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Proton
Quark structure proton.svg
The quark structure of the proton.
Classification: Baryon
Composition: 2 up quarks, 1 down quark
Statistical behavior: Fermion
Group: Hadron
Interaction: Gravity, Electromagnetic, Weak, Strong
Symbol(s): p, p+, N+
Antiparticle: Antiproton
Theorized: William Prout (1815)
Discovered: Ernest Rutherford (1919)
Mass: 1.672621637(83)×10−27 kg
938.272013(23) MeV/c2
1.00727646677(10) u[1]
Mean lifetime: >2.1×1029 years (stable)
Electric charge: +1 e
1.602176487(40)×10−19 C[1]
Charge radius: 0.877 fm[1]
Electric dipole moment: <5.4×10−24 e·cm
Electric polarizability: 1.20(6)×10−3 fm3
Magnetic moment: 2.792847351(28) μN
Magnetic polarizability: 1.9(5)×10−4 fm3
Spin: 12
Isospin: 12
Parity: +1
Condensed: I(JP) = 12(12+)
.The proton is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge.^ Proton A positively charged particle of an atom.
  • Glossary of Proton Therapy Terms 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.protons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PROTON Protons are small, positively-charged atomic particles.

^ A linear accelerator uses electricity to form a stream of fast-moving subatomic particles.
  • Glossary of Proton Therapy Terms 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.protons.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is found in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons, but is also stable by itself and has a second identity as the hydrogen ion, H+.^ In a stable nucleus, the neutron does not decay.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A proton is one of the main particles of an atom, along with the neutron and electron.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nucleus of the atom of the element helium ( He ) has two protons (hence helium has an atomic number of 2 ) and two neutrons .
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is composed of three fundamental particles: two up quarks and one down quark.^ It is made up of three quarks .
  • proton Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [CD99] (c) A baryon made of two up quarks and a down quark.

^ There are two up quarks and one down quark.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Contents

Description

.Protons are spin-½ fermions and are composed of three quarks,[3] making them baryons.^ All baryons and mesons are believed to be composed of quarks, which are elementary particles of fractional charge.

^ The proton and other baryons are composed of triplets of the elementary particle called the quark.
  • proton Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The two up quarks and one down quark of the proton are held together by the strong force, mediated by gluons.^ There are two up quarks and one down quark.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So: One photon, one slit = Particle moving in a straight line One photon, two slits = Something going through both slits and ending up as a particle on the screen (not necessarily in a straight line with either slit)?
  • Dr. Fuloria’s blogs for PROTON students at Ahmedabad & Indore 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC drmanasblog.proton.in [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem at the moment is one; there aren’t enough places to charge up an electric car and two; because they’re still a bit rubbish.

[2] .The proton has an approximately exponentially decaying positive charge distribution with a mean square radius of about 0.8 fm.^ Proton A positively charged particle of an atom.
  • Glossary of Proton Therapy Terms 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.protons.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PROTON Protons are small, positively-charged atomic particles.

^ Fission occurs because of the electrostatic repulsion created by the large number of positively charged protons contained in a heavy nucleus.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound by the nuclear force into atomic nuclei.^ However, the nuclei of a given element may have varying numbers of neutrons.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a neutron did indeed consist of a proton and an electron, then hydrogen atoms should sometimes turn into neutrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclei consist of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons held together by the so-called strong or nuclear force.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nucleus of the most common isotope of the hydrogen atom is a lone proton.^ In an atom , protons are in the nucleus , surrounded by electrons .

^ Carbon-12 is the most common isotope of carbon.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of its single proton, the atom of hydrogen is assigned an atomic number of 1 .
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nuclei of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium contain one proton bound to one and two neutrons, respectively.^ A proton is one of the main particles of an atom, along with the neutron and electron.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A given element can have many different isotopes, which differ from one another by the number of neutrons contained in the nuclei.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fission occurs because of the electrostatic repulsion created by the large number of positively charged protons contained in a heavy nucleus.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All other types of atoms are composed of two or more protons and various numbers of neutrons.^ As long as the atom had 6 protons, it is an atom of carbon irrespective of the number of neutrons.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, all atoms with one proton are hydrogen, all atoms with two protons are helium, and so on.

