The Full Wiki

Proto-Indo-European numerals: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article contains characters used to write reconstructed Proto-Indo-European words. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The numerals of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms.

Contents

Cardinal numbers

The cardinal numbers are reconstructed as follows:

Number Reconstruction (Sihler)[1] Reconstruction (Beekes)[2]
one *Hoi-no-/*Hoi-wo-/*Hoi-k(ʷ)o-; *sem- *Hoi(H)nos
two *d(u)wo- *duoh₁
three *trei- (full grade) / *tri- (zero grade) *treies
four *kʷetwor- (o-grade) / *kʷetur- (zero grade)
(see also the kʷetwóres rule)
*kʷetuōr
five *penkʷe *penkʷe
six *s(w)eḱs; originally perhaps *weḱs *(s)uéks
seven *septm̥ *séptm
eight *oḱtō, *oḱtou or *h₃eḱtō, *h₃eḱtou *h₃eḱteh₃
nine *(h₁)newn̥ *(h₁)néun
ten *deḱm̥(t) *déḱmt
twenty *wīḱm̥t-; originally perhaps *widḱomt- *duidḱmti
thirty *trīḱomt-; originally perhaps *tridḱomt- *trih₂dḱomth₂
forty *kʷetwr̥̄ḱomt-; originally perhaps *kʷetwr̥dḱomt- *kʷeturdḱomth₂
fifty *penkʷēḱomt-; originally perhaps *penkʷedḱomt- *penkʷedḱomth₂
sixty *s(w)eḱsḱomt-; originally perhaps *weḱsdḱomt- *ueksdḱomth₂
seventy *septm̥̄ḱomt-; originally perhaps *septm̥dḱomt- *septmdḱomth₂
eighty *oḱtō(u)ḱomt-; originally perhaps *h₃eḱto(u)dḱomt- *h₃eḱth₃dḱomth₂
ninety *(h₁)newn̥̄ḱomt-; originally perhaps *h₁newn̥dḱomt- *h₁neundḱomth₂
hundred *ḱm̥tom; originally perhaps *dḱm̥tom *dḱmtóm
thousand *ǵʰeslo-; *tusdḱomti (originally "a massive number") *ǵʰes-l-

Other reconstructions typically differ only slightly from Beekes and Sihler (see for example Fortson[3]).

The elements *-dḱomt- (in the numerals "twenty" to "ninety") and *dḱm̥t- (in "hundred") are reconstructed on the assumption that these numerals are derivatives of *deḱm̥(t) "ten".

Lehmann[4] believes that the numbers greater than ten were constructed separately in the dialects groups and that *ḱm̥tóm originally meant "a large number" rather than specifically "one hundred."

Advertisements

Gender of numerals

The numbers three and four had feminine forms with the suffix *-s(o)r-, reconstructed as *t(r)i-sr- and *kʷetwr̥-sr-, respectively.[3]

Numerals as prefixes

Special forms of the numerals were used as prefixes, usually to form bahuvrihis (like five-fingered in English):

Number Prefix (Fortson)[5]
one- (together, same) *sm̥-
two- *dwi-
three- *tri-
four- *kʷ(e)tru- or *kʷetwr̥-

Ordinal numbers

The ordinal numbers are difficult to reconstruct due to their variety in the daughter languages. The following reconstructions are tentative:[6]

  • "first" is formed with *pr̥h₃- (related to some adverbs meaning "forth, forward, front" and to the particle *prō "forth", thus originally meaning "foremost" or similar) plus various suffixes like *-mo-, *-wo- (cf. Latin primus, Russian perv-).
  • "second": The daughter languages use a wide range of expressions, often unrelated to the word for "two" (including Latin and English), so that no PIE form can be reconstructed.
  • "third" to "sixth" were formed from the cardinals plus the suffix *-t(ó)-: *tr̥-t(ó)- / *tri-t(ó)- "third" etc.
  • "seventh" to "tenth" were formed by adding the thematic vowel *-ó- to the cardinal: *oḱtow-ó- "eighth" etc.

The cardinals ending in a syllabic nasal (seven, nine, ten) inserted a second nasal before the thematic vowel, resulting in the suffixes *-mó- and *-nó-. These and the suffix *-t(ó)- spread to neighbouring ordinals, seen for example in Vedic aṣṭa- "eighth" and Lithuanian deviñtas "ninth".

