother," said the Reformer, "I have never read in the Scripture of God of such a place as purgatory, nor yet believe I there is anything that can purge the souls of men but the blood of Jesus Christ."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bible was emphatically the nation's one great teacher; it was stamping its own ineffaceable character upon the Scottish Reformation; and the place the Bible this early made for itself in the people's affections, and the authority it acquired over their judgments, it was destined never to lose.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The many abuses that had occurred in the Western Church prior to the Protestant Reformation led the Reformers to reject much of the Tradition of the Western Church, though some would maintain Tradition has been maintained and reorganized in the liturgy and in the confessions of the Protestant Churches of the Reformation.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had, too, received legal guarantees from the State that the abolished jurisdiction would not be restored, and that the Protestant Church would have liberty and protection given it in the exercise of its worship and the administration of its discipline.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In none of the Confessions of the Reformation had the Church been so clearly set forth as a distinct and, in spiritual matters, independent society as it was in this one.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

In the early 20th century there developed a less critical reading of the Bible in the United States that has led to a "fundamentalist" reading of Scripture. .Christian Fundamentalists read the Bible as the "inerrant, infallible" Word of God, much like fundamentalist Muslims would read the Qu'ran.^ Turning to Hamilton, the prior exclaimed, "Heretic, thou saidst it was lawful to all men to read the Word of God, and especially the New Testament."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Justification by Faith Alone
The subjective principle of the Reformation is justification by .faith alone, or, rather, by free grace through faith operative in good works.^ These ran: "That a man is not justified by works, but by faith alone," and "that good works do not make a good man, but that a good man makes good works."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.It has reference to the personal appropriation of the Christian salvation, and aims to give all glory to Christ, by declaring that the sinner is justified before God (i.e., is acquitted of guilt, and declared righteous) solely on the ground of the all-sufficient merits of Christ as apprehended by a living faith, in opposition to the theory—then prevalent, and substantially sanctioned by "the Council of Trent—which makes faith and good works co-ordinate sources of justification, laying the chief stress upon works.^ These ran: "That a man is not justified by works, but by faith alone," and "that good works do not make a good man, but that a good man makes good works."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonel Mansel was one of the first to be arraigned on a charge so supported; but he was acquitted by the Attorney-General, who, in addition to finding Mansel innocent, declared that this appeared "a design of the Papists to lay the plot upon the Dissenters."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This task required no little invention, for the Dutch had not only behaved with perfect good faith, but had studied not to give offense to England.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Protestantism does not depreciate good works; but it denies their value as sources or conditions of justification, and insists on them as the necessary fruits of faith, and evidence of justification."^ These ran: "That a man is not justified by works, but by faith alone," and "that good works do not make a good man, but that a good man makes good works."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]
  • Universal Priesthood of Believers
The universal priesthood of believers implies the right and duty of the .Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the vernacular, but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church.^ This Act required, "That all persons bearing any office, or place of trust and profit, shall take the oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance in public and open court, and shall also receive the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the usage of the Church of England."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This scheme gave to every member of the Church, directly or indirectly, a voice fix her government; it was a truly popular rule, but acting only through constitutional channels, and determining all cases by the laws of Scripture.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All over the western counties of Ayr and Lanark; over many parts of Lothian, Fife, Eskdale, Teviot-dale, and Nithsdale the churches were closed.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

It is opposed to the hierarchical system which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people.[6]

Major groupings

.The term Protestant is often used loosely to denote all non-Roman Catholic varieties of Western Christianity, rather than to refer to those churches adhering to the principles described below.^ Having set up the dispensing power, James proceeded to use it for the overturn of all institutions and principles, not excepting that liberty for the sake of which, as he said, he had assumed it.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The procession to the scaffold being formed, "I could die like a Roman," said he, "but choose rather to die as a Christian.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Protestant clergyman was forbidden by the Act to receive any ecclesiastical dues from Roman Catholics, and as soon as his place became vacant by admission or death, a Popish incumbent was appointed to it, who, as a matter of course, received all the tithes.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Trinitarian Protestant denominations are divided according to the position taken on baptism:
  • "Mainline Protestants," a North American phrase, are Christians who trace their tradition's lineage to Lutheranism, Calvinism or Anglicanism. .These groups are often considered to be part of the Magisterial Reformation and traditionally have adhered to the central doctrines and principles of the Reformation.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    Lutheranism, Calvinism, and a Zwinglian theology are typically mainline, and as denominations, "mainline" is typically seen as referring to Methodists, Presbyterians, Anglican/Episcopalian, and Lutherans, all large denominations with significant liberal and conservative wings.
  • Anabaptists (lit. "baptized twice") were so named from the fact that they re-baptised converts. While not all agree, today's scholars believe that Anabaptists, by name, began with the Radical Reformers in the 16th century. A minority of other people and groups may still legitimately claim that there were earlier forerunners. A full discussion of the origins of the Anabaptists is available at the article on their origins.
  • Baptists do not believe baptism is a sacrament. They practice believer's baptism by immersion. .The predominant view of Baptist origins is that Baptists came along in historical development in the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations.^ Side by side with this development went the political struggle between nations originally of Catholic culture and the regions of the new Protestant culture.

    ^ A Historical Development of the Relationship between the South and the North Korean Protestant Churches: From 1945 to the Beginning 21st century.” Chongshin Theological Journal 13:1 (February 2008): 168-187.
    • Korean History Bibliography: Religion and Philosophy - Christianity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The view of suffering by the Word-Faith teaching represents the basic view of many Protestant denominations regarding suffering (although in an extreme form).
    • Is Protestant Teaching Unbiblical? 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.northforest.org [Source type: Original source]

    [7] .This perspective on Baptist history holds that the Baptist faith originated from within the Separatist movement─Protestant Christians that decided they must leave the Church of England because of their dissatisfaction that it had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses in Catholicism.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Crisis was evidently approaching, and if the Scottish people were to hold possession of that important domain of liberty which they had conquered they must fight for it.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With the calmness and joy of Christian patriots they gave their blood for the Protestant religion and the constitutional liberty of Great Britain.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    [8] This Separatist view of the origin of Baptists traces the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor.[9]
  • Today, denominations such as the Brethren, Mennonites, Hutterites, and Amish eschew infant baptism and have historically been Peace churches. .Typically, independent Pentecostal and Charismatic denominations, and the house church movement belong in this category, too.
  • Certain Protestant denominations including the Quakers and the Shakers, do not practice baptism sacramentally.^ The Protestant churches in many parts of the country were converted into mass-houses.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    [10] These denominations view baptism as part of a process on ongoing renewal. Antecedents of these beliefs may be found in Strigolniki theology. Normatively, the Salvation Army does not practice baptism.
.There are many independent, non-aligned or non-denominational Trinitarian congregations that may take any one of these or no particular position on baptism.^ Some have distinguished between principles and points; in this controversy all the principles were on one side, and all the points on the other; for the men enforcing the latter admitted that for these rites there was no foundation in the Word of God, and that they were matters of indifference.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of those who remained, many were excellent men, and ardently attached to the principles of the Presbyterian Church; but there was no one who possessed Knox's sagacity to devise, or his intrepidity to apply, the measures which the crisis demanded.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there no one to fight the old battle?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Other groups rejecting Protestant label

