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.The public domain is an intellectual property designation for the range of content that is not owned or controlled by anyone.^ The content is clearly in the public domain.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professor Samuels and some others have suggested that no matter how we may struggle, in the end the public domain is whatever intellectual property is not.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Filed Under: content id , public domain , takedowns .
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These materials are public property, and available for anyone to use freely (the "right to copy"[1]) for any purpose.^ The material becomes public property.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Photographers give the AIC non-exclusive rights to use their images for specified purposes.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It uses material from the Wikipedia article, Forbidden City SEE FULL License, Credit and Disclaimer Tags: Public Domain Clip Art and clip art or public domain and The Forbidden City Beijing, China .

.The public domain can be defined in contrast to several forms of intellectual property; the public domain in contrast to copyrighted works is different from the public domain in contrast to trademarks or patented works.^ Public domain art Works in public dom...
  • Public Domain Definition | Definition of Public Domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Public%20domain Definition | Definition of Public%20domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: General]

^ When works pass into the public domain?

^ The public domain is most often discussed in contrast to works restricted by copyright.

.Furthermore, the laws of various countries define the scope of the public domain differently, making it necessary to specify which jurisdiction's public domain is being discussed.^ Making the public domain public.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This section includes articles and law reviews discussing the public domain.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Inevitably, the work of defining the public domain .
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The public domain is most often discussed in contrast to works whose use is restricted by copyright.^ Public domain art Works in public dom...
  • Public Domain Definition | Definition of Public Domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But why should that work be used to create a perpetual copyright for something in the public domain?!
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When works pass into the public domain?

.Under modern law, most original works of art, literature, music, etc.^ Under modern law, most original works of art, literature, music, etc.

^ Under the copyright law, the creator of the original expression in a work is its author.
  • U.S. Copyright Office - Definitions (FAQ) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.copyright.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Under the copyright laws of the United States (17 U.S.C 105), all works created by the U.S. government must be released into the public domain.
  • Introduction to Open Source and Public Domain Software 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC healthit.ahrq.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

are covered by copyright from the time of their creation for a limited period of time (which varies by country). .When the copyright expires, the work enters the public domain.^ Copyrightable works may also enter the public domain if the copyright owner grants the work to the public domain.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.benedict.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Public domain art Works in public dom...
  • Public Domain Definition | Definition of Public Domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When will they enter the public domain?
  • The Public Domain Enhancement Act 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eldred.cc [Source type: Original source]

.It is estimated that currently, of all the books found in the world's libraries, only about 15% are in the public domain, even though only 10% of all books are still in print; the remaining 75% are books which remain unavailable because they are still under copyright protection.^ That's right, they're almost all public domain works.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright, contract and code: What will remain of the public domain?
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.The public domain can also be defined in contrast to trademarks.^ Inevitably, the work of defining the public domain .
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The impetus to use this metaphor is natural, and follows easily from the language commonly used to define it: "to fall into the public domain;" "to search the public domain."
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Traditionally the public domain has been defined as the set of intellectual works that can be copied, used and reused without restriction of any kind.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Names, logos, and other identifying marks used in commerce can be restricted as proprietary trademarks for a single business to use.^ Names, logos, and other identifying marks used in commerce can be restricted as proprietary trademarks for a single business to use.

^ If you want to try and use POPEYE as a brand or source identifier, you will still need to secure permission from the trademark owner, which in this case is Hearst Holdings, Inc.
  • Popeye The Sailor Man In The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC askbeforeyouact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when the copyright, patent or other proprietary restrictions expire, the work enters the public domain and may be used by anyone for any purpose.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.florencechamber.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Nerd Arts » Blog Archive » What is Public Domain? 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC nerdarts.com [Source type: General]

.Trademarks can be maintained indefinitely, but they can also lapse through disuse, negligence, or widespread misuse, and enter the public domain.^ When will they enter the public domain?
  • The Public Domain Enhancement Act 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eldred.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Tech books to enter public domain .
  • Tech books to enter public domain | Developer World - InfoWorld 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Trademarks can be maintained indefinitely, but they can also lapse through disuse, negligence, or widespread misuse, and enter the public domain.

.It is possible, however, for a lapsed trademark to become proprietary again, leaving the public domain.^ Most of the Bibles, however, are not in the public domain.
  • BibleGateway.com: A searchable online Bible in over 100 versions and 50 languages. Frequently Asked Questions: Appropriate Use, Permissions, and Copyright Questions 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.biblegateway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The public domain can also be defined in contrast to trademarks.

^ Once a trademark becomes genericized , it is like in the public domain.
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

.The public domain also contrasts with patents.^ The public domain can also be defined in contrast to trademarks.

^ The public domain also contrasts with patents.

^ However, when the copyright, patent or other proprietary restrictions expire, the work enters the public domain and may be used by anyone for any purpose.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.florencechamber.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Nerd Arts » Blog Archive » What is Public Domain? 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC nerdarts.com [Source type: General]

.New inventions can be registered and granted patents restricting others from using the inventions without permission from the inventor.^ New inventions can be registered and granted patents restricting others from using them without permission from the inventor.

^ However, when the copyright, patent or other proprietary restrictions expire, the work enters the public domain and may be used by anyone for any purpose.
  • Nerd Arts » Blog Archive » What is Public Domain? 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC nerdarts.com [Source type: General]

^ A patent is a the granting by a government of the sole rights for an invention to its inventor or applicant for a limited period of time, generally 17 or 20 years from the filing date, according to the country.
  • Public domain definition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Like copyrights, patents last for a limited period of time, after which the inventions covered by them enter the public domain and can be used by anyone.^ Copyrightable works may also enter the public domain if the copyright owner grants the work to the public domain.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.benedict.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When will they enter the public domain?
  • The Public Domain Enhancement Act 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eldred.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ Tech books to enter public domain .
  • Tech books to enter public domain | Developer World - InfoWorld 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

Contents

No legal restriction on use

.A creative work is said to be in the public domain if there are no laws which restrict its use by the public at large.^ Work that is in the public domain includes any work...
  • public domain Resources | ZDNet 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Publishing works that have entered the public domain.

^ Public Domain Works registry .
  • Public domain - images, music, writings etc you can use for free - A Consuming Experience 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.consumingexperience.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, a work may be in the public domain if no laws establish proprietary rights over the work, or if the work or its subject matter are specifically excluded from existing laws.^ That's right, they're almost all public domain works.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public domain and collective rights in culture.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because proprietary rights are founded in national laws, an item may be public domain in one jurisdiction but not another.^ Another public domain classic disappears.
  • Copyfraud: Poisoning the public domain • The Register 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.theregister.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Public Domain The jurisdiction of the general public.
  • public domain Resources | ZDNet 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ One of them - the public domain material.
  • Public domain – pleasure & profits. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC domainsstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, some works of literature are public domain in the United States but not in the European Union and vice versa.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

^ Recommended by: Rolfyboy6 Careful; things that are public domain in the United States may not be public domain in Europe, and vice versa.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.The underlying idea that is expressed or manifested in the creation of a work generally cannot be the subject of copyright law (see idea-expression divide).^ Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States.

^ NOAA Photo Library Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States.

^ But at its core the public domain is not a place at all; to some people it is just the legal status of individual works that are no longer in copyright or that cannot be in copyright, to others it is a guarantee of rights no longer reserved for the benefit of creators.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Mathematical formulæ will therefore generally form part of the public domain, to the extent that their expression in the form of software is not covered by copyright; however, algorithms can be the subject of a software patent in some jurisdictions.^ The public domain in copyright law .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The combined effect of this evidence, tentative though some of it still is, makes a strong qualitative case for the commercial as well as social value of this 'broad' public domain.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professor Samuels and some others have suggested that no matter how we may struggle, in the end the public domain is whatever intellectual property is not.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3][4]
.Works created before the existence of copyright and patent laws also form part of the public domain.^ Copyrightable works may also enter the public domain if the copyright owner grants the work to the public domain.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.benedict.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But why should that work be used to create a perpetual copyright for something in the public domain?!
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Comments and public postings are copyrighted by their creators.
  • qmail released into the public domain [LWN.net] 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC lwn.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the Bible and the inventions of Archimedes are in the public domain, but copyright may exist in translations or new formulations of these works.^ Most of these images are of works in the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public but private: Copyright’s new unpublished public domain.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although "intellectual property" laws are not designed to prevent facts from entering the public domain, collections of facts organized or presented in a creative way, such as categorized lists, may be copyrighted.^ Copyrightable works may also enter the public domain if the copyright owner grants the work to the public domain.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.benedict.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Intellectual property law .
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tech books to enter public domain .
  • Tech books to enter public domain | Developer World - InfoWorld 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.infoworld.com [Source type: General]

.Collections of data with intuitive organization, such as alphabetized directories like telephone directories, are generally not copyrightable.^ Collections of data with intuitive organization, such as alphabetized directories like telephone directories, are generally not copyrightable.

^ Collections of data with intuitive organization, such as alphabetized directories like telephone directories, are in the public domain.
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The District Court granted summary judgment to Rural in its copyright infringement suit, holding that telephone directories are copyrightable .
  • utmem, public domain and intellectual copyright information - welcome 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.utmem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some countries copyright-like rights are granted for databases, even those containing mere facts.^ In some countries copyright-like rights are granted for databases, even those containing mere facts.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Database Rights can apply even when there is no copyright over the Database.
  • Open Data Commons » ODC Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.opendatacommons.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Educators have some additional rights to copyrights .
  • utmem, public domain and intellectual copyright information - welcome 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.utmem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Works of the United States Government and various other governments are excluded from copyright law and may therefore be considered to be in the public domain in their respective countries.^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

[5] .In the United States, when copyrighted material is enacted into the law, it enters the public domain.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

^ Defending the public domain in copyright law: A tactical approach.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, the building codes, when enacted, are in the public domain.^ This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code.

^ To amend title 17, United States Code, to allow abandoned copyrighted works to enter the public domain after 50 years.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This second part surveys some of the practical issues encountered in building a public domain image database.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

[6] .They may also be in the public domain in other countries as well.^ When will they enter the public domain?
  • The Public Domain Enhancement Act 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eldred.cc [Source type: Original source]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may also be in the public domain in other countries as well.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

."It is axiomatic that material in the public domain is not protected by copyright, even when incorporated into a copyrighted work."^ Copyrightable works may also enter the public domain if the copyright owner grants the work to the public domain.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.benedict.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Public Domain two parts of the Public Domain: • the structural Public Domain • Works of authorship where the copyright protection has expired.
  • The Public Domain Charter 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Expiration

.In most countries the term for patents is 20 years, after which the invention becomes part of the public domain.^ Here's a list of when items become part of the public domain.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A trademark registration may remain in force indefinitely, or expire without specific regard to its age.^ White of course is not natural but the result of ages of domestication, and may occur anywhere on a dog, as partial albinism, without regard to symmetry or rule.

