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Pskov (English)
Псков (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Kremlin in Pskov 1.JPG
Kremlin (Krom) in Pskov
Map of Russia - Pskov Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Pskov Oblast on the map of Russia
Pskov is located in Pskov Oblast
Location of Pskov on the map of Pskov Oblast
Coordinates: 57°49′N 28°20′E / 57.817°N 28.333°E / 57.817; 28.333Coordinates: 57°49′N 28°20′E / 57.817°N 28.333°E / 57.817; 28.333
Coat of Arms of Pskov.png
Coat of arms
Holiday July 23
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Pskov Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Pskov Oblast
Administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Pskovsky District
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor Mikhail Khoronen
Representative body City Duma
Statistics
Area 95.5 km2 (36.9 sq mi)
Population (2002 Census) 202,780 inhabitants[1]
Rank 90th
- Density 2,123 /km2 (5,500/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 903
Postal code(s) 180xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 8112
Official website http://www.pskovgorod.ru/

Pskov (Russian: Псков, ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ Pleskov, Latvian: Pleskava, Estonian: Pihkva, Lithuanian: Pskovas, German: Pleskau) is an ancient city located in the north-west of Russia about 20 kilometers (12 mi) east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. The city of Pskov serves as the administrative center of Pskov Oblast. Population: 202,780 (2002 Census);[3] 203,789 (1989 Census).[4]

Contents

Early history

The name of the city, originally spelled "Pleskov", may be loosely translated as "the town of purling waters". Its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married a local lady, St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, and in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary.

The first prince of Pskov was St. Vladimir's younger son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he wasn't released until the latter's death several decades later. In the 12th century and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In 1241, it was taken by the Teutonic knights, but Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months later during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie.

View of the Pskov kremlin from the Velikaya River.

In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a converted Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas (known in Russian as Dovmont), as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the town, Daumantas routed the knights at Rakvere and overran much of Estonia. His remains and sword are preserved in the local kremlin, and the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town".

Pskov Republic

By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de-facto sovereign republic. Its most powerful force was the merchants who brought the town into the Hanseatic league. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter) which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497.

For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe. For Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia and subject of numerous attacks throughout the history. Unbelievably, the kremlin (called by Pskovians the Krom) withstood 26 sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, and local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.

Siege of Pskov by Stefan Batory, by Karl Brullov.

Finally, in 1510, the city fell to Muscovite forces. The deportation of noble families to Moscow is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka (1872). As the second largest city of Muscovy, Pskov still attracted enemy armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by 50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War (1581–1582). The king of Poland Stefan Batory undertook some 31 attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Batory's siege.

Modern history

Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it has served as a capital of separate government since 1777. It was here that the last Russian tsar abdicated in March 1917.

During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines, and after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference (December 22, 1917–March 3, 1918), the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was also occupied by the Estonian army between February 1919 and July 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence.

The mid-12th century cathedral of St. John. Dozens of similar quaint little churches are scattered throughout Pskov.

The medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery, and during World War II Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. However, many ancient buildings, particularly churches, suffered destruction before the Wehrmacht could occupy the city. Though a huge portion of the population died during the war, Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural centre of Western Russia.

Landmarks and sights

Pskov still preserves much of its medieval walls, built from the 13th century on. The Krom, or medieval citadel, looks as impressive as ever. Within its walls rises the 256-foot-tall Trinity Cathedral, founded in 1138 and rebuilt in the 1690s. The cathedral contains the tombs of saint princes Vsevolod (died in 1138) and Dovmont (died in 1299). Other ancient cathedrals adorn the Mirozhsky monastery (completed by 1152), famous for its 12th-century frescoes, St. John's (completed by 1243), and the Snetogorsky monastery (built in 1310 and painted in 1313).

Pskov is exceedingly rich in tiny, squat, picturesque churches, dating mainly from the 15th and the 16th centuries. There are many dozens of them, the most notable being St. Basil's on the Hill (1413), St. Kozma and Demian's near the Bridge (1463), St. George's from the Downhill (1494), Assumption from the Ferryside (1444, 1521), and St. Nicholas' from Usokha (1536). The 17th-century residential architecture is represented by merchant mansions, such as the Salt House, the Pogankin chambers, and the Trubinsky mansion.

