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Preußen
Prussia
1525–1947
Flag (1892–1918) Coat of arms (1701–1918)
Motto
Suum cuique  (Latin)
"To each his own"
Prussia (blue), at its peak, the leading state of the German Empire
Capital Königsberg, later Berlin
Language(s) German (official)
Religion Protestantism, Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy, democracy
Duke1
 - 1525–68 Albert I (first)
 - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last)
King1
 - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)
 - 1888–1918 Wilhelm II (last)
Prime Minister1, 2
 - 1918–20 Paul Hirsch (first)
 - 1933–45 Hermann Göring (last)
Historical era Early modern Europe to Contemporary
 - Duchy of Prussia 10 April 1525
 - Union with Brandenburg 27 August 1618
 - Kingdom of Prussia 18 January 1701
 - Free State of Prussia 9 November 1918
 - Abolition (de facto) 30 January 1934
 - Abolition (de jure) 25 February 1947
Area
 - 1939 297,007 km2 (114,675 sq mi)
Population
 - 1939 est. 41,915,040 
     Density 141.1 /km2  (365.5 /sq mi)
Today part of Germany, Poland,
Russia, Lithuania,
Denmark, Belgium,
Czech Republic, The Netherlands
.1 The heads of state listed here are the first and last to hold each title over time.^ May 26 - Last public hanging in Britain - Fenian bomber Michael Barrett * May 30 - Memorial Day is observed in the United States for the first time (it was proclaimed on May 5 by General John A. Logan).

.For more information, see individual Prussian state articles (links in above History section).^ At the end of his reign the Prussian State, of which he was more than ever the monarch, ended just as at the beginning of this rule, with the president of each district.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The information capacity is estimated at 500,000 bits per second (for more information on bits, see information theory) without colour or around 600,000 bits per second including colour.

^ A mailing list for those interested in sharing and exchanging information on genealogy and history which has a connection to the present area of the state of Sachsen-Anhalt.


2 The position of Ministerpräsident was introduced in 1792 when Prussia was a Kingdom; the prime ministers shown here are the heads of the Prussian republic.
.Prussia (German: About this sound Preußen ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Latvian: Prūsija; Lithuanian: Prūsija; Polish: Prusy; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire (1871-1918) Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire (1871-1918) Prussia (German: Preußen (help·info)[1]; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Latvian: Prūsija; Lithuanian: Prūsija; Polish: Prusy; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area that for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history.

^ From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

.For centuries this state had substantial influence on German and European history.^ Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire (1871-1918) Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire (1871-1918) Prussia (German: Preußen (help·info)[1]; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Latvian: Prūsija; Lithuanian: Prūsija; Polish: Prusy; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area that for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history.

^ This enabled the Estates, which had rapidly developed in all German territories from the second half of the fifteenth century, to obtain great influence over the administration, both in Prussia and Brandenburg.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Prussia 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At his accession Prussia might fairly claim to rank as the second state of Germany and possessed considerable influence as a European power of all but the first order.

.The last capital of the state of Prussia was Berlin.^ The last capital of Prussia was Berlin.

^ On October 27, 1806 Napolean and the Grand Armee made their victory entrance through the Brandenburg Gate into Prussia's capital, Berlin.
  • Queen Luise of Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ineffective and militarily weak Margrave George William (1619-1640) fled from Berlin to Königsberg, the historic capital of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1637.

.The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, a Baltic people related to the Lithuanians and Latvians.^ The native Prussians were of a race akin to the Letts and Lithuanians, and their name (Pruzi, Prutheni) was probably derived from a Lettish root meaning "intelligence."

^ During 60 years of struggles against the Old Prussians, the order created an independent state which came to control Prussia.

^ Duchy of Prussia.—The duchy of Prussia, thus acquired by the elector, formed the eastern half of the territory bearing the name of Preussen, and stretched along the Baltic Sea from the Vistula to the Memel.

.In the 13th century, "Old Prussia" was conquered by the Teutonic Knights.^ In this era the region on the Vistula and the Pregel Rivers, which originally was the only part of the territory bearing the name of Prussia, was conquered by the Teutonic Knights in 1230 and converted to Christianity.

^ It still remained a Polish fief, and was separated from the rest of the electoral dominions by West Prussia, which the Teutonic Order had been forced to resign to Poland a century and a half before.

^ The knights entered Prussia in 1230, and after half a century of hard fighting found themselves masters of the entire country.

.In 1308 Teutonic Knights conquered the formerly Polish region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk (Danzig).^ In this era the region on the Vistula and the Pregel Rivers, which originally was the only part of the territory bearing the name of Prussia, was conquered by the Teutonic Knights in 1230 and converted to Christianity.

^ It remained under Polish suzerainty as the Duchy of Pomerelia (German Pommerellen ), sometimes subdivided, until taken over by the Teutonic Knights in 1309.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this era the region on the Vistula and the Pregel Rivers, which originally was the only part of the territory bearing the name of Prussia, was conquered by the Teutonic Knights in 1230 and converted to Christianity .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Their monastic state was mostly Germanized through immigration from central and western Germany and in the south it was Polonized by settlers from Masovia.^ A bilingual English-German mailing list for information on people who migrated eastward, primarily in the 1700s, from various former German States and settled lands in the Danube Basin of south-central Europe.

^ All the large German rivers flow through it, and it contains the greater part of the mineral wealth of Germany, coal, iron, salt, and potash.

^ As a rule, however, the south German states are richer in cattle than Prussia.

After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) Prussia was split into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the eastern part, since 1525 called Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.
.Prussia attained its greatest importance in the 18th and 19th centuries.^ The community took its name in the 18th century from a local tavern named "The King of Prussia Inn", which was named for Frederick II, King of Prussia.
  • King-Of-Prussia-Hotels.com - Local Hotels and Motels .. 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC king-of-prussia-hotels.com [Source type: General]

^ The area covered includes the Karpato-Ukraine Germans living in today's Ukraine and the Zipser Saxons who moved to Romania in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

.During the 18th century, it became a great European power under the reign of Frederick the Great (1740–86).^ The community took its name in the 18th century from a local tavern named "The King of Prussia Inn", which was named for Frederick II, King of Prussia.
  • King-Of-Prussia-Hotels.com - Local Hotels and Motels .. 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC king-of-prussia-hotels.com [Source type: General]

^ During the next two centuries his descendants did not do much to increase the power of Brandenburg, and they never attained the power of the last members of the Ascanian line.

^ During the reign of John Sigismund (1608-19) the ducal line of Cleve-Jülich became extinct in 1609, and in 1618 that of Prussia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Prussia 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck pursued a policy of uniting the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany" which would exclude the Austrian Empire.^ Prussia stepped up from the ranks of a Great Power to a Predominant Power thanks to Otto von Bismarck.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria hoped that in this way Prussia would be so entangled in Western Europe that it could no longer pursue a policy of neutrality, such as it had adopted after the Treaty of Basle.

^ On the other hand, Otto von Bismarck was not really interested in the national aspirations of the Germans in Schleswig-Holstein, who had revolted against Denmark in 1848, or in the niceties of the laws of feudal succession.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The Kingdom of Prussia dominated northern Germany politically, economically, in population, and was the core of the unified North German Confederation formed in 1867, which became part of the German Empire or Deutsches Reich in 1871.
With the end of the Hohenzollern monarchy in Germany following World War I, Prussia became part of the Weimar Republic as a free state in 1919. It effectively lost this status in 1932 following the Preußenschlag decree of Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen; Prussia as a state was abolished de facto by the Nazis in 1934 and de jure by the Allies of World War II in 1947.[1]
Since then, the term's relevance has been limited to historical, geographical, or cultural usages.

Contents

Symbols

.The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background.^ The main coat of arms of Prussia depicted a black eagle on a white background.

The black and white national colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty. .The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle.^ Additionally, it was the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle, created by King Frederick I (see also Iron Cross).

^ The main coat of arms of Prussia depicted a black eagle on a white background.

The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck as well as of Brandenburg resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871.[citation needed]
.Suum cuique ("to each, his own"), the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was often associated with the whole of Prussia.^ Additionally, it was the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle, created by King Frederick I (see also Iron Cross).

^ The community took its name in the 18th century from a local tavern named "The King of Prussia Inn", which was named for Frederick II, King of Prussia.
  • King-Of-Prussia-Hotels.com - Local Hotels and Motels .. 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC king-of-prussia-hotels.com [Source type: General]

^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

.The Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was also widely associated with the country.^ Alarmed, King Frederick William IV agreed to convene a National Assembly and grant a constitution.

^ Frederick William hesitated to take part in the Austrian rising of 1809, but his opportunity came in 1813, when Napoleon fled from Russia, denuded of his troops.

^ During the following years of war Frederick William preserved a strict neutrality and utilized the opportunity to restore the material resources of his country and reorganize and strengthen his army.

[citation needed]

Geography and population

.Prussia began as a territory, in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania.^ Today the Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland.

^ Geography and population Prussia began as a small territory in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania.

^ Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a small number of ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan have begun to settle in the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia, once northern East Prussia, as part of the migration influx into the area, which was previously a restricted area (closed city).

.Originally the area was much larger, but was greatly reduced by newcomer countries Masovia and Poland.^ The Kingdom of Prussia acquired these areas from countries with a Catholic majority: the Kingdom of Poland and the Austrian Empire.

^ The area of Greater Poland where the Polish nation had originated became the Province of Posen after the Partitions of Poland.

Much of Prussian Sudovia and Yotvingians territory was conquered and came to Poland, Lithuania, and Belarus.
.The region, originally populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a preferred location for immigration by (later mainly Protestant) Germans (see Ostsiedlung), as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.^ The region, originally populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised and Germanised, became a preferred location for immigration by (later mainly Protestant) Germans as well as Poles and Lithuanians along border regions.

^ In 1226 Duke Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights, a German military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre, to conquer the Baltic Prussian tribes on his borders.

^ Those who were unable from conscientious scruples to join the union became Separatist or Old Lutherans and Old Calvinists, but their numbers were and are insignificant.

.Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included "Prussia proper" (West and East Prussia), Brandenburg, the Province of Saxony (including most of the present-day state of Saxony-Anhalt and parts of the state of Thuringia in Germany), Pomerania, Rhineland, Westphalia, Silesia (without Austrian Silesia), Lusatia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Nassau, and a small detached area in the south Hohenzollern, the ancestral home of the Prussian ruling family.^ In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

^ After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and part of Brandenburg were taken over by either the Soviet Union or Poland.

^ The most fertile Prussian province is Saxony, while the least productive are East and West Prussia.

.The land that Teutonic Prussia occupied was flat and covered with rich soil.^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

.The land was prefectly suited to the large-scale raising of wheat.^ In 1885 the Government began a land policy on a large scale.
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  • Prussia 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] The rise of early Prussia was based on the raising wheat and selling that wheat abroad. .Teutonic Prussia became known as the "bread basket of Western Europe" (in German, Kornkammer, or granary).^ During Frederick's reign the eastern provinces of Prussia were also brought into connexion with the cultural development of the civilization of Western Europe.

^ The Rhine Province (German: Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (Rheinpreu?n), was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1822-1946.
  • Frank/Frenk Family Genealogy 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC chelm.freeyellow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Austria hoped that in this way Prussia would be so entangled in Western Europe that it could no longer pursue a policy of neutrality, such as it had adopted after the Treaty of Basle.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
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.The port cities of the Stettin in Pomerania, Danzig in Prussia, Riga in Livonia and Koenigsberg and Memel all rose on the back of this wheat production.^ A mailing list for anyone with a genealogical, cultural or historical interest in the City of Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg/Koenigsberg, Prussia), nowadays Russia, and surrounding areas.

^ His grandson finally acquired Stettin and the mouth of the Oder in 1720, and Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern) did not become apart of Prussia until 1815.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Prussia 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly all of Prussian Poland went to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, except Danzig, which was made a free city under a French garrison.
  • Queen Luise of Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] Wheat production and trade brought Prussia into close relationship with the Hanseatic League during the period of time from 1356 (official founding of the Hanseatic League) until the decline of the League in about 1500.[4]
.The expansion of Prussia based on its connection with the Hanseatic League cut both Poland and Lithuania off from the coast of the Baltic Sea and trade abroad.^ EAST PRUSSIA (Ostpreussen), the larger of the two provinces, has an area of 14,280 square miles, and is bounded by the Baltic Sea, Russia, and West Prussia.

^ Duchy of Prussia.—The duchy of Prussia, thus acquired by the elector, formed the eastern half of the territory bearing the name of Preussen, and stretched along the Baltic Sea from the Vistula to the Memel.

^ On the N. Prussia is bounded by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic ; on the E. by Russia and Poland; on the S. by Austrian Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia, Saxony, the Thuringian states, Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt, the Rhenish Palatinate, and Lorrame; and on the W. by Luxemburg, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

[5] .This meant that the Poland and Lithuania would be traditional enemies of Prussia--which was still called the Teutonic Knights.^ Geography and population Prussia began as a small territory in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania.

^ Strictly speaking, the title assumed was "king in Prussia" (König in Preussen), this apparently being meant to indicate that there was still a Prussia (West Prussia) of which he was not king, though it has also been otherwise explained.

^ The Knights were eventually defeated in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 by Poland and Lithuania, allied through the Union of Krewo.

[6]
.In 1871, Prussia's population numbered 24.69 million, accounting for 60% of the German Empire's population.^ This, however, was a mistaken opinion, as is also the belief that the German Empire is simply the heir to the position of Prussia as a great power.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Prussia 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ German Empire Main article: German Empire Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918 Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918 The two decades after the unification of Germany were the peak of Prussia's fortunes, but the seeds for potential strife were built into the Prusso-German political system.

^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

[7] .In 1910, the population had increased to a number of 40.17 million (62% of the Empire's population).^ Its area was increased to 132,000 square miles, its population to 20,000,000; at present the population numbers about 40,000,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Prussia 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

^ This policy could be continued, notwithstanding the great increase in the number of Catholics, because the population of Prussia was accustomed to obey the Government without claiming any rights for itself.