For a trademark registration to remain valid, the owner must continue to use it. .In some circumstances, such as disuse, failure to assert trademark rights, or common usage by the public without regard for its intended use, it could become generic, and therefore part of the public domain.^ Here's a list of when items become part of the public domain.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Public domain and collective rights in culture.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In such an atmosphere both "fair use" and the "public domain" are species of "market failure."
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.The expiration of a copyright is more complex than that of a patent.^ First, it's a DC. If a DC has more than one NIC, IP address or RRAS on it, it causes a complexity that causes DNS registration issues.
  • http://www.microsoft.com/communities/newsgroups/list/en-us/default.aspx?dg=microsoft.public.win2000.active_directory&tid=c4f66642-05a4-45e7-b79a-08c86c00e94d&mid=e9a5a72b-3c6d-49b9-be78-446904fc15a5&cat=&lang=&cr=&sloc=&p=9 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, this is made even more complex because it's still something of an open question as to what, exactly, about a character is covered by copyright.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And we've seen more than a few instances where people falsely claim copyright on public domain material.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historically the United States has specified terms of a number of years following creation or publication; this number has been increased several times.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code.

^ These metaphors appear to follow from the term "public domain" itself.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most other countries specify terms of a number of years following the death of the last surviving creator; this number varies from one country to another (50 years and 70 years are the most common), and has also been increased in many of them.^ Fair use of copyrighted images varies from country to country, but in most common-law nations fair use includes commentary, criticism, parody, and satire.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, the AP has put out a statement, basically mimicking the one it put out last year, saying that the icopyright stuff is not intended for bloggers .
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia, for instance, recently went to Life+70 like most of Europe is, while Canada is still Life+50.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.See List of countries' copyright length.^ For a more developed listing of copyright related organizations and advocacy groups, please see the Related Organizations and Agencies Web page.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Legal traditions differ on whether a work in the public domain can have its copyright restored.^ Functional Public Domains For some people, every work, whether it be in copyright or not, functions as if it were in a public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Inevitably, the work of defining the public domain .
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But at its core the public domain is not a place at all; to some people it is just the legal status of individual works that are no longer in copyright or that cannot be in copyright, to others it is a guarantee of rights no longer reserved for the benefit of creators.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Term extensions by the U.S. and Australia generally have not removed works from the public domain, but merely delayed the addition of works to it.^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Copyright Term Extension is an attempt to forestall works from entering the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast, a European Union directive harmonizing the term of copyright protection was applied retroactively, restoring and extending the terms of copyright on material previously in the public domain.^ Copyright duration: Duration, term extension, the European Union, and the making of copyright policy.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The dead poets society: The copyright term and the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

United States law

.Copyright law in the United States has changed several times.^ United States law .
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the United States, copyright law has changed several times since the founding of the country.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, works of the United States Government are excluded from copyright law.
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

Although it is held under Feist v. .Rural that Congress does not have the power to re-copyright works that have fallen into the public domain, re-copyrighting has happened: "After World War I and after World War II, there were special amendments to the Copyright Act to permit for a limited time and under certain conditions the recapture of works that might have fallen into the public domain, principally by aliens of countries with which we had been at war."^ There are many public domains.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That's right, they're almost all public domain works.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Works "prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person's official duties" are automatically in the public domain by law.^ As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As works of the U.S. federal government, these images are in the public domain.

[9] .Examples include military journalism, federal court opinions (but not necessarily state court opinions), congressional committee reports, and census data.^ A second piece of data comes to us thanks to a recent report commissioned by the Library of Congress on reissues of sound recordings in the United States (Brooks 2005).
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, works created by a contractor for the government are still subject to copyright.^ Works created by local and state governments are still protected by copyright.
  • HOW TO: Use Public Domain Content 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC mashable.com [Source type: General]

^ Section 7 governs works not copyrightable.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Orphan Works- works still presumably under copyright, where the owner cannot be found- probably comprise the majority of the record of 20th century culture.
  • Center for the Study of the Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even public domain documents may have their availability limited by laws limiting the spread of classified information.^ Digital information, digital networks, and the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The public domain in copyright law .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Professor Samuels and some others have suggested that no matter how we may struggle, in the end the public domain is whatever intellectual property is not.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At most, terms end 120 years after publication in the United States, but they may end or have already ended sooner in certain situations.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Professor Samuels and some others have suggested that no matter how we may struggle, in the end the public domain is whatever intellectual property is not.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Since 1978

A work that is created (i.e. fixed in tangible form for the first time) after January 1, 1978, is automatically protected from the moment of its creation and is given a term lasting for the author’s life, plus an additional 70 years after the author’s death. .In the case of “a joint work prepared by two or more authors who did not work for hire,” the term lasts for 70 years after the last surviving author’s death.^ From whence come the resources needed to decide whether 10,000 or, in our case the 400,000 or more works offered to us, indeed, are in the public domain?
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of works of art, the problems become more difficult because art is both "incorporeal" and "tangible."
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, since it was recently extended from Life+50 to Life+70, I believe there are authors whose works are public domain who died less than seventy years ago, just to make things more complicated.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.For works made for hire, and for anonymous and pseudonymous works (unless the author’s identity is revealed in Copyright Office records), the duration of copyright will be 95 years from first publication or 120 years from creation, whichever is shorter.^ But at its core the public domain is not a place at all; to some people it is just the legal status of individual works that are no longer in copyright or that cannot be in copyright, to others it is a guarantee of rights no longer reserved for the benefit of creators.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After several hundred years copyright infringement, which involves only comparison of dimensional self-described works, is still a mystery .
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Before 1978, unpublished works were not covered by the federal copyright act.^ What is the status of unpublished works created before copyright existed?
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before 1978, unpublished works were not covered by the federal copyright act.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Copyright protection of works created before 1978 began at publication 2 .
  • MCCCD Legal Services Department - Copyright Guidelines - Public Domain Works 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.maricopa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rather, they were covered under (perpetual) common law copyright.^ The essential commons of information that is not covered by copyright.
  • The Public Domain Charter 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOT protected under US copyright law.
  • Public Domain Reports 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC publicdomainreports.net [Source type: General]
  • Power-Packed Public Domain Reports - TEN of Them in All! 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC niches2riches.com [Source type: General]
  • Public Domain Profits 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC publicdomainrevealed.com [Source type: General]
  • Discover public domain music, software, photo's, images to sell for big profits. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publicdomainpublisher.com [Source type: General]
  • Public Domain Profits - Profiting from Public Domain Information 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publicdomaincash.com [Source type: General]
  • The Public Domain Report 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.about-secrets.com [Source type: General]
  • The Public Domain Reports that Bring Money 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.anownsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather, it means that they were covered under (perpetual) state copyright law.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

The Copyright Act of 1976, effective 1978, abolished common law copyright in the United States so that all works, published or unpublished, are now covered by federal statutory copyright, with the exception of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972.[11] .The claim that "pre-1923 works are in the public domain" is correct only for published works; unpublished works are under federal copyright for at least the life of the author plus 70 years.^ Copyright is life of the author plus 70 years or December 31, 2047, whichever is greater.
  • The Lowdown on Public Domain - LegalZoom.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.legalzoom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The claim that "pre-1923 works are safe" is only correct for published works; unpublished works are under federal copyright for at least the life of the author plus seventy years.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Joint Authors - life of longest surviving author plus 70 years.
  • The Public Domain and the Impact of New Legislation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.For a work made for hire, the copyright in a work created before 1978, but not theretofore in the public domain or registered for copyright, subsists from January 1, 1978, and endures for a term of 95 years from the year of its first publication, or a term of 120 years from the year of its creation, whichever expires first.^ Works made by or for corporations (referred to as "works made for hire") got 95 years.
  • FindLaw's Writ - Sprigman: The Mouse That Ate The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I create a derivative work of a work in which copyright subsists, then I have copyright in the derivative work, even though it is also an infringing work.
  • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ But why should that work be used to create a perpetual copyright for something in the public domain?!
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[12] If the work was created before 1978 but first published 1978–2002, the federal copyright will not expire before 2047.
.Until the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, the lack of a proper copyright notice would place an otherwise copyrightable work into the public domain, although for works published between January 1, 1978 and February 28, 1989, this could be prevented by registering the work with the Library of Congress within five years of publication.^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clavecin Licensing: I, Clavecin , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

^ I, Simm the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

.After March 1, 1989, an author's copyright in a work begins when it is fixed in a tangible form; neither publication nor registration is required, and a lack of a copyright notice does not place the work into the public domain.^ When work is fixed in tangible medium of expression .
  • State College Area School District | Libraries 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.scasd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After March 1, 1989, an author's copyright in a work begins when it is fixed in a tangible form; neither publication nor registration is required, and a lack of a copyright notice does not place the work into the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]

1964 to 1977

.Works published with notice of copyright or registered in unpublished form in the years 1964 through 1977 automatically had their copyrights renewed for a second term.^ Published 1923-1963 and the copyright was renewed in the 28th year after publication.

^ The copyrights for many works were not renewed.

^ Published works today need no renewals to enjoy a 95 year term.
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Before 1964

.Works published with notice of copyright or registered in unpublished form on or after January 1, 1923, and prior to January 1, 1964, had to be renewed during the 28th year of their first term of copyright to maintain copyright for a full 95-year term.^ Was the copyright renewed in the 28th year following the publication of the original?
  • Copyright and Public Domain - Librivox Wiki 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC wiki.librivox.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm using the card to illustrate the possibilities of works that had no copyright notice, and also of works that had a notice, but did not get renewed in their 28th year.
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, if the work was published in the US during the years 1923 through 1963, the copyright had to be renewed 28 years later or the work entered the public domain.

[14]
.With the exception of maps, music, and movies, the vast majority of works published in the United States before 1964 were never renewed for a second copyright term.^ It could have been published before copyright existed .