^ The nucleus of the atom of the element helium ( He ) has two protons (hence helium has an atomic number of 2 ) and two neutrons .
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number of protons in the nucleus determines the chemical properties of the atom and thus which chemical element is represented; it is the number of both neutrons and protons in a nuclide which determine the particular isotope of an element.^ As long as the atom had 6 protons, it is an atom of carbon irrespective of the number of neutrons.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a neutral atom, the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus equals the number of protons in the nucleus.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, it is the number and arrangement of the electrons in the atoms of an element that establish the chemical behavior of that element.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stability

.Protons are observed to be stable and their empirically observed half-life is at least 6.6×1035 years.^ Po (half-life 102 years).

^ This reduces replacement costs and allows proton centers to treat at least twice as many patients per year.
  • symmetry - December 2008 - The Power of Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.symmetrymagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sales to UK and Ireland totaled 10 500 units during this year and since than the UK is the largest export market of Proton.
  • proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Grand unified theories generally predict that proton decay should take place, although experiments so far have only resulted in a lower limit of 1035 years for the proton's lifetime.^ Spontaneous disintegration of the proton, predicted by grand unified theory but never observed experimentally.

^ Changing the energy of the proton beam, and thus how far it penetrates the body, used to take an hour; now its instantaneous.
  • symmetry - December 2008 - The Power of Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.symmetrymagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sales to UK and Ireland totaled 10 500 units during this year and since than the UK is the largest export market of Proton.
  • proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other words, proton decay has never been witnessed and the experimental lower bound on the mean proton lifetime (2.1×1029 years) is given by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.^ The projectiles are other particles (electrons, photons, neutrinos, and protons) because these are small enough and can be given enough energy.

^ Sales to UK and Ireland totaled 10 500 units during this year and since than the UK is the largest export market of Proton.
  • proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Urgency and Lifetime: low and 10-20 years .
  • proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.However, protons are known to transform into neutrons through the process of electron capture (also called inverse beta decay).^ As Chadwick had learned when he first tried to find them, it was very difficult to make neutrons out of protons and electrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A proton is one of the main particles of an atom, along with the neutron and electron.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the composite particle is unstable such as the free-state neutron that decays into smaller composite particles, it must contain a group of sub-particles that support the decay process into those particles.
  • Proton-Neutron Substructure, Baryon Configuration 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.2xtreme.net [Source type: Academic]

."When a high energy-proton collides with an atom, it causes the ejection of an electron from the outer layer of the atom."^ In an atom , protons are in the nucleus , surrounded by electrons .

^ A proton is one of the main particles of an atom, along with the neutron and electron.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how o By: Conference Room 4 (CR4) Ratio of Protons and Electrons [Fun] 2008-09-05 06:04:00 “The ratio of the mass of a proton to an electron is roughly 1836.

[7]:125 This process does not occur spontaneously but only when energy is supplied. The equation is:
\mathrm{p}^+ + \mathrm{e}^- \rightarrow\mathrm{n} + {
u}_	ext{e} ,
where .p is a proton, e is an electron, n is a neutron, and νe is an electron neutrino.^ As Chadwick had learned when he first tried to find them, it was very difficult to make neutrons out of protons and electrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A proton is one of the main particles of an atom, along with the neutron and electron.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glasson hoped that some of the protons would combine with electrons to form neutrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The process is reversible; neutrons can convert back to protons through beta decay, a common form of radioactive decay.^ Glasson hoped that some of the protons would combine with electrons to form neutrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proton therapy is one form of the most common forms of particle therapy and will likely be part of future generations of radiation therapy.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While conventional photon therapy is the mainstream form of radiation, researchers are expanding the field to include other forms of radiation, including protons, neutrons, and ions.
  • Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.rooj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, a free neutron decays this way with a mean lifetime of about 15 minutes.^ If the composite particle is unstable such as the free-state neutron that decays into smaller composite particles, it must contain a group of sub-particles that support the decay process into those particles.
  • Proton-Neutron Substructure, Baryon Configuration 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.2xtreme.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I know you didn’t mean for it to be that way, but it almost comes across like your saying “your comments are not important, but this guy’s comments are” … just something to think about.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