Reflexes

Reflexes of the cardinal numbers

Number Reconstruction (Sihler) Reflexes[3][7]
one *Hoi-no- Alb. një/nji;njo, Lith. vienas, Latv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. oios, Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Lat. ūnus, Kamviri ev, Osc. uinus, OCS edinŭ, ON einn, OPruss. aīns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva-/yek, Pol. jeden, Roman. unu, Russ. odin, Ved. aika, Umbr. uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un
*sem- Arm. mi/mek/meg, Alb. gjithë, Lith. sa, sav-as, Eng. sum/some, Gm. saman/zusammen, Gk. heis, Hitt. san, Av. hakeret, Ir. samail/samhail, Lat. semel, Lyc. sñta, Kamviri sâ~, Pers. hama/hamin, Russ. sam, Ved. sakŕ̥t, Toch. sas/e, Welsh hafal, ON sami, Goth. sama
two *du(w)o- Hitt. dā-, Luv. tuwi-, Lyc. tuwa, Ved. dvā(u), Av. duua, Pers. duva/do, Osset. dyuuæ/duuæ, Kashmiri zū', Kamviri dü, Gk. dúō, Lat. duō, Osc. dus, Umbr. tuf, ON tveir, Goth. twai, Eng. twā/two, Gm. zwêne/zwei, Gaul. vo, Ir. dá/dó, Welsh dau, Arm. erkow/yerku/yergu, Toch. wu/wi, OPruss. dwāi, Latv. divi, Lith. dù, OCS dŭva, Pol. dwa, Russ. dva, Alb. dy;di/dy;dў
three *trei- Hitt. teriyaš (gen. pl.), Lyc. trei, Ved. tráyas, Av. θrāiiō, Pers. çi/se, Osset. ærtæ/ærtæ, Kashmiri tre, Kamviri tre, Gk. treĩs, Lat. trēs, Osc. trís, Umbr. trif, ON þrír, Goth. þreis, Eng. þrēo/three, Gm. drī/drei, Gaul. treis, Ir. treí/trí, Welsh tri, Arm. erek῾/yerek῾/yerek῾, Toch. tre/trai, OPruss. tri, Latv. trīs, Lith. trỹs, OCS trije, Pol. trzy, Russ. tri, Alb. tre/tre
four *kʷetwor- Lyc. teteri, Ved. catvāras, Av. caθuuārō, Pers. /čahār, Osset. cyppar/cuppar, Kashmiri tsor, Kamviri što, Gk. téttares, Lat. quattuor, Osc. petora, Umbr. petor, ON fjórir, Goth. fidwor, Eng. fēower/four, Gm. feor/vier, Gaul. petor, Ir. cethir/ceathair, Welsh pedwar, Arm. čork῾/čors/čors, Toch. śtwar/śtwer, OPruss. keturjāi, Latv. četri, Lith. keturì, OCS četyre, Pol. cztery, Russ. četyre, Alb. katër;katrë/katër
five *pénkʷe Luwian panta, Ved. pañca, Av. panca, Pers. panča/panj, Osset. fondz/fondz, Kashmiri pā.~tsh Kamviri puč, Gk. pénte, Lat. quīnque, Osc. pompe, Umbr. pumpe, ON fimm, Goth. fimf, Eng. fīf/five, Gm. fimf/fünf, Gaul. pempe, Ir. cóic/cúig, Welsh pump, Arm. hing/hing/hink, Toch. päñ/piś, OPruss. pēnkjāi, Latv. pieci, Lith. penkì, OCS pętĭ, Pol. pięć, Russ. pjat', Alb. pesë/pes(ë);pês
six *s(w)eḱs Ved. ṣáṣ, Av. xšuuaš, Pers. /šeš, Osset. æxsæz/æxsæz, Kashmiri śe, Kamviri u, Gk. héks, Lat. sex, Osc. sehs, Umbr. sehs, ON sex, Goth. saíhs, Eng. siex/six, Gm. sēhs/sechs, Gaul. suex, Ir. sé/sé, Welsh chwech, Arm. vec῾/vec῾/vec῾, Toch. ṣäk/ṣkas, OPruss. usjai, Latv. seši, Lith. šešì, OCS šestĭ, Pol. sześć, Russ. šest', Alb. gjashtë/gjasht(ë);xhasht
seven *septm̥ Hitt. šipta-, Ved. saptá, Av. hapta, Pers. hafta/haft, Osset. avd/avd, Kashmiri sath, Kamviri sut, Gk. heptá, Lat. septem, Osc. seften, ON sjau, Goth. sibun, Eng. seofon/seven, Gm. sibun/sieben, Gaul. sextan, Ir. secht/seacht, Welsh saith, Arm. ewt῾n/yot῾/yot῾ě, Toch. ṣpät/ṣukt, OPruss. septīnjai, Lith. septynì, Latv. septiņi, OCS sedmĭ, Pol. siedem, Russ. sem', Alb. shtatë/shtat(ë)