^ Works published 1923-1963 in the United States whose copyright was not renewed are in the public domain.
  • Finding Public Domain Texts, Images and Music - Lawrence University 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.lawrence.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[15]

Sound recordings

.Very few sound recordings are in the public domain in the United States.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

.Sound recordings fixed in a tangible form before February 15, 1972, have been generally covered by common law or in some cases by anti-piracy statutes enacted in certain states, not by federal copyright law, and the anti-piracy statutes typically have no duration limit.^ Recent changes in the duration of copyright in the United States and the European Union: Procedure and policy.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Copyleft" is a scheme by which individuals keep copyright but dedicate works for free unencumbered use within stated limits.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fair use of copyrighted images varies from country to country, but in most common-law nations fair use includes commentary, criticism, parody, and satire.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.The 1971 Sound Recordings Act, effective 1972,[16] and the 1976 Copyright Act, effective 1978, provide federal copyright for unpublished and published sound recordings fixed on or after February 15, 1972. Recordings fixed before February 15, 1972, are still covered, to varying degrees, by common law or state statutes.^ Pre-1978 distribution of recordings containing musical compositions, copyright term extension, and copyright per program licenses .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fair use of copyrighted images varies from country to country, but in most common-law nations fair use includes commentary, criticism, parody, and satire.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a common expression, and not everybody uses it in the manner I describe; nonetheless, its use establishes a hierarchical relationship between the state of being under copyright and not being under copyright.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

[11][17] .Any rights or remedies under state law for sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972, are not annulled or limited by the 1976 Copyright Act until February 15, 2067.[18] On that date, all sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972, will go into the public domain in the United States.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

^ That's right, they're almost all public domain works.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For sound recordings fixed on or after February 15, 1972, the earliest year that any will go out of copyright and into the public domain in the U.S. will be 2043,[19] and not in any substantial number until 2048.[20] Sound recordings fixed and published on or after February 15, 1972, and before 1978, which did not carry a proper copyright notice on the recording or its cover entered the public domain on publication.^ While the song Ride of the Valkyries is public domain, each individual recording of it is covered by copyright.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Works published before 1923 are now in the public domain In the United States, This inage is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris in thi case Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874 – 1927) and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from that date.

^ As I envisioned my project, the public domain would be pressed into service beyond its accustomed role.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

[21] .From 1978 to March 1, 1989 the owners of the copyrights had up to five years to remedy this omission without losing the copyright.^ This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years.

[22] .Since March 1, 1989, no copyright notice has been required.^ No revision to the Copyright Act would be required, in our view.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

[23]

British law

.British government works are restricted by either Crown copyright or Parliamentary copyright.^ For a government to take works from the public domain –– by establishing copyright, for instance –– it must have claimed (by implication, if necessary) the domain in the name of government.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ NOAA Photo Library Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States.

^ Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States.

.Published Crown copyright works become public domain at the end of the year 50 years after they were published, unless the author of the work held copyright and assigned it to the Crown.^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If they were not so renewed they would lose copyright and would be in the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The public domain in copyright law .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In that case, the copyright term is the usual life of author plus 70 years.^ Joint Authors - life of longest surviving author plus 70 years.
  • The Public Domain and the Impact of New Legislation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, its copyright expiry times are still life of the author plus 50 years.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Life plus 70 years is a long time, yes?
  • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Unpublished Crown copyright documents become public domain at the end of the year 125 years after they were first created.^ The documents are public domain, and people can do whatever they want with the documents once they have them.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they were not so renewed they would lose copyright and would be in the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, under the legislation that created this rule, and abolished the traditional common law perpetual copyright of unpublished works, no unpublished works will become public domain until 50 years after the legislation came into effect.^ I think there might be a way to move more work into the public domain, not in 50 years ....
  • reclaiming the public domain (Lessig Blog) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.lessig.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • Public Domain Art in an Age of Easier Mechanical Reproducibility 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But why should that work be used to create a perpetual copyright for something in the public domain?!
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since the legislation became law on August 1, 1989, no unpublished works will become public domain under this provision until 2039. Parliamentary copyright documents become public domain at the end of the year 50 years after they were published.^ Defending the public domain in copyright law: A tactical approach.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Public but private: Copyright’s new unpublished public domain.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If a work is accepted as public domain, we must also document why it was accepted.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Crown copyright is waived on some government works provided that certain conditions are met.^ In fact, when considering the case of works subject to copyright we can be certain that, at least in present circumstances, the production effects of privatizing the public domain would be negative.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a government to take works from the public domain –– by establishing copyright, for instance –– it must have claimed (by implication, if necessary) the domain in the name of government.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, if copyright law hadn't been changed and copyright extended greatly, Steinbeck's works would be in the public domain by now (actually, quite some time ago).
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Laws of Canada, Australia, and other Commonwealth nations

.These numbers reflect the most recent extensions of copyright in the United States and Europe.^ These numbers reflect the most recent extensions of copyright in the United States and Europe.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1968, United States copyright law required a proper notice for a work to maintain a copyright.
  • Top 10 Public Domain Horror Movies - Listverse 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Pace the United States which has recently (1998) introduced, via a judicial decision, monopoly protection for everything 'under the sun, made by man'.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canada and New Zealand have not, as of 2010, passed similar twenty-year extensions.^ Whole industries which neither existed nor were imagined fifty, and possibly even twenty, years ago have grown up which exploit these new-found possibilities.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, their copyright expiry times are still life of the author plus 50 years.^ Consequently, their copyright expiry times are still life of the author plus 50 years.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, its copyright expiry times are still life of the author plus 50 years.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If name of author disclosed to Copyright Office than life of author plus 70 years.
  • The Public Domain and the Impact of New Legislation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.Australia passed a 20-year copyright extension in 2004, but delayed its effect until 2005, and did not make it revive already-expired copyrights.^ Australia passed a 20-year copyright extension in 2004, but delayed its effect until 2005, and did not make it revive already-expired copyrights.

^ Australia passed a 20-year copyright extension in 2004 , but delayed its effect until 2005 , and did not make it revive already-expired copyrights.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Canada and Australia have not, as of 2004, passed similar twenty-year extensions.
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hence, in Australia works by authors who died before 1955 are still in the public domain.^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.

^ Because the works are in the public domain.
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Types of works in the Public Domain.

.Canada and Australia have a version of Crown Copyright which lasts for 50 years from publication.^ To amend title 17, United States Code, to allow abandoned copyrighted works to enter the public domain after 50 years.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alexisrael / Modified version: Bella B. Licensing Public domain, I, Alexisrael the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

.New Zealand also has Crown copyright, but has a much greater time length: at 100 years from the date of publication.^ After all, if copyright law hadn't been changed and copyright extended greatly, Steinbeck's works would be in the public domain by now (actually, quite some time ago).
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the common wisdom is that the copyright is owned by Time Warner, there's a lot of evidence that this is not the case at all, and the song is in the public domain.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This isn't the first time we've seen bookstores DRM up and claim copyright over public domain works .
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Photographs taken before 1955 are now out of copyright in Australia.[24]

Thai law

.According to Thai copyright law, the copyright term is the life of author plus 50 years.^ Joint Authors - life of longest surviving author plus 70 years.
  • The Public Domain and the Impact of New Legislation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, its copyright expiry times are still life of the author plus 50 years.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, their copyright expiry times are still life of the author plus 50 years.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .When the author is a legal entity or an anonymous person, the copyright term is 50 years from the date of publication.^ But, because the public domain is not a legally sanctioned entity, public domain status can only inferred.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Works of applied art (defined as a work which takes a composition of works such as drawings, paintings, sculpture, prints, architecture, photography, drafts, and models for utility or functional use) have a copyright term of 25 years from publication.^ Inevitably, the work of defining the public domain .
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pre-1978 distribution of recordings containing musical compositions, copyright term extension, and copyright per program licenses .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Republication of works after the expiration of the copyright term does not reset the copyright term.^ Republication of works after the expiration of the copyright term does not reset the copyright term.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note that copyright term extension under U.S. tradition does not restore copyright to public domain works (hence the 1923 date), but European tradition does because the EU harmonization was based on the copyright term in Germany, which had already been extended to life plus 70.
  • Los Angeles Lawyer - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.danataschner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Works of applied art (defined as drawings, paintings, sculpture, prints, architecture, photography, drafts, and models) have a copyright term of 25 years from publication.

.Thai state documents are public domain,[27] but creative works produced by or commissioned by government offices are protected by copyright.^ Government documents are not covered by copyright, and the photos clearly should be public domain.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

[28]

Japanese law

.Japanese copyright law does not mention public domain.^ Defending the public domain in copyright law: A tactical approach.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The public domain in copyright law .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Does the public have rights to the public domain in the same way a copyright owner owns rights to a piece of intellectual property?
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hence, even when some materials are said to be "in the public domain" there can be some use restrictions.^ A creative work is said to be in the public domain if there are no laws which restrict its use by the public at large.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many public domains.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ New rules for using public domain materials .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In that case, the term copyright-free is sometimes used instead.^ Public domain royalty free copyright free high resolution images stock photos and clipart free for commercial use.

^ "Copyleft" is a scheme by which individuals keep copyright but dedicate works for free unencumbered use within stated limits.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It lacks the private property element granted under copyright in that there is no legal right to exclude others from enjoying it and is 'free as the air to common use.'"
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many pre-1953 Japanese and non-Japanese films are considered to be in the public domain in Japan.^ There are many public domains.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, when considering the case of works subject to copyright we can be certain that, at least in present circumstances, the production effects of privatizing the public domain would be negative.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1st of each year should be National Public Domain Day, when many different creative works enter the public domain, where they can be made useful.
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]

Other nations

.Wikisource, a site archiving free texts, recognizes a variety of public domain documents.^ Recognizing the public domain.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will be enough if recognizing the public domain brings us to that end.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

[30] .The site lists that works of the governments of Namibia[31] and the United Nations[32] are in the public domain; other nations have more rapid expiration to the public domain.^ So, they recognize that the works are in the public domain...
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

^ As works of the U.S. federal government, these images are in the public domain.

.Additionally some nations' copyrights (Afghanistan, Iran, Ethiopia) are non-binding in the United States.^ NOAA Photo Library Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States.

^ This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years.

^ United States database legislation may award a continually renewing copyright to databases that are constantly revised.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]

Examples

Basic examples of works in the public domain are national anthems and traditional songs such as "Auld Lang Syne".
.In the United States, the images of Frank Capra's film It's a Wonderful Life (1946) entered into the public domain in 1974, because the copyright holder failed to file a renewal application with the Copyright Office during the 28th year after the film's release or publication.^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

^ Clavecin Licensing: I, Clavecin , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

^ Filed Under: copyright , public domain , roraschach test , wikipedia .
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However in 1993, Republic Pictures utilized the 1990 United States Supreme Court ruling in Stewart v. .Abend to enforce its claim of copyright because the film was a derivative work of a short story that was under a separate, existing copyright, to which Republic owned the film adaptation rights, effectively regaining control of the work in its complete form.^ The moral of the story is clear: asserting monopoly rights in a new work either via patent or copyright is not the only – or even necessarily the best – way to gain returns from it.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the introduction of formal monopoly rights such as patents and copyrights during the sixteenth and seventeenth century there was now a halfway house of sorts whereby the monopoly (and the associated profits) of secrecy was combined with openness in the form of the disclosure of the work.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States Federal Government under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code.