^ A free neutron, or one bound in a nucleus that has an excess of neutrons, can decay by emitting a b particle.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Quarks and the mass of the proton

.In quantum chromodynamics, the modern theory of the nuclear force, most of the mass of the proton and the neutron is explained by special relativity.^ Protons have a mass similar to the neutron.

^ Nuclei consist of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons held together by the so-called strong or nuclear force.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Car for Malaysia market no need any quality lah, because like or not they also force to buy our car punya!” ~ The Proton theory .
  • Proton (cars) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: News]

.The mass of the proton is about eighty times greater than the sum of the rest masses of the quarks that make it up, while the gluons have zero rest mass.^ It was 1.0067 times the mass of the proton.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a large amount of energy is released in fusion reactions because when two light nuclei fuse, the sum of the masses of the product nuclei is less than the sum of the masses of the initial fusing nuclei.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last time when Exora launched, Syed Zainal said : Proton need to make Japan design, Europe technology but Malaysian price.
  • VIDEO: Proton Persona facelift captured in motion! 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC paultan.org [Source type: General]

.The extra energy of the quarks and gluons in a region within a proton, as compared to the energy of the quarks and gluons in the QCD vacuum, accounts for over 98% of the mass.^ The extra energy in the explosion is necessary to over come the energy barrier of a higher mass element.
  • Basic Nuclear Science Information 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With still higher energies, the protons and neutrons will be seen to be made of point-like quarks and gluons.

.The internal dynamics of the proton are complicated, because they are determined by the quarks exchanging gluons, and interacting with various vacuum condensates.^ But on a serious note Proton deserves this recognition and NOT because they’ve been in “the game” for a while but because they make music of substance.
  • XXLmag.com - » The Proton-type 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.xxlmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Car for Malaysia market no need any quality lah, because like or not they also force to buy our car punya!” ~ The Proton theory .
  • Proton (cars) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: News]

^ They name-check Shellac, MC5, Deerhoof and XTC and while you can hear the influences, you won't be rolling your eyes, because Proton Proton refuses to be obvious."
  • PROTON PROTON on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lattice QCD provides a way of calculating the mass of the proton directly from the theory to any accuracy, in principle.^ That’s directly the way proton therapy is going.
  • Proton beam therapy: Is it the future of radiation? | HemOncToday 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.hemonctoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most recent calculations[8][9] claim that the mass is determined to better than 4% accuracy, arguably accurate to 1% (see Figure S5 in Dürr et al.[9]).^ The design mass and engine performance figures for this version have been given; the calculated payload is 12,000 kg.

^ Colourwise I have to admit I like the blue scheme better, but than again I like blue as a colour most and I’ve always been a bit envious of the beautiful shades you use on radar.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

^ Konski et al conducted a cost-benefit analysis of proton beam therapy and concluded that it would not be cost effective for most patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Proton beam therapy: Is it the future of radiation? | HemOncToday 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.hemonctoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.These claims are still controversial, because the calculations cannot yet be done with quarks as light as they are in the real world.^ The problem at the moment is one; there aren’t enough places to charge up an electric car and two; because they’re still a bit rubbish.