[7] .In 1914, Prussia had an area of 354,490 km².^ In 1914, Prussia had an area of 354,490 km².

^ In May 1939 Prussia had an area of 297,007 km² and a population of 41,915,040 inhabitants.

.In May 1939 Prussia had an area of 297,007 km² and a population of 41,915,040 inhabitants.^ In May 1939 Prussia had an area of 297,007 km² and a population of 41,915,040 inhabitants.

^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

^ When Frederick II died the area of Prussia was about 78,100 square miles and its population 5,500,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The Principality of Neuenburg, now the Canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland, was a part of the Prussian kingdom from 1707 to 1848.
.Although Prussia was dominated by Protestant Germans, it contained millions of Catholics, and millions of minorities, particularly Poles.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ From 1919 to 1932, Prussia was governed by a coalition of the Social Democrats, Catholic Centre, and German Democrats; from 1921 to 1925, coalition governments included the German People's Party.

.East Prussia's southern region of Masuria was largely made up of Germanised Protestant Masurs.^ East Prussia's southern region of Masuria was largely made up of Germanised Protestant Masurs.

^ In 1880 the population of East Prussia was 1,933,936, including 1,654,510 Protestants, 250,462 s Roman Catholics, and 18,218 Jews.

^ East Prussia, however, with the exception of Ermland, is Protestant.

.There were substantial Roman Catholic populations in the Rhineland and parts of Westphalia.^ There were substantial Roman Catholic populations in the Rhineland and parts of Westphalia.

^ The population of Rhenish Prussia in 1880 was 4,074,000, including 2,944,186 Roman Catholics, 1,077,173 Protest-ants, and 43,694 Jews.

^ As of 2005, about 6,000 (0.6% of population) ethnic Germans, mostly from other parts of Russia, live there.

.Also West Prussia, Warmia, Silesia, and the Province of Posen had predominantly Catholic populations.^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ The population of Rhenish Prussia in 1880 was 4,074,000, including 2,944,186 Roman Catholics, 1,077,173 Protest-ants, and 43,694 Jews.

^ EAST PRUSSIA (Ostpreussen), the larger of the two provinces, has an area of 14,280 square miles, and is bounded by the Baltic Sea, Russia, and West Prussia.

.The Kingdom of Prussia acquired these areas from countries with a Catholic majority: the Kingdom of Poland and the Austrian Empire.^ The Kingdom of Prussia acquired these areas from countries with a Catholic majority: the Kingdom of Poland and the Austrian Empire.

^ The Great Elector was more fortunate in obtaining the release of the Duchy of Prussia from the feudal suzerainty of Poland (1658), and was also able to increase its area by the addition of Ermland .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

[citation needed]
In 1871, approximately 2.4 million Poles lived in Prussia, constituting the largest minority.[7] .Other minorities were Jews, Danes, Frisians, Kashubians (72,500 in 1905), Masurians (248,000 in 1905), Lithuanians (101,500 in 1905), Walloones, Czechs and Sorbs.^ The bulk of the inhabitants are of German blood, but there are 400,000 Protestant Poles (Masurians or Masovians) in the south part of the province, and 150,000 Lithuanians in the north.

[7]
.The area of Greater Poland, where the Polish nation had originated, became the Province of Posen after the Partitions of Poland.^ The area of Greater Poland where the Polish nation had originated became the Province of Posen after the Partitions of Poland.

^ The greater part of the "party of progress" now became supporters of Bismarck under the name of the "National Liberal" party; the leaders of the National Liberals were Twesten, Lasker, and Forckenbeck.
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^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

.Poles in this Polish-majority province (62% Polish, 38% German) resisted German rule.^ Poles in this Polish-majority province (62% Polish, 38% German) resisted German rule.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ Moreover, the rapid increase of the Polish population and its growing prosperity have enabled the Poles to outstrip the German element, which does not seem capable of much resistance, in the provinces of East and West Prussia, and of late in Silesia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also, the southeast portion of Silesia (Upper Silesia) had a majority percentage of Polish population.^ Also, the southeast portion of Silesia (Upper Silesia) had a large Polish population.

^ Many of the areas which Prussia had annexed in the partitions of Poland, such as the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia, as well as eastern Upper Silesia, went to the Second Polish Republic.

.But Catholics, ethnic Poles and other Slavs, and Jews did not have equal status with Protestants.^ The population in 1880 was 1,405 898, consisting in almost equal proportions of Roman Catholics and Protestants; there were 26,547 Jews and 490,000 Poles.

[8]
.As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic was granted not only these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ All of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia.

^ Many of the areas which Prussia had annexed in the partitions of Poland, such as the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia, as well as eastern Upper Silesia, went to the Second Polish Republic.

.After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and the eastern part of Brandenburg were annexed by either the Soviet Union or Poland.^ After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and part of Brandenburg were taken over by either the Soviet Union or Poland.

^ Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a small number of ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan have begun to settle in the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia, once northern East Prussia, as part of the migration influx into the area, which was previously a restricted area (closed city).

^ With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, (including Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Eastern Brandenburg, and southern East Prussia), to Poland, with the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, going to the Soviet Union.

[9]

Early history

Brandenburg Wappen.svg
Coat of arms of North German Confederation.svg

History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
pre-12th century
Old Prussians
pre-13th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
1157–1618 (1806)
Ordensstaat
1224–1525
Duchy of Prussia
1525–1618
Royal (Polish) Prussia
1466–1772
Brandenburg-Prussia
1618–1701
Kingdom in Prussia
1701–1772
Kingdom of Prussia
1772–1918
Free State of Prussia
1918–1947
Brandenburg
1947–1952 / 1990–present
The Livonian Order joined the Teutonic Order in 1237; the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order around 1455
.
The Prussian Homage, Jan Matejko.
^ The Prussian Homage, Jan Matejko.

After admitting the dependence of Prussia to the Polish crown, Albert of Prussia receives Ducal Prussia as a fief from King Sigismund I the Old of Poland in 1525.
In 1211 Andrew II of Hungary granted the Burzenland (fiefdom) to the Teutonic Knights. In 1225, Andrew II expelled the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania, and they had to transfer to the Baltic Sea. .In 1226 Duke Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights, a German military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre, to conquer the Baltic Prussian tribes on his borders.^ In 1226 Duke Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights, a German military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre, to conquer the Baltic Prussian tribes on his borders.

^ The Saxons were the last German tribe to be conquered by the Franks and Christianized.
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^ It had also this advantage over later acquisitions at Poland’s expense, that it was a thoroughly German land, having formed part of then colonizations of the Teutonic Order.

.During 60 years of struggles against the Old Prussians, the order created an independent state which came to control the Old Prussian region.^ During 60 years of struggles against the Old Prussians, the order created an independent state which came to control Prussia.

^ In this coup d'etat, the government of the Reich unseated the Prussian government on 20 July 1932, under the pretext that the latter had lost control of public order in Prussia (during the Bloody Sunday of Altona, Hamburg).

^ Having belonged to France during the years 1795-1814, these provinces had grown accustomed to democratic forms and frequently had a racial dislike to Prussians.
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.After the Livonian Brothers of the Sword joined the Teutonic Order in 1237 they also controlled Livonia (now Latvia and Estonia) and western Lithuania.^ After the Livonian Brothers of the Sword joined the Teutonic Order in 1237 they also controlled Livonia (now Latvia and Estonia) and western Lithuania.

^ A still more important gain was that its western and eastern provinces were now united, and that it had complete military control of northern Germany .
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^ A still more important gain was that its western and eastern provinces were now united, and that it had complete military control of northern Germany.

.The Hanseatic League was officially formed in 1356 as a group of trading cities in northern Europe who came to have a monopoly on all trade leaving the interior of Europe and of Scandinavian and monopolizing of all sailing trade on Baltic Sea for foreign countries.^ But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship.
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^ All vacant official positions were filled with members of the noblesse, who also received the right of exacting compulsory service from the peasants and other similar privileges.

^ Duchy of Prussia.—The duchy of Prussia, thus acquired by the elector, formed the eastern half of the territory bearing the name of Preussen, and stretched along the Baltic Sea from the Vistula to the Memel.

[10] The economies of the interior Sweden, Denmark and Poland came feel oppressed by the Hanseatic League.[11]
In the course of the Ostsiedlung process, settlers were called in, a majority of which were Germans. This brought about changes in the ethnic composition as well as in language, culture and law. Low German became the dominant language.
.The Knights were subordinate only to the pope and the emperor.^ The Knights were subordinate only to the pope and the emperor.

^ Frederick had already been crowned Emperor by then -- the only Hapsburg crowned in Rome by the Pope.
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.Their initially close relationship with the Polish Crown deteriorated completely after they conquered Polish controlled Pomerelia and Danzig (Gdańsk).^ Their initially close relationship with the Polish Crown deteriorated completely after they conquered Polish-claimed Pomerelia and Danzig (Gdańsk), a town mainly populated by German settlers.

.The Knights were eventually defeated in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 by Poland and Lithuania, allied through the Union of Krewo.^ The Knights were eventually defeated in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 by Poland and Lithuania, allied through the Union of Krewo.

^ In 1410, Poland and Lithuania inflicted a crushing defeat on the Knights at Tannenberg.
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.The Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) began when the Prussian Confederation, a coalition of Hanseatic cities of western Prussia, rebelled against the Order and requested help from the Polish king.^ The Thirteen Years' War (1454-1466) began when the Prussian Confederation, a coalition of Hanseatic cities of western Prussia, rebelled against the Order and requested help from the Polish king.

^ Currency exchange rates provided by Hotels in Cities Near King of Prussia .
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^ Napoleonic Wars Main article: Napoleonic Wars During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786-1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland.

.The Teutonic Knights were forced to acknowledge the sovereignty and pay tribute to King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), losing western Prussia (Royal Prussia) to Poland in the process.^ The Teutonic Knights were forced to acknowledge the sovereignty of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in the Peace of Thorn, losing western Prussia (Royal Prussia) to Poland in the process.

^ On the other hand, Prussia had technically been a fief of the King of Poland, so at first the locution "King in Prussia" was used to leave things a little vague.
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^ Third partition of Poland; acquisition of New East Prussia; peace of Basel, providing for Prussia’s neutrality in the struggle with France.

Pursuant to the Second Peace of Thorn, two Prussian states established.[12]
.In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia.^ In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia.

^ In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

^ At the same time, another member of the Hohenzollern family , one belonging to the Franconian branch of the line, became Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , that is, he was the ruler of that portion of Prussia which still belonged to the order.
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[13] .This was the area east of the mouth of the Vistula River, later sometimes called "Prussia proper". For the first time, these lands were in the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family, rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centered on Berlin and ruled since the 15th century by the Hohenzollern dynasty.^ This was the area east of the mouth of the Vistula River, later sometimes called "Prussia proper".

^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ For the first time, these lands were in the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family, rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centered on Berlin and ruled since the 15th century by the Hohenzollern dynasty.

.Furthermore, with his renunciation of the Order, Albert could now marry and produce offspring.^ Furthermore, with his renunciation of the Order, Albert could now marry and produce offspring.

.Brandenburg and Prussia were unified two generations later.^ Brandenburg and Prussia were unified two generations later.

^ At first Frederick was merely appointed administrator of Brandenburg; but in 1415 he was declared the actual feudal superior of the land, and two years later formally installed as elector.

.Anna, granddaughter of Albert I and daughter of Duke Albert Frederick (reigned 1568–1618), married her cousin Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg.^ Frederick of Hohenzollern becomes elector of Brandenburg.

^ Anna, granddaughter of Albert I and daughter of Duke Albert Frederick (reigned 1568-1618), married her cousin Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg.

^ Influenced by George Frederick, John George of Brandenburg (1571-98) strengthened his claim upon Prussia by marrying his daughter to the weak-minded Duke of Prussia, and secured for himself by another marriage a new reversionary right to the Duchy of Cleve-Jülich, the ruling family of which was nearing extinction.
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.Upon the death of Albert Frederick in 1618, who died without male heirs, John Sigismund was granted the right of succession to the Duchy of Prussia, which was still a Polish fief.^ Duchy of Prussia inherited by Elector John Sigismund.

^ Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector" Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector" Upon the death of Albert Frederick in 1618, who died without male heirs, John Sigismund was granted the right of succession to the Duchy of Prussia, which was still a Polish fief.

^ The contingency which had been contemplated in the treaty with Prussia in 1569 was realized on the death of Duke Albert in 1618; and John Sigismund, whose title was strengthened by his marriage with the late duke’s daughter, inherited the duchy.

.From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg.^ From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

^ After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and part of Brandenburg were taken over by either the Soviet Union or Poland.

^ The Schleswig Wars The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation.

.The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and Rhenish lands of Cleves and Mark.^ The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and Rhenish lands of Cleves and Mark.

^ This enabled the Estates, which had rapidly developed in all German territories from the second half of the fifteenth century, to obtain great influence over the administration, both in Prussia and Brandenburg.
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^ As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia.

Rise to power

.During the Thirty Years' War, the disconnected Hohenzollern lands were repeatedly marched across by various armies, especially the occupying Swedes.^ The second point is what happened during the Thirty Years War.
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^ During the Thirty Years' War, the disconnected Hohenzollern lands were repeatedly marched across by various armies, especially the occupying Swedes.

^ As it happened, this was in the middle of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), with the Duchy occupied for the duration by Sweden.
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.The ineffective and militarily weak Margrave George William (1619–1640) fled from Berlin to Königsberg, the historic capital of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1637. His successor, Frederick William I (1640–1688), reformed the army to defend the lands.^ His successor, Frederick William (1640-1688), reformed the army to defend the lands.

^ The ineffective and militarily weak Margrave George William (1619-1640) fled from Berlin to Königsberg, the historic capital of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1637.

^ The last capital of Prussia was Berlin.

.Frederick William I went to Warsaw in 1641 to render homage to King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland for the Duchy of Prussia, which was still held in fief from the Polish crown.^ Frederick William went to Warsaw in 1641 to render homage to King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland for the Duchy of Prussia, which was still held in fief from the Polish crown.