A Russian coin commemorating Pskov's 1,100th anniversary

Among the sights in the vicinity of Pskov are Izborsk, a seat of Rurik's brother in the 9th century and one of the most formidable fortresses of medieval Russia; the Pskov Monastery of the Caves, the oldest continually functioning monastery in Russia and a magnet for pilgrims from all over the country; the 16th-century Krypetsky Monastery; Elizarovo Monastery, which used to be a great cultural and literary centre of medieval Russia; and Mikhailovskoe, a family nest of Alexander Pushkin where he wrote some of the best known lines in the Russian language. The national poet of Russia is buried in the ancient cloister at the Holy Mountains nearby. Unfortunately, the area presently has only a very minimal tourist infrastructure, and the historic core of Pskov requires serious investments to realize its great tourist potential.

Pskov is served by Pskov Airport which was also used for military aviation.

Notable people associated with Pskov

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Pskov is twinned with the following cities:

Weather data for Pskov
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.8
(50)
11.3
(52)
18.5
(65)
27.6
(82)
32.0
(90)
32.6
(91)
35.0
(95)
35.6
(96)
30.3
(87)
22.6
(73)
14.1
(57)
10.8
(51)
35.6
(96)
Average high °C (°F) -4.4
(24)
-3.7
(25)
1.2
(34)
9.5
(49)
17.2
(63)
21.2
(70)
22.7
(73)
21.2
(70)
15.6
(60)
8.7
(48)
2.1
(36)
-1.9
(29)
9.1
(48)
Average low °C (°F) -10.4
(13)
-10.6
(13)
-6.5
(20)
0.4
(33)
6.1
(43)
10.4
(51)
12.3
(54)
11.1
(52)
6.8
(44)
2.3
(36)
-2.4
(28)
-7.1
(19)
-1.1
(30)
Record low °C (°F) -40.6
(-41)
-37.6
(-36)
-29.7
(-21)
-20.9
(-6)
-5.1
(23)
-0.1
(32)
2.7
(37)
1.3
(34)
-4.6
(24)
-12.2
(10)
-23.8
(-11)
-40.3
(-41)
-40.6
(-41)
Precipitation mm (inches) 35
(1.38)
29
(1.14)
31
(1.22)
37
(1.46)
45
(1.77)
67
(2.64)
77
(3.03)
77
(3.03)
66
(2.6)
51
(2.01)
53
(2.09)
46
(1.81)
614
(24.17)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[5] 8.09.2007

Copyrighted photos

References

  1. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  4. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg2.php. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
  5. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/26258.htm. Retrieved September 8 2007.  

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Pskov discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Pskov

Plural
-

Pskov

  1. A city in Russia, administrative centre of Pskov oblast.

Translations


Simple English

Pskov (English)
Псков (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
File:Pskov In
Location of Pskov in Europe

Coordinates: 57°49′N 28°20′E / 57.817°N 28.333°E / 57.817; 28.333Coordinates: 57°49′N 28°20′E / 57.817°N 28.333°E / 57.817; 28.333
HolidayJuly 23[needs proof]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Pskov Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction ofPskov Oblast[needs proof]
Administrative center ofPskov Oblast, Pskovsky District[needs proof]
Municipal status
Municipal StatusUrban okrug
Mayor[needs proof]Mikhail Khoronen[needs proof]
Representative bodyCity Duma[needs proof]
Statistics
Area 95.5 km² (36.9 sq mi)[needs proof]
Population (2002 Census)202,780 inhabitants[1]
- Rank90th
- Density2,123/km² (5,500/sq mi)[2]
Time zoneTemplate:RussiaTimeZone
Postal code(s)180xxx[needs proof]
Dialing code(s)+7 8112[needs proof]
Official websitehttp://www.gorodpskov.ru/

Pskov (Russian: Псков, ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Pleskov)) is an old city that can be found in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

Sister cities

Pskov is twinned with the following cities:

References

  1. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).

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