^ Its hard to release your baby onto the world and then have people tell what they really think about it.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

^ The name is still relevant, and the yellow sidebar and title space don’t really disturb the color scheme, on the contrary, they complement it.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

This means that the predictions are found by a process of extrapolation, which can introduce systematic errors.[10] It is hard to tell whether these errors are controlled properly, because the quantities that are compared to experiment are the masses of the hadrons, which are known in advance.
.These recent calculations are performed by massive supercomputers, and, as noted by Boffi and Pasquini: “a detailed description of the nucleon structure is still missing because ...^ Wilson noted that people had never considered using protons in medicine because these massive particles slow down when they hit the body and quickly stop.
  • symmetry - December 2008 - The Power of Proton Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.symmetrymagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

long-distance behavior requires a nonperturbative and/or numerical treatment..." .[11] More conceptual approaches to the structure of the proton are: the topological soliton approach originally due to Tony Skyrme and the more accurate AdS/QCD approach which extends it to include a string theory of gluons, various QCD inspired models like the bag model and the constituent quark model, which were popular in the 1980s, and the SVZ sum rules which allow for rough approximate mass calculations.^ All in all, I liked Proton much better than Radar, it’s clean, well structured, a few nice touches here and there are really a joy to the eye.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

^ This step allowed Proton to gain a great engineering expertise, which will enhance them to improvise and come up with new models that is globally competitive and innovative.
  • proton 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The board had resolved to make several changes to the management structure and leadership of Proton, he added.

These methods don't have the same accuracy as the more brute force lattice QCD methods, at least not yet.

The proton in chemistry

Atomic number

.In chemistry the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is known as the atomic number, which determines the chemical element to which the atom belongs.^ The chemistry of an element and the atoms of which it is made — whatever their atomic weight — is a function of the atomic number of that element.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of its single proton, the atom of hydrogen is assigned an atomic number of 1 .
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each element has an atomic number, as well as an atomic mass.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the atomic number of chlorine is 17; this means that each chlorine atom has 17 protons and that all atoms with 17 protons are chlorine atoms.^ Because of its single proton, the atom of hydrogen is assigned an atomic number of 1 .
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, all atoms with one proton are hydrogen, all atoms with two protons are helium, and so on.

^ The number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms, which is its atomic number , defines each element.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chemical properties of each atom are determined by the number of (negatively charged) electrons, which for neutral atoms is equal to the number of (positive) protons so that the total charge is zero.^ In an atom , protons are in the nucleus , surrounded by electrons .

^ So, it is the number and arrangement of the electrons in the atoms of an element that establish the chemical behavior of that element.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has the same mass and spin as an electron, but has a positive charge (equal in magnitude to the charge of an electron).

For example, a neutral chlorine atom has 17 protons and 17 electrons, while a negative Cl ion has 17 protons and 18 electrons for a total charge of −1.
.All atoms of a given element are not necessarily identical, however, as the number of neutrons may vary to form different isotopes, and energy level may differ forming different isomers.^ However, the nuclei of a given element may have varying numbers of neutrons.
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atoms of the same element that differ in their atomic weight are called isotopes .
  • Elements and Atoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All isotopes of an element have the same atomic number.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, there are two stable isotopes of chlorine: 3517Cl and 3717Cl.

Hydrogen as proton

.Since the atomic number of hydrogen is 1, a positive hydrogen ion (H+) has no electrons and corresponds to a bare nucleus with 1 proton (and 0 neutrons for the most abundant isotope 11H).^ A single proton is a hydrogen nucleus.

^ In an atom , protons are in the nucleus , surrounded by electrons .

^ PROTON Protons are small, positively-charged atomic particles.

In chemistry and biology therefore, the word "proton" is commonly used as a synonym for hydrogen ion (H+) or hydrogen nucleus in several contexts:
.
  1. The transfer of H+ in an acid-base reaction is referred to "proton transfer". The acid is referred to as a proton donor and the base as a proton acceptor.
  2. The hydronium ion (H3O+) in aqueous solution corresponds to a hydrated hydrogen ion.^ Other names used to report proton beam: Charged Particle Radiation Therapy Charged Particle Radiotherapy Hadrontherapy Helium Ion Radiation Therapy Particle Beam Therapy Proton Beam Radiotherapy REFERENCES: .
    • Proton Beam Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mcgs.bcbsfl.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Often the water molecule is ignored and the ion written as simply H+(aq) or just H+, and referred to as a "proton". This is the usual meaning in biochemistry, as in the term proton pump which refers to a protein or enzyme which controls the movement of H+ ions across cell membranes.
  3. Proton NMR refers to the observation of hydrogen nuclei in (mostly organic) molecules by nuclear magnetic resonance.^ It begins with the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei, each of which consists of a single proton.