.Some religious movements, such as the Latter Day Saint movement, other Nontrinitarian movements, and the New Religious Movements, which share certain characteristics of Protestant churches, are often included in lists of Protestants by some outsiders.^ Plunging into the moss, trooper and Covenanter grappled hand to hand with each other; but the enthusiastic valor of the latter called the day.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His presence imparted new life to its adherents; and his counsels led them to certain practical measures, by which each strengthened the other, and all were united in a common action.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

However, neither mainline Protestants nor the groups themselves would consider the designation appropriate. Some groups associated with the Restoration Movement also do not consider themselves to be Protestant.

Denominations

Anti-papal painting showing the enmity between Edward VI of England and the Pope.
Protestants refer to specific Protestant groupings of churches that share in common foundational doctrines and the name of their groups as "denominations". .They are differently named parts of the whole "church"; Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine that it is the one true church.^ Some few Protestants were continued in the commission of the peace, but they were rendered useless and insignificant, being overpowered in everything by the great number of Roman Catholics joined in commission with them; and those for the most part the very scum of the people, and a great many whose fathers had been executed for theft, robbery, and murder."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "In the year 1687 there was not a Protestant sheriff in the whole kingdom, except one, and he put in by mistake for another of the same name that was a Papist.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some Protestant denominations are less accepting of other denominations, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others.^ It was heartily accepted by the ablest statesmen, the most learned divines, and by the whole body of the Protestant people in both England and Scotland.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. Because the five solas are the main tenets of the Protestant faith, Non-denominational groups and organizations are also considered Protestant.
.Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of the various divided Protestant denominations, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the sects owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith.^ There is no other philosophy of liberty than this; and nations that have yet their liberty to establish might find it useful to study this model.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Submit to the Pope," he cried, "there is no salvation but in union to him."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith, while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief.^ That assembly was the latest of the great councils of the Christian Church, and by it the Calvinistic system of doctrine was expressed in a Confession of Faith, and its system of polity in a Directory of Church Government.
  • New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. IX: Petri - Reuchlin | Christian Classics Ethereal Library 16 September 2009 0:45 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to World Christian Encyclopedia, there are "over 33,000 denominations in 238 countries," having increased in number from 8,196 in 1970. Every year there is a net increase of around 270 to 300 denominations.^ The policy adopted for accomplishing this was singularly subtle, and reveals the hand of the Jesuits, of whom there were then numbers in the country.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There now remained none but a few country-people around the blue banner of the Covenant.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]
There are about 800 million Protestants worldwide,[12] among approximately 2.2 billion Christians.[13][14] These include 170 million in North America, 160 million in Africa, 120 million in Europe, 70 million in Latin America, 60 million in Asia, and 10 million in Oceania.
.Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the magisterial Reformation and the Puritan Reformation in England.^ The day arrived, and the sacrifice it witnessed saved the realm of England, by preserving the Protestant element in the nation, which, had the Puritans conformed, would have utterly perished.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Reformation in Scotland took a form different from that of the Reformation in England, partly because in England the monarch and the bishops were in favor of the Reformation, while in Scotland they were against it.
  • New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. IX: Petri - Reuchlin | Christian Classics Ethereal Library 16 September 2009 0:45 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: Original source]

Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning later movements in the same groups. Only general families are listed here (due to the above-stated multitude of denominations); some of these groups do not consider themselves as part of the Protestant movement, but are generally viewed as such by the public at large[citation needed]:

Anglicans

.The separation of the Church of England and Church of Ireland from Rome under King Henry VIII did not take a Protestant form.^ They were glad to construct a form of Bishops to please the King and Church, and make the milk come without disturbances.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had been a zealous Protestant, but caring little at heart for any religion, he had now cooled, and was trying to form a middle party, between the court and the Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great massacre in 1641 had read a lesson which the Protestants of Ireland did not neglect, on the necessity of fortifying that important privilege.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.However by the efforts of Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury and Thomas Cromwell, both with Lutheran sympathies[15], the Churches assumed a Protestant character, and under King Edward VI the Churches became openly Protestant, adopting Calvinist doctrines in the Forty-Two Articles, restored under Queen Elizabeth I.^ What construction then could her subjects put upon this mass, but that it was the first step towards the overthrow of the Protestant Church, and the restoration of the Romish ritual and hierarchy?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Archbishop of Canterbury, he proceeded to reform his diocese, but not after the manner of Cranmer.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his speech on the 25th of January, 1641, the king said, "I will willingly and cheerfully concur with you for the reformation of all abuses, both in Church and commonwealth, for my intention is to reduce all things to the best and purest times, as they were in the days of Queen Elizabeth."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Thereafter the defence of Protestantism in Britain and Ireland became a major political issue, culminating in the deposition of King James II & VII and the settlement of the Crown in the line of Princess Sophia and "the heirs of her body being Protestant".
.In the nineteenth century some of the Tractarians proposed that the Church of England and the other Anglican churches are not Protestant, but a middle path between Rome and Protestantism[citation needed].^ It was proposed that the bishop should keep his place at the head of the Church and wield its government, but that in doing so he should to some extent make use of the machinery of Presbyterianism.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 24th of August, 1662, two thousand ministers, who formed the strength and glory of English Protestantism, were driven out of the Church of England.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

This assertion was attacked by, amongst others, the Church Association.[16]
Today, many Anglicans do not consider themselves Protestant.[citation needed]

Main denominations

Christian Denominations
in English-speaking countries

Theological tenets of the reformation

.The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the day.^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

