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"Mass transport" redirects here, for mass transport in mathematics, see transportation theory.
A train of the S-Bahn commuter rail system in Dresden, Germany
.Public transport (also public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) comprises passenger transportation services which are available for use by the general public, as opposed to modes for private use such as automobiles or vehicles for hire.^ This will require funding for Amtrak, the nation’s rail service that has been neglected in recent years, as well as funding for local light rail and mass transit projects.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has found that high gas prices, congestion, and expanded public transit services have led to a 32% increase in public transportation use since 1995 and that the average annual household savings from using public transportation is $6,251 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, videotapes were used to introduce and describe an open house public hearing process by Virginia Department of Transportation.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Public transport services are usually funded by fares charged to each passenger, with varying levels of subsidy from local or national tax revenue; fully-subsidised, zero-fare services operate in some towns and cities.^ Tories attack public transport subsidies.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ This will require funding for Amtrak, the nation’s rail service that has been neglected in recent years, as well as funding for local light rail and mass transit projects.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Public transport can consist of rapid transit (including subways, undergrounds etc.^ J-1 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration CITIZEN SURVEYS, continued  INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION How do they relate to ISTEA? Surveys do not replace other techniques of public involvement.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Focus groups have been used by transportation officials in New York and Illinois as a way to determine public opinions on HOV lane additions and rail transit alternatives.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amount spent by households in neighborhoods with the best access to transit routes on all transportation costs, including gas, insurance, upkeep, and transit fares: $728 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

), .trams and light rail, commuter trains, buses, van pool services, paratransit services for senior citizens and people with disabilities, ferries, water taxis, or monorails.^ This will require funding for Amtrak, the nation’s rail service that has been neglected in recent years, as well as funding for local light rail and mass transit projects.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Additionally, people with disabilities participate as interested citizens.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can be done by making community participation accessible and by promoting integration of people with disabilities with many other citizens who want to have a voice in transportation.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Public transport is provided by a company or authority that operates a fleet of vehicles.^ The public transport companies have been increasing their fees steadily over the years, in response to the rising price of oil and the overall rising cost of.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serving nationwide USA. We are family owned and operated, providing premium horse transportation nationwide.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

They may or may not be regulated or subsidized by authorities. The infrastructure used may be exclusive, or shared with private vehicles.
.For historical and economic reasons, there are differences internationally regarding use and extent of public transport.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, videotapes were used to introduce and describe an open house public hearing process by Virginia Department of Transportation.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While countries in Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, most cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.^ News results for: public transport .
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government is to assess whether the switch to the new public transport smart card has made using buses and trams more expensive, Trouw reports on Tuesday.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Impact

Environmental

.A 2002 study by the Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute found that public transportation in the U.S uses approximately half the fuel required by cars, SUV's and light trucks.^ Studying the profit growth is useful especially for public transport companies.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has found that high gas prices, congestion, and expanded public transit services have led to a 32% increase in public transportation use since 1995 and that the average annual household savings from using public transportation is $6,251 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

In addition, the study noted that "private vehicles emit about 95 percent more carbon monoxide, 92 percent more volatile organic compounds and about twice as much carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide than public vehicles for every passenger mile traveled".[2]
.A controversial 2004 study from Lancaster University concluded that a family of four in a modern car traveling from London to Edinburgh would be more efficient than traveling in a diesel-powered UK trains.^ Because they are made in a casual atmosphere, the comments may be somewhat more conciliatory than would be the case in a different setting.
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[3] The study showed that trains had failed to keep up with the advances that the automotive and aviation industries had made in improved fuel efficiency. .A representative from Modern Railways magazine said[citation needed]: Studies have shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between urban population density and energy consumption per capita, and that public transport could play a key role in increasing urban population densities, and thus reduce travel distances and fossil fuel consumption.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Net oil savings from public transportation were estimated to be 3.4 billion gallons in 2006 and public transportation reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 37 million metric tons each year.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Georgia Department of Transportation increases the period of questions and answers by an open house held in conjunction with a public hearing.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Going Green

.Public Transportation has been a key aspect of the Green initiative.^ From: Singapore Alternatives Auckland Transport Blog » How “green” is public transport?..
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ Add your comment Auckland Transport Blog » How “green” is public transport?
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

The idea of going Green, which basically entails commissioning more eco-friendly systems, is essentially new. Gases emitted by automobiles have been cited as major contributors to the issues addressed in green initiatives. .A study conducted in Milan, Italy in 2004 during and after a transportation strike serves to illustrate the impact that mass transportation has on the environment.^ A video can illustrate the characteristics of a region or a corridor, alternative modes of transportation, alignments and adjacent neighborhoods, potential impacts, mitigating measures, and methods of participation in a process.
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Air samples were taken between January 2nd and January 9th, and then tested for Methane, Carbon Monoxide, non-methane Hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and other gases identified as harmful to the environment. The figure below is a computer simulation showing the results of the study “with January 2nd showing the lowest concentrations as a result of decreased activity in the city during the holiday season. January 9th showed the highest NMHC concentrations because of increased vehicular activity in the city due to a public transportation strike.” [5]
Figure 4. Concentration color contour plots of (a) CO, (b) ethene, (c) benzene, (d) toluene and (e) C 2 Cl 4 for January 2nd, 7th and 9th 2004.
.Public Transportation allows for cars to be removed from the road.^ Transport, More fuel efficient vehicles; hybrid vehicles; bio-fuels; modal shifts from road transport to rail and public transport systems; cycling, walking; land-use planning.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ We need urgent and clear goals for the electrification of public transport, because combustion cars and buses destroy the climate, pollute the air and damage human health.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