    ^ Perturbations, according to the first meaning, are usually calculated as quantities to be added to the coordinates of the reference orbit to obtain the precise coordinates.

    ^ Other names used to report proton beam: Charged Particle Radiation Therapy Charged Particle Radiotherapy Hadrontherapy Helium Ion Radiation Therapy Particle Beam Therapy Proton Beam Radiotherapy REFERENCES: .
    • Proton Beam Therapy 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mcgs.bcbsfl.com [Source type: Academic]

    This method uses the spin of the proton, which has the value one-half.

History

.The concept of a hydrogen-like particle as a constituent of other atoms was developed over a long period.^ The above proton of the hydrogen atom has the greatest mass (rest mass = 938.2723100 MeV ) of any stable particle.
  • Proton-Neutron Substructure, Baryon Configuration 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.2xtreme.net [Source type: Academic]

As early as 1815, William Prout proposed that all atoms are composed of hydrogen atoms, based on a simplistic interpretation of early values of atomic weights (see Prout's hypothesis), which was disproved when more accurate values were measured.
.In 1886 Eugen Goldstein discovered canal rays (also known as anode rays) and showed that they were positively charged particles (ions) produced from gases.^ A subatomic particle with positive electric charge.

^ PROTON Protons are small, positively-charged atomic particles.

^ It is a spin-1/2 particle carrying positive electric charge.

.However, since particles from different gases had different values of charge-to-mass ratio (e/m), they could not be identified with a single particle, unlike the negative electrons discovered by J. J. Thomson.^ There are three charge states, positive, negative and neutral, where all known particles satisfy one of these states.
  • Proton-Neutron Substructure, Baryon Configuration 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.2xtreme.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The vibrating particle must oscillate sinusoidally relative to the constant charge of the companion particle or both could oscillate.
  • Proton-Neutron Substructure, Baryon Configuration 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.2xtreme.net [Source type: Academic]

^ They knew that gamma rays could eject electrons from metals.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the discovery of the atomic nucleus by Ernest Rutherford in 1911, Antonius van den Broek proposed that the place of each element in the periodic table (its atomic number) is equal to its nuclear charge.^ This proved that the charge on the nucleus was equal to its atomic number.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each element has an atomic number, as well as an atomic mass.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch physicist Antonius van den Broek thought that the atomic number was the number of units of electric charge on the nucleus.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was confirmed experimentally by Henry Moseley in 1913 using X-ray spectra.^ The final confirmation of Van den Broek's hypothesis came from the experiments of Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1919 Rutherford proved that the hydrogen nucleus is present in other nuclei, a result usually described as the discovery of the proton.^ The proton was discovered by Rutherford in 1919 (after the discovery of the electron and before the discovery of the neutron).

^ His experiment convinced Rutherford that the nitrogen nucleus had hydrogen nuclei in it.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .He noticed that when alpha particles were shot into nitrogen gas, his scintillation detectors showed the signatures of hydrogen nuclei.^ When he shot alpha particles into nitrogen gas, he noticed something strange.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He noticed that when an element emitted an alpha particle, it produced an element two places to the left.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alpha particles colliding with beryllium nuclei could produce only 14 million electron volts.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rutherford determined that this hydrogen could only have come from the nitrogen, and therefore nitrogen must contain hydrogen nuclei.^ His experiment convinced Rutherford that the nitrogen nucleus had hydrogen nuclei in it.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alpha particles colliding with beryllium nuclei could produce only 14 million electron volts.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All nuclei, Rutherford concluded, must be built of protons and electrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hydrogen nucleus is therefore present in other nuclei as an elementary particle, which Rutherford named the proton, after the neuter singular of the Greek word for "first", πρῶτον.^ That meant the hydrogen nucleus was an elementary particle.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [F88] (e) A positively charged elementary particle; the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.

