Ptolemaic dynasty: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

The Ptolemaic dynasty, (Ancient GreekΠτολεμαῖοι, sometimes also known as the Lagids, Ancient GreekΛαγίδαι, from the name of Ptolemy I's father, Lagus) was a Greek[1][2][3][4] royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC.

Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.

All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.

Contents

Ptolemaic rulers and consorts

     Kingdom of Ptolemy Other diadochi      Kingdom of Cassander      Kingdom of Lysimachus      Kingdom of Seleucus      Epirus Other      Carthage      Rome      Greek colonies

The dates in brackets are regnal dates for the kings. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority, but the most famous and successful was Cleopatra VII (51 BC-30 BC), with her two brothers and her son as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Dates are years of reign.

Simplified Ptolemaic family tree

Many of the relationships shown in this tree are controversial. The issues are fully discussed in the external links.

EgyptianPtolemies2.jpg

Other members of the Ptolemaic dynasty

Medical analysis

A number of the Ptolemaic dynasty are described as being extremely obese, whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes and swollen necks. Familial Graves' disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence (exophthalmos), although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity.

In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty likely suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis, obesity and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently.[5]

Literature

  • J. G. Manning The Last Pharaohs - Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC, 2009

See also

References

  1. ^ Cleopatra: A Sourcebook (Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture) by Prudence J. Jones (Author) page14“They were members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Macedonian Greeks, who ruled Egypt after the death of its conqueror, Alexander the Great.”
  2. ^ Women in Hellenistic Egypt By Sarah B. Pomeroy page 16 “while Ptolemaic Egypt was a monarchy with a Greek ruling class."
  3. ^ the Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. “,Cleopatra VII was born to Ptolemy XII Auletes (80–57 BCE, ruled 55–51 BCE) and Cleopatra, both parents being Macedonian Greeks.
  4. ^ Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt by Kathryn Bard page 488 “ Ptolemaic kings were still crowned at Memphis and the city was popularly regarded as the Egyptian rival to Alexandria, founded by the Macedonian Greeks.” Page 687” During the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt was governed by rulers of Greek descent…”
  5. ^ Ashrafian H. (2005) Familial proptosis and obesity in the Ptolemies. J. R. Soc. Med. 98(2):85-86

External links

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message