This lowers gas emissions and traffic congestions. .Influenced by the previous, the state of New Jersey released Getting to Work: Reconnecting Jobs with Transit [6].^ In Minnesota and New Jersey, staff was assigned from the State planning office; in Jacksonville, Florida, from the Community Council/Chamber of Commerce; in Ohio, from the Ohio Department of Transportation.
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^ New Jersey Transit holds an annual fair in a transit terminal with a festival aimed toward children--including participatory and educational exhibits.
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^ The governors of Oregon, Texas, Iowa, Minnesota, Georgia, Florida, and New Jersey have fostered visioning for their States.
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.This initiative, as suggested by its title, attempts to relocate new jobs into areas with higher public transportation accessibility.^ News results for: public transport .
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ The government is to assess whether the switch to the new public transport smart card has made using buses and trams more expensive, Trouw reports on Tuesday.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ Title : [BK@120] 北京公交集團 BPT 京A B8574 京華BK6182B行走120路 Description : 北京公交集團京A B8574 京華BK6182B行走120路(08/01/2010) Beijing Public Transport Holdings Ltd.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

.The initiative cites the use of public transportation as being a means of reducing traffic congestion, providing an economic boost to the areas of job relocation, and most importantly, contributing to a green environment by reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions.^ Net oil savings from public transportation were estimated to be 3.4 billion gallons in 2006 and public transportation reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 37 million metric tons each year.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has found that high gas prices, congestion, and expanded public transit services have led to a 32% increase in public transportation use since 1995 and that the average annual household savings from using public transportation is $6,251 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From: Singapore Alternatives Auckland Transport Blog » How “green” is public transport?..
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

Area

.Urban space is a precious commodity and public transport consumes it more efficiently than a car dominant society, allowing cities to be built more compactly than if they were dependent on automobile transport.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government is to assess whether the switch to the new public transport smart card has made using buses and trams more expensive, Trouw reports on Tuesday.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ Greg Ferro has republished an older post in which he compares Cloud Computing with public transport (and notes that nothing has changed in more than a year since he wrote the original article).
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

[7] .If public transport planning is at the core of urban planning, it will also force cities to be built more compactly to create efficient feeds into the stations and stops of transport.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With good publicity, it becomes a known opportunity for citizens to participate in transportation planning.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .This will at the same time allow the creation of centers around the hubs, serving passengers' need for their daily commercial needs and public services.^ Public transport is essential to the quality of life of its passengers, both as a means to move around but also to achieve a sustainable environment.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ Basic interactive machines for cable TV use are becoming less expen- sive, and some channels donate air time as a public service.
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^ When these questions have been addressed, the specific media to carry the message can be defined-specifically the kinds of media that will best serve the need of encouraging public participation.
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This approach significantly reduces sprawl.

Social

.An important social role played by public transport is to ensure that all members of society are able to travel, not just those with a driving license and access to an automobile—which include groups such as the young, the old, the poor, those with medical conditions, and people banned from driving.^ Social web results for: public transport .
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ Serving all of USA. We transport anywhere in the US. Newer equipment, experienced horse people (over 30 years).
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ Public access channels often videotape public meetings and other forums and play them repeatedly over a period of time.
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Automobile dependency is a name given by policy makers to places where the those without access to a private vehicle do not have access to independent mobility.[9]
.Above that, public transportation opens to its users the possibility of meeting other people, as no concentration is diverted from interacting with fellow-travelers due to any steering activities.^ The Georgia Department of Transportation increases the period of questions and answers by an open house held in conjunction with a public hearing.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public access channels often videotape public meetings and other forums and play them repeatedly over a period of time.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raising the number of public transport users from 240,000 to 265,000 this year.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

.Adding to the above-said, public transport becomes a location of inter-social encounters across all boundaries of social, ethnic and other types of affiliation.^ Social web results for: public transport .
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ J-1 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration CITIZEN SURVEYS, continued  INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION How do they relate to ISTEA? Surveys do not replace other techniques of public involvement.
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^ Whenever you use public transport what ever type of vehicle you are you are traveling in, your "What if?"
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

Economic

.Public transport allows transport at an economy of scale not available through private transport.^ Through independent testing, the open standard should also provide interoperability to enable simple and fast integration into public transport projects.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

.Through stimulating public transport it is possible to reduce the total transport cost for the public.^ A charrette can enlarge the degree of public involvement in transportation, reducing feelings of alienation from government.
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^ The public transport companies have been increasing their fees steadily over the years, in response to the rising price of oil and the overall rising cost of.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ Through independent testing, the open standard should also provide interoperability to enable simple and fast integration into public transport projects.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

.Time costs can also be reduced as cars removed from the road through public transit options translate to less congestion and faster speeds for remaining motorists.^ C-2 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration  BRAINSTORMING, continued INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION PLANNING What does brainstorming cost?
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^ B-2 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration  VISIONING, continued INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION PLANNING  Visioning costs can vary.
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^ K-3 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES, continued  INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION What do telephone techniques cost?
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Transit-oriented development can both improve the usefulness and efficiency of the public transit system as well as result in increased business for commercial developments.^ Transport, More fuel efficient vehicles; hybrid vehicles; bio-fuels; modal shifts from road transport to rail and public transport systems; cycling, walking; land-use planning.
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ The new standard promises to bring a number of key benefits to both public transport agencies and smart card industry players, including higher performance and advanced system security for public transport applications, as well as the ...
  • Public transport - surchur 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC surchur.com [Source type: General]