^ Kingdom of Prussia Main article: Kingdom of Prussia King Frederick I of Prussia King Frederick I of Prussia On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom, and crowned himself King Frederick I. To avoid offending Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire where most of his lands lay, Frederick was only allowed to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia".

^ Frederick William’s intervention in the matter of the succession to the throne of Poland, rendered vacant by the death of Augustus II. in 1733, proved barren of advantage to Prussia and failed to secure the hoped-for reversion of the duchy of Courland.

.In the first phase of the Second Northern War (1654-1660), he took the duchy as a fief from the Swedish king who later granted him full sovereignty in the Treaty of Labiau.^ On the other hand, Prussia had technically been a fief of the King of Poland, so at first the locution "King in Prussia" was used to leave things a little vague.
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^ In the second Swedish and Polish war, which broke out in 1655, he used his intermediate position with great skill and unscrupulousness, allying himself first with one and then with the other of the belligerents, as seemed likely to be most profitable.

^ Later, he managed to obtain a discharge from his obligations as a vassal to the Polish king by taking advantage of the difficult position of Poland vis-á-vis Sweden in the Northern Wars and his friendly relations with Russia during a series of Russo-Polish wars.

.In 1657, this grant was renewed by the Polish king in the treaties of Wehlau and Bromberg.^ He was finally given full sovereignty over Prussia in the Treaty of Wehlau in 1657.

.With Prussia, the Brandenburg Hohenzollern dynasty now held a territory free of any feudal obligations, which constituted the basis for their later elevation to kings.^ Geography and population Prussia began as a small territory in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania.

^ In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia.

^ This enabled the Estates, which had rapidly developed in all German territories from the second half of the fifteenth century, to obtain great influence over the administration, both in Prussia and Brandenburg.
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.Frederick William I became known as the "Great Elector" for his achievements in organizing the electorate, which he accomplished by establishing an absolute monarchy (see absolutism) in Brandenburg-Prussia.^ Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism.

^ Frederick of Hohenzollern becomes elector of Brandenburg.

^ Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg became henceforth King Frederick I. of Prussia, [8-1] the title being taken from that part of his territories in which he had no suzerain to acknowledge.

.Above all, he emphasized the importance of a powerful military to protect the state's disconnected territories, with the Edict of Potsdam opened Brandenburg-Prussia for immigration of Protestant refugees, and he established a bureaucracy to carry out state business efficiently.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ At the same time he built up Prussia's military power and participated in the First Partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772), an act that geographically connected the Brandenburg territories with those of Prussia proper.

^ The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and Rhenish lands of Cleves and Mark.

Kingdom of Prussia

.On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom and crowned himself King Frederick I.^ The lacking name of kingdom was given to the country when Frederick I (1688-1713), the son of the Great Elector, crowned himself on 18 January, 1701, at Königsberg, with the title "King in Prussia", meaning of the former duchy.
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^ Elector Frederick assumes the title of "king of Prussia."

^ Kingdom of Prussia Main article: Kingdom of Prussia King Frederick I of Prussia King Frederick I of Prussia On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom, and crowned himself King Frederick I. To avoid offending Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire where most of his lands lay, Frederick was only allowed to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia".

To avoid offending Poland, where a part of the old Prussia lay, Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire where most of the lands of Prussia lay, allowed Frederick only to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia".
Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600–1795
.The state of Brandenburg-Prussia became commonly known as "Prussia", although most of its territory, in Brandenburg, Pomerania, and western Germany, lay outside of Prussia proper.^ Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600-1795 Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600-1795 King Frederick William I, "the Soldier-King" King Frederick William I, "the Soldier-King" The state of Brandenberg-Prussia became commonly known as "Prussia", although most of its territory, in Brandenburg, Pomerania, and western Germany, lay outside of Prussia proper.

^ The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although, ironically, both had extensive territory outside the empire).

^ In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

.The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury.^ The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury.

^ During Frederick's reign a novel element found its way into the Prussian State.
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^ Henceforth the power of the nobles steadily increased at the expense of the peasants, who were gradually reduced to a state of feudal servitude.

[citation needed]
.Frederick I was succeeded by his son, Frederick William I (1713–1740) the austere "Soldier King", who did not care for the arts but was thrifty and practical.^ In 1740, Frederick William was succeeded by his son, Frederick II, later nicknamed "Frederick the Great".

^ He was succeeded by his son, Frederick William I (1713-1740) the austere "Soldier King", who did not care for the arts but was thrifty and practical.

^ The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury.

.He is considered the creator of the vaunted Prussian bureaucracy and the standing army, which he developed into one of the most powerful in Europe, although his troops only briefly saw action during the Great Northern War.^ He is considered the creator of the vaunted Prussian bureaucracy and the standing army, which he developed into one of the most powerful in Europe, although his troops only briefly saw action during the Great Northern War.

^ The peace of Utrecht (1713), which added Guelders to the Prussian territories, left Frederick William free to turn his attention to the northern war then raging between Sweden on the one side and Russia, Poland and Denmark on the other.

^ The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg) retained their own armies.

.In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population, Voltaire said later: "Where some states have an army, the Prussian Army has a state!" Also, Frederick William settled more than 20,000 Protestant refugees from Salzburg in thinly populated eastern Prussia, which was eventually extended to the west bank of the Memel river, and other regions.^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

^ Also, Frederick William settled more than 20,000 Protestant refugees from Salzburg in thinly populated eastern Prussia, which was eventually extended to the west bank of the Memel river, and other regions.

^ In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population, Voltaire said later: "Where some states have an army, the Prussian Army has a state!"

.In the treaty of Stockholm (1720), he acquired half of Swedish Pomerania.^ His grandson finally acquired Stettin and the mouth of the Oder in 1720, and Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern) did not become apart of Prussia until 1815.
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^ From Sweden he acquired Western Pomerania as far as the Peene in 1720.

King Frederick William I, "the Soldier-King"
.King Frederick William died on May 31, 1740 and was succeeded by his son, Frederick II, whose accomplishments led to his reputation as "Frederick the Great".[14] As crown prince, Frederick had focused, primarily, on philosophy and the arts.^ In 1740, Frederick William was succeeded by his son, Frederick II, later nicknamed "Frederick the Great".

^ He was succeeded by his son, Frederick William I (1713-1740) the austere "Soldier King", who did not care for the arts but was thrifty and practical.

^ Kingdom of Prussia Main article: Kingdom of Prussia King Frederick I of Prussia King Frederick I of Prussia On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom, and crowned himself King Frederick I. To avoid offending Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire where most of his lands lay, Frederick was only allowed to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia".

[15] Frederick was also an accomplished flute player.[16] .However, on December 13, 1740 in the first year of his reign as king, Frederick sent notice to foreign envoys of his intention to sieze the Habsburg held province of Silesia.^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

^ The most notable incident in Frederick’s reign was, however, his acquisition of the title of king of Prussia, which long formed the principal object of his policy, and which led him to make important concessions to all whose cooperation was necessary.

^ Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism.

[17] .On December 16, 1740, Prussian troops crossed over the undefended border of Silesia and occupied Schweidnitz.^ In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig.

.Silesia was the richest province of Habsburg Austria.^ The richest districts are those of Coblentz in the province of the Rhine, Arnsberg in Westphalia, Oppein in Silesia, and Wiesbaden.

[18] .Frederick justified his claim to Silesia based on the Treaty of 1537 dating from the reign of Elector Joachim II of Prussia.^ The community took its name in the 18th century from a local tavern named "The King of Prussia Inn", which was named for Frederick II, King of Prussia.
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^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

^ As ruler Joachim I was even firmer than Frederick II .
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.Under that Treaty, the Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Breig and Wohlau were to come to Brandenburg upon the death of the last of the Piast princes.^ Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector" Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector" Upon the death of Albert Frederick in 1618, who died without male heirs, John Sigismund was granted the right of succession to the Duchy of Prussia, which was still a Polish fief.

^ As a pretext for the war he took the treaties of succession of his forefathers with the rulers of several of the smaller Silesian duchies, made in 1537, for the nonfulfilment of which Austria seemingly was alone to blame.
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[19] .The Piasts dynasty had become extinct in 1675.[20] However, nothing had been done to pursue the Hohenzollern/Brandenburg claims to these lands in Silesian land until now.^ Frederick of Hohenzollern becomes elector of Brandenburg.

^ For the first time, these lands were in the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family, rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centered on Berlin and ruled since the 15th century by the Hohenzollern dynasty.

^ Between the accession of the Hohenzollern dynasty and the period at which we have now arrived the area of Brandenburg had been increased to nearly 15,000 square miles, and its material prosperity had grown in at least an equal ratio.

[21]
.When Frederick crossed the border of Silesia with his troops on December 16, 1740, it signalled the beginning of three Silesian Wars (1740–1763).^ In the three Silesian Wars (1740-1763) Frederick succeeded in conquering Silesia from Austria and holding his new possession.

^ In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig.

^ Within a year of his accession he had embarked on the first Silesian War, and this was closely followed by the second, which ended in 1745, leaving Frederick in undisputed possession of almost the whole of Silesia, with the frontier that still exists.

[22] .The First Silesian War (1740-1742) and the Second Silesian War (1744-1745) have, historically, been grouped together with the general European war called the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748).^ In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig.

^ In the three Silesian Wars (1740-1763) Frederick succeeded in conquering Silesia from Austria and holding his new possession.

^ Within a year of his accession he had embarked on the first Silesian War, and this was closely followed by the second, which ended in 1745, leaving Frederick in undisputed possession of almost the whole of Silesia, with the frontier that still exists.

[23] .Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI had died on October 20, 1740.[24] He was succeeded to the throne by his daughter, Maria Theresia.^ Archdukes continue as Holy Roman Emperors .
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^ One daughter married a Romanov and was the mother of a Tsar, albeit an ephemeral one; but then another married the Emperor Charles VI and become the fateful mother of Maria Theresa , who for forty years was herself the House of Hapsburg.
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^ Albert's elder brother, Ernest II, succeeded to the Duchy; but when Ernest died in 1893, the Duchy was passed to Albert and Victoria's son Alfred, and when he died in 1900, to their grandson Charles Edward.
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[25] .Although the Austrian Empire had been governed by the Salic Law which prevented female succession to the throne--or even succession to males through a female line--Charles.^ In 1897 the difficulties were finally removed which up to then had prevented the Government from obtaining a law to regulate the country communes.
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In 1713 (having only daughters as heirs), Charles VI had sought an exception to the Salic Law in his case by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.[26] .Needless to say the Pragmatic Sanction faced opposition in the form of other claimants to the Austrian throne from Bavaria, Saxony and Spain.^ The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg) retained their own armies.

[27] .Although Frederick was not a claimant to the throne of Austria, from the Austrian point of view the Silesian Wars were still nothing more than a cynical, opportunistic grab at some Habsburg lands, while the Austrians were occupied with the succession crisis.^ The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although, ironically, both had extensive territory outside the empire).

^ In the hilly districts more than half the surface is sometimes occupied by forests, and large plantations of oak are formed for the use of the bark in tanning.

^ A still more useful arrangement of a similar kind was carried out by Joachim in 1569, when he secured t\e right of succession to the duchy of Prussia.

.Thus, the Silesian Wars are seen as part of the War for Austrian Succession.^ War of the Austrian Succession, 1740-1748 .
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^ As a pretext for the war he took the treaties of succession of his forefathers with the rulers of several of the smaller Silesian duchies, made in 1537, for the nonfulfilment of which Austria seemingly was alone to blame.
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^ The War of the Bavarian Succession (1778-79), which Frederick declared against Austria to prevent Bavaria becoming part of that monarchy, caused but little bloodshed.
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.By defeating the Austrian Army at the Battle of Mollwitz on April 10, 1741, Frederick succeeded in conquering Lower Silesia (the northwestern half of Silesia).^ On 6 May he won a bloody battle near Prague, but on 18 June he was defeated near Kollin and suffered losses by the new Austrian commander Daun which he could not repair.

^ The united Russians and Austrians decisively defeated Frederick at Kunersdorf on 12 August.
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^ When finally the united French and Imperial army advanced, Frederick defeated the joint forces badly at Rossbach on 5 Nov., and then turned against Daun, who had entered Silesia and had taken Breslau.
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[28] .In the next year, 1742, he conquered Upper Silesia (the southeastern half) in 1742. Furthermore, in the third Silesian War (commonly called the Seven Years War) Frederick won a victory over the Austria at the Battle of Lobositz on October 1, 1756.[29] Four years later, on November 3, 1760 Frederick won another battle--the decisive battle--the Battle of Torgau.^ Seven Years’ War ; principal victories : Prague (6th May 1757), Rossbach (5th November 1757), Leuthen (5th December 1757), Liegnitz (15th August 1760), and Torgau (3d November 1760) ; principal defeats : Kolin (18th June 1757), Hochkirch (14th October 1758), Kunersdorf (12th August 1759).

^ In the three Silesian Wars (1740-1763) Frederick succeeded in conquering Silesia from Austria and holding his new possession.

^ In alarm Frederick advanced into Moravia, gained the battle of Chotusitz, 17 May, 1742, and in the Peace of Breslau, of 1 June of the same year, obtained from Austria the whole of Silesia, excepting the Countships of Glatz, Troppau, and Teschen.

[30] .With this victories and the overall victory in the Seven Years War, Frederick, allied with Great Britain, Hanover, and Hesse-Kassel, was able to hold the whole of Silesia against a coalition of Saxony, Austria, France, and Russia.^ In the last, the Seven Years' War, he held it against a coalition of Austria, France, and Russia.

^ It was also an advantage to Frederick that Turkey began a war against Austria .
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^ It was also an advantage to Frederick that Turkey began a war against Austria.

[31] Voltaire, a close friend of the king, once described Frederick the Great's Prussia by saying "...it was Sparta in the morning, Athens in the afternoon." From these wars onwards the German dualism dominated German politics until 1866.
.Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

^ In May 1939 Prussia had an area of 297,007 km² and a population of 41,915,040 inhabitants.

