Puebla, Puebla: Wikis

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Puebla
—  Town & Municipality  —

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Angelópolis
Location of Puebla within the state
Location of the state within Mexico
Puebla is located in Mexico
Puebla
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 19°02′43″N 98°11′51″W / 19.04528°N 98.1975°W / 19.04528; -98.1975
Country  Mexico
State  Puebla
Municipality Escudo Puebla.png Puebla
Founded 1531
Municipal Status 1821
Government
 - Municipal President Blanca Alcala Ruiz (PRI) (2008-2011)
Area
 - Municipality 534.32 km2 (206.3 sq mi)
Elevation of seat 2,135 m (7,005 ft)
Population (2005)Municipality
 - Municipality 1,485,941
 - Seat 1,399,519
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Postal code (of seat) 72000
Area code(s) 222
Website (Spanish) Official site
Historic Centre of Puebla*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Cathedral
State Party  Mexico
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 416
Region** Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

The city and municipality of Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico.[1] It is located to the east of Mexico City and west of the port of Veracruz, on the main route between the two. The city was founded in 1531 in an area called Cuetlaxcoapan which means “where serpents change their skin.”[2] This valley was not populated in the 16th century as in the pre-Hispanic period, this area was primarily used to the “Flower Wars” between a number of populations.[3] Due it its history and architectural styles ranging from Renaissance to Mexican Baroque, the city was named a World Heritage Site in 1987. The city is also famous for mole poblano, chiles en nogada and Talavera pottery. However, most of its economy is based on industry.[3]

Contents

History

In the 15th century, this valley was set aside for use for the so-called Flower Wars among the populations of Itzocan, Tepeaca, Huejotzingo, Texmelucan and Tlaxcala, with those soldiers captured being used as sacrifice victims.[3]

The foundation of Puebla begins with a letter from the bishop of Tlaxcala in 1530, Julián Garcés, to the Spanish queen outlining the need for a Spanish settlement between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz.[4] According to legend, the bishop had a dream about where to build the city. In this dream, he saw a valley with woods and meadows crossed by a clear river and dotted with fresh-water springs on fertile land. While he was contemplating this scenery, he supposedly saw a group of angels descend from heaven and trace out the city. Convinced he had seen a divine vision, he celebrated Mass, and took some of the brothers out in search of the place. Five leagues from the monastery he declared they had found the place shown in the dream. This legend is the source of Puebla’s original name, Puebla de los Angeles, and its current nickname Angelópolis.[2][5]

The city was founded in the Valley of Cuetlaxcoapan through which run the San Francisco, Atoyaca and Alseseca rivers. This valley was bordered by the provinces of Cholula, Tlaxcala, Huejotzingo and Tepeaca, all of which had large indigenous populations. After the city’s foundation, this valley became the main route between Mexico City and Veracruz. Official date of foundation is 16 April 1531, however, this first attempt at settlement failed due to constant flooding of the site right next to the river.[4]

Most of the population moved away from the west bank of the San Francisco River to a higher site. A few families remained behind and renamed the original settlement Alto de San Francisco. The Spanish Crown supported the founding of Puebla as a city without encomiendas, as this system was being abused and a number of Spaniards were finding themselves landless. Puebla received its coat-of-arms in 1538, and the titles “Noble y Leal” (Noble and Loyal) in 1558, “Muy Noble and Leal Ciudad” (Very Noble and Loyal City) in 1561 and “Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad” (Very Noble and Very Loyal City) in 1576.[4]

The layout of the city is of classic Spanish design, centered on a main plaza, today called the Zocalo. This main plaza originally was rectangular, but later made square because the earlier version was considered to be ugly. Another major feature of the city was the weekly markets (tianguis), in which indigenous sellers would come with their wares and foodstuffs to sell to the population. By the mid 16th century, water was brought in to the main plaza to a newly installed fountain. By the end of the century, the city occupied 120 blocks, much of which was under construction, with the new Cathedral begun in 1575.[4] Its favorable climate and strategic location helped the city to prosper, quickly becoming the second most important city in New Spain.[2]

The city council of Puebla, being made up of only Spaniards, had a certain amount of autonomy in the politics of the city and the land under its jurisdiction. This council annexed the towns of Amozoc, Totimehuacán, and Cuautinchán to its territory in 1755. By 1786, Puebla’s lands reached from what is now Veracruz to Guerrero states.[3] The city continued to grow and be more regulated during the 17th and 18th centuries. A new city hall was built in 1714 and the tianguis in the main plaza was replaced by wood stalls by the 1770s. The streets were paved with stone between 1786 and 1811.[4]