^ It effectively enables both the general public and organized groups to participate in developing specific elements of plans and programs.
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Well-designed transit systems can have a positive effect on real estate prices. The Hong Kong metro MTR generates a profit by redeveloping land around its stations. .Much public opposition to new transit construction can be based on the concern about the impact on neighborhoods of this new economic development.^ Although they improve the possibility of adequate citizen participation, meetings must be frequent enough to demonstrate agency concern about public involvement.
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^ A citizen survey in Chicago found that public attitudes about transit are not only a function of services received but are also strongly affected by people's feelings about crime, government in general, public civility, and the neighborhoods where the trip begins or ends.
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^ Focus groups have been used by transportation officials in New York and Illinois as a way to determine public opinions on HOV lane additions and rail transit alternatives.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Few localities have the ability to seize and reassign development rights to a private transit operator, as Hong Kong has done. Increased land desirability has resulted around stations in places such as Washington, D.C..
Investment in public transport also stimulates the economy locally, with between $4 and $9 of economic activity resulting from every dollar spent.[1] .Many businesses rely on access to a transit system, in particular in cities and countries where access to cars is less widespread, businesses which require large amounts of people going to a same place may not be able to accommodate a large number of cars (concert venues, sport stadia, airports, exhibitions centres,...^ Some people may prefer one-on-one ions of issues that affect them, while others may prefer surveys because they do not have time to go to meetings.
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^ Agencies should consider the needs of people with disabilities and transit access in selecting a convenient place and time.
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^ A statewide CAC can be unwieldy because of the required number of people involved and because of the traveling required of both staff and participants.
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), or businesses where people are not able to use a car (bars, hospitals, or industries in the tourism sector whose customers may not have their cars).
.Transit systems also have an effect on derivated businesses: commercial websites have been founded, such as Hopstop.com, that give directions through mass transit systems; in some cities, such as London, products themed on the local transport system are a popular tourist souvenir.^ Promotional brochures can be used in a direct mail campaign or-as in Portland, Maine-- through a full-size newspaper supplement explaining the regional transportation plan.
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^ A broad cross-section of interests is desirable and may include local governments, transportation or environmental groups, civic or business groups, and consumer organizations.
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Conversely, the existence of a transit system can lower land values, either through influence on a region's demographics and crime rate (actual or perceived) or simply through the ambient noise and other discomforts the system creates.

Mode

Road

Local bus of Canberra which is powered by compressed natural gas
A bus is a road vehicle capable of carrying numerous passengers. Buses operate with low capacity, and can operate on conventional roads, with relatively inexpensive bus stops to serve passengers. .Therefore buses are commonly used in smaller cities and towns, in rural areas as well for shuttle services supplementing in large cities.^ For Chicago's Downtown Plan, the city used four focus groups- ---from in-town and the suburbs to find out what citizens liked and didn't like about downtown Chicago.
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Coaches are buses used for long distance services. They have higher standard, but a limited stopping pattern. .Bus rapid transit is an ambiguous term used for buses operating on dedicated right-of-way, much like a light rail.^ Staff may be available to use videotapes to record highway or transit right-of-way, but the skills are not generally transferable into a video that will be credible and able to inform the public on more complex issues.
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^ I would like to consider these modes of transit: Rail Bus Ferry .

^ Focus groups have been used by transportation officials in New York and Illinois as a way to determine public opinions on HOV lane additions and rail transit alternatives.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trolleybuses use overhead wires to get electric power for traction.

Rail

Passenger rail transport is the conveyance of passengers by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run along railways. .Trains allow high capacity on short or long distance, but require track infrastructure and stations to be built.^ We also offer long and short time boarding, natural horsemanship training and problem solving.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

Urban rail transit consists of trams, light rail, rapid transit, people movers, commuter rail and funiculars.

Tram

TTC Streetcar in Toronto exiting Neville Park Loop
Trams are railborne vehicles that run in city streets or dedicated tracks. They have higher capacity than buses, but must follow dedicated infrastructure with rails and wires either above or below the track, limiting their flexibility. Light rail is a modern development of the tram, with dedicated right-of-way not shared with other traffic, step-free access and increased speed.

Rapid transit

.A rapid transit system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic.^ It is frequently used when an agency is starting a lengthy or complex under- to other taking with a separate element for citizen involvement.
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[10][11] Rapid transit systems are typically either in tunnels or elevated above street level. .Outside urban centres rapid transit lines sometimes run grade separated at ground level.^ On two rapid transit lines in Boston, task forces were assembled for the design of each individual station.
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.Service on rapid transit systems is provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rails, although some systems use magnetic levitation[12] or monorails.^ For example, to introduce new users to its municipal service telephone information system, Colleyville, Texas, provides refrigerator magnets as a telephone directory to three-digit subcategories for guidance when calling about specific topics, including transportation.
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^ On two rapid transit lines in Boston, task forces were assembled for the design of each individual station.
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^ Basic interactive machines for cable TV use are becoming less expen- sive, and some channels donate air time as a public service.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rapid transit is faster and has a higher capacity than trams or light rail, but is not as fast or as far-reaching as commuter rail. .It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large amounts of people quickly over short distances with little land use.^ The Regional Public Transportation Authority in Phoenix, Arizona, used large, bold sans serif typeface in its questionnaire on a plan update.
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^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fair can be used to interest citizens in transportation, or to set the stage for upcoming events, such as a complex, large-scale project.
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Variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn.
The first rapid transit system was the London Underground, which opened in 1863.[13] The technology quickly spread to other cities in Europe and then to the United States, where a number of elevated systems were built. Since then the largest growth has been in Asia and with driverless systems.[14] .More than 160 cities have rapid transit systems, totalling more than 8,000 km (4,971 mi) of track and 7,000 stations.^ On two rapid transit lines in Boston, task forces were assembled for the design of each individual station.
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Twenty-five cities have systems under construction.