[34]
.Charles Chaplin re-edited and scored his 1925 film The Gold Rush for reissue in 1942. Subsequently, the 1925 version fell into the public domain when Chaplin's company failed to renew its copyright in 1953, although the 1942 version is still under US copyright.^ Filed Under: copyright , public domain , roraschach test , wikipedia .
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Filed Under: copyright , public domain , ray bradbury .
  • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
.The distributor of the cult film Night of the Living Dead, after changing the film's title at the last moment before release in 1968, failed to include a proper copyright notice in the new titles, thereby immediately putting the film into the public domain after its release.^ Clavecin Licensing: I, Clavecin , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

^ I, Simm the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

^ Licensing: Public domain I Alexisrael , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

[36] .This provision of US copyright law was revised with the United States Copyright Act of 1976, which allowed such negligence to be remedied within five years of publication.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The public domain in copyright law .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Now, under the Sony Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, works that would have become public property now have an additional twenty years to wait until they fall into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.Some works may never fully lapse into the public domain.^ It may be helpful to print this chart showing when works expire into the public domain.
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.

^ Some items are never allowed to mature into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.A perpetual crown copyright is held for the Authorized King James Version of the Bible in the UK.[38] While the copyright of the play Peter Pan, or the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up by J. M. Barrie has expired in the United Kingdom, it was granted a special exception under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (Schedule 6)[39] that requires royalties to be paid for performances within the UK, so long as Great Ormond Street Hospital (to whom Barrie gave the rights) continues to exist.^ It would extend as well, and as fully, to species of infringement recognized under other doctrines, including the right of publicity, trademarks, misappropriation in unfair competition, trade secrets, ideas, and even patents.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Acts 22:23-29 (King James).
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a useful way to accommodate the fourth factor under Section 107 of the Copyright Act.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A number of TV series in America have lapsed into the public domain, in whole or only in the case of certain episodes, giving rise to wide distribution of some shows on DVD. Series that have only certain episodes in the public domain include Petticoat Junction, The Beverly Hillbillies, The Dick Van Dyke Show, Bonanza, and Annie Oakley, while Decoy is an example of a series that lies completely within the public domain.^ Some items are never allowed to mature into the public domain.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The impetus to use this metaphor is natural, and follows easily from the language commonly used to define it: "to fall into the public domain;" "to search the public domain."
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Disclaimer of interest

.Laws may make some types of works and inventions ineligible for monopoly; such works immediately enter the public domain upon publication.^ Making the public domain public.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many kinds of mental creations, such as publicized baseball statistics, are never covered by copyright.^ It includes the contents of the traditional public domain such as works originally subject to monopoly protection but where the protection has expired, for example Shakespeare's plays which were once subject to copyright, as well as items never subject to protection, for example the theory of relativity.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright is not one of the "unalienable" rights addressed in the Declaration of Independence , but it is quite clear that government must create and therefore must manage other rights in behalf of the governed –– the public.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, any special layout of baseball statistics, or the like, would be covered by copyright law.^ Under the second approach we would need to imagine a world in which Shakespeare's work was still covered by copyright and to subtract the value generated in that situation from that obtained in the first.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, while a phone book is not covered by copyright law, any special method of laying out the information would be.^ Under the second approach we would need to imagine a world in which Shakespeare's work was still covered by copyright and to subtract the value generated in that situation from that obtained in the first.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fromoldbooks.org -- Just what it sounds like -- high-quality scans from old books, all out of copyright.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.For example: U.S. copyright law, 17 U.S.C. § 105, releases all works created by the U.S. government into the public domain.^ The impetus to use this metaphor is natural, and follows easily from the language commonly used to define it: "to fall into the public domain;" "to search the public domain."
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As I envisioned my project, the public domain would be pressed into service beyond its accustomed role.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier today we learned about schemes employed by holders of works now in the public domain to prevent the public from obtaining access to this property –– in effect, by creating miniature monopoly stakes in the distribution and licensing of images.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

.U.S. patent applications containing a copyright notice must also include a disclaimer of certain exclusive rights as part of the terms of granting the patent to the invention (leaving open the question regarding copyright of patents with no such notice).^ U.S. patent applications containing a copyright notice must also include a disclaimer of certain exclusive rights as part of the terms of granting the patent to the invention (leaving open the question regarding copyright of patents with no such notice).
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With publication came a limited term of exclusive copyright rights.
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pre-1978 distribution of recordings containing musical compositions, copyright term extension, and copyright per program licenses .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Agreements that Germany signed at the end of World War I released such trademarks as "aspirin" and "heroin" into the public domain in many areas.^ There are many public domains.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At least for Germany there is no such concept as "public domain".
  • qmail released into the public domain [LWN.net] 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC lwn.net [Source type: Original source]

Another example would be Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. .Being an abstract idea it has therefore never been patentable.^ Being an abstract idea it has therefore never been patentable.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

After Darwin constructed his theory, he did not disclose it for over a decade (see Development of Darwin's theory). .He could have kept his manuscript in his desk drawer forever but once he published the idea, the idea itself entered public domain.^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A domain name never enters public domain.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not a single published work is entering the public domain this year.
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the carrier of his ideas, in the form of a book titled The Origin of Species, was covered by copyright (though, since he died in 1882, the copyright has since expired).

Copyright

.In the past, in some jurisdictions such as the USA, a work would enter the public domain with respect to copyright if it was released without a copyright notice.^ Clavecin Licensing: I, Clavecin , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I, Simm the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

This was true prior to March 1, 1989 (according to the USA Copyright office), but is no longer the case. .Any work (of certain, enumerated types) receives copyright as soon as it is fixed in a tangible medium.^ Any work (of certain, enumerated types) receives copyright as soon as it is fixed in a tangible medium.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can profit from all types of works that were published in the U.S. and now have expired copyrights.

^ In fact, when considering the case of works subject to copyright we can be certain that, at least in present circumstances, the production effects of privatizing the public domain would be negative.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is commonly believed by non-lawyers that it is impossible to put a work into the public domain.^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the works are in the public domain.
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Where to go to check if a work is in the public domain .

.Although copyright law generally does not provide any statutory means to "abandon" copyright so that a work can enter the public domain, this does not mean that it is impossible or even difficult, only that the law is somewhat unclear.^ Copyright in this work is hereby disclaimed and abandoned.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Congress may not have felt it necessary to codify this part of the law, because abandoning property (like a tract of land) to the public domain has traditionally been a matter of common law, rather than statute.^ Because the works are in the public domain.
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, Creative Commons do have a public domain dedication.
  • Putting photos into public domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC scobleizer.com [Source type: General]

^ Congress may not have felt it necessary to codify this part of the law, because abandoning property (like a tract of land) to the public domain has traditionally been a matter of common law, rather than statute.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

(Alternatively, because copyright has traditionally been seen as a valuable right, one which required registration to achieve, it would not have made sense to contemplate someone abandoning it in 1976 and 1988.)

Statutory law

Computer Software Rental Amendments Act
.There are several references to putting copyrighted work into the public domain.^ HOW MANY works there are in the Public Domain?

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the works are in the public domain.
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.The first reference is actually in a statute passed by Congress, in the Computer Software Rental Amendments Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–650, 104 Stat.^ The first reference is actually in a statute passed by Congress, in the Computer Software Rental Amendments Act of 1990 (H.R. 5498 of the 101st Congress).
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first reference is actually in a statute passed by Congress, in the Computer Software Rental Amendments Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–650, 104 Stat.

^ I suggested as much (albeit with reservations and some hedging) in testimony before Congress in 1984, in connection with hearings on the Record Rental Amendment.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

5089 (1990)). .Although most of the Act was codified into Title 17 of the U.S. Code, there is a very interesting provision relating to "public domain shareware" which was not, and is therefore often overlooked.^ There are many public domains.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Public Domain Enhancement Act reintroduced .
  • Public Domain Enhancement Act reintroduced [LWN.net] 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC lwn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Although most of the Act was codified into Title 17 of the U.S. Code, there is a very interesting provision relating to "public domain shareware" which was not, and is therefore often overlooked.

Sec. 805. Recordation of Shareware
(a) IN GENERAL— The Register of Copyrights is authorized, upon receipt of any document designated as pertaining to computer shareware and the fee prescribed by section 708 of title 17, United States Code, to record the document and return it with a certificate of recordation.
(b) MAINTENANCE OF RECORDS; PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION— The Register of Copyrights is authorized to maintain current, separate records relating to the recordation of documents under subsection (a), and to compile and publish at periodic intervals information relating to such recordations. Such publications shall be offered for sale to the public at prices based on the cost of reproduction and distribution.
(c) DEPOSIT OF COPIES IN LIBRARY OF CONGRESS— In the case of public domain computer shareware, at the election of the person recording a document under subsection (a), 2 complete copies of the best edition (as defined in section 101 of title 17, United States Code) of the computer shareware as embodied in machine-readable form may be deposited for the benefit of the Machine-Readable Collections Reading Room of the Library of Congress.
(d) REGULATIONS— The Register of Copyrights is authorized to establish regulations not inconsistent with law for the administration of the functions of the Register under this section. All regulations established by the Register are subject to the approval of the Librarian of Congress.
.One purpose of this legislation appears to be to allow "public domain shareware" to be filed at the Library of Congress, presumably so that the shareware would be more widely disseminated.^ This United States Congress image is in the public domain.

^ To amend title 17, United States Code, to allow abandoned copyrighted works to enter the public domain after 50 years.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

.Therefore, one way to release computer software into the public domain might be to make the filing and pay the $20 fee.^ Making the public domain public.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its author, Eklektekuria at the English Wikipedia project.

.This could have the effect of "certifying" that the author intended to release the software into the public domain.^ This could have the effect of "certifying" that the author intended to release the software into the public domain.

^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.