^ This policy could be continued, notwithstanding the great increase in the number of Catholics , because the population of Prussia was accustomed to obey the Government without claiming any rights for itself.
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[32] .Success on the battleground against Austria and other powers proved Prussia's status as one of the great powers of Europe.^ Success on the battleground against Austria and other powers proved Prussia's status as one of the great powers of Europe.

^ Prussia is one of the leading sheep-breeding countries of Europe, and much has been done to improve the race and increase the value of the flesh and wool.

^ He believed that the real Germany must at times maintain its interests against Austria by the aid of one of the guaranteeing powers of the Peace of Westphalia , viz.
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.The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although, ironically, both had extensive territory outside the empire).^ A conflict between the Crown and the Diet began.
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^ Prussia received a large increase of territory by the war with Austria.

^ The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although, ironically, both had extensive territory outside the empire).

[33] .In 1744 the County of East Frisia fell to Prussia following the extinction of its ruling Cirksena dynasty.^ In 1744 the County of East Frisia fell to Prussia following the extinction of its ruling Cirksena dynasty.

^ It should also be mentioned that in 1744 East Frisia became a part of Prussia by inheritance.
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King Frederick II,
"the Great"
.In the last 23 years of his reign until 1786, Frederick II, who understood himself as the "first servant of the state", promoted the development of Prussian areas such as the Oderbruch.^ In the last 23 years of his reign until 1786, Frederick II, who understood himself as the "first servant of the state", promoted the development of Prussian areas such as the Oderbruch.

^ The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury.

^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

.At the same time he built up Prussia's military power and participated in the First Partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772), an act that geographically connected the Brandenburg territories with those of Prussia proper.^ In 1772 Prussia and Austria, in order to prevent an overweening growth of Russia, joined in the first partition of Poland.

^ At the same time he built up Prussia's military power and participated in the First Partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772), an act that geographically connected the Brandenburg territories with those of Prussia proper.

^ First partition of Poland; acquisition of West Prussia.

.During this period, he also opened Prussia's borders to immigrants fleeing from religious persecution in other parts of Europe, such as the Huguenots.^ During this period, he also opened Prussia's borders to immigrants fleeing from religious persecution in other parts of Europe, such as the Huguenots.

^ Austria hoped that in this way Prussia would be so entangled in Western Europe that it could no longer pursue a policy of neutrality, such as it had adopted after the Treaty of Basle.
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^ During the reign of the Great Elector, Catholic Ermland also became a part of Prussia, but this province never was considered of much importance.
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.Prussia became a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century.^ Prussia became a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century.

^ In the same way the "Catholic Fraction" (1852), formed to oppose the re-establishment of the Protestant character of the State, proved to be only temporary.
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^ During the reign of the Great Elector, Catholic Ermland also became a part of Prussia, but this province never was considered of much importance.
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[citation needed]
.Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism.^ Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism.

^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

^ On the other hand, Prussia had technically been a fief of the King of Poland, so at first the locution "King in Prussia" was used to leave things a little vague.
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.He introduced a general civil code, abolished torture, and established the principle that the crown would not interfere in matters of justice.^ He introduced a general civil code, abolished torture, and established the principle that the crown would not interfere in matters of justice.

^ "Code civile") or would have to in the future (e.g.
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.He also promoted an advanced secondary education, the forerunner of today's German gymnasium (grammar school) system, which prepares the brightest students for university studies.^ He also promoted an advanced secondary education, the forerunner of today's German gymnasium (grammar school) system, which prepares the brightest students for university studies.

^ Brisbane Grammar School was founded, providing the opportunity for secondary education for the first time in the colony of Brisbane in Australia.

^ The educational reforms of William von Humboldt established the school system of Prussia on its present basis, and the university of Berlin was founded in 1809.

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Prussian education system became emulated in various countries.^ The Prussian education system became emulated in various countries.

[citation needed]

Napoleonic Wars

.During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786–1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland.^ Napoleonic Wars Main article: Napoleonic Wars During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786-1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland.

^ The community took its name in the 18th century from a local tavern named "The King of Prussia Inn", which was named for Frederick II, King of Prussia.
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^ King Frederick II, "the Great" King Frederick II, "the Great" Silesia, a region of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, greatly increased the area, population, and wealth of Prussia.

.His successor, Frederick William III (1797–1840), announced the union of the Prussian Lutheran and Reformed churches into one church.^ His successor, Frederick William III (1797-1840), announced the union of the Prussian Lutheran and Reformed churches into one church.

^ The peace of Utrecht (1713), which added Guelders to the Prussian territories, left Frederick William free to turn his attention to the northern war then raging between Sweden on the one side and Russia, Poland and Denmark on the other.

^ Frederick William IV (1840-61) in his youth had enthusiastically taken part in the War of Liberation, and afterwards in all the efforts for the reorganization of the State.
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.Prussia took a leading part in the French Revolutionary Wars, but remained quiet for more than a decade due to the Peace of Basel of 1795, only to go once more to war with France in 1806 as negotiations with that country over the allocation of the spheres of influence in Germany failed.^ Prussia took a leading part in the French Revolutionary Wars, but remained quiet for more than a decade due to the Peace of Basel of 1795, only to go once more to war with France in 1806 as negotiations with that country over the allocation of the spheres of influence in Germany failed.

^ All of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia.

^ Prussia is one of the leading sheep-breeding countries of Europe, and much has been done to improve the race and increase the value of the flesh and wool.

.Prussia suffered a devastating defeat against Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, leading Frederick William III and his family to flee temporarily to Memel.^ Prussia suffered a devastating defeat against Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, leading Frederick William III and his family to flee temporarily to Memel.

^ Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo of 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon.

^ In matters of general administration Frederick William showed himself a prudent and careful ruler, and laid the foundation of the future greatness of Prussia in almost every department.

.Under the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, the state lost about half of its area, including the areas gained from the second and third Partitions of Poland, which now fell to the Duchy of Warsaw.^ Under the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, the state lost about half of its area, including the areas gained from the second and third Partitions of Poland, which now fell to the Duchy of Warsaw.

^ At the peace of Tilsit (9th July 1807) Frederick William lost half his kingdom, including all that had been acquired at the second and third partitions of Poland and the whole of the territory to the west of the Elbe.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

.Beyond that, the king was obliged to make an alliance with France and join the Continental System.^ Beyond that, the king was obliged to make an alliance with France and join the Continental System.

^ In 1673 he was forced, through lack of sufficient support from the emperor, to make peace with France; but he joined the triple alliance of Holland, Spain, and the empire in the following year and took part in an indecisive campaign in Alsace.

^ In spite of tempting offers from France, he concluded an alliance with Holland, and at the head of Austrian and Brandenburgian troops joined the Dutch in an ineffectual campaign on the Rhine.

[citation needed]
.In response to this defeat, reformers such as Stein and Hardenberg set about modernising the Prussian state.^ In response to this defeat, reformers such as Stein and Hardenberg set about modernising the Prussian state.

^ The credit of the reformation belongs mainly to the great minister Stein, and in the second place to the chancellor Hardenberg.

^ Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the joint occupation of Cloves; and about a century later Upper Guelders and Mörs also became Prussian.

.Among their reforms were the liberation of peasants from serfdom, the Emancipation of Jews and making full citizens of them,[34] and the institution of self-administration in municipalities.^ Among their reforms were the liberation of peasants from serfdom, the emancipation of Jews and making full citizens of them, and the institution of self-administration in municipalities.

^ The "Städteordnung" of 1808 reformed the municipalities and granted them important rights of self-government.

^ Personally, Stein was only able to initiate these reforms by the municipal legislation of 19 Nov., 1808, and the "laws on the changed constitution of the highest administration of the realm" of 24 Nov., 1808.
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.The school system was rearranged, and in 1818 free trade was introduced.^ The school system was rearranged, and in 1818 free trade was introduced.

.The process of army reform ended in 1813 with the introduction of compulsory military service.^ The process of army reform ended in 1813 with the introduction of compulsory military service.

[citation needed]
.After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia, Prussia quit its alliance with France and took part in the Sixth Coalition during the "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege) against the French occupation.^ After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia, Prussia quit its alliance with France and took part in the Sixth Coalition during the "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege) against the French occupation.

^ In the last, the Seven Years' War, he held it against a coalition of Austria, France, and Russia.

^ War declared against Napoleon ; defeats of Jena and Auerstädt; Prussia conquered by the French.

.Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo of 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon.^ Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder.

^ Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo of 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon.

^ During the War of Liberation of 1813-14 and 1815 the Prussian army had a large share in the overthrow of Napoleon.

.Prussia's reward in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna was the recovery of her lost territories, as well as the whole of the Rhineland, Westphalia, and some other territories.^ Prussia's reward in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna was the recovery of her lost territories, as well as the whole of the Rhineland, Westphalia, and some other territories.

^ The central power had become weakened and the whole inner organization relaxed, while the electorate had also lost most of the advantages that once favourably distinguished it from other imperial fiefs.

^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

.These western lands were to be of vital importance because they included the Ruhr Area, the centre of Germany's fledgling industrialisation, especially in the arms industry.^ These western lands were to be of vital importance because they included the Ruhr Area, the centre of Germany's fledgling industrialisation, especially in the arms industry.

^ This was unfavourable for the schemes of the Hohenzollerns, for at that time they had no definite policy of territorial extension in western Europe , and consequently no interests of any importance there.
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^ German control of these territories lasted only for a few months, however, because of the defeat of German military forces by the western Allies and the German Revolution.

.These territorial gains also meant the doubling of Prussia's population.^ These territorial gains also meant the doubling of Prussia's population.

^ Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population.

^ It was the Poles who began applying the name "Prussia" to these territories.
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.In exchange, Prussia withdrew from areas of central Poland to allow the creation of Congress Poland under Russian sovereignty.^ In exchange, Prussia withdrew from areas of central Poland to allow the creation of Congress Poland under Russian sovereignty.

^ Not only did Prussia obtain Danzig and Thorn in the Second Partition of Poland (1792), but in the Third Partition (1795) she acquired the central basin of the Vistula, with Warsaw as its capital.
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^ The Great Elector was more fortunate in obtaining the release of the Duchy of Prussia from the feudal suzerainty of Poland (1658), and was also able to increase its area by the addition of Ermland.

.Prussia emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the dominant power in Germany, overshadowing her long-time rival Austria, which had given up the imperial crown in 1806.[citation needed] In 1815 Prussia became part of the German Confederation.^ Thus Austria lost the decades-long struggle with Prussia for dominance of Germany.

^ Prussia emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the dominant power in Germany, overshadowing her long-time rival Austria, which had given up the imperial crown in 1806.

^ In 1815 Prussia became part of the German Confederation.

.The first half of the 19th century saw a prolonged struggle in Germany between liberals, who wanted a united, federal Germany under a democratic constitution, and conservatives, who wanted to maintain Germany as a patchwork of independent, monarchical states, with Prussia and Austria competing for influence.^ This made it the largest state in Germany after Austria and Prussia.
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^ King Frederick William IV King Frederick William IV The first half of the 19th century saw a prolonged struggle in Germany between liberals, who wanted a united, federal Germany under a democratic constitution, and conservatives, who wanted to maintain Germany as a patchwork of independent, monarchical states, with Prussia and Austria competing for influence.

^ In a propaganda-filled meeting between Hitler and the Nazi Party, the "marriage of old Prussia with young Germany" was celebrated, to win over the Prussian monarchists, conservatives, and nationalists and induce them to vote for the Enabling Act of 1933.

.One small movement that signaled a desire for German unification in this period was the Burschenschaft student movement, by students who encouraged the use of the black-red-gold flag, discussions of a unified German nation, and a progressive, liberal political system.^ The greater part of the "party of progress" now became supporters of Bismarck under the name of the "National Liberal" party; the leaders of the National Liberals were Twesten, Lasker, and Forckenbeck.
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^ He also promoted an advanced secondary education, the forerunner of today's German gymnasium (grammar school) system, which prepares the brightest students for university studies.

^ At this period a like internal policy was followed in all the states of the German Empire , including the larger ones.
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.Because of Prussia's size and economic importance, smaller states began to join its free trade area in the 1820s.^ Free State of Prussia (1918–1947) .
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^ Because of Prussia's size and economic importance, smaller states began to join its free trade area in the 1820s.

^ The intention was that Prussia should unite with other German states that were ready to join in a confederation called the "union", and that the union should adopt a constitution and have a diet.

.Prussia benefited greatly from the creation in 1834 of the German Customs Union (Zollverein), which included most German states but excluded Austria.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ Prussia benefited greatly from the creation in 1834 of the German Customs Union (Zollverein), which included most German states but excluded Austria.

^ After violent disputes a Zollverein (customs union) was gradually formed; the first to join with Prussia in such a union were the smaller states of Northern Germany, beginning with Sondershausen in 1819; in 1828 Hesse-Darmstadt; in 1831 Electoral Hesse; from 1 Jan., 1834, the kingdoms of Southern Germany, Saxony, and the customs and commercial union of the Thuringian States.

[citation needed]
.In 1848 the liberals saw an opportunity when revolutions broke out across Europe.^ In 1848 the liberals saw an opportunity when revolutions broke out across Europe.

.Alarmed, King Frederick William IV agreed to convene a National Assembly and grant a constitution.^ Alarmed, King Frederick William IV agreed to convene a National Assembly and grant a constitution.

^ National Assembly was dissolved, and a constitution was published on the king's sole authority.
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^ Frederick William IV (1840-61) in his youth had enthusiastically taken part in the War of Liberation, and afterwards in all the efforts for the reorganization of the State.
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.When the Frankfurt Parliament offered Frederick William the crown of a united Germany, he refused on the grounds that he would not accept a crown from a revolutionary assembly without the sanction of Germany's other monarchs.^ When the Frankfurt Parliament offered Frederick William the crown of a united Germany, he refused on the grounds that he would not accept a crown from a revolutionary assembly without the sanction of Germany's other monarchs.

^ Göring made an appeal, offering to accept the court's death sentence if he were shot as a soldier instead of hanged as a common criminal, but the court refused.
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^ He would not accept it from a parliament claiming its power from the sovereignty of the people.
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.The Frankfurt Parliament was forced to dissolve in 1849, and Frederick William issued Prussia's first constitution by his own authority in 1850. This conservative document provided for a two-house parliament.^ There was also a two-house parliament.

