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Provençal
Provençau
Spoken in France, Spain, Italy, Monaco, small community in California
Region Europe
Total speakers 362,000[1]
Language family Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-1 oc
ISO 639-2 oci
ISO 639-3 oci

Provençal (Provençal or Provençau in Occitan) is a dialect of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence. In the English-speaking world, "Provençal" is often used to refer to all dialects of Occitan, but it actually refers specifically to the dialect spoken in Provence.

"Provençal" (with "Limousin") is also the customary name given to the older version of the langue d'oc used by the troubadours of medieval literature, corresponding to Old French or the langue d'oil of the northern areas of France.

In 2007, the ISO 639-3 code changed from prv to oci, as prv was merged into oci.

Contents

Sub-dialects

The main sub-dialects of Provençal are:

Gavòt (in French Gavot), spoken in the Western Occitan Alps, around Digne, Sisteron, Gap, Barcelonnette and the upper County of Nice, but also in a part of the Ardèche, is not exactly a subdialect of Provençal, but rather an occitan dialect of its own, also known as Vivaro-Alpine. So is the dialect spoken in the upper valleys of Piedmont, Italy (Val Maira, Val Varacha, Val d'Estura, Entraigas, Limon, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriera)[1]. Some people view Gavòt as a variety of Provençal since a part of the Gavot area (near Digne and Sisteron) belongs to historical Provence.

Grammar

The definite articles are masculine lu (often spelled "lou"), feminine la, and plural li (lis before vowels). In Provençal nouns and adjectives, the Latin masculine endings have mostly dropped, but -e remains, while the feminine ending is -o. Nouns do not inflect for number, but all adjectives ending in vowels (-e or -o) become -i, and all plural adjectives take -s before vowels: lu bon ami "the good friend" (masc.), la bono amigo "the good friend" (fem.), li bons ami "the good friends" (masc.), li bonis amigo "the good friends" (fem.).

Literature

Modern Provençal literature was given impetus by Nobel laureate Frédéric Mistral and the association Félibrige he founded with other writers, such as Théodore Aubanel. The beginning of the 20th Century saw other great authors like Joseph d'Arbaud and Valère Bernard. It has been enhanced and modernized since the second half of the 20th Century by major writers such as Robert Lafont, Pierre Pessemesse, Claude Barsotti, Max-Philippe Delavouët, Philippe Gardy, Florian Vernet, Danielle Julien, Jòrgi Gròs, Sèrgi Bec, Bernat Giély, and many others.

References

  1. ^ NÒRMAS ORTOGRÀFICAS, CHAUSIAS MORFOLÒGICAS E VOCABULARI DE L'OCCITAN ALPIN ORIENTAL [tèxte imprimit] / COMISSION INTERNACIONALA PER LA NORMALIZACION LINGUISTICA DE L'OCCITAN ALPIN, Auteur . - [S.l.] : ESPACI OCCITAN - REGIONE PIEMONTE, 2008 . - 242. ISSN : 9788890299742-PN-01

See also

References

  • Manuel pratique de provençal contemporain, Alain Barthélemy-Vigouroux & Guy Martin, Édisud 2006, ISBN 2-7449-0619-0
  • Provencal Language at the Classic Encyclopedia, based on the 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Smith, Nathaniel B.; Bergin, Thomas Goddard (1984) (in English). An Old Provençal Primer. Garland. ISBN 0824090306.  

External links

Provençal dialect edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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