The Full Wiki

Prunus cerasus: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Sour cherry article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sour cherry
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Cerasus
Species: P. cerasus
Binomial name
Prunus cerasus
L.

Prunus cerasus, or the sour cherry, is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia. It is closely related to the wild cherry (P. avium), but has a fruit that is more acidic and so is useful primarily for cooking.

The tree is smaller than the wild cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks.

There are two varieties of the sour cherry: the dark-red morello cherry and the lighter-red amarelle cherry.[1]

Contents

Cultivation

Illustration of Morello Cherry

Cultivated sour cherries were selected from wild specimens of Prunus cerasus and the doubtfully distinct P. acida from around the Caspian and Black Seas, and were known to the Greeks in 300 BC. They were also extremely popular with Persians and the Romans who introduced them into Britain long before the 1st century AD. The fruit remains popular in modern-day Iran.

In Britain, their cultivation was popularised in the 16th century in the time of Henry VIII. They became a popular crop amongst Kentish growers, and by 1640 over two dozen named cultivars were recorded. In the Americas, Massachusetts colonists planted the first sour cherry, 'Kentish Red', when they arrived.

A blooming sour cherry tree.

Before the Second World War there were more than fifty cultivars of sour cherry in cultivation in England; today, however, few are grown commercially, and despite the continuation of named cultivars such as 'Kentish Red', 'Amarelles', 'Griottes' and 'Flemish', only the generic Morello is offered by most nurseries. This is a late-flowering variety, and thus misses more frosts than its sweet counterpart and is therefore a more reliable cropper. The Morello cherry ripens in mid to late summer, towards the end of August in southern England. It is self fertile, and would be a good pollenizer for other varieties if it did not flower so late in the season.

Worldwide sour cherry production

Sour cherries require similar cultivation conditions to pears, that is, they prefer a rich, well-drained, moist soil, although they demand more nitrogen and water than sweet cherries. Trees will do badly if waterlogged, but have greater tolerance of poor drainage than sweet varieties. As with sweet cherries, Morellos are traditionally cultivated by budding onto strong growing rootstocks, which produce trees too large for most gardens, although newer dwarfing rootstocks such as Colt and Gisella are now available. During spring, flowers should be protected, and trees weeded, mulched and sprayed with natural seaweed solution. This is also the time when any required pruning should be carried out (note that cherries should not be pruned during the dormant winter months). Morello cherry trees fruit on younger wood than sweet varieties, and thus can be pruned harder. They are usually grown as standards, but can be fan trained, cropping well even on cold walls, or grown as low bushes.

Ripe sour cherries, Somogy, Hungary.

Sour cherries suffer fewer pests and diseases than sweet cherries, although they are prone to heavy fruit losses from birds. In summer, fruit should be protected with netting. When harvesting fruit, they should be cut from the tree rather than risking damage by pulling the stalks. Morello cherries freeze well and retain their flavour superbly.

Unlike most sweet cherry varieties, sour cherries are self fertile (sometimes inaccurately referred to as self-pollinating) or self pollenizing. Two implications of this are that seeds generally run true to the cultivar, and that much smaller pollinator populations are needed because pollen only has to be moved within individual flowers. In areas where pollinators are scarce, growers find that stocking beehives in orchards improves yields.

Uses

Sour cherries, unlike their sweet counterpart, are too sour for some people's tastes to be eaten fresh (although Europeans and Middle Easterners regularly eat them fresh.) They are used in cooking, especially in soups and pork dishes, and pies. Also dried sour cherries are commonly used in cooking. They are also used in combination with sugar, which balances the acidity and brings out the fruit's aroma and flavor. Thus a variety of liqueurs, desserts, preserves and drinks are made with sour cherries or sour cherry syrup.

See also

References

  1. ^ Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1913. See amarelle at p. 67.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Translingual

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Wikispecies-logo.svg
Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

Proper noun

Prunus cerasus

  1. (taxonomy) A taxonomic species within the genus Prunussour cherry.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Prunus cerasus

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Prunoideae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: P. subg. Cerasus
Sectio: P. sect. Cerasus
Species: Prunus cerasus
Varieties: P. c. var. cerasus - P. c. var. marasca - P. c. var. semperflorens

Name

Prunus cerasus L.

References

  • Species Plantarum 1:474. 1753
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. [1]

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Sauerkirsche
Ελληνικά: Βυσσινιά
English: Sour cherry
Italiano: Amareno, Visciolo, Amarasco
日本語: スミミザクラ
Português: Cereja ácida
Svenska: Surkörsbär
Türkçe: Vişne
Українська: Вишня звичайна
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Prunus cerasus on Wikimedia Commons.







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message