|Approximate Range of Psilocybe cubensis|
|gills on hymenium|
|cap is convex or flat|
|hymenium is adnate or adnexed|
|stipe has a ring|
|spore print is purple|
|ecology is saprotrophic|
Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principal active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. Commonly called Roomeyes, Gold Caps, or Golden Teacher (which is also a certain strain), it belongs to the Strophariaceae family of fungi and was previously known as Stropharia cubensis.
The name Psilocybe is derived from the Greek roots psilos (ψιλος) and kubê (κυβη) and translates as "bald head". Cubensis means "coming from Cuba", Cuba being the type locality published by Earle.
These synonyms were later assigned to the species Psilocybe cubensis.
It is in the section Cubensae, other mushrooms of this section include Psilocybe subcubensis.
Psilocybe cubensis is probably the most widely known of the psilocybin containing mushrooms used. Its major psychoactive compounds are:
The concentrations of psilocin and psilocybin, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, were determined to be in the range of 0.14–0.42%/0.37–1.30% (dry weight) in the whole mushroom, 0.17–0.78%/0.44–1.35% in the cap and 0.09–0.30%/0.05–1.27% in the stem.
Individual brain chemistry and psychological predisposition play a significant role in determining appropriate doses. For a modest psychedelic effect, a minimum of one gram of dried Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms is ingested orally. 0.25–1 gram is usually sufficient to produce a mild effect, 1–2.5 grams usually provides a moderate effect. 2.5 grams and higher usually produces strong effects. For most people, 3.5 dried grams (1/8 oz) would be considered a high dose and may produce an intense experience; although, typically this is considered a standard dose. For many individuals doses above 3 grams may be overwhelming. For a few rare people, doses as small as 0.25 grams can produce full-blown effects normally associated with very high doses. For most people, however, that dose level would result in virtually no effects. Due to factors such as age and storage method, the psilocybin content of a given sample of mushrooms will vary. Therefore, some users prefer to use a formula or dosage calculator  to tailor the dosage to the level they wish to experience.
Effects usually start after approximately 20–60 minutes (depending on method of ingestion and stomach contents) and may last from four to ten hours, depending on dosage. Visual distortions often occur, including walls that seem to breathe, a vivid enhancement of colors and the animation of organic shapes. At higher doses, experiences tend to be less social and more entheogenic, often intense and spiritual in nature.
It is nearly impossible to overdose on psilocybin mushrooms since one would have to consume several dozen pounds of fresh mushrooms . Nevertheless, the effects of very high doses can be overwhelming. Depending on the particular strain, growth method, and age at harvest, Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms can come in rather different sizes. It is recommended that one weigh the actual mushrooms, as opposed to simply counting them. People taking MAOIs need to be careful, as psilocybin and psilocin are metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. A MAOI reduces the body's ability to handle the mushrooms (roughly doubling their potency), and can lead to an unpleasant, prolonged, or dangerously strong experience.
Although there have been limited medical trials due to illegality, the alkaloids in the mushroom, most notably psilocybin along with other psychedelic compounds such as LSD could potentially be a promising treatment for cluster headaches, a chronic and debilitating condition that negatively affects the quality of life of its sufferers. .
It is also possible that the mushrooms could be used in psychedelic therapy, one study found that supervised use of these mushrooms could induce a positive mystical experience in participants , which would be desirable in supporting psychotherapy techniques. However, due to its reputation as an illegal substance, its status as a medicine has not yet reached mainstream acceptance. More applications can be found in the psilocybin article.
It is illegal in many countries to possess psilocybin-containing mushrooms or mycelium (which can contain psychoactive substances at certain stages). However, it is legal in most places to own and sell the spores of these mushrooms. In the United States only the psychoactive compounds (see above) are scheduled under federal law. The spores do not contain either, however, possession of spores is prohibited by state law in Idaho and Georgia; while California does not prohibit their possession, they do have a law specifically preventing possession with intent to produce psilocybin mushrooms.
Personal-scale cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms ranges from the relatively simple and small-scale PF Tek and other "cake" methods, that produce a limited amount of mushrooms, to advanced techniques utilizing methods of professional mushroom cultivators, such as Paul Stamets. These advanced methods require a greater investment of time, money, and knowledge, but reward the diligent cultivator with far larger and much more consistent harvests.
Species: Psilocybe cubensis