^ This conservative document provided for a two-house parliament.

^ The Frankfurt Parliament was forced to dissolve in 1849, and Frederick William issued Prussia's first constitution by his own authority in 1850.

.The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid.^ Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote.

^ The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid.

^ In each election district all voters who pay taxes are divided into three classes, so that one-third of the taxes is paid by each class; each class elects the same number of electors, and these electors elect the deputies.
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.Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote.^ Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote.

^ The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid.

.This allowed just over one-third of the voters to choose 85% of the legislature, all but assuring dominance by the more well-to-do men of the population.^ This allowed just over one-third of the voters to choose 85% of the legislature, all but assuring dominance by the more well-to-do men of the population.

^ All schools, public and private, are under state supervision, and no one is allowed to exercise the profession of teacher until he has given satisfactory proof of his qualifications.

^ Their burden, however, amounting to 449,391 tons, was little more than one-third of the whole, and was exceeded by that of Bremen and Hamburg taken together.

.The upper house, which was later renamed the Herrenhaus ("House of Lords"), was appointed by the king.^ The upper house, which was later renamed the Herrenhaus ("House of Lords"), was appointed by the king.

^ The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments.

.He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him.^ He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him.

^ Executive power was held by a president, assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him.

.As a result, the grip of the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained unbroken, especially in the eastern provinces.^ As a result, the grip of the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained unbroken, especially in the eastern provinces.

^ Potatoes, used both as food and for the distillation of spirits, are cultivated over nearly as large an area as rye and are especially predominant in the eastern provinces.

[citation needed]

Wars of unification

.In 1862 King Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister of Prussia.^ Prussia stepped up from the ranks of a Great Power to a Predominant Power thanks to Otto von Bismarck.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilhelm was forced to renounce his succession rights to the Royal House of Prussia and inheritance of Wilhelm II in 1933 following his unequal marriage to Dorothea von Salviati.
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

^ Andreas is a 3 x great grandson of Bernard von Bismarck elder brother of the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck (Prince von Bismarck) .
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

.Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and conservatives and increase Prussian supremacy and influence among the German states.^ Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and the conservatives by creating a strong united Germany but under the domination of the Prussian ruling class and bureaucracy, not a liberal democracy.

^ This explains in part why the Catholic South German states, especially Austria and Bavaria, resisted Prussian hegemony for so long.

^ Bismarck realized that the Prussian crown could win the support of the people only if he himself took the lead in the fight for the German unification.

.There has been much debate as to whether Bismarck actually planned to create a united Germany when he set out on this journey, or whether he simply took advantage of the circumstances that fell into place.^ German Emperor William II German Emperor William II After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation.

^ With his Ems Dispatch, Bismarck took advantage of an incident in which the French ambassador had approached William.

^ Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and the conservatives by creating a strong united Germany but under the domination of the Prussian ruling class and bureaucracy, not a liberal democracy.

.Certainly his memoirs paint a rosy picture of an idealist, but these were written with the benefit of hindsight.^ Recognized schools of painting exist at Berlin and Düsseldorf, and both these towns, as well as Cassel, contain excellent picture galleries.

.What is clear is that Bismarck curried support from large sections of the people by promising to lead the fight for greater German unification.^ Bismarck realized that the Prussian crown could win the support of the people only if he himself took the lead in the fight for the German unification.

.He eventually guided Prussia through three wars which together brought William the position of German Emperor.^ So he guided Prussia through three wars which together brought William the position of German Emperor.

^ German Emperor William II German Emperor William II After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation.

^ Napoleonic Wars Main article: Napoleonic Wars During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786-1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland.

Schleswig Wars

.The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation.^ The Schleswig Wars The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation.

^ From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

^ When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848-1851).

.When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848–1851).^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848-1851).

^ This led to conflict with the German Confederation, which authorized the occupation of Holstein by the Confederation, from which Danish forces withdrew.

Because Russia supported Austria, Prussia also conceded predominance in the German Confederation to Austria in the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850.
.In 1863, Denmark introduced a shared constitution for Denmark and Schleswig.^ In 1863, Denmark introduced a shared constitution for Denmark and Schleswig.

^ Here the lines of Holstein-Sonderburg, Holstein-Beck, and Holstein-Augustenburg are followed, since Holstein-Beck ends up inheriting the Throne of Denmark, while Augustenburg furnished the Prussian candidate for Schleswig-Holstein in 1863.
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.This led to conflict with the German Confederation, which authorized the occupation of Holstein by the Confederation, from which Danish forces withdrew.^ This led to conflict with the German Confederation, which authorized the occupation of Holstein by the Confederation, from which Danish forces withdrew.

^ The Schleswig Wars The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation.

^ War with Austria; battle of Koniggrätz (3d July); acquisition of Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, and electoral Hesse; establishment of North German Confederation.

.In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig.^ In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig.

^ Austro-Prussian War Main article: Austro-Prussian War Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871 Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871 Bismarck realized that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions escalated between Prussia and Austria.

^ The Schleswig Wars The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation.

.The Austro-Prussian forces defeated the Danes, who surrendered both territories.^ The Austro-Prussian forces defeated the Danes, who surrendered both territories.

^ Honouring their treaties, the German states joined forces and quickly defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.

.In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein.^ In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein.

^ Austro-Prussian War Main article: Austro-Prussian War Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871 Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871 Bismarck realized that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions escalated between Prussia and Austria.

^ But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed Austria's allies, the Kingdom of Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, the Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfurt, as well as all of Schleswig-Holstein.

Austro-Prussian War

Expansion of Prussia 1807–1871
.Bismarck realized that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions escalated between Prussia and Austria.^ Austro-Prussian War Main article: Austro-Prussian War Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871 Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871 Bismarck realized that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions escalated between Prussia and Austria.

^ In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein.

^ But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed Austria's allies, the Kingdom of Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, the Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfurt, as well as all of Schleswig-Holstein.

.The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein.^ The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein.

^ Prussia’s neutral attitude in the Austro-Italian War was the first sign of the coming storm; and then followed the Schleswig-Holstein episode, culminating in the war of 1866 (see AUSTRIA), the successful issue of which expelled Austria from Germany and left its rival in undisputed possession.

^ In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig.

.On the side of Austria stood the southern German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg), some central German states (including Saxony), and Hanover in the north; on the side of Prussia were Italy, most northern German states, and some smaller central German states.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ On the side of Austria stood the southern German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg), some central German states (including Saxony), and Hanover in the north; on the side of Prussia were Italy, most northern German states, and some smaller central German states.

^ Though without gain in extent or population, Prussia emerged from the war as an undoubted power of the first rank, and henceforth completely eclipsed Saxony, Bavaria, and Hanover, while it was plain that Austria would no longer stand without a rival for the hegemony of the German empire.

.Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder.^ Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder.

^ Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo of 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon.

.The century-long struggle between Berlin and Vienna for dominance of Germany was now over.^ Thus Austria lost the decades-long struggle with Prussia for dominance of Germany.

^ Prussia emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the dominant power in Germany, overshadowing her long-time rival Austria, which had given up the imperial crown in 1806.

.Bismarck desired Austria as an ally in the future, and so he declined to annex any Austrian territory.^ Bismarck desired Austria as an ally in the future, and so he declined to annex any territory from the Austrian Empire.

.But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed four of Austria's allies in northern and central Germany—Hanover, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Nassau and Frankfurt.^ Annexed to Prussia, 1866 .
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed Austria's allies, the Kingdom of Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, the Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfurt, as well as all of Schleswig-Holstein.

^ Hanover annexed by Prussia , 1866 .
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Prussia also won full control of Schleswig-Holstein.^ In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein.

^ The birth-rate, which for the entire country is 40 per 1000, is highest in West Prussia, Posen, and Westphalia and lowest in Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, and Hesse-Nassau.

^ When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848-1851).

.As a result of these territorial gains, Prussia now stretched uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population.^ Prussia now stretched virtually uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population.

^ These territorial gains also meant the doubling of Prussia's population.

^ Prussia included three-fifths of its territory and two-thirds of its population.

.The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia impelled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia cajoled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation.

^ As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia.

.Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population.^ Prussia's dominance over the empire was almost absolute.

^ Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population.

^ Prussia included three-fifths of its territory and two-thirds of its population.

.Prussia's near-total control over the confederation was cemented in the constitution drafted for it by Bismarck in 1867. Executive power was held by a president, assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him.^ Prussia's near-total control over the confederation was cemented in the constitution drafted for it by Bismarck in 1867.

^ Executive power was held by a president, assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him.

^ He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him.

.The presidency was a hereditary office of the Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia.^ The presidency was a hereditary office of the Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia.

^ The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the royal house of Prussia.

^ From the first of these descended the rulers of Prussia, while the other line also still exists in the person of the mediatized prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

.There was also a two-house parliament.^ There was also a two-house parliament.

^ In the Prussian parliament the province of the Rhine is represented by twenty-seven members in the upper house and eighty-two in the lower.

^ This conservative document provided for a two-house parliament.

.The lower house, or Reichstag (Diet), was elected by universal male suffrage.^ The lower house, or Reichstag (Diet), was elected by universal male suffrage.

^ The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid.

.The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments.^ The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments.

^ The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor.

^ The upper house, which was later renamed the Herrenhaus ("House of Lords"), was appointed by the king.

.The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber.^ The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber.

.Prussia had 17 of 43 votes, and could easily control proceedings through alliances with the other states.^ Prussia had 17 of 43 votes, and could easily control proceedings through alliances with the other states.

^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

^ Unlike in other states of the German Reich, majority rule by democratic parties in Prussia was never endangered.

.As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia.^ As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia.

^ As a rule, however, the south German states are richer in cattle than Prussia.

^ The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia cajoled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation.

.Additionally, mutual defense treaties were concluded.^ Additionally, mutual defense treaties were concluded.

.However, the existence of these treaties was kept secret until Bismarck made them public in 1867, when France tried to acquire Luxembourg.^ However, the existence of these treaties was kept secret until Bismarck made them public in 1867, when France tried to acquire Luxembourg.

Franco-Prussian War

Emperor William I
.The controversy with the Second French Empire over the candidacy of a Hohenzollern to the Spanish throne was escalated both by France and Bismarck.^ Franco-Prussian War Main article: Franco-Prussian War German Emperor William I German Emperor William I The controversy with the Second French Empire over the candidacy of a Hohenzollern to the Spanish throne was escalated both by France and Bismarck.

.With his Ems Dispatch, Bismarck took advantage of an incident in which the French ambassador had approached William.^ With his Ems Dispatch, Bismarck took advantage of an incident in which the French ambassador had approached William.

.The government of Napoleon III, expecting another civil war among the German states, declared war against Prussia, continuing Franco-German enmity.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ The government of Napoleon III, expecting another civil war among the German states, declared war against Prussia, continuing Franco-German enmity.

^ Prussia suffered a devastating defeat against Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, leading Frederick William III and his family to flee temporarily to Memel.

.Honouring their treaties, however, the German states joined forces and quickly defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Following victory under Bismarck's and Prussia's leadership, Baden, Württemberg, and Bavaria — which had remained outside the North German Confederation — accepted incorporation into a united German Empire.^ The constitution of the German Empire was a slightly amended version of the North German Confederation's constitution.

^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ Initially, decisive German victories followed quickly one after the other.
  • http://english.songtranslator.net/wiki/wiki.php?title=Hermann_G%C3%B6ring 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC english.songtranslator.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The empire was a "Lesser German" solution (in German, "kleindeutsche Lösung") to the question of uniting all German-speaking peoples into one state, because it excluded Austria, which remained connected to Hungary and whose territories included non-German populations.^ The empire was a Kleindeutsche Lösung—or a "Lesser German Solution" to the problem of German unity, because it excluded Austria, which remained connected to Hungary.

^ The marriages of Gisela (d.1043) not only bring the Kingdom of Burgundy into the Empire, but they lead of into a couple of non-Wettin Margraves of Meißen whose genealogy is not given there.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Russia supported Austria, Prussia was also conceded predominance in the German Confederation to Austria in the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850.

.On 18 January 1871 (the 170th anniversary of the coronation of King Frederick I), William was proclaimed "German Emperor" (not "Emperor of Germany") in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside Paris, while the French capital was still under siege.^ The king of Prussia proclaimed German emperor.

^ Emperor of Germany, 1871-1888 .
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 18 January 1871 (the 170th anniversary of the coronation of King Frederick I), William was proclaimed "German Emperor" (not "Emperor of Germany") in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside Paris, while the French capital was still under siege.

German Empire

Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918
.The two decades after the unification of Germany were the peak of Prussia's fortunes, but the seeds for potential strife were built into the Prusso-German political system.^ German Empire Main article: German Empire Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918 Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918 The two decades after the unification of Germany were the peak of Prussia's fortunes, but the seeds for potential strife were built into the Prusso-German political system.

^ Thus Austria lost the decades-long struggle with Prussia for dominance of Germany.

^ Prussia now stretched virtually uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population.

.The constitution of the German Empire was a slightly amended version of the North German Confederation's constitution.^ The constitution of the German Empire was a slightly amended version of the North German Confederation's constitution.

^ The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia cajoled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation.

^ War with Austria; battle of Koniggrätz (3d July); acquisition of Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, and electoral Hesse; establishment of North German Confederation.

.Officially, the German Empire was a federal state.^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

In practice, Prussia's relationship with the rest of the empire was somewhat confusing. .The Hohenzollern kingdom included three-fifths of the German territory and two-thirds of its population.^ Prussia included three-fifths of its territory and two-thirds of its population.

^ Prussia now stretched virtually uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population.

^ Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population.

.The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg) retained their own armies.^ The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg) retained their own armies.

^ The Kingdom of Saxony, created by Napoleon, never had much of a chance, apart from French help, to contend against the other German powers.
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^ The Welf heirs, although apparently the losers, deprived of Saxony (1138, 1180) and Bavaria (1180), were then compensated with Saxon lands, the Duchy of Brunswick, which grew into the Kingdom of Hanover .
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the royal house of Prussia.^ The presidency was a hereditary office of the Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia.