The Latin word sola means "alone", "only", or "single".
.The use of the phrases as summaries of teaching emerged over time during the reformation, based on the over-arching principle of sola scriptura (by scripture alone).^ In this check lay hid a blessing to Scotland, for it was well that its people should have time to meditate upon the initial principle of the Reformation which Knox had put before them.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.This idea contains the four main doctrines on the Bible: that its teaching is needed for salvation (necessity); that all the doctrine necessary for salvation comes from the Bible alone (sufficiency); that everything taught in the Bible is correct (inerrancy); and that, by the Holy Spirit overcoming sin, believers may read and understand truth from the Bible itself, though understanding is difficult, so the means used to guide individual believers to the true teaching is often mutual discussion within the church (clarity).^ Mutual defense and protection of each individually, and of all jointly, who were within the bonds of the Covenant.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not the chrism of the Church, it is the anointing of the Holy Spirit that replenishes the soul with grace.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And though, as Knox tells us, some simulated a zeal for the Bible to make court to the governor, "yet thereby did the knowledge of God wondrously increase, and God gave his Holy Spirit to simple men in great abundance.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The necessity and inerrancy were well-established ideas, garnering little criticism, though they later came under debate from outside during the Enlightenment.^ They had often addressed the king on the matter, but in a manner so little in earnest that nothing came of it.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The king being now a prisoner, England came under a dual directorate, one half of which was a body of debating civilians, and the other a conquering army.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most contentious idea at the time though was the notion that anyone could simply pick up the Bible and learn enough to gain salvation.^ Though set up in the open wilds, the minister never forgot that the Communion-table was "holy," and that none but the disciples of the Savior could be, in their opinion, worthy communicants.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though the reformers were concerned with ecclesiology (the doctrine of how the church as a body works), they had a different understanding of the process in which truths in scripture were applied to life of believers, compared to the Catholics' idea that certain people within the church, or ideas that were old enough, had a special status in giving understanding of the text.^ The people of Scotland had to be taught that Reformation could not be furthered by the dagger; the stakes of Hamilton and Wishart had advanced the cause, but the sword of Norman Leslie had thrown it back; they had to be taught, too, that to reform the Papacy was to perpetuate it, and that they must return to the principle of Knox if they were ever to see a Scriptural Church rising in their land.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For reforming these evils they proposed that "Bishop Usher's reduction of episcopacy to the form of synodical government, received in the ancient Church, should be the ground-work of an accommodation."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus gradually, stage by stage, did they approach the outward organization of a Church, and at it is interesting to mark that in the Reformed Church of Scotland elders came before ministers.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

The second main principle, sola fide (by faith alone), states that faith in Christ is sufficient alone for eternal salvation. .Though argued from scripture, and hence logically consequent to sola scriptura, this is the guiding principle of the work of Luther and the later reformers.^ Greater than Hamilton, greater than Wishart, Knox took rank with the first minds of the Reformation, in the depth and comprehensiveness of the principles from which he worked.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.As sola scriptura placed the bible as the only source of teaching, sola fide epitomises the main thrust of the teaching the reformers wanted to get back to, namely the direct, close, personal connection between Christ and the believer, hence the reformers' contention that their work was Christocentric.^ The Bible was the only Reformer then possible in Scotland.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was only four months after Scotland had received the gift of a free Bible, that another boon was given it in the person of an eloquent preacher.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Brother," said the Reformer, "I have never read in the Scripture of God of such a place as purgatory, nor yet believe I there is anything that can purge the souls of men but the blood of Jesus Christ."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

The other solas, as statements, emerged later, but the thinking they represent was also part of the early reformation.
The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of works made meritorious by Christ, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of Christ and his saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between God and man. Catholics, on the other hand, maintained the traditional understanding of Judaism on these questions, and appealed to the universal consensus of Christian tradition.[18]
Protestants perceived Roman Catholic salvation to be dependent upon the grace of God and the merits of one's own works. The Reformers posited that salvation is a gift of God (i.e., God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit owing to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone. Consequently, they argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, and that the believer is accepted without regard for the merit of his works—for no one deserves salvation.[Matt. 7:21]
All glory is due to God alone, since salvation is accomplished solely through his will and action—not only the gift of the all-sufficient atonement of Jesus on the cross but also the gift of faith in that atonement, created in the heart of the believer by the Holy Spirit. The reformers believed that human beings—even saints canonized by the Catholic Church, the popes, and the ecclesiastical hierarchy—are not worthy of the glory

Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper

.The Protestant movement began to coalesce into several distinct branches in the mid-to-late sixteenth century.^ From an early date Scotland had been in course of preparation for the part it was to act in the great movement of the sixteenth century.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first part of the mighty task which awaited Protestantism in the sixteenth century was to breathe life into the nations.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These incidental glimpses show us a Scriptural Protestantism already in Scotland, but it lacks that spirit of zeal and diffusion into which the sixteenth century awoke it.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

One of the central points of divergence was controversy over the Lord's Supper. .Early Protestants rejected the Roman Catholic dogma of transubstantiation, which teaches that the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass lose their natural substance by being transformed into the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Christ.^ "In the name of Jesus," said the martyr, "I give up my body to the fire, and commit my soul into the hands of the Father."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was heartily accepted by the ablest statesmen, the most learned divines, and by the whole body of the Protestant people in both England and Scotland.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The queen addressed a letter to the Roman Catholics, who were far from being indifferent spectators of the quarrel between the king and his northern subjects.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.They disagreed with one another concerning the presence of Christ and his body and blood in Holy Communion.^ "You interpret the Scripture in one way, and they interpret it in another," said Mary: "whom shall I believe, and who shall be judge?"
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They sat for some time speechless, looking into one another's faces, and at last they broke up in confusion.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Strengthened by this "oath to God" and pledge to one another, they went forth to the battle.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Lutherans hold that within the Lord's Supper the consecrated elements of bread and wine are the true body and blood of Christ "in, with, and under the form" of bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it,[19] a doctrine that the Formula of Concord calls the Sacramental union.^ Mutual defense and protection of each individually, and of all jointly, who were within the bonds of the Covenant.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lords of the Congregation, therefore, resolved to set up the Reformed worship at once in all those places to which their authority extended, and where a majority of the inhabitants were favorable to the design.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is noteworthy that Queen Mary survived all who had been actors along with her in the scenes of crime and blood in which she had so freely mingled.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    [20] God earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament[21] forgiveness of sins[22] and eternal salvation.[23]
  • .
  • The Reformed closest to Calvin emphasize the real presence, or sacramental presence, of Christ, saying that the sacrament is a means of saving grace through which only the elect believer actually partakes of Christ, but merely WITH the Bread & Wine rather than in the Elements.^ The historian Burner, who witnessed his execution, says that "on the ladder he spoke an hour with the composedness of one who was delivering a sermon rather than his last words."
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only three temporal lords voted in the negative, saying "that they would believe as their fathers believed."
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It not only led to the establishment of Protestantism in Scotland, and the perpetuation of it in England; but, in view of the critical condition in which Europe then was, it may indeed with justice be said that it saved the Reformation of Christendom.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    Calvinists deny the Lutheran assertion that all communicants, both believers and unbelievers, orally receive Christ's body and blood in the elements of the sacrament, but instead affirm that Christ is united to the believer through faith—toward which the supper is an outward and visible aid, this is often referred to as dynamic presence. Why this aid is necessary in addition to faith differs according to the believer. Some Protestants (such as the Salvation Army) do not believe it is necessary at all.
  • A Protestant holding a popular simplification of the Zwinglian view, without concern for theological intricacies as hinted at above, may see the Lord's Supper merely as a symbol of the shared faith of the participants, a commemoration of the facts of the crucifixion, and a reminder of their standing together as the Body of Christ (a view referred to somewhat derisively as memorialism).