^ NOT need a release of your subject to put them into public domain.
  • Putting photos into public domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC scobleizer.com [Source type: General]

.It does not seem that registration is necessary to release the software into the public domain, because the law does not state that public domain status is conferred by registration.^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This could have the effect of "certifying" that the author intended to release the software into the public domain.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Judicial rulings supports this conclusion, see below.
.By comparing paragraph (a) and (c), one can see that Congress distinguishes "public domain" shareware as a special kind of shareware.^ In the public domain (But see first special case below) .
  • Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC copyright.cornell.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By comparing paragraph (a) and (c), one can see that Congress distinguishes "public domain" shareware as a special kind of shareware.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See OKFN's public domain database .
  • public domain | Free Government Information (FGI) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC freegovinfo.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because this law was passed after the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, Congress was well aware that newly-created computer programs (two years worth, since the Berne Act was passed) would automatically have copyright attached.^ The Copyright Term Extension Act of 1988: An Economic Analysis .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, one reasonable inference is that Congress intended that authors of shareware would have the power to release their programs into the public domain.^ Therefore, one reasonable inference is that Congress intended that authors of shareware would have the power to release their programs into the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This could have the effect of "certifying" that the author intended to release the software into the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

This interpretation is followed by the Copyright Office in 37 C.F.R. § 201.26.
Berne Convention Implementation Act
.The Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 states in section twelve that the Act "does not provide copyright protection for any work that is in the public domain."^ Main article: Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works The Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 states in section twelve that the Act "does not provide copyright protection for any work that is in the public domain."
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The congressional committee report explains that this means simply that the Act does not apply retroactively.^ The congressional committee report explains that this means simply that the Act does not apply retroactively.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Footnote 87, Draft Judiciary Committee Report of the Patent Reform Act of 2007.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the only part of the act that does mention "public domain" does not speak to whether authors have the right to dedicate their work to the public domain, the remainder of the committee report does not say that they intended copyright should be an indestructible form of property.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the only part of the act that does mention "public domain" does not speak to whether authors have the right to dedicate their work to the public domain, the remainder of the committee report does not say that they intended copyright should be an indestructible form of property.^ But why should that work be used to create a perpetual copyright for something in the public domain?!
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Does the public have rights to the public domain in the same way a copyright owner owns rights to a piece of intellectual property?
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rather the language speaks to getting rid of formalities in order to comply with Berne (non-compliance had become a severe impediment in trade negotiations) and making registration and marking optional, but encouraged.^ Rather the language speaks to getting rid of formalities in order to comply with Berne (non-compliance had become a severe impediment in trade negotiations) and making registration and marking optional, but encouraged.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know I’ve mentioned it before, but the Internet is truly becoming a resource for all of us, regardless of place of residence or the language we speak.
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.cirablog.ca [Source type: General]

.A fair reading is that the Berne Act did not intend to take away author's right to dedicate works to the public domain, which they had (by default) under the 1976 Act.^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.

^ Take a look at the Public Domain Chart .
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the works are in the public domain.
  • The Right to Display Public Domain Images: Copyright and fair use,Bridgeman vs Corel, museums vs the public, etc 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

Section 203 of the Copyright Act
.Although there is support in the statutes for allowing work to be dedicated to the public domain, there cannot be an unlimited right to dedicate work to the public domain because of a quirk of U.S. copyright law which grants the author of a work the right to cancel "the exclusive or nonexclusive grant of a transfer or license of copyright or of any right under a copyright" thirty-five years later, unless the work was originally a work for hire.^ Public domain and collective rights in culture.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Defending the public domain in copyright law: A tactical approach.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clavecin Licensing: I, Clavecin , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

[40]
.It is unsettled how this section would mesh with a purported public domain dedication.^ Also, Creative Commons do have a public domain dedication.
  • Putting photos into public domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC scobleizer.com [Source type: General]

^ How to find works in the public domain .

^ It is unsettled how this section would mesh with a purported public domain dedication.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Any of these interpretations are possible:
  • No effect. .Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clavecin Licensing: I, Clavecin , the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

    ^ "I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain.

    .This interpretation is probably wrong, because then an author would lose the right to his "termination right," which in practical terms means a royalty.^ This interpretation is probably wrong, because then an author would lose the right to his "termination right," which in practical terms means a royalty.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this still wouldn't be a copyright claim and the DMCA takedown would be the wrong vehicle to enforce any supposed violation of the LunaGirl site's terms of service.
    • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Now you would think that if your LIFE depends on something THIS important to help you survive and succeed then it probably HAS to be expensive, right?

    .To prevent paying the royalty, a comic book company could release the copyright to the public domain but hold onto the trademark, which would suffice to prevent knock-off comics from being made.^ Where do you find public domain books?
    • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To prevent paying the royalty, a comic book company could release the copyright to the public domain but hold onto the trademark, which would suffice to prevent knock-off comics from being made.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Because the Captain America case (Marvel v.^ Because the Captain America case (Marvel v.

    ^ Because the Captain America case ( Marvel v.
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Simon
    ) showed that this termination right cannot be alienated before death, this interpretation is almost certainly wrong.
  • Some effect.^ Simon) showed that this termination right cannot be alienated before death, this interpretation is almost certainly wrong.

    ^ This is almost certainly wrong for some jurisdictions and for some types of work.
    • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Simon ) showed that this termination right cannot be alienated before death, this interpretation is almost certainly wrong.
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

    .An author may release his own work into the public domain, and a company holding a work for hire may release his work into the public domain.^ It may be helpful to print this chart showing when works expire into the public domain.
    • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This could have the effect of "certifying" that the author intended to release the software into the public domain.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But a company which has purchased a copyright from an author (as was the case with most of the "Golden Age" comic book writers) cannot.^ But a company which has purchased a copyright from an author (as was the case with most of the "Golden Age" comic book writers) cannot.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To prevent paying the royalty, a comic book company could release the copyright to the public domain but hold onto the trademark, which would suffice to prevent knock-off comics from being made.
    • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the United States, as in most of the world, copyright lasts for the author’s lifetime, plus another 70 years.
    • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Although the distinction of allowing an author to release his own work is not explicit in the statute, it may not be literally inconsistent (it is not a "transfer" or a "license," and it arguably is not a grant of a right under copyright), and this reading is necessary to comply with the 1990 Act discussed above, as well as the case law discussed below.
  • Strong effect.^ NOT protected under US copyright law.

    ^ Such a license would grant permission for all of the acts which are restricted by copyright law.
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What we are seeing is the use of contract law to obtain rights not granted by copyright.
    • public domain | Free Government Information (FGI) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC freegovinfo.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Only a company holding a work for hire can release the work into the public domain.^ Only then will we regain a schedule of one year's work expiring into the public domain each year.
    • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
    • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The public domain status of U.S. government works applies only in the U.S. .
    • Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC copyright.cornell.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Because of the references to "shareware" (above) and "programmers" (below), and the fact that many software companies in the 1980s were quite small (and thus did not have employees), this reading seems inconsistent with the intent of Congress.

Case law

Another form of support comes from the seminal case Computer Associates Int'l v. Altai, 982 F.2d 693. This case set the standard for determining copyright infringement of computer software and is still followed today. .Moreover, it was decided by the Second Circuit appellate court, which is famous for handing down some of the most well-reasoned American copyright decisions.^ Moreover, it was decided by the Second Circuit appellate court, which is famous for handing down some of the most well-reasoned American copyright decisions.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I guess this would be a good reason for authors to transfer copyright to some organization like EFF, who could then decide (and manage) if a given project's copyrights should be extended.
  • Public Domain Enhancement Act reintroduced [LWN.net] 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC lwn.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The exception seems to be a 'collection' as the combination of the individual components warrants copyright for some reason, even if the individual elements are public domain.
  • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.In this case, it discusses the public domain.^ In this case, it discusses the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had already been educating myself about the Public Domain and the Feist vs Rural Telephone company case and thought that my core data needed to be in the Public Domain.
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combined effect of this evidence, tentative though some of it still is, makes a strong qualitative case for the commercial as well as social value of this 'broad' public domain.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(c) Elements Taken from the Public Domain
Closely related to the non-protectability of scenes a faire, is material found in the public domain. .Such material is free for the taking and cannot be appropriated by a single author even though it is included in a copyrighted work.^ If I create a derivative work of a work in which copyright subsists, then I have copyright in the derivative work, even though it is also an infringing work.
  • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Copyright-free derivative works?
  • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Such material is free for the taking and cannot be appropriated by a single author even though it is included in a copyrighted work.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

... .We see no reason to make an exception to this rule for elements of a computer program that have entered the public domain by virtue of freely accessible program exchanges and the like.^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We see no reason to make an exception to this rule for elements of a computer program that have entered the public domain by virtue of freely accessible program exchanges and the like.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This decision holds that computer software may enter the public domain through "freely accessible program exchanges and the like," or by becoming "commonplace in the computer industry."
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.See 3 Nimmer Section 13.03 [F] ; see also Brown Bag Software, slip op.^ See 3 Nimmer Section 13.03 [F] ; see also Brown Bag Software, slip op.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

at 3732 (affirming the district court’s finding that "[p]laintiffs may not claim copyright protection of an ... expression that is, if not standard, then commonplace in the computer software industry."). Thus, a court must also filter out this material from the allegedly infringed program before it makes the final inquiry in its substantial similarity analysis.
.This decision holds that computer software may enter the public domain through "freely accessible program exchanges and the like," or by becoming "commonplace in the computer industry."^ A crusade in the public domain: The Dastar Decision.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What is entering the public domain in the United States?
  • Open Knowledge Foundation Blog » Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.okfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A domain name never enters public domain.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

.Relying only on this decision, it is unclear whether an author can dedicate his work to the public domain simply by labeling it as such, or whether dedication to the public domain requires widespread dissemination.^ A crusade in the public domain: The Dastar Decision.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The public domain status of U.S. government works applies only in the U.S. .
  • Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC copyright.cornell.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This could make a distinction in a CyberPatrol-like case, where a software program is released, leading to litigation, and as part of a settlement the author assigns his copyright.^ This could make a distinction in a CyberPatrol-like case, where a software program is released, leading to litigation, and as part of a settlement the author assigns his copyright.