Personal Rapid transit

.Personal rapid transit is an automated cab service that runs on rails or a guideway.^ Show transit services running at around: .

A fully implemented system might provide most of the convenience of individual automobiles with the efficiency of public transit. The crucial innovation is that the automated vehicles carry just a few passengers, and turn off the guideway to pick up passengers, permitting other PRT vehicles to continue at full speed. Conventional transit simulations show that PRT might attract many auto users in problematic medium density urban areas. A number of experimental systems are in progress.

Commuter rail

Tokyo's Yamanote Line, one of the world's busiest commuter rail lines.
.Commuter rail is part of an urban area's public transport; it provides faster services to outer suburbs and neighboring towns and villages.^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ L-2 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration  VIDEO TECHNIQUES, continued INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION How do they relate to ISTEA? Video techniques can be a part of almost any project or program as a method of providing information.
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^ Our service to you is considered a great and important opportunity to provide you the best caring and dedicated transportation service available.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.Trains stop at all stations, that are located to serve a smaller suburban or town center.^ We have been breeding, training and showing championship horses including Macho Town Chica, APHA Supreme Ch./Superior All-Around for 30 years.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

The stations often being combined with shuttle bus or park and ride systems at each station. .Frequency may be up to several times per hour, and commuter rail systems may either be part of the national railway, or operated by local transit agencies.^ This will require funding for Amtrak, the nation’s rail service that has been neglected in recent years, as well as funding for local light rail and mass transit projects.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Information on accessibility needs may be found from State commissions dealing with disabilities, deafness, rehabilitation, or blindness, as well as from local agencies or advocacy groups.
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^ Agencies should consider the needs of people with disabilities and transit access in selecting a convenient place and time.
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Intercity rail

Intercity rail is long-haul passenger services that connect multiple urban areas. .They have few stops, and aim at high average speeds, typically only making one of a few stops per city.^ We haul the horses in between 8-10 hours per day and then stop for an overnight boarding at only the best of the best horse hotels that are clean, sanitary and secure.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

These services may also be international.

High-speed

High-speed rail is passenger trains operating significantly faster than conventional rail—typically defined as at least 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph). .The most predominant systems have been built in Europe and Japan, and offer long-distance rail journeys as quick as air travel.^ While about 9 in 10 long distance trips (over 50 miles) are taken by personal cars, by 2010 most of the nation's metropolitan and interstate highways will exceed or be at capacity.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Water

A ferry is a boat or ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, across a body of water. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops is sometimes called a water bus. .Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels, though at a lower speed.^ With public transit ridership at a modern record high even as high fuel costs are negatively impacting public transit systems’ budgets, this legislation will help public transit systems keep fares down and expand service.” – William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, 6/26/2008 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Being in the horse business for many years has allowed us to gain the knowledge and experience to take excellent care of your horse while in transport.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ A recent report shows that households with the best access to public transportation routes spends an average of $728 a month on transportation costs, while households with the worst access spend almost $200 more.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Ship connections of much larger distances (such as over long distances in water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called ferry services.

Air

An airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports. .Air travel has high up to very high speeds, but incurs large waiting times prior and after travel, and is therefore only feasible over longer distances or in areas where lack of ground infrastructure makes other modes of transport impossible.^ Unfortunately this delay is occurring at the same time capacity in air and train travel between metropolitan areas also appear to be suffering…A healthy national economy depends on healthy metropolitan economies—and mobility for residents is a critical component.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Your horse is the only thing that matters in this transport for you and we make sure that your horse and you are first priority.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ This can be done by making community participation accessible and by promoting integration of people with disabilities with many other citizens who want to have a voice in transportation.
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.Bush airlines work more similar to bus stops; an aircraft waits for passengers and takes off when the aircraft is full.^ A charrette can occur at any time in the planning process, but preparation is crucial Advance work can take a month or more, depending on the issue to be discussed.
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Interchanges

Early trolley car in Newton, Massachusetts.
Interchanges are locations where passengers can switch mode. Most interchanges are predominantly for passenger to change from being pedestrians to passengers (such as a bus stop), while each system will have a few hubs that allow passengers to change between vehicles. .This may be between vehicles of the same mode (like a bus interchange), or it can be between local and intercity transport (such as at a central station or airport).^ As an informal short-term event, it can be held in central locations where transportation fair many people pass by, such as a store downtown or in a shopping mall.
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^ I would like to consider these modes of transit: Rail Bus Ferry .

^ A broad cross-section of interests is desirable and may include local governments, transportation or environmental groups, civic or business groups, and consumer organizations.
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Other interchange facilities include car parks and bicycle parking.

History

.Conveyances for public hire are as old as the first ferries, and the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal.^ We stop every two hours to water the horses on our transports, and every six hours to feed and walk them.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ Presently enjoying retirement, but enjoy transporting livestock more (meeting incredible animals), meeting/helping people (incredible people 2) & travel (what fun, huh!!
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

This form of transport is part of Greek mythology — corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades.
.Some historical forms of public transport are the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route from inn to inn, and the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, which was a feature of canals from their 17th-century origins.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Traveling Horse does not do brokering and assumes no liability for the actions of transport companies or their customers.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ Serving east coast of USA. We are a smaller horse transport service that mainly travels the east coast.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Nantes, France, in 1826 and was introduced to London in July 1829.[15]

Service

Urban

.Urban transport is dominated by people making many short trips multiple times per day; this creates focus on headway and ease of use.^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As an informal short-term event, it can be held in central locations where transportation fair many people pass by, such as a store downtown or in a shopping mall.
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^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Inter-city

Intercity transport between cities is dominated by rail, coaches and airlines. .Long journeys give air travel a large time advantage over all other modes of transport.^ Give us a call for all of your horse transportation needs!
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.On distances up to 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) high-speed rail can compete time wise with airlines, while conventional rail and coaches only can offer time-competitive services on shorter distances.^ I have 3,000,000 miles of accident free hauling, and pick up and deliver on time.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ We offer competitive rates and provide the highest quality door-to-door service available.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.Comfort is a much more important part of long-haul than short-haul transport.^ More than just an experienced transporter, I am also a breeder of Friesian horses and a competent horseman.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
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^ This interest may range from a broad, long-term view of the issues within a geographic area to a specific and more short-term view of issues surrounding a project or program.
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Using interconnected public transit lines to travel from city to city is called megaloping.