^ The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the royal house of Prussia.

^ His candidature for the imperial throne in 1438 may be regarded as the first occasion on which the houses of Hohenzollern and Hapsburg came into competition.

.The prime minister of Prussia was, except for two brief periods (January–November 1873 and 1892–94), also imperial chancellor.^ Prime Minister of Prussia 1933–1945 .
  • http://english.songtranslator.net/wiki/wiki.php?title=Hermann_G%C3%B6ring 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC english.songtranslator.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king of Prussia is at the same time German emperor, and his prime minister is also the imperial chancellor.

^ Nearly the whole of the German coast-line belongs to Prussia, and it possesses all the important seaports except the two most important of all, Hamburg and Bremen.

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] But the empire itself had no right to collect taxes directly from its subjects, the only incomes fully under federal control were the customs duties, common excise duties, and the revenue from postal and telegraph services.^ The chambers have control of the finances and possess the right of voting or refusing taxes.

^ The expenditure has been considerably relieved by the transference of the cost of the army and navy to the imperial treasury, while on the other hand the customs-dues and several excise duties have been relinquished to the empire and an annual "matricular" contribution paid towards its expenses.

^ Of all the payers of income-tax in 1872-81 only 0·10 per cent.

.While all men above age 25 were eligible to vote in imperial elections, Prussia retained its restrictive three-class voting system.^ While all men above age 25 were eligible to vote in imperial elections, Prussia retained its restrictive three-class voting system.

^ The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid.

.This effectively required the king/emperor and prime minister/chancellor to seek majorities from legislatures elected by two completely different franchises.^ The king of Prussia is at the same time German emperor, and his prime minister is also the imperial chancellor.

^ This effectively required the king/emperor and prime minister/chancellor to seek majorities from legislatures elected by two completely different franchises.

^ The transformation was completed five years later, after the successful war with France, when the south German states also joined the union and the king of Prussia became the German emperor.

.In both the kingdom and the empire, the original constituencies were never redrawn to reflect changes in population, meaning that rural areas were grossly overrepresented by the turn of the century.^ In both the kingdom and the empire, the original constituencies were never redrawn to reflect changes in population, meaning that rural areas were grossly over-represented by the turn of the century.

^ Wilhelm I, without even a nod to the Pope or the Catholicism of earlier Empires in Francia, turned memories of the Holy Roman Empire into a new German Empire, the "Second," far more unified and stronger than anything had been in the area for centuries.
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^ The Kingdom of Prussia acquired these areas from countries with a Catholic majority: the Kingdom of Poland and the Austrian Empire.

.As a result, Prussia and the German Empire were something of a paradox.^ As a result, Prussia and the German Empire were something of a paradox.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

.Bismarck knew that his new German Reich was now a colossus out of all proportion to the rest of the continent.^ Bismarck knew that his new Reich overshadowed the other powers of continental Europe, and he declared Germany a satisfied power, using his talents to preserve peace, for example at the Congress of Berlin.

^ At Frederick William’s death the new north German state of Brandenburg-Prussia was a power that had to be reckoned with in all European combinations.

.With this in mind, he declared Germany a satisfied power, using his talents to preserve peace, for example at the Congress of Berlin.^ Bismarck knew that his new Reich overshadowed the other powers of continental Europe, and he declared Germany a satisfied power, using his talents to preserve peace, for example at the Congress of Berlin.

.Bismarck had barely any success in some of his domestic policies, such as the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf, but he also had mixed success on ones like Germanization or expulsion of Poles of foreign nationality (Russian or Austro-Hungarian).^ German Emperor William II German Emperor William II After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation.

^ On the other hand, Otto von Bismarck was not really interested in the national aspirations of the Germans in Schleswig-Holstein, who had revolted against Denmark in 1848, or in the niceties of the laws of feudal succession.
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^ The British Parliament was always suspicious of the German interests of the Hanoveran Kings, but Hanover naturally found itself in anti-French alliances just like Britain.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Frederick III, as the husband of a British princess and an admirer of the British Parliamentary politics will not have the potential to be a leader in Bismarck's mold, but he was already terminally ill when he became emperor for just 99 days in 1888 upon the death of his father.^ Emperor Frederick III Emperor Frederick III Frederick III may have been a leader in Bismarck's mold, but he was already terminally ill when he became emperor for 99 days in 1888 upon the death of his father.

^ At age 29, William became Emperor William II after a difficult youth and conflicts with his British mother.

^ Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg became henceforth King Frederick I. of Prussia, [8-1] the title being taken from that part of his territories in which he had no suzerain to acknowledge.

.He is married to Victoria, the first daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, but their first son William suffered physical and possibly mental damage during birth.^ He was married to Victoria, the first daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, but their first son William suffered physical and possibly mental damage during birth.

^ Note - QVD against a reference number indicates the first named individual is a descendant of Queen Victoria.
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

^ This created the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, from which Ernest's son Albert married Queen Victoria of England.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Emperor Wilhelm II
.At age 29, William became Emperor William II after a difficult youth and conflicts with his British mother.^ At age 29, William became Emperor William II after a difficult youth and conflicts with his British mother.

^ William, who was a close relative of the British and Russian royal families, became their rival and ultimately their enemy.

^ Because of the German Revolution of 1918, William II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia.

.He turned out to be a man of limited experience, narrow and reactionary views, poor judgment, and occasional bad temper, which alienated former friends and allies.^ He turned out to be a man of limited experience, narrow and reactionary views, poor judgement, and occasional bad temper, which alienated former friends and allies.

.William, who was a close relative of the British and Russian royal families, became their rival and ultimately their enemy.^ William, who was a close relative of the British and Russian royal families, became their rival and ultimately their enemy.

^ Due to political pressure involving the British, Prussian and Russian Royal Families, Victoria was forced to give up hope of marrying Prince Alexander .
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

.After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually placed Germany in isolation.^ German Emperor William II German Emperor William II After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation.

^ This internal conflict may have had its influence in forcing upon the ministry the necessity of a strong foreign policy, especially in its dealings with Austria, though the party of reform believed that the hegemony of Germany might have been secured by Prussia without war if she had simply placed herself at the head of the liberal movement.

.A misjudgment of the conflict with Serbia by the emperor, who left for holidays, and the hasty mobilisation plans of several nations led to the disaster of World War I (1914–1918).^ A misjudgment of the conflict with Serbia by the emperor, who left for holidays, and the hasty mobilisation plans of several nations led to the disaster of World War I (1914–1918).

^ See 43.155 - Wilhelm (who was also German Emperor) abdicated on 28 November 1918 having fled to Holland on 10 November 1918.
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

^ See 36.252 - Wilhelm (who was also German Emperor) abdicated on 28 November 1918 having fled to Holland on 10 November 1918.
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

.As the price of their withdrawal from the war, the Bolsheviks conceded large regions of the western Russian Empire, some of which bordered Prussia, to German control in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918).^ As the price of their withdrawal from the war, the Bolsheviks conceded large regions of the western Russian Empire, some of which bordered Prussia, to German control in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918).

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ Because Russia supported Austria, Prussia was also conceded predominance in the German Confederation to Austria in the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850.

.German control of these territories lasted only for a few months, however, because of the defeat of German military forces by the western Allies and the German Revolution.^ German control of these territories lasted only for a few months, however, because of the defeat of German military forces by the western Allies and the German Revolution.

^ These range from loose stellar associations with only a few stars, up to enormous globular clusters with hundreds of thousands of stars.

^ Towards the end of the 10th century, however, the Wendish flood again swept over the whole territory to the east of the Elbe, and the Germans were confined to the original limits of the North Mark.

.The post-war Treaty of Versailles, which held Germany and her allies solely responsible for the war, was signed in Versailles' Hall of Mirrors, where the German Empire had been created.^ The post-war Treaty of Versailles, which held Germany solely responsible for the war, was signed in Versailles' Hall of Mirrors, where the German Empire had been created.

^ See 27.23 - Wilhelm was proclaimed first German Emperor on French soil in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace at Versailles on 18 January 1871 (some sources show 8 January 1871).
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

Free State of Prussia in the Weimar Republic

.
Federal States of the Weimar Republic.
^ Federal States of the Weimar Republic.

^ States of the Weimar Republic .

^ Free State of Prussia in the Weimar Republic Main article: Free State of Prussia Federal States of the Weimar Republic.

.Prussia is light blue.^ Prussia is light blue.After WWI the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia came largely to the 2nd Polish Republic; Posen-West Prussia and the West Prussia district were formed from the remaining parts.

After WWI the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia came largely to the 2nd Polish Republic; Posen-West Prussia and the West Prussia district were formed from the remaining parts.
.Because of the German Revolution of 1918, William II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia.^ The king of Prussia proclaimed German emperor.

^ Because of the German Revolution of 1918, William II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia.

^ German Emperor William II German Emperor William II After forcing Bismarck out in 1890, William embarked on a program of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation.

Prussia was proclaimed a "Free State" (i.e. a republic, German: Freistaat) within the new Weimar Republic and in 1920 received a democratic constitution.
.All of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia.^ All of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ Iron is found in all parts of Prussia, occurring in the form of bog-iron ore even in the northern lowlands.

.Many of the areas which Prussia had annexed in the partitions of Poland, such as the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia, as well as eastern Upper Silesia, went to the Second Polish Republic.^ Many of the areas which Prussia had annexed in the partitions of Poland, such as the Provinces of Posen and West Prussia, as well as eastern Upper Silesia, went to the Second Polish Republic.

^ First partition of Poland; acquisition of West Prussia.

^ Second partition of Poland ; acquisition of South Prussia.

.Danzig became the Free City of Danzig under the administration of the League of Nations.^ Danzig became the Free City of Danzig under the administration of the League of Nations.

.Also, the Saargebiet was created mainly from formerly Prussian territories.^ Also, the Saargebiet was created mainly from formerly Prussian territories.

.East Prussia became an exclave, only reachable by ship (the Sea Service East Prussia) or by a railway through the Polish corridor.^ As before the partitions of Poland, because of this lost territory, there was no longer a land connection between East Prussia and the rest of the country; and East Prussia could now only be reached by ship ("shipping service East Prussia") or by a railway through the Polish corridor.

^ EAST PRUSSIA (Ostpreussen), the larger of the two provinces, has an area of 14,280 square miles, and is bounded by the Baltic Sea, Russia, and West Prussia.

^ As in other provinces where the Polish element is strong, East Prussia is below the general average of the kingdom in education ; in 1883 fully 5 1/2 per cent.

.The German government seriously considered breaking up Prussia into smaller states, but eventually traditionalist sentiment prevailed and Prussia became by far the largest state of the Weimar Republic, comprising 60% of its territory.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ The German government seriously considered breaking up Prussia into smaller states, but eventually traditionalist sentiment prevailed and Prussia became by far the largest state of the Weimar Republic, comprising 60% of its territory.

^ Prussia became a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century.

.With the abolition of the older Prussian franchise, it became a stronghold of the left.^ With the abolition of the old Prussian franchise, it became a stronghold of the left.

.Its incorporation of "Red Berlin" and the industrialised Ruhr Area — both with working-class majorities — ensured left-wing dominance.^ Its incorporation of "Red Berlin" and the industrialised Ruhr Area—both with working-class majorities—ensured left-wing dominance.

^ Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and the conservatives by creating a strong united Germany but under the domination of the Prussian ruling class and bureaucracy, not a liberal democracy.

.From 1919 to 1932, Prussia was governed by a coalition of the Social Democrats, Catholic Centre, and German Democrats; from 1921 to 1925, coalition governments included the German People's Party.^ From 1919 to 1932, Prussia was governed by a coalition of the Social Democrats, Catholic Centre, and German Democrats; from 1921 to 1925, coalition governments included the German People's Party.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

^ Otto Braun Otto Braun The East Prussian Otto Braun, who was Prussian minister-president almost continuously from 1920 to 1932, is considered one of the most capable Social Democrats in history.

.Unlike in other states of the German Reich, majority rule by democratic parties in Prussia was never endangered.^ Prussia was predominantly a Protestant German state.

^ Unlike in other states of the German Reich, majority rule by democratic parties in Prussia was never endangered.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

.Nevertheless, in East Prussia and some industrial areas, the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi Party) of Adolf Hitler gained more and more influence and popular support, especially from the lower middle class.^ Nevertheless, in East Prussia and some industrial areas, the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi Party) of Adolf Hitler gained more and more influence and popular support, especially from the lower middle class.

^ In a propaganda-filled meeting between Hitler and the Nazi Party, the "marriage of old Prussia with young Germany" was celebrated, to win over the Prussian monarchists, conservatives, and nationalists and induce them to vote for the Enabling Act of 1933.

^ As a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 the Second Polish Republic regained these two areas, but also areas with a German majority in the Province of West Prussia.

.Except for Roman Catholic Prussian Upper Silesia, the Nazi Party in 1932 became the largest party in most parts of the Free State of Prussia.^ Free State of Prussia (1918–1947) .
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^ He became the 'salon Nazi', the Party's representative in upper class circles.
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^ Except for Roman Catholic Prussian Upper Silesia, the Nazi Party in 1932 became the largest party in most parts of the Free State of Prussia.

.However, the democratic parties in coalition remained a majority, while Communists and Nazis were in the opposition.^ However, the democratic parties in coalition remained a majority, while Communists and Nazis were in the opposition.

^ From 1919 to 1932, Prussia was governed by a coalition of the Social Democrats, Catholic Centre, and German Democrats; from 1921 to 1925, coalition governments included the German People's Party.

^ Unlike in other states of the German Reich, majority rule by democratic parties in Prussia was never endangered.

Otto Braun by the artist Max Liebermann, 1932
.The East Prussian Otto Braun, who was Prussian minister-president almost continuously from 1920 to 1932, is considered one of the most capable Social Democrats in history.^ Otto Braun Otto Braun The East Prussian Otto Braun, who was Prussian minister-president almost continuously from 1920 to 1932, is considered one of the most capable Social Democrats in history.