^ His experiment convinced Rutherford that the nitrogen nucleus had hydrogen nuclei in it.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Exposure

.The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) determined that more than 95% of the particles in the solar wind are electrons and protons, in approximately equal numbers.^ We charge the exact opposite as our equally rubbish rivals, Electron Cars!” ~ Proton Car Motto .
  • Proton (cars) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: News]

^ He thought the alpha particle, or helium nucleus, was four protons and two electrons bound together by electric forces.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new particle didn't seem to fit into a universe made of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
  • Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.davidparker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14]
.Because the Solar Wind Spectrometer made continuous measurements, it was possible to measure how the Earth's magnetic field affects arriving solar wind particles.^ I looked into this, and it’s because you’ve made an ‘off by one’ error with your pixel measurements.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

^ Called Spectrum 1, the instrument measured solar radiation at metric wavelengths in conjunction with Earth-based receivers to study the cause of solar outbursts.

.For about two-thirds of each orbit, the Moon is outside of the Earth's magnetic field.^ A geocentric model in which the Earth remained stationary as the other planets the Sun, the Moon and the stars orbited it on their spheres.

^ The party line is that the Soviet Union is not about to risks the lives of its cosmonauts on flights to the moon, when automated probes can safely retrieve soil from the moon for study on earth.

^ With these two improvements the Proton-M was able to deliver 22 tons of cargo into the low Earth orbit compared to 20.7 tons for the standard Proton-K booster.
  • Proton | UR-500 | 8K82 | SL-9 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.russianspaceweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At these times, a typical proton density was 10 to 20 per cubic centimeter, with most protons having velocities between 400 and 650 kilometers per second.^ Numerically, the Planck density is about 10 93 grams per cubic centimeter.

^ Proton-K/DM-2 364-02 FAILURE : Second stage did not reach planned velocity.

^ The Proton vehicle lifted off from Pad 39 at the cosmodrome at 02:44:20 local time (20:44 GMT, Nov.
  • Proton | UR-500 | 8K82 | SL-9 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.russianspaceweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For about five days of each month, the Moon is inside the Earth's geomagnetic tail, and typically no solar wind particles were detectable.^ Clouds of electrically charged particles embedded in the Solar wind.

^ The party line is that the Soviet Union is not about to risks the lives of its cosmonauts on flights to the moon, when automated probes can safely retrieve soil from the moon for study on earth.

^ Lunokhod was intended to operate through three lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days (earth months).

.For the remainder of each lunar orbit, the Moon is in a transitional region known as the magnetosheath, where the Earth's magnetic field affects the solar wind but does not completely exclude it.^ A geocentric model in which the Earth remained stationary as the other planets the Sun, the Moon and the stars orbited it on their spheres.

^ After completing 86 communications sessions and 52 orbits of the Moon at various inclinations and altitudes, crashed on the moon on 20 July in an attempted landing.

^ The spacecraft completed 85 communications sessions and 54 lunar orbits before it was sent towards the lunar surface by use of braking rockets.

.In this region, the particle flux is reduced, with typical proton velocities of 250 to 450 kilometers per second.^ The Second Finance Minister said a major sign of the turnaround was that for Proton’s next financial year, the losses would be “significantly reduced.” .

^ Proton-K/DM-2 364-02 FAILURE : Second stage did not reach planned velocity.

^ The region in Earth's ionosphere (at about 4-7 Earth radii) where the particle density (100 particles per cm 3 just below the plasmapause) drops off very rapidly.

.During the lunar night, the spectrometer was shielded from the solar wind by the Moon and no solar wind particles were measured.^ Clouds of electrically charged particles embedded in the Solar wind.

^ After successfully entering earth orbit, flying to the moon, entering lunar orbit, and descending toward the surface, the spacecraft was damaged during landing in Mare Crisium (Sea of Crises).

^ The rover would run during the lunar day, stopping occasionally to recharge its batteries via the solar panels.