Commercial activity was dislodged from the main plaza completely by the early 19th century and placed in the San Francisco Parian market. Other plazas, such as the San Luis, San Antonio, El Carmen, La Concordia and Santa Inés were built. The main plaza underwent several transformations, adding statues and gardens.[4] During the Mexican War of Independence, Puebla’s main role was the printing and distribution of the plan for independence.[2] After Independence in 1827, all Spaniards were expelled from the city’s lands.[6]

In 1847, the city was taken by U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott, without a shot fired. These forces left in 1848 after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.[6]

On 5 May 1862, defending Mexican forces under Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French army under Count de Lorencez, which was considered to be the most powerful in the world at the time. The city’s name was changed to Puebla de Zaragoza in 1862, by a decree issued by Benito Juárez and the holiday “5 de Mayo” is a major annual event here.[2] The city was attacked again by the French in 1863, who succeeded in taking it. French forces left in 1866 and reconstruction began in 1867.[6]

Old German House in Puebla

During the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, Puebla remained important culturally and economically. It had a thriving textile industry at this time. Immigration from Europe was encouraged and people from Spain, Italy, Germany France and Lebanon came to live in the city. French influence can still be seen in much of the city’s architecture. The Germans mostly settled in the Humboldt neighborhood where Bavarian style houses and the Alexander von Humboldt German College can still be found. German immigration here was one of the reasons Volkswagon built a large factory just outside of the city, later in the 20th century.[2]

In what became a precursor to the Mexican Revolution, Carmen and Máximo Serdán were behind one of the first conspiracies against the Porfirio Diaz government. Their plans were discovered and their house, located on 6 Oriente Street was surrounded by federal troops. A gun battled ensued, killing both brothers on 18 November 1910.[2] During the Mexican Revolution, the city is taken by forces under General Pablo Gonzalez, then later was under Zapatista control.[6]

From 1931 until the end of the 20th century, growth of the city spurred the absorption of the municipalities of Ignacio Mariscal, San Felipe Hueyotlipan, Resurreccion, San Jeronimo Caleras, San Miguel Canoa and San Francisco Totimehuacán into the city.[3] In 1950, by decree of the state congress, the city received the title of Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza. In 1977, the federal government declared the city as a Zone of Historical Monuments. In 1987, the historic center of Puebla is declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.[6]

The municipality

As municipal seat, the city of Puebla is the government for 482 other communities[7] with a total area of 534.32km2.[3] However, 94% of the municipality’s population lof 1,485,941 lives in the city proper.[7] The municipality is located in the west central part of the state bordering the municipalities of Santo Domingo Huehutlán, Teopantlán, Amozoc, Cuauthinchán, Tzicatlacoyan, Cuautlancingo, San Andrés Cholula , Ocoyucan and the state of Tlaxcala.[3] Most of the municipality has been deforested, including the lower portions of the Malinche Volcano, due to logging and seasonal farming. The higher elevations still conserve forests of pine, holm oak and other tree species. The Sierra de Amozoc has been completely deforested but the forests of Sierra del Tentzon are stil intact. Animal life consists mostly of small mammals such as rabbits and skunks as well as birds such as owls, buzzards and some wild waterfowl.[3]

Some agriculture still takes place in the municipality but environmental degradation and the growth of the city is making this a smaller sector of the economy. Crops raised include corn, beans, wheat, oats, avocados, pears, apples, peaches, choke cherries, Mexican hawthorns, nuts and white sapotes. Most agriculture takes place on small plots on the edges of the municipality. Similarly livestock such as cattle, pigs, sheep and horses are raised.[3]

Industry accounts for about eighty percent of the economy and is mostly based on the outskirts of the city as well as in some surrounding municipalities. Main products include basic metals, chemicals, electrical items and textiles. The main employers are Hylsa and the Volkswagan automotive plant. A growing sector is food processing. Many industries are consolidated into parks such as the 5 de Mayo Industrial Park, the Resurrección Industrial Zone and the Puebla 2000 Industrial Park. These three parks provide just under 50% of the state’s jobs.[3]

Geography

Mount Popocatépetl

Puebla is located at the Valley of Puebla also known as the Valley of Cuetlaxcoapan, a large valley surrounded on four sides by the mountains and volcanoes of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. It is located 40 km. east of the Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes, giving the residents a magnificent view of their snow-topped peaks. La Malinche dormant volcano is located to the north of the city, and the Pico de Orizaba to the east. Hydrologically, the city is part of the Atoyac river basin; the river runs through northern, eastern and southern portions of the municipality, and connects to the Lake of Valsequillo, where the Manuel Ávila Camacho dam has been built. Other rivers that cross the area are the Alseseca and San Francisco.