Class

.A travel class is a quality of accommodation on public transport.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Higher travel classes are more comfortable and more expensive. Not all modes and operators offer class differentiation.

Sleeping

.In the era when long distance trips took several days, sleeping accommodations were an essential part of transportation.^ While about 9 in 10 long distance trips (over 50 miles) are taken by personal cars, by 2010 most of the nation's metropolitan and interstate highways will exceed or be at capacity.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Today, most airlines, inter-city trains and coaches offer reclining seats and many provide pillows and blankets for overnight travelers.^ Overnight stops - to provide your horse with rest after a day of travel.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

Better sleeping arrangements are commonly offered for a premium fare and include sleeping cars on overnight trains, larger private cabins on ships and airplane seats that convert into beds. .Budget-conscious tourists sometimes plan their trips using overnight train or bus trips in lieu of paying for a hotel.^ In some instances we can use our farm as an overnight rest stop for longer trips.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.The ability to get additional sleep on the way to work is attractive to many commuters using public transport.^ It is used to inform executives and staff of public reactions to ongoing work.
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^ The visioning process involves using many techniques of public involvement.
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^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
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.Because night trains or coaches can be cheaper than motels, homeless persons often use these as overnight shelters, as with the famous Line 22 ("Hotel 22") in Silicon Valley.^ It can be used productively at any time in a complex project or planning study, but because of time and cost commitments it is often used to resolve an impasse.
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^ In some cases, it may be appropriate to hire a staff person trained in dealing with these special needs.
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[16][17] .Specifically, a local transit route with a long overnight segment and which accepts inexpensive multi-use passes will acquire a reputation as a "moving hotel" for people with limited funds.^ This will require funding for Amtrak, the nation’s rail service that has been neglected in recent years, as well as funding for local light rail and mass transit projects.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, focus groups were used in Los Angeles to find out why commuters were not taking advantage of free transit passes.
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^ For example, Seattle's Regional Transit Project used videotapes to present 302 thirty-second advertising spots on five local TV stations.
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Most transportation agencies actively discourage this. For this and other reasons passengers are often required to exit the vehicle at the end of the line; they can board again in the same or another vehicle, after some waiting. Also, even a low fare often deters the poorest individuals, including homeless people.

Operation

Bus Ride Through Downtown Seattle (Time-lapse).ogv
Bus ride through Downtown Seattle (time-lapse)

Schedules

.All public transport must either operate after a predefined schedule, or operate at a sufficient frequency that travelers do not need to use a schedule to correspond with the services.^ We transport all horses but specialize in the transport of special needs horses.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has found that high gas prices, congestion, and expanded public transit services have led to a 32% increase in public transportation use since 1995 and that the average annual household savings from using public transportation is $6,251 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Give us a call for all of your horse transportation needs!
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

Operators will publish timetables, often supplemented with maps and fare schemes to help travelers coordinate their travel. .Public transport route planner online, sometimes combined with pre-sold tickets, help make planning task more user-friendly.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How does it relate to ISTEA?  A collaborative task force gets citizens directly, involved in developing plans and making decisions for official ratification.
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.To further aid travelers, operators often run at fixed times of the hour, so passengers only need to memorize the minutes past the hour the service leaves, and can apply that to any hour of the day.^ We haul the horses in between 8-10 hours per day and then stop for an overnight boarding at only the best of the best horse hotels that are clean, sanitary and secure.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.Coordination between services at intersections is important to reduce the total travel time for passengers.^ We provide door-to-door service primarily to reduce the amount of time your horse must be exposed to the process.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.This can be done by coordinating shuttle services with main routes, or by creating a fixed time (for instance twice per hour) when all bus and rail routes meet at a station and exchange passengers.^ Hay and water are provided at all times and we stop every 2-3 hours for a rest break.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ I keep hay in front of them at all times and stop every 3 to 4 hours to offer them a drink and to let them rest.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ Hay and water are provided at all times, along with stopping every 3 to 4 hours to rest.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

Infrastructure

.All public transport runs on infrastructure, either on roads, rail, airways or seaways; all consists of interchanges and way.^ An open house format is similar to a transportation fair, for either a public meeting or a public hearing.
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^ Focus groups have been used by transportation officials in New York and Illinois as a way to determine public opinions on HOV lane additions and rail transit alternatives.
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.The infrastructure can be shared with other modes of transport, freight and private transport, or it can be dedicated to public transport.^ J-1 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration CITIZEN SURVEYS, continued  INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION How do they relate to ISTEA? Surveys do not replace other techniques of public involvement.
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^ A-3 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration CHARRETTE, continued  INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION PLANNING How does it relate to other techniques?
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^ J-3 Federal Highway Administration  Federal Transit Administration CITIZEN SURVEYS, continued  INNOVATIONS IN PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION How do they relate to other techniques?
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The latter is especially true in cases where there are capacity problems for private transport. Investments in infrastructure are high, and make up a substantial part of the total costs in systems that are expanding. .Once built, the infrastructure will further require operating and maintenance costs, adding to the total costs of public transport.^ It can be used to refine requirements for transportation alternatives and can be repeated at intervals to gauge changes in public opinion.
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^ Public hearings are Federally required for many highway projects and may be held in transportation planning at the discretion of the sponsoring organization.
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^ A recent report shows that households with the best access to public transportation routes spends an average of $728 a month on transportation costs, while households with the worst access spend almost $200 more.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes governments subsidize infrastructure by providing it free of charge, just like is common with roads for automobiles.^ When on the road, hay is provided free choice and a bucket of water hangs in each stall.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