Catholicism

.The official Roman Catholic view on the matter is that Protestant communities cannot be considered "churches", but rather that they are mere ecclesial communities or "specific faith believing communities" because their sacraments, doctrines, lack of authentic apostolic succession do not follow Catholic Doctrine.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Protestant clergyman was forbidden by the Act to receive any ecclesiastical dues from Roman Catholics, and as soon as his place became vacant by admission or death, a Popish incumbent was appointed to it, who, as a matter of course, received all the tithes.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Up to this time these men had attended mass, and were not outwardly separate from the communion of the Roman Church; but, at the earnest advice of the Reformer, they resolved not to participate in that rite in future, and to withdraw themselves from the Roman worship and pale; and they signalized their secession by receiving the Sacrament in its Protestant form at the hands of Knox.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.Contrary to how the Protestant reformers were often characterized, the concept of a catholic or universal Church was not brushed aside during the Protestant Reformation.^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the contrary, the visible unity of the Catholic Church was an important and essential doctrine of the Reformation.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Magisterial Reformers, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli, believed that they were "reforming" the Catholic Church, which they viewed as having become corrupted.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The triumph of Luther at Worms secured the commencement of the Reformation, that of Calvin in St. Pierre its consummation, and that of Knox in Holyrood its preservation.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus gradually, stage by stage, did they approach the outward organization of a Church, and at it is interesting to mark that in the Reformed Church of Scotland elders came before ministers.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the Catholic Church that had left them.[25] .In order to justify their departure from the Catholic Church, Protestants often posited a new argument, saying that there was no real visible Church with divine authority, only a "spiritual", "invisible", and "hidden" church.^ His last years were occupied in opposing the introduction into the Presbyterian Church of an order of bishop known only to Scotland, and termed Tulchan.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no hurry or distraction, each as he enters takes his place in silence, till at length not only is the bottom of the hollow covered like floor of church, but the worshippers overflow, and occupy row on row the slopes that form its enclosure.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a form of Church government, he assures the prince, utterly repugnant to monarchy, and destructive of the good order of States, and only to be rooted up.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national Protestant church envisioned to be a part of the whole "invisible church", but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the Papacy and central authority of the Catholic Church.^ The lords of the Congregation, therefore, resolved to set up the Reformed worship at once in all those places to which their authority extended, and where a majority of the inhabitants were favorable to the design.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The loss of this important place deeply grieved the nation, but what affected the English people most was the deplorable sign which its sale gave of a weak and mercenary court.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Concealing his dark design, the primate sent a pressing message to Patrick, soliciting an interview with him on points of Church Reformation.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Reformed churches thus believed in some form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible ecclesiastical organization based on the 14th and 15th century Conciliar movement, rejecting the Papacy and Papal Infallibility in favor of Ecumenical councils, but rejecting the latest ecumenical council, the Council of Trent.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Five Superintendents completed the ecclesiastical staff, and their duty was to travel through their several districts, with the view of planting Churches, and inspecting the conduct of ministers, readers, and exhorters.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These demands were rejected, the council having just concluded a secret treaty with the queen for the forcible suppression of the Reformation.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Religious unity therefore became not one of doctrine and identity, but one of invisible character, wherein the unity was one of faith in Jesus Christ, not common identity, doctrine, belief, and collaborative action.
.Today there is a growing movement of Protestants, especially of the Reformed tradition, that reject the designation "Protestant" because of its negative "anti-catholic" connotations, preferring the designation "Reformed", "Evangelical" or even "Reformed Catholic" expressive of what they call a "Reformed Catholicity"[26] and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant Confessions.^ They had condemned abuses, and pointed out the doctrinal errors in which these abuses had their source, and they had called for a purging out of scandalous persons in short, a reform of the existing Church.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]

Radical Reformation

.Unlike mainstream Evangelical (Lutheran), Reformed (Zwinglian and Calvinist) Protestant movements, the Radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church Visible" as distinct from the "Church Invisible". It was a rational extension of the State-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm.^ What construction then could her subjects put upon this mass, but that it was the first step towards the overthrow of the Protestant Church, and the restoration of the Romish ritual and hierarchy?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their religion had the authority of God, and was independent of human laws, but it was also accepted within this realm in public Parliament, and that Parliament he would maintain was as free and lawful as any that had ever assembled in the kingdom of Scotland."
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The national enthusiasm in behalf of the Reformed Church was greatly strengthened by this solemn transaction, but the intrigues against it at court went on all the same.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Protestant ecclesial leaders such as Hubmaier and Hofmann preached the invalidity of infant baptism, advocating baptism as following conversion, called "believer's baptism", instead.
.In the view of many associated with the Radical Reformation, the Magisterial Reformation had not gone far enough, with radical reformer, Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt, for example, referring to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the "new papists".[28] A more political side of the Radical Reformation can be seen in the thought and practice of Hans Hut, although typically Anabaptism has been associated with pacifism.^ Before she herself mounted the scaffold, she had seen all who had sided with her in Scotland against Knox and the Reformation, die on the gallows or in the field.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Early Anabaptists were severely persecuted by both Calvinist and Catholic civil authorities.

Movements within Protestantism

Evolution of major branches and movements within Protestantism

Pietism and Methodism

.The German Pietist movement, together with the influence of the Puritan Reformation in England in the seventeenth century, were important influences upon John Wesley and Methodism, as well as new groups such as the Religious Society of Friends ("Quakers") and the Moravian Brethren from Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany.^ The struggle for Scotland's political independence in the fourteenth century was a necessary preliminary to its struggle for its religious Reformation in the sixteenth.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But by this time the area of Protestantism had been enlarged, and England and Scotland had become more important theaters than even Germany.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lollards of England were the connecting link between their great master, Wicliffe, and the English Reformers of the sixteenth century.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

The practice of a spiritual life, typically combined with social engagement, predominates in classical Pietism, which was a protest against the doctrine-centeredness Protestant Orthodoxy of the times, in favor of depth of religious experience. Many of the more conservative Methodists went on to form the Holiness movement, which emphasized a rigorous experience of holiness in practical, daily life.