^ This could make a distinction in a CyberPatrol -like case, where a software program is released, leading to litigation, and as part of a settlement the author assigns his copyright.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s not often that authors are confident enough in their ability to generate new content to make a move like this.
  • The Simple Dollar » Welcome to the Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.thesimpledollar.com [Source type: General]

.If the author has the power to release his work into the public domain, there would be no way for the new owner to stop the circulation of the program.^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the owner to my 10 POWER-PACKED Public Domain Reports!
  • Discover public domain music, software, photo's, images to sell for big profits. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.publicdomainpublisher.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, one reasonable inference is that Congress intended that authors of shareware would have the power to release their programs into the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.A court may look on an attempt to abuse the public domain in this way with disfavor, particularly if the program has not been widely disseminated.^ Take a look at the Public Domain Chart .
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking for public domain maps?
  • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A court may look on an attempt to abuse the public domain in this way with disfavor, particularly if the program has not been widely disseminated.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Either way, a fair reading is that an author may choose to release a computer program to the public domain if he can arrange for it to become popular and widely disseminated.^ Released weekly, I read pieces chosen from the public domain.
  • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A court may look on an attempt to abuse the public domain in this way with disfavor, particularly if the program has not been widely disseminated.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Treatise analysis

The treatise cited[41] holds in its most recent edition:
13.03[F] [4]
It is axiomatic that material in the public domain is not protected by copyright, even when incorporated into a copyrighted work. ...
An enormous amount of public domain software exists in the computer industry, perhaps to a much greater extent than is true of other fields. .Nationwide computer "bulletin boards" permit users to share and distribute programs.^ Nationwide computer "bulletin boards" permit users to share and distribute programs.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He seems to say that a computer program author who wishes to release his work into the public domain may either include it in a book as example code or post it on a "bulletin board" and encourage sharing and distribution.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A robot is a computer program that automatically gathers and categorizes information on the Internet and allows users to promptly access any area of information with a single click.
  • IBLS E-Books - Internet Search - Public Domain v. IP Rights 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.ibls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition, computer programming texts may contain examples of actual code that programmers are encouraged to copy.
Programmers often will build existing public domain software into their works. The courts thus must be careful to limit protection only to those elements of the program that represent the author's original work.
.Although Computer Associates only mentioned the issue in passing, Nimmer observes that the public domain is particularly rich and valuable for computer programs.^ When works pass into the public domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Why the public domain is not just a Mickey Mouse issue .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Special Issue: The Public Domain .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He seems to say that a computer program author who wishes to release his work into the public domain may either include it in a book as example code or post it on a "bulletin board" and encourage sharing and distribution.^ Where do you find public domain books?
  • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It may be helpful to print this chart showing when works expire into the public domain.
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember the example of what selling public domain works on the internet I described above?

.(Nimmer is the treatise most widely cited in copyright opinions, and is generally authoritative.^ (Nimmer is the treatise most widely cited in copyright opinions, and is generally authoritative.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The treatise cited (Nimmer), holds in its most recent edition: .
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with most other Commonwealth of Nations countries, Canada and Australia follow the general lead of the United Kingdom on copyright of government works.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

)

Patent

.With regard to patents, on the other hand, public use or publishing the details of an invention before applying for a patent will generally place an invention in the public domain and (in theory) prevent its subsequent patenting by anyone—an effective disclaimer.^ On the other hand, unlike many of the sites listed above, Indymedia's photographs are generally illustrating newsworthy current events that we might be discussing here on Daily Kos.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ When I was testing the DNS I was just using the other domain controllers > > machine name.
  • http://www.microsoft.com/communities/newsgroups/list/en-us/default.aspx?dg=microsoft.public.win2000.active_directory&tid=c4f66642-05a4-45e7-b79a-08c86c00e94d&mid=e9a5a72b-3c6d-49b9-be78-446904fc15a5&cat=&lang=&cr=&sloc=&p=9 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Other outlets do similar things with similar pix released to the public domain.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.For example, a chemistry journal publishing a formula prevents patenting the formula by anyone.^ For example, a chemistry journal publishing a formula prevents patenting the formula by anyone.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With regards to patents, on the other hand, public use or publishing the details of an invention before applying for a patent will generally place an invention in the public domain and (in theory) prevent its subsequent patenting by anyone –- an effective disclaimer.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to patents, on the other hand, public use or publishing the details of an invention before applying for a patent will generally place an invention in the public domain and (in theory) prevent its subsequent patenting by anyone – an effective disclaimer.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

This tactic was commonly used by Bell Labs. The famous Bell Labs Technical Journal was sent free of charge to the library of the U.S. Patent Office to establish a base of prior art without the inconvenience, cost, and hassle of filing patent applications for inventions of no immediate monetary value. (Unix was famously described in this journal.) .This is sometimes called "defensive disclosure"—one way to make sure someone is not later accused of infringing a patent on their own invention.^ When you're ready to make your own Valentine card, these five romantic Valentine Graphics will surely come in handy.
  • Site Map of Public Domain Images on Karen's Whimsy 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC karenswhimsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Here are five adorable children and one dove ready to make a special delivery of Valentines Day Clipart to someone special.
  • Site Map of Public Domain Images on Karen's Whimsy 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC karenswhimsy.com [Source type: General]

.There is an exception to this rule, however: in U.S. (not European) law, an inventor may file a patent claim up to one year after publishing a description (but not, of course, if someone else published or used it first).^ There is an exception to this rule, however: in U.S. (not European) law, an inventor may file a patent claim up to one year after publishing a description (but not, of course, if someone else published or used it first).
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course I trust her father to protect her from someone who is acting "weird" the same way I would protect her in the ladies room if someone was being inappropriate in there.
  • Why are Women's Bodies Public Domain? | BlogHer 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.blogher.com [Source type: General]

^ New inventions can be registered and granted patents restricting others from using them without permission from the inventor.

.In practice, patent examiners only consider other patents and the books they have in their library for prior art, largely because the patent office has an elaborate classification system for inventions.^ In practice, patent examiners only consider other patents and the books they have in their library for prior art, largely because the patent office has an elaborate classification system for inventions.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (i.e., its life plus statute of limitions).
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (that is, its life plus statute of limitations).
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This means that an increasing number of issued patents may be invalid, based upon prior art that was not brought to the examiner's attention.^ This means that an increasing number of issued patents may be invalid, based upon prior art that was not brought to the examiner's attention.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (i.e., its life plus statute of limitions).
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (that is, its life plus statute of limitations).
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Once a patent is issued, it is very expensive to invalidate.^ Once a patent is issued, it is very expensive to invalidate.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inter partes and ex parte reexamination are only two of the current ways to improve patent quality once a patent has been issued.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once a patent is issued, a reexamination request can be used to improve patent quality upon second review.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Publishing a description on a website as a preemptive disclosure does very little in a practical sense to release an invention to the public domain; it might still be considered "patentable", although erroneously.^ This does not mean that the works were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This public domain is very large.
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (that is, its life plus statute of limitations).^ However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (i.e., its life plus statute of limitions).
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, anyone aware of an omitted prior art citation in an issued patent may submit it to the US Patent Office and request a "reexamination" of the patent during the enforceable period of the patent (that is, its life plus statute of limitations).
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An applicant may also choose to file a United States Statutory Invention Registration|Statutory Invention Registration, which has the same effect as a patent for prior art purposes.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

.This may result in loss of some or all of the patent on the invention, or it may backfire and actually strengthen the claims.^ This may result in loss of some or all of the patent protection of the invention, or it may backfire and actually strengthen the claims.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This may result in loss of some or all of the patent on the invention, or it may backfire and actually strengthen the claims.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is calculated from the figures below that reveal in ex parte reexamination, sixty-four percent of patents have their claims narrowed and ten percent of patents have all their claims canceled since a patent's claims may not be broadened in ex parte reexamination.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An applicant may also choose to file a Statutory Invention Registration, which has the same effect as a patent for prior art purposes. .These SIRs are relatively expensive.^ These SIRs are relatively expensive.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.These are used strategically by large companies to prevent competitors from obtaining a patent.^ These are used strategically by large companies to prevent competitors from obtaining a patent.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hershey Foods, Inc., for example, does not patent some of its processes, such as the recipe for Reese's, but rather maintains them as trade secrets, to prevent competitors from easily duplicating or learning from their invention disclosures, or from using the information after the patent lapses.

^ Hershey Foods, Inc., for example, does not patent some of its processes, such as the recipe for Reese's , but rather maintains them as trade secrets, to prevent competitors from easily duplicating or learning from their invention disclosures, or from using the information after the patent lapses.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Section 102(c) says that an invention that has been "abandoned" cannot be patented.^ Section 102(c) says that an invention that has been "abandoned" cannot be patented.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as you cannot patent an obvious combination or improvement of prior inventions, you cannot claim new copyright in derivatives of works that have expired, or are otherwise in the public domain.
  • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.There is precious little case-law on this point.^ There is precious little case-law on this point.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is a barrister in the audience with a deeper understanding of the details of UK law, clarification on this point would be appreciated.
  • Wikimedia blog » Blog Archive » Protecting the public domain and sharing our cultural heritage 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is largely a dead letter.^ It is largely a dead letter.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.If an inventor has an issued patent, there are several ways to release it to the public domain (other than simply letting it expire).^ There are many public domains.
  • Law & Contemporary Problems: David Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (WinterSpring 2003) 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Any holder of a copyright can release it to the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Other outlets do similar things with similar pix released to the public domain.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.First, he can fail to pay the maintenance fee the next time it is due, about every four years.^ First, he can fail to pay the maintenance fee the next time it is due, about every four years.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus some way must be found to pay for or fund this first 'copy' and we may summarize the possibilities in four categories: .
  • Value Of The Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.rufuspollock.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These six Cartoon Turkey images will be great to have at Thanksgiving time next year.
  • Site Map of Public Domain Images on Karen's Whimsy 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC karenswhimsy.com [Source type: General]

Alternatively he can file a terminal disclaimer under 37 CFR 1.321 for a reasonable fee. .The regulations explicitly say that the "patentee may disclaim or dedicate to the public the entire term, or any terminal part of the term, of the patent granted.^ The regulations explicitly say that the "patentee may disclaim or dedicate to the public the entire term, or any terminal part of the term, of the patent granted.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following recommendations prioritize this consideration and emphasize approaches to increasing patent quality that minimize the impact of improvidently granted patents on the public domain.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. patent applications containing a copyright notice must also include a disclaimer of certain exclusive rights as part of the terms of granting the patent to the invention (leaving open the question regarding copyright of patents with no such notice).
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such disclaimer is binding upon the grantee and its successors or assigns."^ Such disclaimer is binding upon the grantee and its successors or assigns."
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Usually this is used during the application process to prevent another patent from a "double patenting" invalidation. .Lastly, he may grant a patent license to the world, although the issue of revocability may raise its head again.^ Lastly, he may grant a patent license to the world, although the issue of revocability may raise its head again.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To supply the public with an efficient means to contest the validity of problem patents that may have been issued improperly, Congress created the process of reexamination.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From these figures, the high rates of reexaminations resulting in all claims confirmed for patent owner requesters may be raising the overall ex parte rates of claim confirmation.
  • Patents and the Public Domain: Improving Patent Quality Upon Reexamination | Electronic Frontier Foundation 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.eff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trade secret

If guarded properly, trade secrets are forever. A business may keep the formula to Coca-Cola a secret. .However, once it is disclosed to the public, the former secret enters public domain, although an invention using the former secret may still be patentable in the United States if it is not barred by statute (including the on-sale bar).^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To amend title 17, United States Code, to allow abandoned copyrighted works to enter the public domain after 50 years.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ New rules for using public domain materials .
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[42]
.Some businesses choose to protect products, processes, and information by guarding them as trade secrets, rather than patenting them.^ If guarded properly, trade secrets are forever.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some businesses choose to protect products, processes, and information by guarding them as trade secrets, rather than patenting them.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hershey Foods, Inc., for example, does not patent some of its processes, such as the recipe for Reese's, but rather maintains them as trade secrets, to prevent competitors from easily duplicating or learning from their invention disclosures, or from using the information after the patent lapses.