Financing

The main sources of financing are ticket revenue, government subsidies and advertisement. The percentage of revenue from passenger charges is known as the farebox recovery ratio. A limited amount of income may come from land development and rental income from stores and vendors, parking fees, and leasing tunnels and rights-of-way to carry fiber optic communication lines.

Fare and ticketing

A contactless ticket validator used in Oslo, Norway
.Most—but not all—public transport required the purchase of a ticket to generate revenue for the operators.^ It can be used to refine requirements for transportation alternatives and can be repeated at intervals to gauge changes in public opinion.
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^ Serving all of USA. Minard Family Horse transport is family owned and operated.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ Serving all of USA. Moore’s Equine Transport is a family owned and operated transport company with over 20 years of hauling experience.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.Tickets may either be bought in advance, at the time of the ride, or the carrier may allow both methods.^ Advance work is essential to give time for staff to prepare the overall program, agendas, mailing lists, questionnaires, and methods of presentation and follow-up.
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Passengers may be issued with a paper ticket, metal or plastic token, or an electronic card (smart card, contactless smart card). Sometimes a ticket has to be validated, e.g. a paper ticket that has to be stamped, or an electronic ticket that has to be checked in.
.Tickets may be valid for a single (or return) trip, or valid within a certain area for a period of time.^ In some instances, participation may be structured, either within larger meetings or for geographic areas.
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^ This interest may range from a broad, long-term view of the issues within a geographic area to a specific and more short-term view of issues surrounding a project or program.
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^ Staying with the program over a long period of time may be difficult for many individuals.
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The fare is based on the travel class, either as a function of the traveled distance, or based on a zone pricing.
The tickets may have to be shown or checked automatically at the station platform or when boarding, or during the ride by a conductor. .Operators may choose to control all riders, allowing sale of the ticket at the time of ride.^ As a one-time event with self-selected participants, it may not be representative of all interests.
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.Alternatively, a proof-of-payment system allows riders to enter the vehicles without showing the ticket, but riders may or may not be controlled by a ticket controller; if the rider fails to show proof of payment, the operator may fine the rider at the magnitude of the fare.^ Meetings may need to be held in the evening to allow participants to attend without interfering with daytime jobs.
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.Multi-use tickets allow travel more than once.^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
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.In addition to return tickets, this includes period cards allowing travel within a certain area (for instance month cards), or during a given number of days that can be chosen within a longer period of time (for instance eight days within a month).^ In some instances, participation may be structured, either within larger meetings or for geographic areas.
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^ For surveys with a randomized sample of the population, chosen in a statistically valid way, this sample can be stratified to include only people within a specific geographic area, income group, or other category of people from whom information is desired.
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^ We contact you daily with updates from the day we pick up, during travel & thru delivery.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

.Passes aimed at tourists, allowing free or discounted entry at many tourist attractions, typically include zero-fare public transport within the city.^ Public hearings are Federally required for many highway projects and may be held in transportation planning at the discretion of the sponsoring organization.
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^ Video usage requires a lead person within an agency-a person interested in trying new techniques for involving the public in transportation.
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^ N-1 Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning INTRODUCTION  Public involvement in transportation planning has a new emphasis since Congress passed the Federal intermodal Surface Transportation Act of 1991 (ISTEA).
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Period tickets may be for a particular route (in both directions), or for a whole network. .A free travel pass allowing free and unlimited travel within a system is sometimes granted to particular social sectors, for example students, elderly, children, employees (job ticket) and the physical or mentally disabled.^ For example, focus groups were used in Los Angeles to find out why commuters were not taking advantage of free transit passes.
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.Zero-fare public transport services are funded in full by means other than collecting a fare from passengers, normally through heavy subsidy or commercial sponsorship by businesses.^ Because the funds set forth for public transit in this bill are not actually granted by the Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act, Congress must ensure that the authorized money is in fact appropriated in future spending legislation.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Oberstar [D-MN] House: Yea-322, Nay-98 The Legislation: The Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 authorizes $1.7 billion in funds for Fiscal Year 2008 and Fiscal Year 2009 for public transit agencies to reduce fares and expand services.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public transportation is also an effective means to support environmental sustainability.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their entire bus networks to zero-fare. .Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than city-wide systems.^ It is much cheaper than paid network advertising and has a more local flavor.
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Subsidies

.Both local and national government may opt to subsidize public transport, of social, environmental or economical reasons.^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A charrette can enlarge the degree of public involvement in transportation, reducing feelings of alienation from government.
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^ Public hearings are Federally required for many highway projects and may be held in transportation planning at the discretion of the sponsoring organization.
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.Key motivations are the need to provide transport to people those who cannot afford or are physically or legally incapable of using an automobile,[18] and to reduce congestion, land use and emissions of local air pollution and greenhouse gases.^ I provide safe, caring and knowledgeable service for those who care enough about their horses to demand the best.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
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^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
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.Other motives may be related to promote business and economic growth, or urban renewal in formerly deprived areas of the city.^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some systems are owned and operated by a government agency; other transportation services may be commercial, but receive greater benefits from the government compared to a normal company.^ Equine Interstate Transport (EIT) is a family owned and operated company.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ Serving Southeast/ Midwest USA. My wife and I have owned our own transportation service for many years.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