eight *h₃eḱtō Lyc. aitãta-, Ved. aṣṭā(u), Av. ašta, Pers. ašta/hašt, Osset. ast/ast, Kashmiri ā.h, Kamviri u, Gk. oktō, Lat. octō, Osc. uhto, ON átta, Goth. ahtau, Eng. eahta/eight, Gm. ahto/acht, Gaul. oxtū, Ir. ocht/ocht, Welsh wyth, Arm. owt῾/ut῾ě, Toch. okät/okt, OPruss. astōnjai, Latv. astoņi, Lith. aštuonì, OCS osmĭ, Pol. osiem, Russ. vosem', Alb. tëte/tet(ë)
nine *(h₁)newn̥ Lyc. ñuñtãta-, Ved. nava, Av. nauua, Pers. nava/noh, Kashmiri nav, Kamviri nu, Gk. enné(w)a, Lat. novem, Osc. nuven, Umbr. nuvim, ON níu, Goth. niun, Eng. nigon/nine, Gm. niun/neun, Gaul. navan, Ir. nói/naoi, Welsh naw, Arm. inn/inn/inně, TochA. ñu, OPruss. newīnjai, Latv. deviņi, Lith. devynì, OCS devętĭ, Pol. dziewięć, Russ. devjat', Alb. nëntë;nëndë/nând(ë);non(t)
ten *deḱm̥(t) Ved. dáśa, Av. dasa, Pers. daθa/dah, Osset. dæs/dæs, Kashmiri da.h, Kamviri duc, Gk. déka, Lat. decem, Osc. deken, Umbr. desem, ON tíu, Goth. taíhun, Eng. tīen/ten, Gm. zēhen/zehn, Gaul. decam, Ir. deich/deich, Welsh deg, Arm. tasn/tas/dasě, Toch. śäk/śak, OPruss. desīmtan, Latv. desmit, Lith. dẽšimt, OCS desętĭ, Pol. dziesięć, Russ. desjat', Alb. dhjetë/dhet(ë)
twenty *wīḱm̥t- Ved. viṁśatí-, Av. vīsaiti, Pers. /bēst, Kashmiri vuh, Kamviri vici, Doric wíkati, Lat. vīgintī, Gaul. vocontio, Ir. fiche/fiche, M. Welsh ugein(t), Arm. k῾san/k῾san/k῾san, Toch. wiki/ikä, Lith. dvi-de-šimt, Alb. njëzet/njizet
thirty *trīḱomt- Skr. triśat, Gk. triákonta, Lat. trīgintā, Ir. /tríocha, Lith. tris-de-šimt
forty *kʷetwr̥̄ḱomt- Skr. catvāriśat, Gk. tessarákonta, Lat. quadrāgintā, Lith. keturias-de-šimt
fifty *penkʷēḱomt- Skr. pañcāśat, Gk. pentêkonta, Lat. quinquāgintā, Ir. /caoga, Lith. penkias-de-šimt
sixty *s(w)eḱsḱomt- Skr. ṣaṣṭih, Gk. exêkonta, Lat. sexāgintā, Ir. /seasca, Lith. šešias-de-šimt, Russ. šest'desjat
seventy *septm̥̄ḱomt- Skr. saptatih, Gk. heptákonta, Lat. septuāgintā, Ir. /seachtó, Lith. septynias-de-šimt, Russ. sem'desjat
eighty *h₃eḱtō(u)ḱomt- Skr. aśītih, Gk. ogdôkonta, Lat. octāgintā, Ir. /ochtó, Lith. aštuonias-de-šimt, Russ. vosem'desjat
ninety *(h₁)newn̥̄ḱomt- Skr. navatih, Gk. ennenêkonta, Lat. nonāgintā, Ir. /nócha, Lith. devynias-de-šimt, Russ. devjanosto
hundred *ḱm̥tom Ved. śatám, Av. satəm, Pers. /sad, Osset. sædæ, Kashmiri śath, Gk. hekatón, Lat. centum, ON hundrað, Goth. hund, Eng. hundred/hundred, Gm. hunt/hundert, Gaul. cantam, Ir. cét/céad, Welsh cant, Toch. känt/kante, Latv. simts, Lith. šim̃tas, OCS sŭto, Pol. sto, Russ. sto/sotnja
thousand *(sm̥-)ǵʰéslo- Skr. sahasram, Av. hazarəm, Pers. /hāzar, Gk. khilioi, Lat. mīlle
*tusdḱomti ON þúsund, Goth. þusundi, Eng. þusend/thousand, Gm. þūsunt/tausend, TochA. tmāṃ, TochB. tmāne/tumane, Lith. tūkst-ant-is, stūks-ant-is, Latv. tūkstots, OCS tysǫšti, Pol. tysiąc, Russ. tysjača
*wel- Toch. wälts/yaltse