Evangelicalism

.Beginning at the end of eighteenth century, several international revivals of Pietism (such as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening) took place across denominational lines, largely in the English-speaking world.^ Another marriage, which took place soon after the duke's, paved the way for that great issue in which this complication of affairs was to end.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was here the Scottish army, 9,000 strong, first took their place alongside the soldiers of the Parliament, in pursuance of their compact with England, and their union was sealed by a great victory.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lollards of England were the connecting link between their great master, Wicliffe, and the English Reformers of the sixteenth century.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Their teachings and successor groupings are referred to generally as the Evangelical movement. .The chief emphases of this movement were individual conversion, personal piety and Bible study, public morality often including Temperance and Abolitionism, de-emphasis of formalism in worship and in doctrine, a broadened role for laity (including women) in worship, evangelism and teaching, and cooperation in evangelism across denominational lines.^ Wherever it passed, its track was marked, as is that of the rain-cloud across the burned-up wilderness, by a shining line of moral and spiritual verdure.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Adventism

Adventism, as a movement, began in the United States in middle nineteenth century. The Adventist family of churches are regarded today as conservative Protestants.[29]

Modernism and Liberalism

Modernism and Liberalism do not constitute rigorous and well-defined schools of theology, but are rather an inclination by some writers and teachers to integrate Christian thought into the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment. New understandings of history and the natural sciences of the day led directly to new approaches to theology.

Pentecostalism

.Pentecostalism, as a movement, began in the United States early in the twentieth century, starting especially within the Holiness movement.^ From an early date Scotland had been in course of preparation for the part it was to act in the great movement of the sixteenth century.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Seeking a return to the operation of New Testament gifts of the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues as evidence of the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" or to make the unbeliever believe became the leading feature.^ At the stake he gave his New Testament to a friend as his last gift.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Divine healing and miracles were also emphasized. Pentecostalism swept through much of the Holiness movement, and eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations in the United States. .A later "charismatic" movement also stressed the gifts of the Spirit, but often operated within existing denominations, rather than by coming out of them.^ Nor could it be other than advantageous to come into contact with the chiefs of the movement, and especially with him who towered above them all.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It might come sooner or it might come later, but he no more doubted that it would come than he doubted the uniformity and equity of God's rule over men.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he appeared on the scaffold it was with a countenance so sweet and grave, and an air so serene and joyous, that he seemed to the spectators rather like one coming out of death than one entering into it.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

Fundamentalism

In reaction to liberal Bible critique, fundamentalism arose in the twentieth century, primarily in the United States, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism. Fundamentalism placed primary emphasis on the authority and sufficiency of the Bible, and typically advised separation from error and cultural conservatism as an important aspect of the Christian life.

Neo-orthodoxy

A non-fundamentalist rejection of liberal Christianity, associated primarily with Karl Barth, neo-orthodoxy sought to counter-act the tendency of liberal theology to make theological accommodations to modern scientific perspectives. Sometimes called "Crisis theology", according to the influence of philosophical existentialism on some important segments of the movement; also, somewhat confusingly, sometimes called neo-evangelicalism.

New Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism is a movement from the middle of the twentieth century, that reacted to perceived excesses of Fundamentalism, adding to concern for biblical authority, an emphasis on liberal arts, cooperation among churches, Christian Apologetics, and non-denominational evangelization.

Paleo-Orthodoxy

.Paleo-orthodoxy is a movement similar in some respects to Neo-evangelicalism but emphasising the ancient Christian consensus of the undivided Church of the first millennium AD, including in particular the early Creeds and councils of the Church as a means of properly understanding the Scriptures.^ But not yet had he rest; no sooner had he ended one battle than he had to begin another; and the second battle was in some respects more arduous than the first.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

This movement is cross-denominational and the theological giant of the movement is United Methodist theologian Thomas Oden.

Ecumenism

The ecumenical movement has had an influence on mainline churches, beginning at least in 1910 with the Edinburgh Missionary Conference. Its origins lay in the recognition of the need for cooperation on the mission field in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Since 1948, the World Council of Churches has been influential, but ineffective in creating a united Church. .There are also ecumenical bodies at regional, national and local levels across the globe; but schisms still far outnumber unifications.^ The body of Argyle was immediately on his execution, carried into the Magdalene Chapel, and laid upon a table still to be see there.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.One, but not the only expression of the ecumenical movement, has been the move to form united churches, such as the Church of South India, the Church of North India, The US-based United Church of Christ, The United Church of Canada, Uniting Church in Australia and the United Church of Christ in the Philippines which have rapidly declining memberships.^ Permit us then freely to meet in the name of Christ, and to attend to the interests of that Church of which you are the chief member.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole Scottish nation, only twenty-three years before, had taken an oath which declared that "the Lord Jesus Christ is the only King and Head of his Church," an expression which was meant to repudiate and shut out the ecclesiastical supremacy of the monarch.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a form of Church government, he assures the prince, utterly repugnant to monarchy, and destructive of the good order of States, and only to be rooted up.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

There has been a strong engagement of Orthodox churches in the ecumenical movement, though the reaction of individual Orthodox theologians has ranged from tentative approval of the aim of Christian unity to outright condemnation of the perceived effect of watering down Orthodox doctrine. [2]
.A Protestant baptism is held to be valid in a Catholic church because it is a sacrament borrowed from the Catholic Church and derives its efficacy from Christ.^ Valid legal securities were thus for the first time reared around the Protestant Church of Scotland.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Protestant ministers are not recognized as valid Church leaders, due to their lack of apostolic succession and their disunity from the Catholic Church.^ Valid legal securities were thus for the first time reared around the Protestant Church of Scotland.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, laymen who convert are not re-baptized, although Protestant ministers who convert are ordained to the Catholic priesthood (cf Apostolicae Curae).^ It was resolved to extrude from their livings and banish from their parishes all the ministers who had been ordained since 1649, and had not received presentation and collation as the king's Act required.
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1999, the representatives of Lutheran World Federation and Catholic Church signed The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of Justification which was at the root of the Protestant Reformation, although some conservative Lutherans did not agree to this resolution.^ "But," it was replied, "some Catholics will perish with the Protestants: is it lawful to destroy the righteous with the wicked?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Might it not, they said, be better to complete our Reformation more on the model of the other Protestant Churches of Christendom?
  • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

This is understandable, since there is no compelling authority within them. On July 18, 2006 Delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration. [3] [4]

Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians

Twelfth century
Fourteenth century
  • John Wycliffe, English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation".
Fifteenth century
.
  • Jan Hus, Catholic Priest and Professor, father of an early Protestant church (Moravianism), Czech reformist/dissident; burned to death in Constance, Holy Roman Empire in 1415 by Roman Catholic Church authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy.^ The Protestant clergyman was forbidden by the Act to receive any ecclesiastical dues from Roman Catholics, and as soon as his place became vacant by admission or death, a Popish incumbent was appointed to it, who, as a matter of course, received all the tithes.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A counterfeit deed would transfer a Protestant estate to a Roman Catholic owner.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    .After the devastation of the Hussite Wars some of his followers founded the Unitas Fratrum in 1457, "Unity of Brethren", which was renewed under the leadership of Count Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Saxony in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the 30 Years War and Counter Reformation.^ The two years that followed, 1568 and 1569, were perhaps the happiest in the Reformer's life, and the most prosperous in the history of his country during that century.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some made their escape; others were released on signing a bond of non-resistance; others were freed when found to be sinking under wounds, or diseases contracted by exposure.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In his execution we behold the close of a cycle of thirty years' duration, spent in plotting and warring against the Reformation.
    • The History of Protestantism by J. A. Wylie 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC whatsaiththescripture.com [Source type: Original source]

    Today it is usually referred to in English as the Moravian Church, in German the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine.
Sixteenth century

Protestantism by country

Distribution of Protestantism (including Anglicanism) in Europe

See also

References

  1. ^ Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition Article 52364.(http://www.diclib.com/[1])
  2. ^ dictionary.reference.com(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/protestant)
  3. ^ "The Protestant Reformation." Religion, 16th century. Web: 28 Feb 2010. The Protestant Reformation
  4. ^ O'Gorman, Robert T. and Faulkner, Mary. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Catholicism. 2003, page 317.
  5. ^ Wilhelm, Joseph. "Apostolic Succession." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Web: 4 Dec. 2009
  6. ^ a b Johann Jakob Herzog, Philip Schaff, Albert. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 1911, page 419. http://books.google.com/books?id=AmYAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA419
  7. ^ Brackney, William H. (2006). Baptists in North America: an historical perspective. Blackwell Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 1405118652. 
  8. ^ Briggs, John. "Baptist Origins". Baptist History and Heritage Society. http://www.baptisthistory.org/contissues/briggs.htm. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Gourley, Bruce. "A Very Brief Introduction to Baptist History, Then and Now." The Baptist Observer.
  10. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/subdivisions/quakers_2.shtml
  11. ^ World Christian Encyclopedia (2nd edition). David Barrett, George Kurian and Todd Johnson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. According to the editors, the books defines denomination as "an organized aggregate of worship centers or congregations of similar ecclesiastical tradition within a specific country; i.e. as an organized Christian church or tradition or religious group or community of believers, within a specific country, whose component congregations and members are called by the same denominational name in different areas, regarding themselves as one autonomous Christian church distinct from other denominations, churches and traditions. As defined here, world Christianity consists of 6 major ecclesiastico-cultural blocs, divided into 300 major ecclesiastical traditions, composed of over 33,000 distinct denominations in 238 countries, these denominations themselves being composed of over 3,400,000 worship centers, churches or congregations."(Barrett et al, volume 1, page 16, Table 1-5)
  12. ^ Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119.( also in PDF file, p49), saying "Not only do Protestants presently constitute 13 percent of the world's population—about 800 million people—but since 1900 Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America."
  13. ^ "between 1,250 and 1,750 million adherents, depending on the criteria employed": McGrath, Alister E. Christianity: An Introduction. 2006, page xv1.
  14. ^ "2.1 thousand million Christians": Hinnells, John R. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2005, page 441.
  15. ^ Hall(2), Basil (1993), "Cranmer, the Eucharist, and the Foreign Divines in the Reign of Edward VI", in Ayris, Paul; Selwyn, David, Thomas Cranmer: Churchman and Scholar, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: The Boydell Press, [ISBN 0-85115-549-9]
  16. ^ Church Association Tract 049
  17. ^ Not all Anglicans consider themselves "Protestant"
  18. ^ Matt. 16:18, 1 Cor. 3:11, Eph. 2:20, 1 Pet. 2:5–6, Rev. 21:14
  19. ^ 1 Cor. 10:16, 11:20, 27, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 95, Part XXIV. "The Lord's Supper", paragraph 131.
  20. ^ The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article 8, The Holy Supper
  21. ^ Luke 22:19-20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 162. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt. 
  22. ^ Matthew 26:28, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt. 
  23. ^ Luther's Small Catechism, Part IV, The Sacrament of the Altar, "What is the benefit of such eating and drinking? That is shown us in these words: Given, and shed for you, for the remission of sins; namely, that in the Sacrament forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation are given us through these words. For where there is forgiveness of sins, there is also life and salvation." Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt. 
  24. ^ Responses to Some Questions Regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine on the Church, June 29, 2007, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith]].
  25. ^ The Protestant Reformers formed a new theological opinion, that the visible Catholic Church is "catholic" (lower-case "c") rather than "Catholic" (upper-case "c"). Accordingly, there is not an indefinite number of Parochial, or Congregational, or National churches, constituting, as it were, so many ecclesiastical individualities, but one great spiritual republic of which these various organizations form a part, although they each have very different opinions. The visible church is not a genus, so to speak, with so many species under it. It is thus you may think of the State, but the visible church is a totum integrale, it is an empire, with an ethereal emperor, rather than a visible one. The churches of the various nationalities constitute the provinces of this empire; and though they are so far independent of each other, yet they are so one, that membership in one is membership in all, and separation from one is separation from all.... This conception of the church, of which, in at least some aspects, we have practically so much lost sight, had a firm hold of the Scottish theologians of the seventeenth century. Dr. James Walker in The Theology of Theologians of Scotland. (Edinburgh: Rpt. Knox Press, 1982) Lecture iv. pp.95-6.
  26. ^ reformedcatholicism.com
  27. ^ The Canadian Reformed Magazine, 18 (September 20–27, October 4–11, 18, November 1, 8, 1969) http://spindleworks.com/library/faber/008_theca.htm
  28. ^ The Magisterial Reformation.
  29. ^ "Adventist and Sabbatarian (Hebraic) Churches" section (p. 256–276) in Frank S. Mead, Samuel S. Hill and Craig D. Atwood, Handbook of Denominations in the United States, 12th edn. Nashville: Abingdon Press
  30. ^ Challenges to Authority: The Renaissance in Europe: A Cultural Enquiry, Volume 3, by Peter Elmer, page 25.
  31. ^ "What ELCA Lutherans Believe." Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. 26 July 2008 .