^ (EIT) is the company with services and the commitment to quality and care that sets us apart from all the other companies and provides to you and your horse what you deserve and expect.
  • Traveling Horse Transport Company Directory 11 January 2010 9:58 UTC www.travelinghorse.com [Source type: General]

Subsidies may take the form of direct payments to unprofitable services, but also indirect subsidies are used. .This may include allowing use of state-owned infrastructure without payment or for less than cost-price (may apply for railways and roads), to stimulate public transport's economic competitiveness over private transport, that normally also has free infrastructure.^ The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has found that high gas prices, congestion, and expanded public transit services have led to a 32% increase in public transportation use since 1995 and that the average annual household savings from using public transportation is $6,251 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
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^ Public hearings are Federally required for many highway projects and may be held in transportation planning at the discretion of the sponsoring organization.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other subsidies include tax advantages (for instance aviation fuel is typically not taxed), bailouts if companies that are likely to collapse (often applied to airlines) and reduction of competition through licensing schemes (often applied to taxis and airlines). Private transport is normally subsidized indirectly through free roads and infrastructure.
Land development schemes may be initialized, where operators are given the rights to use lands near stations, depots, or tracks for property development. For instance, in Hong Kong, MTR Corporation Limited and KCR Corporation generate profits from land development to cover the partial cost of construction, but not operation, of the urban rail systems.
.Some government officials believe that use of taxpayer capital to fund mass transit will ultimately save taxpayer money in other ways, and therefore, state-funded mass transit is a benefit to the taxpayer.^ Because the funds set forth for public transit in this bill are not actually granted by the Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act, Congress must ensure that the authorized money is in fact appropriated in future spending legislation.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This will require funding for Amtrak, the nation’s rail service that has been neglected in recent years, as well as funding for local light rail and mass transit projects.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Focus groups have been used by transportation officials in New York and Illinois as a way to determine public opinions on HOV lane additions and rail transit alternatives.
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Since lack of mass transit results in more traffic, pollution, and road construction to accommodate more vehicles, all costly to taxpayers, providing mass transit will therefore alleviate these costs.

Safety and security

.Expansion of public transportation systems is often opposed (particularly in North America) by critics who see them as vehicles for violent criminals and homeless persons to expand into new areas (to which they would otherwise have to walk).^ They can identify concerns before a public vote is scheduled, as was done in the Seattle area.
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^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This requires an expansive approach to accommodate the population that is disabled, and that would not otherwise be accommodated in transportation plans or processes.
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[19] According to the Transportation Research Board, "[v]iolent crime is perceived as pandemic .... .Personal security affects many peoples' [sic] decisions to use public transportation."^ As an informal short-term event, it can be held in central locations where transportation fair many people pass by, such as a store downtown or in a shopping mall.
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^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
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^ The visioning process involves using many techniques of public involvement.
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[20] .Despite the occasional highly publicized incident, the vast majority of modern public transport systems are well designed and patrolled and generally have low crime rates.^ For example, videotapes were prepared by the Connecticut Department of Transportation to enhance public understanding of incident management on an interstate highway.
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Many systems are monitored by CCTV, mirrors, or patrol.[21]
.Nevertheless, some systems attract vagrants who use the stations or trains as sleeping shelters, though most operators have practices that discourage this.^ During construction, buses will replace some morning and early afternoon Capitol Corridor trains which will not operate between the Sacramento and Suisun/Fairfield stations.

^ Some cable TV stations use interactive techniques including playing of a video and allowing a response from viewers by telephone.
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[21]
.Though public transit accidents attract far more publicity than car wrecks, public transport is much safer, due to far lower accident rates.^ While there are no quick fixes, public transportation is becoming an increasingly appealing option for more middle-class Americans.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An easily understood video can be more useful to some people than reading or hearing about transportation.
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^ A public hearing is a more formal event than a public meeting.
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Annually, public transit prevents 200,000 deaths, injuries, and accidents had equivalent trips been made by car. The National Safety Council estimates riding the bus as over 170 times safer than private car.[22]

Regulations

Food and drink

Longer distance public transport sometimes sell food and drink on board, and/or have a dedicated buffet car and/or dining car. .However, some urban transport systems forbid the consumption of food, drink, or even chewing gum when riding on public transport.^ A renewed commitment to public transportation can help foster the urban and regional growth that now dominates the nation’s economy, while encouraging development that is environmentally sustainable.
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Sometimes only types of food are forbidden with more risk of making the vehicles dirty, e.g. ice creams and French fries, and sometimes potato chips.[citation needed]
Some systems prohibit carrying open food or beverage containers, even if the food or beverage is not being consumed during the ride.

Smoking

.In the United States, Canada, most of the European Union, Australia, and New Zealand, smoking is prohibited in all or some parts of most public transportation systems due to safety and health issues.^ In Idaho, the Department of Transportation uses video to introduce programs to the public and to provide news stories accompanying press releases for the media.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Focus groups have been used by transportation officials in New York and Illinois as a way to determine public opinions on HOV lane additions and rail transit alternatives.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is geared to the needs of State agencies and metropolitan planning organizations (MPO's), particularly some smaller MPO's with less extensive public involvement experience.
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.Generally smoking is not allowed on buses and trains, while rules concerning stations and waiting platforms differ from system to system.^ During construction, buses will replace some morning and early afternoon Capitol Corridor trains which will not operate between the Sacramento and Suisun/Fairfield stations.

The situation in other countries varies widely.