Climate

Under the Koppen climate classification, Puebla features a Subtropical highland climate. The climate is moderated by its high altitude of 2,200m (7,000 ft). As a result it rarely gets truly hot in Puebla, with an average of only three days seeing temperatures rise above 29°C (85°F). Night temperatures are cool at all times of the year, often requiring additional clothing. Puebla experiences a dry season from November through April and a rainy season from May-October. The valley has a temperate climate while the higher elevations have cold climates. Most rain falls in the summer and early fall.[3]

Weather data for Puebla, Mexico
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 17
(63)
18
(64)
21
(70)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
19
(66)
19
(66)
17
(63)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13
(55)
14
(57)
16
(61)
18
(64)
18
(64)
17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
16
(61)
15
(59)
14
(57)
13
(55)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
13
(55)
13
(55)
13
(55)
13
(55)
13
(55)
13
(55)
11
(52)
10
(50)
8
(46)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
10
(0.39)
20
(0.79)
70
(2.76)
160
(6.3)
140
(5.51)
140
(5.51)
150
(5.91)
60
(2.36)
20
(0.79)
0
(0)
Source: Weatherbase[8]

Cultural attractions

Turibus in the city's downtown

One of the reasons Puebla was chosen as a World Heritage Site was due to the historic and cultural value of its architecture. Various styles and techniques such as Baroque, Renaissance and Classic are represented here in over 5,000 buildings included in the catalogue.[9] The historic center is filled with churches, monasteries, mansions and the like, mostly done in gray cantera stone, red brick and decorated with multicolored tiles. Puebla is also considered to be the “cradle of Mexican Baroque” both in architecture and in the decorative arts,[10] and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico.[1]

In spite of the many commercial centers that exist in Puebla today, the Zocalo remains the cultural, political and religious center of the city.[11] It was the first block to be laid out, with the rest of the historic center traced out from it in the form of a checkerboard. This main plaza originally was rectangular, but later made square because the earlier version was considered to be ugly. Until the end of the 18th century, this was the main market for the town. For much of the colonial period, it was the main source of potable water via a fountain that had been installed in center in the mid 16th century.[4] Many political and cultural events have been and continue to be held here. Bullfights were held in the main square from 1566 to 1722.[11] Today, the Zocalo is a tree-filled plaza and contains a large number of sculptures, but the most noted is the one of the Archangel Michael that is in a fountain placed in the center in 1777. Many notable buildings surround the Zocalo including the Municipal Palace, the Casa de Muñecas and the Cathedral. Most of the streets in Puebla are named on a numbering system, which centers on the northwest corner of the Zocalo.[12] El Parian is an arts and crafts market, within walking distance of the plaza. It consists mostly of permanent stalls but there is an area provided for vendors who visit and sell their wares on blankets spread on the ground.[5]

Cathedral of Puebla

The Cathedral, located on 16 de Septiembre and 5 Oriente, took 300 years to complete, in part due to interruptions in its construction. The Cathedral was begun in 1575 under orders of Philip II of Spain by architects Francisco Becerra and Juan de Cigorondo. The building was consecrated in 1649 even though only half of the walls and much of the roof were missing and the towers not yet built. The north tower was added in 1678 and the south tower in 1768.The shape of the cathedral is a Latin cross and contains five naves. The main altar is octagonal, with four others oriented to the cardinal directions[10] The complex consists of fourteen chapels in various styles with numerous artistic works such as the main cupola and the main altar, both decorated by Cristóbal de Villalpando. The facade is classified as late Baroque in transition to Neoclassical, with Doric and Corinthian columns. Its bell towers stand at just under 70 meters high, the tallest in Mexico. The seating in the choir is made of parquetry of fine woods, onyx and ivory of Moorish design. The two organs were donated by Charles V.[9] In the crypt under the Cathedral, numerous statues of saints and angels made of onyx can be seen.[13]