^ Except for Roman Catholic Prussian Upper Silesia, the Nazi Party in 1932 became the largest party in most parts of the Free State of Prussia.

^ The most fertile Prussian province is Saxony, while the least productive are East and West Prussia.

.He implemented several trend-setting reforms together with his minister of the interior, Carl Severing, which were also models for the later Federal Republic of Germany (FRG).^ He implemented several trend-setting reforms together with his minister of the interior, Carl Severing, which were also models for the later Federal Republic of Germany (FRG).

.For instance, a Prussian minister-president could be forced out of office only if there was a "positive majority" for a potential successor.^ For instance, a Prussian minister-president could be forced out of office only if there was a "positive majority" for a potential successor.

^ Otto Braun Otto Braun The East Prussian Otto Braun, who was Prussian minister-president almost continuously from 1920 to 1932, is considered one of the most capable Social Democrats in history.

^ There could be as many Dukes of Saxony as heirs, but there could only be one Elector of Saxony.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.This concept, known as the constructive vote of no confidence, was carried over into the Basic Law of the FRG. Most historians regard the Prussian government during this time as far more successful than that of Germany as a whole.^ This concept, known as the constructive vote of no confidence, was carried over into the Basic Law of the FRG. Most historians regard the Prussian government during this time as far more successful than that of Germany as a whole.

^ A still more useful arrangement of a similar kind was carried out by Joachim in 1569, when he secured t\e right of succession to the duchy of Prussia.

^ PRUSSIA (Ger., Preussen; Lat., Borussia), a kingdom of northern Europe and by far the most important member of the German empire, occupies almost the whole of northern Germany, between 5° 52' and 22° 53' E. long.

[citation needed]
.In contrast to its prewar authoritarianism, Prussia was a pillar of democracy in the Weimar Republic.^ In marked contrast to its prewar authoritarianism, Prussia was a pillar of democracy in the Weimar Republic.

^ Free State of Prussia in the Weimar Republic Main article: Free State of Prussia Federal States of the Weimar Republic.

.This system was destroyed by the Preußenschlag ("Prussian coup") of Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen.^ This system was destroyed by the Preußenschlag ("Prussian coup") of Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen.

^ Franz von Papen .
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^ Preceded by Franz von Papen ( Reichskomissar ) .
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.In this coup d'état, the government of the Reich unseated the Prussian government on 20 July 1932, under the pretext that the latter had lost control of public order in Prussia (during the Bloody Sunday of Altona, Hamburg, which was still part of Prussia at that time).^ In this coup d'etat, the government of the Reich unseated the Prussian government on 20 July 1932, under the pretext that the latter had lost control of public order in Prussia (during the Bloody Sunday of Altona, Hamburg).

^ In the greater part of the province the Code Napoleon, introduced under the French regime, is still in force.

^ During this period, he also opened Prussia's borders to immigrants fleeing from religious persecution in other parts of Europe, such as the Huguenots.

.Papen appointed himself Reich commissioner for Prussia and took control of the government.^ Papen appointed himself Reich commissioner for Prussia and took control of the government.

^ In this coup d'etat, the government of the Reich unseated the Prussian government on 20 July 1932, under the pretext that the latter had lost control of public order in Prussia (during the Bloody Sunday of Altona, Hamburg).

^ The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor.

.The Preußenschlag made it easier, only half a year later, for Adolf Hitler to take power decisively in Germany, since he had the whole apparatus of the Prussian government, including the police, at his disposal.^ The Preußenschlag made it easier, only half a year later, for Adolf Hitler to take power decisively in Germany, since he had the whole apparatus of the Prussian government, including the police, at his disposal.

^ The elections of Frederick Augustus I and II as Kings of Poland did not add measurably to the power of Saxony, since Poland itself was becoming all but ungovernable and would only even exist for 30 more years after them.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The line of the Welfs , defeated in Germany, thus many years later came to the powerful Throne of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

End of Prussia

.After the appointment of Hitler as the new chancellor, the Nazis used the absence of Franz von Papen as an opportunity to appoint Hermann Göring federal commissioner for the Prussian ministry of the interior.^ This system was destroyed by the Preußenschlag ("Prussian coup") of Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen.

^ Franz von Papen .
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^ Preceded by Franz von Papen ( Reichskomissar ) .
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.The Reichstag election of March 5, 1933 strengthened the position of the National Socialist Party, although they did not achieve an absolute majority.^ The Reichstag election of March 5, 1933 strengthened the position of the National Socialist Party, although they did not achieve an absolute majority.

.Because the Reichstag building had been set on fire a few weeks earlier, the new Reichstag was opened in the Garrison Church of Potsdam on March 21, 1933 in the presence of President Paul von Hindenburg.^ On the night of February 27, 1933, the Reichstag building was gutted by fire.
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^ Paul von Hindenburg Adolf Hitler .
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^ Paul von Hindenburg Paul von Hindenburg Because the Reichstag building had been set on fire a few weeks earlier, the new Reichstag was opened in the Garrison Church of Potsdam on March 21, 1933 in the presence of President Paul von Hindenburg.

.In a propaganda-filled meeting between Hitler and the Nazi Party, the "marriage of old Prussia with young Germany" was celebrated, to win over the Prussian monarchists, conservatives, and nationalists and induce them to vote for the Enabling Act of 1933.^ In a propaganda-filled meeting between Hitler and the Nazi Party, the "marriage of old Prussia with young Germany" was celebrated, to win over the Prussian monarchists, conservatives, and nationalists and induce them to vote for the Enabling Act of 1933.

^ At this time Carin, who liked Hitler, often played hostess to meetings of leading Nazis including her husband, Hitler, Hess , Rosenberg and Röhm .
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^ Wilhelm was forced to renounce his succession rights to the Royal House of Prussia and inheritance of Wilhelm II in 1933 following his unequal marriage to Dorothea von Salviati.
  • Prussian (German) Royal Family 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

.In the centralised state created by the Nazis in the "Law on the Reconstruction of the Reich" ("Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reiches", 30 January 1934) and the "Law on Reich Governors" ("Reichsstatthaltergesetz", 30 January 1935) the states were dissolved, in fact if not in law.^ In the centralised state created by the Nazis in the "Law on the Reconstruction of the Reich" ("Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reiches", 30 January 1934) and the "Law on Reich Governors" ("Reichsstatthaltergesetz", 30 January 1935) the states were dissolved, in fact if not in law.

^ The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor.

^ Göring told the Prussian police that "...all other restraints on police action imposed by Reich and state law are abolished..."
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.The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor.^ The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor.

^ The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments.

^ Papen appointed himself Reich commissioner for Prussia and took control of the government.

.Parallel to that, the organisation of the party into districts (Gaue) gained increasing importance, as the official in charge of a Gau (the head of which was called a Gauleiter) was again appointed by the chancellor who was at the same time chief of the Nazi Party.^ Parallel to that, the organisation of the party into districts (Gaue) gained increasing importance, as the official in charge of a Gau (the head of which was called a Gauleiter) was again appointed by the chancellor who was at the same time chief of the Nazi Party.

^ The country is accordingly divided into electoral districts, with the electors grouped in three categories, each of which selects a Wahlmann or electoral proxy, who exercises the direct suffrage.

^ The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the chancellor.

.In Prussia, this anti-federalistic policy went even further.^ In Prussia, this anti-federalistic policy went even further.

.From 1934 almost all ministries were merged and only a few departments were able to maintain their independence.^ From 1934 almost all ministries were merged and only a few departments were able to maintain their independence.

^ Despite the fact that all are nerve cells, only the retinal ganglion cells and few amacrine cells create action potentials.

.Hitler himself became formally the governor of Prussia.^ Hitler himself became formally the governor of Prussia.

.His functions were exercised, however, by Hermann Göring, as Prussian prime minister.^ His functions were exercised, however, by Hermann Göring, as Prussian prime minister.

^ The king is "summus episcopus," or supreme pontiff of the church, and is represented in the exercise of his ecclesiastical functions by the minister of public worship and instruction.

.As provided for in the "Greater Hamburg Law" ("Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz"), certain exchanges of territory took place.^ As provided for in the "Greater Hamburg Law" ("Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz"), certain exchanges of territory took place.

.Prussia was extended on 1 April 1937, for instance, by the incorporation of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck.^ Prussia was extended on 1 April 1937, for instance, by the incorporation of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck.

^ The combination of these colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871.

.The Prussian lands transferred to Poland after the Treaty of Versailles were re-annexed during World War II.^ The Prussian lands transferred to Poland after the Treaty of Versailles were re-annexed during World War II. However, most of this territory was not reintegrated back into Prussia but assigned to separate Gaue of Nazi Germany.

^ Napoleonic Wars Main article: Napoleonic Wars During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786-1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland.

^ During the Thirty Years' War, the disconnected Hohenzollern lands were repeatedly marched across by various armies, especially the occupying Swedes.

.However, most of this territory was not reintegrated back into Prussia but assigned to separate Gaue of Danzig-West Prussia and Wartheland.^ The Prussian lands transferred to Poland after the Treaty of Versailles were re-annexed during World War II. However, most of this territory was not reintegrated back into Prussia but assigned to separate Gaue of Nazi Germany.

^ In the south-east Prussia is separated from Austria and Bohemia by the Sudetic chain, which begins at the valley of the Oder and extends thence towards the north-west.

^ When the Kingdom of Prussia partitioned Poland in 1772 and annexed the territories, Pomerelia and the rest became "West Prussia."
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, (including Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Eastern Brandenburg, and southern East Prussia), to Poland, with the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, going to the Soviet Union.^ After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and part of Brandenburg were taken over by either the Soviet Union or Poland.

^ With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, (including Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Eastern Brandenburg, and southern East Prussia), to Poland, with the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, going to the Soviet Union.

^ Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a small number of ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan have begun to settle in the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia, once northern East Prussia, as part of the migration influx into the area, which was previously a restricted area (closed city).

.Today the Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland.^ Today the Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland.

^ Geography and population Prussia began as a small territory in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania.

^ On the map shown, the eastern frontier is that of about 1200, which is curiously similar to the boundary today between Germany and Poland.
  • Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the Soviet Army's takeover of eastern Germany an estimated ten million Germans fled, were expelled from (or were not able to return) to these territories as part of the Potsdam Agreement and the sanctioned German exodus from Eastern Europe.^ An estimated ten million Germans fled or were expelled from these territories as part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe.

^ In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

^ The eastern part of this territory formed the duchy of Prussia, which was acquired by the electors of Brandenburg in 1618, and furnished them with their regal title.

Map of current states of Germany that are completely or mostly situated inside the old borders of Imperial Germany’s Kingdom of Prussia
.As part of their war aims the Western allies sought the abolition of Prussia.^ A Prussian contingent took part none the less in the ensuing war between Austria and France, but Austria concluded peace in 1735 without consulting her ally.

^ After World War II, East Prussia, Silesia, most of Pomerania, and part of Brandenburg were taken over by either the Soviet Union or Poland.

^ Prussia played one of the most prominent parts, and her general Blucher ranks high among the heroes of the war.

.Stalin was initially content to retain the name, Russia having a different historical view of its neighbour and sometime former ally.^ He turned out to be a man of limited experience, narrow and reactionary views, poor judgement, and occasional bad temper, which alienated former friends and allies.

.In Law #46 of February 25, 1947 the Allied Control Council formally proclaimed the dissolution of Prussia.^ In Law #46 of 25 February 1947 the Allied Control Council formally proclaimed the dissolution of the remains of the Prussian state.

[1]
.In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.^ In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganised into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

^ With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, (including Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Eastern Brandenburg, and southern East Prussia), to Poland, with the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, going to the Soviet Union.

^ In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia.

These states were abolished in 1952 in favour of districts, but were recreated after the fall of communism in 1990.
.In the Western Zones of occupation, which became West Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were divided up among North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Schleswig-Holstein.^ In the Western Zones of occupation, which became West Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were divided up among North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Schleswig-Holstein.

^ All of Germany's territorial losses, specified in the Treaty of Versailles, were areas that had been part of Prussia: Alsace-Lorraine to France; Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium; North Schleswig to Denmark; the Memel Territory to Lithuania; the Hultschin area to Czechoslovakia.

^ Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included "Prussia proper" (West and East Prussia), Brandenburg, the Province of Saxony (including most of the present-day state of Saxony-Anhalt and parts of the state of Thuringia in Germany), Pomerania, Rhineland, Westphalia, Silesia (without Austrian Silesia), Lusatia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Nassau, and some small detached areas in the south such as Hohenzollern, the ancestral home of the Prussian ruling family.

.Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were later merged with Baden to create the state of Baden-Württemberg.^ Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were later merged with Baden to create the state of Baden-Württemberg.

.Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a small number of ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan have begun to settle in the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia, once northern East Prussia, as part of the migration influx into the area, which was previously a restricted area (closed city).^ Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a small number of ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan have begun to settle in the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia, once northern East Prussia, as part of the migration influx into the area, which was previously a restricted area (closed city).

^ With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, (including Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Eastern Brandenburg, and southern East Prussia), to Poland, with the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, going to the Soviet Union.

^ Geography and population Prussia began as a small territory in what was later called East Prussia, which is now divided into the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave of Russia, and the Klaipėda Region of Lithuania.

.As of 2005, about 6,000 (0.6% of population) ethnic Germans, mostly from other parts of Russia, live there.^ As of 2005, about 6,000 (0.6% of population) ethnic Germans, mostly from other parts of Russia, live there.

^ The Schleswig Wars The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation.

^ With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire.

.After German reunification in 1990, a plan was developed to merge the States of Berlin and Brandenburg.^ After German reunification in 1990, a plan was developed to merge the States of Berlin and Brandenburg.

^ For the first time, these lands were in the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family, rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centered on Berlin and ruled since the 15th century by the Hohenzollern dynasty.

^ Though some suggested calling the proposed new state "Prussia", no final name was proposed, and the combined state would probably have been called either "Brandenburg" or "Berlin-Brandenburg".

.Though some suggested calling the proposed new state "Prussia", no final name was proposed, and the combined state would probably have been called either "Brandenburg" or "Berlin-Brandenburg". However this proposed merger was rejected in 1996 by popular vote, achieving a majority of votes only in former West Berlin.^ However this proposed merger was rejected in 1996 by popular vote, achieving a majority of votes only in former West Berlin.