Noise

.Many mass transit systems prohibit the use of audio devices, such as radios, CD players, and MP3 players unless used with an earphone through which only the user can hear the device.^ For example, small machines are available to amplify speakers' voices via an FM transmitter and receiver system heard only by those with hearing disabilities.
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^ Text telephones such as TDD (Telephone Devices for the Deaf) phones are available with small screens and keyboards to aid people who have hearing disabilities.
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^ Telephone techniques should not be used in isolation from other techniques such as public meetings or hearings.
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Some mass transit systems have restricted the use of mobile phones. The Amtrak system has "quiet cars" where mobile phone usage is prohibited.
Some systems prohibit passengers from engaging in conversation with the operator. Others require that passengers who engage in any conversation must keep the noise level low enough that it not be audible to other passengers.
Some systems have regulations on the use of profanity. .In the United States, this has been challenged as a free speech issue.^ United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 2006 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 2005 .
  • Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

Banned items

Certain items considered to be problematic are prohibited or regulated on many mass transit systems. These include firearms and other weapons (unless licensed to carry), explosives, flammable items, or hazardous chemicals and substances.
.Many systems prohibit live animals, but allow those that are in carrying cases or other closed containers.^ In addition, many other Americans are temporarily disabled during part of their lives-whether aged, infirm, or recuperating.
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Additionally, service animals for the blind or disabled are permitted.
Some systems prohibit items of a large size that may take up a lot of space, such as bicycles. But more systems in recent years have been permitting passengers to bring bikes.
In Western Australia, it is illegal to carry spray cans on trains, as they can be used to vandalise the vehicle. .This rule also applies to sharp instruments that could damage the train, such as screwdrivers that could be used to make "scratches", a form of vandalism where tags are carved into a window.^ Such a group should be used primarily when the agency can commit to serious consideration of incorporating the group's decision into ongoing work.
  • Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning 2 February 2010 16:13 UTC ntl.bts.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other regulations

Many systems have regulations against behavior deemed to be unruly or otherwise disturbing to other passengers. In such cases, it is usually at the discretion of the operator, police officers, or other transit employees to determine what behaviors fit this description.
Some systems have regulations against photography or videography of the system's vehicles, stations, or other property. Those seen holding a mobile phone in a manner consistent with photography are considered to be suspicious for breaking this rule.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b http://www.publictransportation.org/aboutus/default.asp
  2. ^ Lyndsey Layton, "Study Lists Mass Transit Benefits", The Washington Post, July 17, 2002, Page B05
  3. ^ Paul Marston (2004-06-21). "Cars are more fuel-efficient than trains, claims study". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1465041/Cars-are-more-fuel-efficient-than-trains-claims-study.html. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  4. ^ Newman, 1999
  5. ^ Barletta, Barbara, Donald Dabdub, Donald R. Blake, F. Sherwood Rowand, Paul Nissenson, and Simone Meinardi. "Influence of the public transportation system on the air quality of a major urban center. A case study: Milan, Italy". Atmospheric Environment. Nov. 2008.Science Direct. 7 Dec. 2009 <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VH3-4T4XRGC-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1130677758&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=1f2126719e18c1a29f6ee6553554f321#bcor1>
  6. ^ New Jersey Future. "Getting to Work: Reconnecting Jobs with Transit." New Jersey Future.1 Nov. 2008.New Jersey Environmental Digital Library. 7 Dec. 2009 <http://njedl.rutgers.edu/njdlib/details.cfm?RECORD_ID=5828&formKeyword=public%20transportation&formTitle=&formOriginator=&formThemekey=&formPlacekey=&formDoctype=&order=PublicationDate%20DESC&quicksearch=yes&results_next=0>
  7. ^ UITP - Public transport alleviates congestion
  8. ^ UITP Advocacy
  9. ^ Litman, T. (1999). The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transport. Victoria Public Policy Institute. 
  10. ^ "Rapid transit". Merriam-Webster. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rapid%20transit. Retrieved 2008-02-27. ; "Metro". International Association of Public Transport. http://www.uitp.org/Public-Transport/metro/index.cfm. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  11. ^ "Glossary of Transit Terminology". American Public Transportation Association. http://www.apta.com/research/info/online/glossary.cfm. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  12. ^ Vuchic, Vukan and Casello, Jeffrey (2002). "An Evaluation of Maglev Technology and Its Comparison With High Speed Rail" (PDF). Transportation Quarterly 56 (2): 33–49. http://thetransitcoalition.us/LargePDFfiles/maglev-EvalandComparisonHSR.pdf. 
  13. ^ "London, England, United Kingdom". National Geographic. http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/places/cities/city_london.html. Retrieved 2006-10-13. 
  14. ^ Ovenden, 2007: 7
  15. ^ The London Omnibus
  16. ^ Jane Lii, "Refuge On The Road: Homeless Find Nighttime Haven — The No. 22 Bus From Menlo Park To San Jose", San Jose Mercury News, 9 January 2000, 1A.
  17. ^ Cathy Newman, "Silicon Valley: Inside the Dream Incubator", National Geographic 200, no. 6 (December 2001): 52-76.
  18. ^ http://www.heritage.org/Research/UrbanIssues/bg1721.cfm
  19. ^ Achs, Nicole. "Roadblocks to public transit: for reasons ranging from prejudice to pragmatism, many suburbanites are fighting tooth and nail to keep mass transit out of their neighborhoods." American City & County 106, no. 1 (January 1991): 28-32.
  20. ^ Transit Cooperative Research Program, TCRP Synthesis 21: Improving Transit Security (Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 1997), 3.
  21. ^ a b Needle et. al., 1997: 10–13
  22. ^ http://www.publictransportation.org/reports/asp/pub_benefits.asp

Bibliography

External links


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