The Museo Amparo (Amparo Museum) is housed in two colonial-era buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries that were popularly known as El Hospitalito. One was the Hospital of San Juan de Letrán, which was converted into a college for women. The other is a mansion from the 18th century. It was joined to the hospital and then became the “Deposito de Mujeres Casadas” (Refuge of Married Women) This was established in 1606 for women whose husbands were gone for long periods of time. However, the idea was not popular with women and in 1609, it became the asylum for “lost women,” those obligated to be secluded for some reason. This facility was moved to another building and the building became part of the women’s college founded next door, then a convent. The museum has fourteen exhibition halls with pottery, steles and sculptures from the Zapotec, Huasteca, Maya, Olmec and Aztec cultures as well as fine furniture and religious objects from the colonial period and examples of contemporary art. These represent the three epochs of Mexican history, pre-Hispanic, colonial-era and post-Independence. Seven of the halls are dedicated to pre-Hispanic pieces.[14][15]

The Biblioteca Palafoxiana (Palafoxiana Library) was established in 1646 by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza for the Seminary of Puebla. He donated his own collection of 5,000 books to the College of San Juan to start the collection. It was the first library in the Americas and is the only one to survive to the present day. The main room is in Baroque style which was constructed in 1773, by Bishop Francisco Fabian y Fuero who also named the institution after Palafox. Today the library contains over 42,000 books, 5,000 manuscripts and other items, which date from 1473 to 1910. The Library was named a Monumento Histórico de México and UNESCO has made it part of Memory of the World.[16]

The Casa del Deán is the oldest noble house in the city of Puebla, constructed by Tomás de la Plaza Goes, who was the deacon of the Cathedral of Puebla. It was finished in 1580. The building remained practically intact until 1953, when it was going to be demolished to construct a movie theater. Protests to save the building, due to it’s murals and façade, succeeded. The murals are frescos, which are the only surviving non-religious examples from the 16th century in their original place in Mexico. The gray stone facade is completely smooth to let the main portal, of Renaissance style, stand out. The portal contains and upper and lower portion with a crest.[17]

The Centro Cultural Santa Rosa is housed in a building that dates from the 17th century which originally was housing for Dominican nuns. Later, it became a convent in the name of Saint Rose of Lima. This is where the story of the invention of mole poblano takes place. In 1869, it ceased being a convent and became a psychiatric hospital. In the 20th century the Ceramic Museum was founded in the building’s kitchen, with the rest of the building occupied as tenements for about 1500 people. In 1973, the Museo de Arte Cultural Poblano was founded and in 2000 the name was changed to the current one. The facility offers expositions, shows and art classes.[18]

The Museo de la Revolución (Museum of the Revolution) was the home of Aquiles Serdán in the very early 20th century. He was active and the anti-reelection movement of the time and was accused of distributing propaganda against President Porfirio Diaz. Police assaulted the building and Serdán and his family fought back, until Aquiles was killed. President Francisco I. Madero stayed at the home in honor of Serdán. Shortly thereafter, the family moved to Mexico City and the building became tenements and stores. Decades later, the federal government acquired the building from the family to convert it to the museum that is here today.[19]

Fort Guadalupe

Fort Loreto and Fort Guadalupe are located in the Centro Civico 5 de Mayo part of the city. Both were instrumental to the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862. The chapel of the Loreto fort contains a former chapel, which is now the Museo de la No Intervención (Museum of Non-Intervention). This is to commemorate a non-aggression pact signed by Mexico and Central American and two South American countries in the 1960’s. The Museo de Guerra del Fuerte (Fort War Museum) de Loreto y Guadalupe is located in this fort as well. This museum contains cannons, shotguns, swords, documents and other objects related to this battle.[20]

The Galería de Arte Contemporáneo y Diseño (Gallery of Contemporary Art and Design) is dedicated to visual arts such as painting, sculpture, ceramics, metal etching, photography, video, and others and belongs to the Secretary of Culture of the state of Puebla. It is housed in the old La Violeta textile factory, which dates back to 1908, and was one only many factories in this area at that time. This building was renovated between 1995 and 1998 for this museum.[21]

The Museo de José Mariano Bello y Acedo (José Mariano Bello y Acedo Museum) was initially founded with the private collection of the Bello family, along with works donated by friends. It originally began as a private museum or pinacotheca. Upon José Mariano’s death, the house and collection was bequeathed to the city.[22]

Casa de Alfeñique

The Casa de Alfeñique is named for the intricate mortar work that covers its facade. Alfeñique is a kind of sugar and almond candy. It was constructed by Antonio Santamaría de Incháurregui for Juan Ignacio Morales, who was a master ironsmith. The facades also contain ironwork balconies, cornices and a crown. The house was left to the state by Alejandro Ruiz Olavarrieta in 1896. It was first used to house the first public museum in the city of Puebla. The collection contains more than 1,500 pieces of a historical nature.[23]