.Hershey Foods, Inc., for example, does not patent some of its processes, such as the recipe for Reese's, but rather maintains them as trade secrets, to prevent competitors from easily duplicating or learning from their invention disclosures, or from using the information after the patent lapses.^ These licenses typically have some minor conditions of use (such as requiring that credit be given to the photographer)."
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ These licenses typically have some minor conditions of use (such as requiring that credit be given to the photographer).
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

One risk, however, is that anyone may reverse engineer a product and thus discover (and copy and publish) all of its secrets, to the extent they are not covered by other laws (e.g. contract).

Trademark

.A trademark registration is renewable.^ A trademark registration is renewable.

^ A trademark registration may be renewed and remain in force indefinitely provided the trademark is used, but could otherwise become generic .
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a trademark owner wishes to do so, he may maintain a registration indefinitely by paying renewal fees, using the trademark and defending the registration.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.If a trademark owner wishes to do so, he may maintain a registration indefinitely by paying renewal fees, using the trademark and defending the registration.^ If a trademark owner wishes to do so, he may maintain a registration indefinitely by paying renewal fees, using the trademark and defending the registration.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A trademark registration is renewable.

^ Trademarks can be maintained indefinitely, but they can also lapse through disuse, negligence, or widespread misuse, and enter the public domain.

However, a trademark or brand can become unenforceable if it becomes the generic term for a particular type of product or service—a process called "genericide". If a mark undergoes genericide, people are using the term generically, not as a trademark to exclusively identify the particular source of the product or service. One famous example is "thermos" in the United States.
.Because trademarks are registered with governments, some countries or trademark registries may recognize a mark, while others may have determined that it is generic and not allowable as a trademark in that registry.^ Because trademarks are registered with governments, some countries or trademark registries may recognize a mark, while others may have determined that it is generic and not allowable as a trademark in that registry.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, any potential mark can be deemed "generic" by a trademark registry, that refuses to register it.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some interest groups lobbied heavily to make the Act retroactive in order to increase the U.S.'s negotiating leverage with other countries, because the U.S. often asks developing countries to allow the copyrighting of previously public-domain work.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the drug "acetylsalicylic acid" (2-acetoxybenzoic acid) is better known as aspirin in the United States—a generic term.^ Copyright term and the public domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States.
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Provides a "Digital Copyright Slider" and a chart for "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States."
  • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

In Canada, however, "aspirin" is still a trademark of the German company Bayer. .Bayer lost the trademark after World War I, when the mark was sold to an American firm.^ Bayer lost the trademark after World War I , when the mark was sold to an American firm.
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aspirin is an unusual case; Bayer, a German company, lost the trademark when it was seized by the Allies after World War I, and the trademark was resold to an American firm.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bayer lost the trademark after World War I, when the mark was sold to an American firm.

.So many copy-cat products entered the marketplace during the war that it was deemed generic just three years later.^ Despite this -- and after more than thirty years of electronic scholarship -- the 1623 and three later folio editions, and all the quarto versions, of Shakespeare's plays and poems are still not available in un-copy-protected electronic texts on the network.

[43]
.Terms can be deemed "generic" in two ways.^ Terms can be deemed "generic" in two ways.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.First, any potential mark can be deemed "generic" by a trademark registry, that refuses to register it.^ First, any potential mark can be deemed "generic" by a trademark registry, that refuses to register it.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, a mark, already in use, may be deemed generic by a court or registry after the mark is challenged as generic – this is known as "genericide".
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a trademark becomes generic, it is as if the mark were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

In this instance, the term has no secondary meaning that helps consumers identify the source of the product; the term serves no function as a "mark". Second, a mark, already in use, may be deemed generic by a court or registry after the mark is challenged as generic—this is known as "genericide". In this instance, the term previously had a secondary meaning, but lost its source-identifying function.
.To avoid "genericide", a trademark owner must balance between trying to dominate the market, and dominating their market to such an extent that their product name defines the market.^ To avoid "genericide", a trademark owner must balance between trying to dominate the market, and dominating their market to such an extent that their product name defines the market.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Hormel has resigned itself to genericide [4] , it still fights attempts by other companies to register "spam" as a trademark in relation to computer products [5] .
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, a trademark or brand can become unenforceable if it becomes the generic term for a particular type of product or service – a process called "genericide."

.A manufacturer who invents an amazing breakthrough product which cannot be succinctly described in plain English (for example, a vacuum-insulated drinking flask) will likely find its product described by the trademark ("Thermos").^ An interesting philosophical issue is that a manufacturer who invents an amazing breakthrough product which cannot be succinctly described in plain English (for example, a vacuum-insulated drinking flask) will inevitably find its product described by the trademark ("Thermos").
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A manufacturer who invents an amazing breakthrough product which cannot be succinctly described in plain English (for example, a vacuum-insulated drinking flask) will likely find its product described by the trademark ("Thermos").
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the product continues to dominate the market, eventually the trademark will become generic ("thermos").
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the product continues to dominate the market, eventually the trademark will become generic ("thermos").^ If the product continues to dominate the market, eventually the trademark will become generic ("thermos").
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a trademark becomes generic, it is as if it were in the public domain.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, a trademark or brand can become unenforceable if it becomes the generic term for a particular type of product or service – a process called "genericide."

.However, "genericide" is not an inevitable process.^ However, a trademark or brand can become unenforceable if it becomes the generic term for a particular type of product or service – a process called "genericide."

^ However, a trademark or brand can become unenforceable if it becomes the generic term for a particular type of product or service – a process called "genericide."
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, "genericide" is not an inevitable process.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

In the late 1980s, "Nintendo" was becoming synonymous with home video game consoles but Nintendo was able to reverse this process through marketing campaigns. Xerox was also successful in avoiding its name becoming synonymous with the act of photocopying (although, in some languages (such as Russian and Polish) and countries (like India and Brazil), it became generic).
Trademarks currently thought to be in danger of being generic include iPod, Jell-O, Band-Aid, Rollerblade, Google, Spam, Hoover, and Sheetrock. .Google vigorously defends its trademark rights.^ Google vigorously defends its trademark rights.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Although Hormel resigned itself to genericide,[44] it has fought attempts by other companies to register "spam" as a trademark in relation to computer products.[45]
.When a trademark becomes generic, it is as if the mark were in the public domain.^ The public domain can also be defined in contrast to trademarks.

^ When a trademark becomes generic, it is as if the mark were in the public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a trademark becomes generic, it is as if it were in the public domain.
  • Public domain - BelieveTheSign 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC en.believethesign.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trademarks which have been genericized in particular places include: Formica, Escalator, Trampoline, Raisin Bran, Linoleum, Dry Ice, Shredded Wheat (generic in US), Mimeograph, Yo-Yo, Kerosene, Cornflakes, Cube Steak, Lanolin, and High Octane, (Source: Xerox ad, reprinted in Copyright, Patent, Trademark, ..., by Paul Goldstein, 5th ed., p. 245) as well as Aspirin (generic in the United States, but not in Canada), Allen wrench, Beaver Board, Masonite, Coke, Pablum, Styrofoam, Heroin, Bikini, Chyron, Crapper, Weedwhacker, Kleenex, Hoover (England), Linux (generic in Australia) and Zipper.^ CAUTION: There are instances where trademarks may be embedded in patents as part of the drawing, particularly for design patents.There are also instances where a portion of the text or drawings of a patent may be under copyright.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that this link is only relevant if you're in the United States (which some of us aren't).
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ The USPTO will not assist in determining if a potential trademark issue or copyright issue exists for a particular patent.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

Domain name

.A domain name never enters public domain in the sense that copyrighted material does.^ Now that Kos has cracked down on the use of copyrighted images, I think it might be useful to examine what public-domain image resources are available for our diarists.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Or, does this require explicit permission -- even though the material does not have any form of asserted copyright?
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