[13]
Research has been performed on the dose-rate effects of protons, as typically found in space travel, on human health.[14][15] .More specifically, there are hopes to identify what specific chromosomes are damaged, and to define the damage, during cancer development from proton exposure.^ During launch preparations with the fuelled Proton / L1, there was an explosion, killing three technicians.

^ Mark says: May 26, 03h As a 1280x1024 desktop user (occasionally switching into 1600x1200 for development), I prefer the more spacious feel of Proton.
  • mezzoblue § mezzoblue v4 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC mezzoblue.com [Source type: General]

^ For a number of years, Khrunichev enterprise in Moscow, which builds the Proton rocket, hoped to introduce even more drastic changes in the Proton's design.
  • Proton | UR-500 | 8K82 | SL-9 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.russianspaceweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] Another study looks into determining "the effects of exposure to proton irradiation on neurochemical and behavioral endpoints, including dopaminergic functioning, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, and spatial learning and memory as measured by the Morris water maze."[15] Electrical charging of a spacecraft due to interplanetary proton bombardment has also been proposed for study.[16] .There are many more studies which pertain to space travel, including galactic cosmic rays and their possible health effects, and solar proton event exposure.^ For more information on SEP events, contact Joe Kunches of the NOAA Space Environment Center.
  • Solar Proton Events, 1976 - present 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC umbra.nascom.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

^ The satellite studied the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei.

The American Biostack and Soviet Biorack space travel experiments have also demonstrated the severity of damage induced by heavy ions on micro organisms including Artemia cysts.[7]

Antiproton

CPT-symmetry puts strong constraints on the relative properties of particles and antiparticles and, therefore, is open to stringent tests. For example, the charges of the proton and antiproton must sum to exactly zero. This equality has been tested to one part in 108. .The equality of their masses has also been tested to better than one part in 108.^ Their blog postings are better than 75% positive, so we can safely recommend giving this one a shot.
  • Proton Extreme - Mens Blog Talk - www.Mensblogtalk.com - Male Health Discussions 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC www.mensblogtalk.com [Source type: General]

.By holding antiprotons in a Penning trap, the equality of the charge to mass ratio of the proton and the antiproton has been tested to one part in 6×109.^ Proton-K/DM 304-02 Ekran 10 Mass : 1,970 kg (4,340 lb).

^ Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 403-01 PAS 10 Mass : 37,125 kg (81,846 lb).

^ We charge the exact opposite as our equally rubbish rivals, Electron Cars!” ~ Proton Car Motto .
  • Proton (cars) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: News]

[17] .The magnetic moment of the antiproton has been measured with error of 8×10−3 nuclear Bohr magnetons, and is found to be equal and opposite to that of the proton.^ We charge the exact opposite as our equally rubbish rivals, Electron Cars!” ~ Proton Car Motto .
  • Proton (cars) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 25 January 2010 10:54 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: News]

^ A device using electric and magnetic fields to accelerate beams of particles-usually electrons, positrons, protons, or antiprotons-to high energies for experimental purposes.