^ Though some suggested calling the proposed new state "Prussia", no final name was proposed, and the combined state would probably have been called either "Brandenburg" or "Berlin-Brandenburg".

^ Though not ranking higher than twelfth among the European states in extent and population, Prussia occupied the fourth place in point of military power.

See also

Further reading

  • Friedrich, Karin (2000). The Other Prussia. .Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772.^ In 1772 Prussia and Austria, in order to prevent an overweening growth of Russia, joined in the first partition of Poland.

    ^ The Teutonic Knights were forced to acknowledge the sovereignty of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in the Peace of Thorn, losing western Prussia (Royal Prussia) to Poland in the process.

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58335-0. http://books.google.pl/books?id=qsBco40rMPcC. 

Notes

  1. ^ a b Clark, Christopher (2006): Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947. ISBN 10 0713994665 ISBN 13 978 0713994667
  2. ^ H. W. Koch, A History of Prussia (Dorset Press: New York, 1978) p. 35.
  3. ^ Ibid.
  4. ^ Ibid.
  5. ^ Robert S. Hoyt & Stanley Chodorow, Europe in Middle Ages (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc.: New York, 1976) p. 629.
  6. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland Vol. l (Columbia University Press: New York, 1982) p. 81.
  7. ^ a b c d Büsch, Otto; Ilja Mieck, Wolfgang Neugebauer (1992). Otto Büsch. ed (in German). Handbuch der preussischen Geschichte. 2. Berlin: de Gruyter. pp. 42. ISBN 978-3110083224. 
  8. ^ "Staat von Blut und Eisen" (in German). Der Spiegel (4). 22 January 2001. 
  9. ^ Genealogy & Poland - a guide PolishRoots
  10. ^ Robert S. Hoyt & Stanley Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages p. 629.
  11. ^ Ibid.
  12. ^ Ibid.
  13. ^ H. W. Koch, A History of Prussia p. 33.
  14. ^ H. W. Koch, A History of Prussia (Dorset Press: New York, 1978) pp. 100-102.
  15. ^ Robert B. Asprey, Frederick the Great: The Magnificent Enigma (Ticknor & Fields Publishers: New York, 1986) pp. 34-35.
  16. ^ Ibid., p, 21.
  17. ^ Ibid., p. 163.
  18. ^ H. W. Koch, A History of Prussia, p. 105.
  19. ^ Ibid.
  20. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland Volume 1, (Columbia Univeristy Press: New York, 1982) p. 104.
  21. ^ H.W. Koch, A History of Prussia, p. 105.
  22. ^ Robert A. Kahn, A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918 (University of California Press: Berkeley, 1974) p. 96.
  23. ^ Ibid.
  24. ^ Ibid.
  25. ^ Ibid., 59.p
  26. ^ Ibid.
  27. ^ Ibid., p. 96.
  28. ^ Robert B. Asprey, Frederick the Great: the Magnificent Enigma, pp. 195-208.
  29. ^ Ibid., pp. 430-434.
  30. ^ Ibid., pp. 541-544.
  31. ^ Hermann Kinder & Werner Hilgermann, The Anchor Atlas of World History: Volume 1 (Anchor Books: Garden City, New York, 1974) pp. 282-283.
  32. ^ James K. Pollock & Homer Thomas, Germany: In Power and Eclipse (D. Van Nostrand Company Inc.: New York, 1952) pp. 297-302.
  33. ^ Marshall Dill, Jr., Germany: A Modern History (University of Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1970) p. 39.
  34. ^ On March 11, cf. Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart: 11 vols., Leipzig: Leiner, 1900, vol. 11: 'Geschichte der Juden vom Beginn der Mendelssohnschen Zeit (1750) bis in die neueste Zeit (1848)', pp. 297seq. Reprint of the edition of last hand: Berlin: arani, 1998, ISBN 3-7605-8673-2.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.There is more than one meaning of Prussia discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.^ More King of Prussia, PA discussions ...
  • King of Prussia jobs | Indeed.com 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: News]

^ This explains more than anything how the small nation of Prussia was able to withstand the combined weight of the most powerful states of the day.
  • GMT Games - Prussia's Defiant Stand 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.gmtgames.com [Source type: General]

^ At the height of its power, Prussia occupied more than half of present-day Germany, stretching from The Netherlands and Belgium in the west to Lithuania in the east.
  • Prussia Definition | Definition of Prussia at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself.^ I mean all of you.
  • Ask the King of Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC thingsihate.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The flags listed below mostly come from one or more flag charts or books, either directly, or taken from them from Siegel 1912 .
  • Duchy of Prussia 1525-1701 (Germany) 18 September 2009 15:34 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bismarck knew that his new German Reich was now a colossus out of all proportion to the rest of the continent.
  • i love peru 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.iloveperu.net76.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Fummo.com - Prussia 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.^ You can only change yourself.
  • .:FUNimation + Hetalia:. by ~QueenOfPrussia on deviantART 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC queenofprussia.deviantart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We Want To Know What would you most likely go to the Customer Service Booth for?
  • King of Prussia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC kopstyle.com [Source type: General]

^ Improve MicroWiki by editing this page New Euro Emperor made an edit on November 16, 2009 History Related changes Permanent link What links here .
  • Jonatan, Prince of Prussia - MicroWiki 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC micronations.wikia.com [Source type: General]


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From the New Latin 'Prussia', the Latin form used by Peter of Dusburg for the name of the region in the now-extinct language of its Baltic inhabitants, 'Prūsa'.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Prussia
Plural
-
Prussia
  1. A geographical area on the Baltic coast of northeastern Europe.
  2. A former Baltic country, annihilated by the Teutonic Order and absorbed by Germany.
  3. A German province that was the predecessor to, and a member of, the German Empire; erased at the end of the Second World War.

Usage notes

Linguistic evidence affirms that the name is pronounced with a long u : IPA: ˈpɹuːsiːə / IPA: ˈpɹuː.ʃə. .(Such is the pronunciation of the equivalent terms in Prussian and German, and such was the only pronunciation in Middle English.^ The Prussian is, in reality, the only German government.
  • Prussia in Revolt by Anton Pannekoek 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first was the land of the Prussians on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, which came under Polish and German rule in the Middle Ages.
  • Prussia (region, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 7:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bismarck realized that the Prussian crown could win the support of the people only if he himself took the lead in the fight for the German unification.

) Anglicised pronunciation, with a short u (IPA: ˈpɹʌ.ʃə), is also common in modern English, however.

Translations

Anagrams

  • RIP, as us.
  • As I spur

Simple English

The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prusai) has a lot of different meanings in the past and now:

In 1934 the Nazis stopped using Prussia as a land unit and in 1947 the Allies abolished the state of Prussia, and divided its territory among the new Länder. Today the name is only for historical, geographical or cultural use.

The name Prussia is from the Borussi/Prussi people who lived in the Baltic region. Their ancestors came from Lithuania. Ducal Prussia was a fief of the Kingdom of Poland until 1660, and Royal Prussia was part of Poland until 1772. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, most German-speaking Prussians started thinking they were part of the German nation. They thought the “typical Prussian” way of life was very important:

  • perfect organization
  • sacrifice (giving other people something you need)
  • following laws

From the late 18th century, this bigger Prussia had the power in North Germany; it was strongest in politics, economics and number of people. In 1871 Bismarck created the German Empire, and Prussia was its heart.

Contents

Geography

File:Flag of Prussia
The flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918

Prussia was a small part of today’s northern Poland. Small numbers of Prussi people lived there, then German people made their homes. In 1934, Germany’s borders were with France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Lithuania. Some parts are today in eastern Poland. Before 1918 a lot of western Poland was also in Prussia. Between 1795 and 1807 Prussia also controlled Warsaw and most of central Poland.

Before 1934, these regions were also in Prussia:

But some regions were never part of Prussia, e.g. Oldenburg, Mecklenburg, and the Hanse city-states.

North-east Germany was Protestant, so Prussian people were mostly Protestant. But there were a lot of Catholic people in the Rhineland, East Prussia, Posen, Silesia , West Prussia and Ermland. The states of south Germany (especially Austria and Bavaria) were Catholic, so they did not want Prussia to have the power. Prussia was mostly German, but in the late 18th century the new Polish areas had a large Polish minority. In 1918, these Polish areas returned to Poland.

Early history

In 1226 Polish Prince Conrad of Mazovia (a place in Northern Poland) asked the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania to come to Mazovia. He wanted them to fight the Prussian tribes on his borders. They fought for more than 100 years, then they created a new state. After some time, this state controlled most of today’s Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and parts of northern Poland. From 1466, the Knights were under the King of Poland and Lithuania. In 1525 the leader of the Knights became a Protestant. He made part of the Knights' land into the Duchy of Prussia, in the Kingdom of Poland.

At that time, the Duchy of Prussia was only the area east of the mouth of the Vistula. In 1618 the new Duke of Prussia was the Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg. He was also Margrave of Brandenburg. Brandenburg was under the Hohenzollern family. The Duchy of Prussia was important to the Hohenzollern family because it was not in the Holy Roman Empire. The name for the new state was Brandenburg-Prussia. In the middle of the state was Polish land, but Brandenburg-Prussia was moving away from Poland. Under Frederick William, the Great Elector, Prussia took new land, e.g. Magdeburg and areas west of the Rhine.

Kingdom of Prussia

File:Growth prussia.gif
Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia

In 1701 the Holy Roman Emperor and Polish King allowed Brandenburg-Prussia to have the name "Kingdom of Prussia" under Frederick I. Under Frederick II ("the Great"), Prussia took Silesia from Austria and kept it in the Silesian Wars. The wars ended in 1763; Prussia was now the most powerful state in eastern Germany. Other parts of Germany went to Prussia because of marriage or death, e.g. Pomerania.

In this time, the Prussian military machine grew, as did the administration system. Until 1945 these were at the heart of the German state. Between 1772 and 1795 Prussia, Russia and Austria divided Poland into parts (the Partitions of Poland). Now Prussia controlled land in the far east, e.g. Warsaw.

Frederick William II took Prussia into war with France in 1792. He lost at Valmy and gave his western land to France. Frederick William III started a new war, but lost at Jena. He gave more land to France at the Treaty of Tilsit.

In 1813 Prussia again started war with Napoléonic France. In 1815 Prussia won her lost land again, and also all the Rhineland and Westphalia and some other land. This land in the west was very important, especially the Ruhr valley. It was the new centre of Germany's industrialisation, and the home of the weapons industry. After the Napoléonic Wars Prussia was the biggest power in Germany, and more powerful than Austria.

In the early 19th century, the liberals in Germany wanted one federal, democratic Germany. The conservatives wanted Germany as a group of independent, weak states. In 1848 revolution came to Europe – the liberals had a chance. Frederick William IV was worried. He allowed a National Assembly and a constitution. The new Frankfurt Parliament wanted to give Frederick William the crown of all Germany, but he did not want it. He said that revolutionaries could not name kings. Now Prussia had a semi-democratic constitution, but really the people with land (the Junkers) had the power, especially in the east.

Imperial Prussia

File:Prussiamap.gif
Prussia in the German Empire 1871-1918

In 1862 Prussian King William I named Otto von Bismarck as the new Minister-President (prime minister). Bismarck wanted the liberals and the conservatives to lose. He wanted to create a strong united Germany, but under the Junker, not under the western German liberals. So, he started three wars:* with Denmark in 1864 – this gave Prussia Schleswig-Holstein* with Austria in 1866 (Austro-Prussian War) – this allowed Prussia to take Hanover and most other north German territories who were with Austria* with France in 1870 (Franco-Prussian War) - so Bismarck could control Mecklenburg, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg and Saxony. After this, these states (but not Austria) became part of a united German Empire, and William I took the title of Emperor (Kaiser).

This was Prussia’s high moment. The economic and political future looked good, if the leaders were clever. But after 99 days, in 1888 the state had a new leader, William II. He had little experience and little imagination, and he made bad plans. Bismarck lost his job in 1890 and William II started a new foreign policy. He started a military program and took risks; this took Germany into World War I. The Prussian Junker controlled the war, so when they lost, it was the end for them. The Prussian king and all the other German kings lost their power. Germany became a republic. In 1919 the Treaty of Versailles re-created the Polish state, and Prussia had to return a lot of land. The Polish Corridor was between East Prussia and Germany.

The end of Prussia

At the end of World War I some people wanted to break Prussia into smaller states. But tradition won, and Prussia became the "Prussian Free State" (Freistaat Preußen), the largest state of the Weimar Republic, with 60% of its land. The industrial Ruhr area was in Prussia, and also Berlin, so Prussia was the home of the left. The Social Democrats and the Catholic Centre had power for most of the 1920s.

In 1932 Germany's conservative Chancellor Franz von Papen took control of Prussia, ending the state’s democratic constitution. It was the end of German democracy too. In 1933 Hermann Göring became Interior Minister of Prussia; he was now very strong. In 1934 the Nazis took the German states’ power.

In 1945 the Soviet Union’s army took all of eastern and central Germany (and Berlin). Poland took everything east of the Oder-Neisse line, e.g. Silesia, Pomerania, eastern Brandenburg and East Prussia. The Soviet Union took the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad. About ten million Germans left these areas. Because of this, and because the Communists took control of land in the GDR, the Junker and Prussia were finished.

In 1947, the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union formally agreed the end of Prussia. In the Soviet Zone (from 1949 the GDR) the Prussian lands were now the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt. The Prussian parts of Pomerania went to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In 1952, the GDR government stopped using states and used districts. In 1990, the end of the GDR, the states returned. In the West (from 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany), the Prussian lands went to North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate and Schleswig-Holstein. Baden-Württemberg took the Hohenzollern land.

The idea of Prussia is not completely dead in Germany. Today some people want to put together the states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Berlin and call them Prussia.[needs proof] But German politicians are not interested in the idea. The constitution of Berlin allows for Berlin and Brandenburg becoming one state, but the people of Berlin said no in a vote.

Other websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Prussia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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