External links

Supporting
Critical
Miscellaneous

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Topic:Protestantism article)

From Wikiversity

Division of Protestantism

Contents

Welcome to the study of Protestantism

.As you may or may not know, there are many flavors of Protestants w:Protestant_reformers.^ I don't know how many Protestants there are in the world now.
  • Protestants Deceived on the Anti-christ - Sermon Notes 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC www.stepstolife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You may not know it yet, but you are.
  • The Present Protestant Dilemma - Sermon Notes 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.stepstolife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is forgiveness, you know.
  • Cheshire Christ: Floundering in the Tiber 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.crowhill.net [Source type: Original source]

.What you may not be aware of is that most people not associated with the Roman Catholics are, in fact, Protestants.^ Do you think like a Catholic or a Protestant?
  • Do You Think like a Protestant or a Catholic? (ChristianAnswers.Net) 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Catholics and Protestants in the 20th Century .
  • Protestants and Roman Catholics — Why Creeds and Confessions? 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What you may not be aware of is that most people not associated with the Roman Catholics are, in fact, Protestants.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This wiki serves to be just the briefest of overviews of Protestantism.^ This wiki serves to be just the briefest of overviews of Protestantism.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And, depending on how you view church history, it can be very exciting -- with lots of twists and turns.^ And, depending on how you view church history, it can be very exciting -- with lots of twists and turns.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a church rich in history and tradition. Our members would love to welcome you in person on Sunday.
  • First United Methodist Church 21 January 2010 6:17 UTC www.fumcterrell.org [Source type: General]

^ While you can learn a good deal about programs that go on here, you can’t get a very good feel for what it’s like to be connected to this Christian community we call Epiphany Lutheran Church.

.Along with the varied twists and turns, there are many players such as the more popular Luther, Calvin and Zwingli, along with scores of lesser-knowns who each played their part in moving away from the perceived limitations of Roman Catholicism.^ Along with the varied twists and turns, there are many players such as the more popular Luther, Calvin and Zwingli, along with scores of lesser-knowns who each played their part in moving away from the perceived limitations of Roman Catholicism.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C of E was the first "Protestant" movement, and yes it started as a reaction against the Papacy by King Henry VIII, then it started incorporating a lot of doctrines from Luther and to a lesser extent Calvin.
  • The Christian Nation: Protestantism, American History and American Politics 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC deanesmay.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern Ecumenical and Charismatic Renewal Movements, even many of the "big name" T.V. Evangelists, are all playing their part in the move for unity with Rome.
  • Protestant Truth 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.1335.com [Source type: News]

.What I hope to see here is sort of a "layperson's guide" to Protestantism, not a lot of lengthy discources or debates on the various theologies.^ We hope to see you here!
  • Lake Nokomis Lutheran Church. - Home 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC lakenokomischurch.org [Source type: General]

^ What I hope to see here is sort of a "layperson's guide" to Protestantism, not a lot of lengthy discources or debates on the various theologies.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will gleefully fire shots at Tradition, but then refuse to see that sola Scriptura is itself a sort of odd, self-defeating variant of tradition.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Catholicism & the Two "Pillars" of Protestantism (Sola Scriptura & Sola Fide) 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.I would like this to start with a short history of the church, then move into more of the regional history of Europe and finally into the various "flavors" themselves.^ The history of this church is rich and varied.

^ More on the church's history is here , and here .
  • Protestant Churches, Covington, Kentucky 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.nkyviews.com [Source type: General]

^ I would like this to start with a short history of the church, then move into more of the regional history of Europe and finally into the various "flavors" themselves.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A short history of the Church

.Arguably, the start was Johannes Gutenberg with his printing press attempting to get the gospel into the hands of the people in their own language.^ Arguably, the start was Johannes Gutenberg with his printing press attempting to get the gospel into the hands of the people in their own language.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And people started to look into this.
  • The Present Protestant Dilemma - Sermon Notes 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.stepstolife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Luther also criticized the Catholic church for not allowing the Bible to be translated into languages the people could read or understand.
  • Interesting Facts About the Protestant Reformation - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.As we will see, other people came along with their ideas as to what Christianity means for the people.^ As we will see, other people came along with their ideas as to what Christianity means for the people.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, it occurs to me that I have a special personal duty to be grateful to all the people who created and who continue to maintain the culture of Baptist and other Protestant evangelical Christianity.

^ The Protestant Community Church believes that community means a body of people living and believing in one common idea - that Godís power comes through Christ to each individual.
  • Welcome to Medford Lakes, NJ 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.medfordlakes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the perceived limitations include the following:
This section is a stub. You can help Wikiversity by expanding it.

Regional history of the Reformation

.Some areas of Europe stayed Roman Catholic, some tried compromising and still more broke as far away as possible from the previous flavor.^ Some areas of Europe stayed Roman Catholic, some tried compromising and still more broke as far away as possible from the previous flavor.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I worked for years on trying to be "Catholic, but not Roman Catholic."
  • Cheshire Christ: Floundering in the Tiber 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.crowhill.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe will go Roman Catholic!

.These splinters are where we get a lot of our various denominations today.^ These splinters are where we get a lot of our various denominations today.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We remember and grieve the loss of those who resisted these policies as long as possible, but who left our denomination, or the Church, or did not live to see this day.
  • Extraordinary Lutheran Ministries 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC www.elm.org [Source type: General]

^ What is God telling us in these lessons about our lives today?
  • Trinity Lutheran Chuch, Chattanooga 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC lutherantrinity.com [Source type: News]

.Some of the other denominations formed as these earlier groups had widely differing views on biblical interpretation and the training/utilization of the laity.^ Some of the other denominations formed as these earlier groups had widely differing views on biblical interpretation and the training/utilization of the laity.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And there are biblical passages which contradict some of these views.
  • Is Protestant Teaching Unbiblical? 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.northforest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The laity's interpretation and evaluation of biblical truth took place across a wide variety of sites--discussion, debate, prayer, meditation, conferences, and reading--over which the clergy had less than absolute control.
  • Sample Chapter for Winship, M.P.: Making Heretics: Militant Protestantism and Free Grace in Massachusetts, 1636-1641. 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

The regional breakdown is as follows: Scotland -- John Knox (1505-1572) w:John_Knox France -- John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) w:John_Calvin England -- Henry VIII, continued by Elizabeth I Germany -- Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546)

If Protestantism were ice cream ....

.It does not take much more than a casual observation to see that there are myriad "flavors" of Protestantism.^ I believe it will be much more than that.
  • Protestant Misunderstanding of Catholics 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC bibleprobe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It takes much more than that.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Replies to Protestants' Alleged Biblical Disproofs of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary (vs. Ken Temple) 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A.A. is worth so much more than that.
  • Classical Protestant Liberalism and Early A.A. 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC hindsfoot.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some groups seem to have centered around personalities.^ Some groups seem to have centered around personalities.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a caring group of persons, seeking to grow more Christlike: loving and full of grace, and seeking to make a difference in our neighborhood, in our community, and around the world.