In the following languages, reflexes separated by slashes mean:

Reflexes of the feminine numbers

Number Reconstruction Reflexes[3]
three *t(r)i-sr- Ved. tisrás, Av. tišrō, Gaul. tidres, Ir. teoir/?
four *kʷetwr̥-sr- Ved. cátasras, Av. cataŋrō, Ir. cetheoir/?

Reflexes of the numeral prefixes

Number Reconstruction Reflexes (with examples)[5][8]
one- (together, same) *sm̥- Ved. sa-kŕ̥t "once", Gk. há-ploos "one-fold, simple", Lat. sim-plex "one-fold"
two- *dwi- Ved. dvi-pád- "two-footed", Gk. dí-pod- "two-footed", Archaic Lat. dui-dent "a sacrificial animal with two teeth"
three- *tri- Ved. tri-pád- "three-footed", Gk. trí-pod- "three-footed (table)", Lat. tri-ped- "three-footed", Gaul. tri-garanus "having three cranes", Alb. tri-dhjetë "thirty" (three ten)
four- *kʷ(e)tru- Ved. cátuṣ-pád- "four-footed", Av. caθru-gaoša- "four-eared", Gk. tetrá-pod- "four-footed", Lat. quadru-ped- "four-footed"

Reflexes of the ordinal numbers

Number Reconstruction Reflexes
first *pr̥h₃-wó- Ved. pūrviyá-, OCS prĭvŭ[6]
*pr̥h₃-mó- Goth. fruma, Lith. pìrmas[6]
other forms Lat. prīmus, Eng. fyrst/first,[6]

Hitt. para, Lyc. pri, Av. pairi, vienet-as, paoiriia, Osset. fyccag, farast/farast, Kamviri pürük, Gk. prōtos, Osc. perum, Umbr. pert, Roman. primul, ON fyrstr, Gm. furist/Fürst "prince, ruler"; fruo/früh "early", Ir. er/air, Welsh ar, Toch. parwät/parwe, OPruss. pariy, Latv. pirmais, Pol. pierwszy, Russ. pervyj, Alb. i parë

second *dwo-teró- Skr. dvitīya, Gk. deúteros, Lith. ant(a)ras, Eng. other, Russ. vtoroj
third *tri-tó- Ved. tr̥tīya-, Gk. trítos, Lat. tertius,[6]

Alb. (i) tretë, Lith. trečias < *tretias, Russ. tretij

fourth *kʷetwr̥-tó- Gk. tétartos, Eng. feorþa/fourth, OCS četvirĭtŭ,[6]

Alb. (i) katërt, Lat. quartus, Lith. ketvirtas, Russ. chetvjortyj

fifth *penkʷ-tó- Av. puxδa-, Gk. pémptos,[6]

Lat. quintus, Alb. (i) pestë, Lith. penktas, Russ. pjatyj

sixth *sweḱs-tó- Gk. héktos, Lat. sextus,[6]

Alb.(i) gjashtë, Lith. šeštas, Russ. šestoj

seventh *septm̥-(m)ó- Gk. hébdomos, Lat. septimus, OCS sedmŭ,[6]

Lith. septintas, sekmas, Russ. sed'moj

eighth *h₃eḱtōw-ó- Gk. ógdo(w)os, Lat. octāvus,[6]

Russ. vos'moj, Lith. aštuntas, ašmas

ninth *(h₁)newn̥-(n)ó- Lat. nonus,[6]

Gk. énatos, Russ. devjatyj, Lith. devintas

tenth *dekm̥-(m)ó- Ved. daśamá-, Av. dasəma-, Lat. decimus,[6]

Gk. dékatos, Lith. dešimtas, Russ. desjatyj

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sihler (1995:402–24)
  2. ^ Beekes (1995:212–16)
  3. ^ a b c d Fortson (2004:131)
  4. ^ Lehmann (1993:252–255)
  5. ^ a b Fortson (2004:131–132)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fortson (2004:132)
  7. ^ Gvozdanovic (1991)
  8. ^ Fortson (2004:120)

References

  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (1995), Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, ISBN 1-55619-505-1  
  • Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004), Indo-European Language and Culture, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-4051-0316-7  
  • Gvozdanovic, Jadranka (1991), Indo-European Numerals, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-011322-8  
  • Lehmann, Winfried P. (1993), Theoretical Bases of Indo-European Linguistics, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-08201-3  
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995), New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508345-8  

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message