^ It has the same mass and spin as the electron, but opposite charge and magnetic moment.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). "Review of Particle Physics". Physics Letters B 667: 1. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.018. 
  2. ^ a b W.N. Cottingham, D.A. Greenwood (1986). An Introduction to Nuclear Physics. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. 
  3. ^ R.K. Adair (1989). The Great Design: Particles, Fields, and Creation. Oxford University Press. p. 214. 
  4. ^ J.-L. Basdevant, J. Rich, M. Spiro (2005). Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics. Springer. p. 155. ISBN 0-387-01672-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=OFx7P9mgC9oC&pg=PA375&dq=helium+%22nuclear+structure%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA155,M1. 
  5. ^ H. Nishino et al. (Kamiokande collaboration) (2009). "Search for Proton Decay via p → e+ π0 and p → μ+ π0 in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector". Physical Review Letters 102: 141801. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.141801. 
  6. ^ S.N. Ahmed et al. (SNO Collaboration) (2004). "Constraints on nucleon decay via invisible modes from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory". Physical Review Letters 92: 102004. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.102004. 
  7. ^ a b H. Planel (2004). Space and life: an introduction to space biology and medicine. CRC Press. pp. 135–138. ISBN 0415317592. http://books.google.ca/books?id=rnUFZ24RUdYC&pg=PA132&lpg=PA132&dq=space+colonization+proton+exposure&source=bl&ots=WJSg7OHZ7y&sig=BGHTwk38MHKN3oclFhe9e44TAz4&hl=en&ei=t_B6SpnmJYXMNZ_ooOUC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  8. ^ See this news report and links
  9. ^ a b S. Dürr, Z. Fodor, J. Frison, C. Hoelbling, R. Hoffmann, S. D. Katz, S. Krieg, T. Kurth, L. Lellouch, T. Lippert, K. K. Szabo, and G. Vulvert (21 November 2008). "Ab Initio Determination of Light Hadron Masses". Science 322 (5905): 1224. doi:10.1126/science.1163233. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/data/322/5905/1224/DC1/1. 
  10. ^ C. F. Perdrisat, V. Punjabi, M. Vanderhaeghen (2007). "Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors". Prog Part Nucl Phys 59: 694–764. http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0612014v2. 
  11. ^ Sigfrido Boffi & Barbara Pasquini (2007). "Generalized parton distributions and the structure of the nucleon". Riv Nuovo Cim 30. http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.2625v2. 
  12. ^ R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood, and F.G. Herring (2002). General Chemistry (8th ed.). p. 41. 
  13. ^ a b "Apollo 11 Mission". Lunar and Planetary Institute. 2009. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/experiments/swc/. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  14. ^ a b c "Space Travel and Cancer Linked? Stony Brook Researcher Secures NASA Grant to Study Effects of Space Radiation". Brookhaven National Laboratory. 12 December 2007. http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=07-X17. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  15. ^ a b B. Shukitt-Hale, A. Szprengiel, J. Pluhar, B.M. Rabin, and J.A. Joseph. "The effects of proton exposure on neurochemistry and behavior". Elsevier/COSPAR. http://biblioteca.universia.net/ficha.do?id=43176300. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  16. ^ N.W. Green and A.R. Frederickson. "A Study of Spacecraft Charging due to Exposure to Interplanetary Protons". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/39501/1/05-0657.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  17. ^ G. Gabrielse (2006). "Antiproton mass measurements". International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 251 (2–3): 273–280. doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2006.02.013. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also proton

German

Noun

Proton n. (genitive Protons, plural Protonen)
  1. proton

Simple English

File:Quark structure
A picture of a proton. The 'u' stands for an up quark, and the 'd' stands for a down quark.

A proton is part of an atom. They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons. The periodic table groups atoms according to how many protons they have. A single atom of hydrogen (the lightest kind of atom) is made up of an electron moving around a proton. Most of the mass of this atom is in the proton, which is almost 2000 times heavier than the electron. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of every other kind of atom. In any one element, the number of protons is always the same. An atom's atomic number is equal to the number of protons in that atom.

Protons are made of quarks. A proton is believed to be made up of 3 quarks, two up quarks and one down quark. One down quark has a charge of -1/3, and two up quarks have a charge of +2/3 each. This adds to a charge of +1. A proton has a very small mass. The mass of the proton is about one atomic mass unit. The mass of the neutron is also about one atomic mass unit. The size of a proton is determined by the vibration of the quarks that are in it, and these quarks effectively form a cloud. This means that a proton is not so much a hard ball as an area that contains quarks.

Other pages

Particles in Physics
Elementary: Fermions: Quarks: up - down - strange - charm - bottom - top
Leptons: electron - muon - tau - neutrinos
Bosons: Gauge bosons: photon - W and Z bosons - gluons
Composite: Hadrons: Baryons: proton - neutron - hyperon
Mesons: pion - kaon - J/ψ
Atomic nuclei - Atoms - Molecules
Hypothetical: Higgs boson - Graviton - Tachyon
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