^ It usually centers around the "personal relationship" doctrine of protestantism.
  • Question about Dr Brad Nassif on Orthodoxy and Evangelical Protestantism 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.monachos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others seem to have a certain view towards certain Scriptures.^ Others seem to have a certain view towards certain Scriptures.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his last years, Francis Schaeffer seemed to be moving toward the historic Christian view of contraception.
  • Touchstone Archives: Children of the Reformation 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC touchstonemag.com [Source type: Original source]

.Still others found the limitations of previous "flavors" a little too insurmountable and chose to form their own flavor.^ Still others found the limitations of previous "flavors" a little too insurmountable and chose to form their own flavor.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our previous blog that contains news articles and other commentary not directly related to this site is still available from the link titled "Logical Expressions".
  • Baptist City Featuring Preaching by Dr. Jack Hyles and Dr. Jack Schaap 10 February 2010 11:55 UTC www.baptist-city.com [Source type: General]

^ Some areas of Europe stayed Roman Catholic, some tried compromising and still more broke as far away as possible from the previous flavor.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Traits of Protestantism

.Created after Luther's "protest" against the Catholic Church, Protestantism has had plenty of time to diversify.^ If the church of today is not doing so, it is time to protest.
  • Three Principles of Protestantism by James E. McGoldrick 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.the-highway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was he already a rebel against the Catholic Church, protesting against it?
  • Luther Gospel Law and Reformation 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.teach12.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But has there been a time when Protestants have started an attack against the Catholics.
  • Thirty Years War and Protestants Killing Catholics 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the term "Protestant" is of a historical nature (representing those religions which broke away from Catholicism, or which are descended from them), modern Protestantism tends to share certain traits.^ Identify the protestant religions of those countries?
  • WikiAnswers - What protestant countries are there 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 18th century, the Enlightenment invigorated interests in natural religion and in morality as the heart of religion; its objection to ceremonies, mystery and ecclesiastical authority formed much of the basis for modern liberal Protestantism.
  • Religion, Scriptures and Spirituality: Protestant Christianity - MediaBlab 17 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.jakeludington.com [Source type: General]

^ Another important branch of Protestantism, represented by the Church of England and Episcopal Church , had its origins in 16th-century England and is now the Protestant denomination closest to Roman Catholicism in theology and worship.
  • The Protestant Heritage -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example is that most—if not all—protestant groups believe that man can have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ (as apposed to the Catholic notion of having a priest intercede on one's behalf).^ One of my dissertation advisors, for example, was a Roman Catholic priest.

^ Catholic Church that Jesus Christ founded.

^ Do you have a personal relationship with Jesus?
  • Question about Dr Brad Nassif on Orthodoxy and Evangelical Protestantism 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.monachos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The doctrine of Sola Scriptura as introduced by Martin Luther is very common to most protestant denominations.^ Martin Luther was the founder of the Protestant Reformation.
  • "Bad" Protestants - North Forest 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC www.northforest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine of Sola Scriptura as introduced by Martin Luther is very common to most protestant denominations.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But based on the Protestant doctrine of Sola Scriptura there should not be any inconsistencies.
  • Is Protestant Teaching Unbiblical? 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.northforest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sola Scriptura represents a belief that the Bible is the inherent word of God, and the final authority on all theological matters.^ For Lutherans Scripture (The Holy Bible) is the final authority in all matters of faith and practice.
  • What do Lutheran's Believe? 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC linetap.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptists believe the pure Word of God to be sufficient authority in all matters.
  • Why Baptists are not Protestants 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC mbt-ldca.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Word of God is the bottom authority."
  • The Present Protestant Dilemma - Sermon Notes 16 January 2010 17:32 UTC www.stepstolife.org [Source type: Original source]

.Once again, this is in clear "protest" to the Catholic notion of Apostolic succession and Papal theological authority.^ Why do Protestants reject Catholic authority?

^ Once again, this is in clear "protest" to the Catholic notion of Apostolic succession and Papal theological authority.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were several Catholic doctrines that Beckwith took issue with, including those of penance, justification, apostolic succession, and real presence.
  • Beckwith Details Journey Back to Catholicism 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.wabash.edu [Source type: News]

Perhaps a list...

.Here are some pages based upon specific doctrines (denominations) within Protestantism.^ Here are some pages based upon specific doctrines (denominations) within Protestantism.
  • Topic:Protestantism - Wikiversity 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are some additional sources of information about our Lutheran beliefs and doctrines.
  • The Lutheran 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC thelutheran.net [Source type: General]

^ Click here for the Vatican's July 10, 2007 document on Responses to some Questions Regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine on the Church.
  • Nineveh's Crossing - Common Ground: What Protestants and Catholics Can Learn from Each Other DVD 18 September 2009 15:25 UTC ninevehscrossing.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Adventist
  • Baptist
  • Religious Society Of Friends (Quakers)
  • Congregationalism
  • Lutheranism
  • Methodism
  • Pentecostalism
  • Presbyterianism
  • Puritans
  • Revivalism
  • Church of England
  • Evangelicalism - however, Evangelicalism is not strictly to be classed simply with the others on this list as there are people of many denominations who could describe themselves as Evangelical.^ Religious Society of Friends - Pittsburgh (Quakers) There is no set creed or belief for The Religious Society of Friends.
    • Protestantism, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Resource Guide 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.carnegielibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Charismatic, Pentecostal , Fundamentalist and other Evangelical churches.

    ^ Many found a home in the evangelical churches.

    .(Note also that it is also not restricted merely to Protestantism: though this is the division of the church it is most commonly associated with, it is possible also to be a Roman Catholic Evangelical.^ Roman Catholic church.
    • PROTESTANTISM, 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Protestantism | Definition of Protestantism | HighBeam.com: Online Dictionary 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Roman Catholic Church and certain ...
    • Protestantism | Definition of Protestantism | HighBeam.com: Online Dictionary 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Roman Catholic church has placed a ...
    • Protestantism | Definition of Protestantism | HighBeam.com: Online Dictionary 9 January 2010 18:34 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

    )
  • New Thought Protestantism:
  • Christian Science
  • Unity School of Christianity

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Noun

Singular
Protestantism
Protestantism (uncountable)
  1. The Protestant (rather than the Roman Catholic or Orthodox) Christian religion.
  2. Collectively, the Protestant churches or the Protestants.

Related terms

Translations


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Baptist, which are similar to those in the above article.








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