.It is closer in nature to a trademark, in that a failure to maintain it makes it available for others to use (with different standards to maintain it from those for a trademark).^ It is closer in nature to a trademark, in that a failure to maintain it makes it available for others to use (with different standards to maintain it from those for a trademark).
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Support those archives with not only use of their content, but whatever other support they mention.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ After all, what better way to ‘promote the appreciation and understanding of portraiture in all media’ than to make those images available in a form that can be easily distributed on a global scale?
  • Wikimedia blog » Blog Archive » Protecting the public domain and sharing our cultural heritage 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC blog.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.If another party registers a lapsed domain name, it is no longer available to the public, as would be the case with former intellectual property which has become public domain.^ If that were the case, there would be no public domain at all.
  • Can You Re-Copyright Photos In The Public Domain? | Techdirt 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ The material becomes public property.
  • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If another party registers a lapsed domain name, it is no longer available to the public, as would be the case with former intellectual property which has become public domain.
  • Public Domain License 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.statesymbolsusa.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Public domain - Includipedia, the inclusionist encyclopaedia 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.includipedia.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Joren De Wachter. "The Return of the Public Domain". http://www.ipfrontline.com/printtemplate.asp?id=24019. Retrieved 1. Feb. 2010. 
  2. ^ Kevin Kelly. Scan this Book!, New York Times, 14 May 2006.
  3. ^ Patentability of Mathematical Algorithms under US Manual of Patent Examining Procedure
  4. ^ USPTO Notice of Public Hearings and Request for Comments on Patent Protection for Software-Related Inventions 1994
  5. ^ Copyright Office Basics
  6. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Veeck_v._Southern_Building_Code_Congress_Int'l,_Inc./Opinion_of_the_Court
  7. ^ Nimmer, Melville B., and David Nimmer (1997). Nimmer on Copyright, section 13.03(F)(4). Albany: Matthew Bender.
  8. ^ Testimony of Dorothy Schrader, general counsel of the U.S. copyright office, hearing for House Resolution 1623, serial 100/50.
  9. ^ 17 U.S.C. § ch1 Subject matter and scope of copyright
  10. ^ http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/public_domain/
  11. ^ a b An exception to the 1976 Copyright Act's general abolition of common law copyright. June M. Besek, "Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives", CLIR Reports, December 2005.
  12. ^ 17 U.S.C. § ch3 Duration of Copyright
  13. ^ Copyright Notice, U.S. Copyright Office Circular 3, 2008.
  14. ^ U.S. Copyright Office, Circular 15a, Duration of Copyright: Provisions of the Law Dealing with the Length of Copyright Protection.
  15. ^ Stephen Fishman, The Public Domain, 4th ed., Nolo, 2008, p. 383–384. ISBN 9781413308587.
  16. ^ Sound Recordings Act of 1971.
  17. ^ Non-U.S. sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 are covered under U.S. copyright (for the normal durations) if the country of origin shares an international copyright agreement with the United States, and the work was not published in the U.S. within 30 days of its first publication. Robert Clarida, "Who Owns Pre-1972 Sound Recordings?", The Intellectual Property Strategist, November 13, 2000.
  18. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 301 Preemption with respect to other laws
  19. ^ Sound recordings fixed between February 15, 1972, and December 31, 1972, but not published or registered before 2003, whose authors, not working for hire, died in 1972.
  20. ^ Sound recordings fixed on or after February 15, 1972, and first published 1978–2002, whose authors, not working for hire, died before 1978. § 303. Duration of copyright: Works created but not published or copyrighted before January 1, 1978, Copyright Law of the United States of America and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code, U.S. Copyright Office Circular 92.
  21. ^ Public Law 92-140 (October 15, 1971).
  22. ^ § 405. Notice of copyright: Omission of notice on certain copies and phonorecords, Copyright Law of the United States of America and Related Laws Contained in Title 17 of the United States Code (U.S. Copyright Office Circular 92).
  23. ^ Copyright Notice, U.S. Copyright Office Circular 3, 2008, p. 1.
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ พระราชบัญญัติลิขสิทธิ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๗. Copyright Act of B.E. 2537 (1994 A.D.), from Wikisource, in Thai. Section 4 governs copyright expiration terms
  26. ^ พระราชบัญญัติลิขสิทธิ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๗. Copyright Act of B.E. 2537 (1994 A.D.), from Wikisource, in Thai. Section 4, Article 22 states the copyright term for applied art works
  27. ^ พระราชบัญญัติลิขสิทธิ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๗. Copyright Act of B.E. 2537 (1994 A.D.), from Wikisource, in Thai. Article 7 governs works not copyrightable. The law refers specifically to Thai state rules, regulations, announcements, orders, explanations, and correspondence, and includes the constitution, laws, court decisions, examinations, and reports.
  28. ^ พระราชบัญญัติลิขสิทธิ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๓๗. Copyright Act of B.E. 2537 (1994 A.D.), from Wikisource, in Thai. Article 14 states that any government office receives a copyright on creative works produced by it or produced for it under contract, unless other arrangements regarding copyright have been previously agreed to by those involved.
  29. ^ "Paramount — Japanese court rules pre-1953 movies in public domain". December 7, 2006. http://www.contactmusic.com/news.nsf/article/japanese%20court%20rules%20pre-1953%20movies%20in%20public%20domain_1002318. Retrieved November 1, 2007. 
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ [4]
  33. ^ [http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ38a.html
  34. ^ James Bates, "Company Town Yule With Less 'Wonderful Life'? Tune In", Los Angeles Times, November 23, 1993, p. D4.
  35. ^ Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the US Public Domain. Created by Walter E. Hurst; updated edition by D. Richard Baer. Hollywood Film Archive, 1992–94.
  36. ^ George Romero talks about Land of the Dead, About.com, June 21, 2005.
  37. ^ "Omission of notice", Copyright Notice, US Copyright Office Circular 3, January 2008.
  38. ^ (Coogan & Metzger 1993, p. 618)
  39. ^ "Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. 48)". Office of Public Sector Information. 1988. p. 28. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1988/Ukpga_19880048_en_28.htm. Retrieved September 2, 2008. 
  40. ^ "§ 203. Termination of transfers and licenses granted by the author". U.S. Copyright Office — Copyright Law: Chapter 2. http://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap2.html#203. Retrieved September 2, 2008. 
  41. ^ Nimmer, Melville B., and David Nimmer (1997). Nimmer on Copyright. Albany: Matthew Bender.
  42. ^ Stephen Bruce Lindholm (January 29, 2005). "Revisiting the On-Sale Bar after Pfaff". Albany Law Journal of Science and Technology (forthcoming). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=656243. Retrieved September 2, 2008. 
  43. ^ Aspirin, World of Molecules
  44. ^ SPAM and the Internet (Waybacked)
  45. ^ Kieren McCarthy (January 31, 2005). "Hormel Spam trademark case canned". http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/01/31/spam_ruling/. Retrieved September 2, 2008. 

Sources

.
  • Fishman, Stephen, The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art & More.^ The impetus to use this metaphor is natural, and follows easily from the language commonly used to define it: "to fall into the public domain;" "to search the public domain."
    • Robert A. Baron:VRA/NINCH Copyright Town Meeting: April 2000 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.studiolo.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Benkler, Y., Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain.
    • Public Domain - CIP - UMUC 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.umuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ And to make things more confusing, that's absolutely true (in the US at least) of a photograph of a public domain painting.
    • Public Domain stories at Techdirt. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-87337-433-9

External links

.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.This article is about public ownership of creative works.^ When creative work will enter in the public domain?

^ A public domain work is a creative (i.e.
  • About Public Domain and this art work and links to otherpublic domain sources 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.wisegorilla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Creative works protected by copyright are meant to become " public domain " after a certain length of time, which depends on the country and type of work - e.g.
  • Public domain - images, music, writings etc you can use for free - A Consuming Experience 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.consumingexperience.com [Source type: General]

For use in relationship to public lands, see public domain_(land) on Wikipedia.
.Public domain comprises the body of knowledge and innovation (especially creative works such as writing, art, music, and inventions) in relation to which no person or other legal entity can establish or maintain proprietary interests within a particular legal jurisdiction.^ If a work of art is in the public domain, it belongs to the public and one person cannot monopolize its use.
  • Who Owns The Public Domain? 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.mandelpeslak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sources of public domain sheet music .
  • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Public domain art Works in public dom...
  • Public Domain Definition | Definition of Public Domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Public%20domain Definition | Definition of Public%20domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: General]

.This body of information and creativity is considered to be part of a common cultural and intellectual heritage, which, in general, anyone may use or exploit, whether for commercial or non-commercial purposes.^ This body of information and creativity is considered to be part of a common cultural and intellectual heritage, which, in general, anyone may use or exploit, whether for commercial or non-commercial purposes.
  • Nerd Arts » Blog Archive » What is Public Domain? 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC nerdarts.com [Source type: General]

^ Images may be purchased for commercial use.
  • Piedmont Technical College | Works in the Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.ptc.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It’s your public domain, your common cultural heritage, and your right to use.
  • Public Domain Day 2009 | publicdomain on Xanga 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC publicdomain.xanga.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only about 15 percent of all books are in the public domain, and 10 percent of all books that are still in print.^ Where do you find public domain books?
  • Is It In the Public Domain? Learn How to Tell. 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to tell you about public domain books and informations.
  • Ways to make money - public domain books free - free stuff you can sell 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.powerwriting.com [Source type: General]

^ Listen to books in the public domain .
  • Public+domain - Stepcase Lifehack 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.lifehack.org [Source type: General]

[1]
.If an item ("work") is not in the public domain, this may be the result of a proprietary interest such as a copyright, patent, or other sui generis right.^ The author or authors of this code dedicate any and all copyright interest in this code to the public domain.
  • SQLite Copyright 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.sqlite.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public domain art Works in public dom...
  • Public Domain Definition | Definition of Public Domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Public%20domain Definition | Definition of Public%20domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: General]

^ When works pass into the public domain?

.The extent to which members of the public may use or exploit the work is limited to the extent of the proprietary interests in the relevant legal jurisdiction.^ The extent to which members of the public may use or exploit the work is limited to the extent of the proprietary interests in the relevant legal jurisdiction.
  • Nerd Arts » Blog Archive » What is Public Domain? 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC nerdarts.com [Source type: General]

^ A work may be in the public domain because: .
  • Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.usg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The extent to which members of the public may use or exploit an item in relation to which propietary interests exist is generally limited.
  • MinGW - Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC oldwiki.mingw.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, when the copyright, patent, or other proprietary restrictions expire, the work enters the public domain and may be used by anyone for any purpose.^ It may be helpful to print this chart showing when works expire into the public domain.
  • Library Digitization Projects and Copyright - Part II - Expiration of Works into the Public Domain | LLRX.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You soon realize that using public domain works....

^ Public domain art Works in public dom...
  • Public Domain Definition | Definition of Public Domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Public%20domain Definition | Definition of Public%20domain at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: General]

.This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).^ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • CommunityWiki: Public Domain 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.communitywiki.org [Source type: General]
  • Public Domain Art in an Age of Easier Mechanical Reproducibility 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dlib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Reclaim The Public Domain Petition - Free Music by Aimee Deep 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.musicpundit.com [Source type: General]

^ Creative Commons licenses are all standardized to be easy to read and use.
  • Daily Kos: Compendium of Public-Domain Image Links 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: General]

^ Why doesn't Librivox use a Creative Commons License?
  • Copyright and Public Domain - Librivox Wiki 15 January 2010 7:24 UTC wiki.librivox.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Facts about Public domainRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Public domain" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English


Public domain is a phrase that describes something that belongs to all people in general: the public. It can mean that it is "public property". Public domain is only used to describe things such as photographs, drawings, written articles, books or plays, or similar things.

Another way to use the phrase is this: If a person has published something in a book or newspaper (and so it is no longer private), we say it is in the public domain. But in this usage it may still not belong to the public, it may be copyrighted.

A work can enter the public domain in many ways. Once the copyright expires, a work enters the public domain (as long as the copyright is not renewed), but it may still be needed to note who created the work. Some works are in the public domain upon creation because they cannot be copyrighted based on various copyright laws. Examples include governmental works in some countries.

Even if some works are in the public domain due to not being copyrighted, there may be still non-copyright usage restrictions. For examples, even though the design of some national currencies may be ineligible for copyright, copying them for fraud is widely a very serious crime.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Public domain, which are similar to those in the above article.








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