The Museo de Arte (Museum of Art) originally was constructed to be the Temple of San Pedro, founded in 1541 to be a church and a hospital. Eventually it was established as the Hospital of San Pedro y San Pablo under the direction of the Cathedral of Tlaxcala. It was functioning as a hospital by 1544, but it incurred major expenditures, forcing it to limit service to men only. The arches of the main courtyard were completed in 1640, as well as it fountain and nursing units. In the first half of the 18th century, the hospital ceased to be under the direct control of the Cathedral, passing to the monks of the order of San Juan de Dios. In the latter half of the century, it began to house soldiers in order to improve its finances. The hospital underwent major reforms in the early 19th century to improve medical care, and began to receive medical students from the Medical-Surgical Academy of Puebla. In 1867, the facility became the Hospital General del Estado. In 1917, the hospital moved to new facilities in the city. Through most of the 20th century, the building was used for a wide-variety of purposes. In 1998, a project to restore the building for its use as Puebla Museum of Viceregal Art. In 2002, this museum was converted into the San Pedro Museum of Art, which exhibits works from various epochs.[24]

The Museum Workshop of Erasto Cortés Juárez was the home of one of the major figures in fine and graphic arts in Puebla in the 20th century. The museum was founded in 2000 and contains more than 400 pieces of both his work and personal effects. The museum also hosts temporary exhibits, workshops and seminars.[25]

The Teatro Principal de Puebla (Main Theater of Puebla) was inaugurated in 1761 by Miguel de Santamaría. In 1902, the theater burned down, and was rebuilt in 1940, and again in 1998. The theater hosts cultural events and art shows featuring regional, national and international artists.[26]

Municipal Palace

The Municipal Palace is located on Maximino Avila Camacho. The facade is made of gray cantera stone in Renaissance style, using Ionic columns and pediments, differing from the other buildings that border the main plaza. The portal has two levels topped by a central garret, in which there is a clock and towers on each side.[9]

The Fountain of the China Poblana is located on Blvd Heroes de 5 de May. It is a monumental work done in cantera stone and Talavera tile, with a base of about thirty meters in diameter. In the center is a column that supports two large bowls and a sculpture of the China Pobalana which is over three meters high.[9]

The Church and ex Monastery of San Francisco is on Blvd Heroes del 5 de Mayo. Its elevated four-level tower stands out with its mouldings and Ionic and Doric pilasters. The main facade is done in gray cantera stone in which are sculpted large jars and flowers. The main portal is of Churrigueresque style, flanked by large panels of tilework surrounded by Plateresque decoration. Inside is a Plateresque choir, Neoclassic altarpieces and the mummified body of the beatified Sebastian de Aparicio.[9]

Nave and altar of the Chapel del Rosario

The Church of Santo Domingo is located on 5 de Mayo Street. The main portal is of pure Classic style finished in gray cantera stone. It consists of three levels with paired Doric-like columns. The facade of the old monastery is highly decorated in Baroque style, in front of which is a large atrium. Inside the ceiling consists of two large vaults and contains gilded altarpieces in Baroque, Salmonic and Churrigueresque styles.[9] The Chapel Del Rosario is located in the Church of Santo Domingo. The Chapel was built between 1650 and 1690 and was the first to be dedicated to the Our Lady of the Rosary. The chapel is filled with symbolism, as it is filled with images and elements which are representative of the Baroque of New Spain. This symbolism is principally meant to aid with the evangelization process. The chapel contains three themes important to the Church, the mysteries of the rosary, the virtues associated with it and the Virgin of the Rosary herself. The cupola is in the shape of the crown of the Virgin Mary. The chapel is decorated with sculpted plaster that has been gilded done by local artists. There are also six paintings done by José Rodriguez Carnero as well as paintings by the altar depicting the life of the Virgin.[27]

Cuexcomate is the smallest volcano in the world at just thirteen meters tall and a diameter of 23 meters. The volcano is inactive and located in the La Libertad neighborhood of the city of Puebla. There is a spiral staircase going down into the crater itself.[28]

5 de Mayo

Every year on the 5th of May, Puebla celebrates the defeat of invading French troops here in 1862. Celebrations include several days of concerts, lectures, other cultural activities. On the 5th itself, there is a very large parade and a re-enactment of the battle.[29][30] The parade includes Mexican Army, Navy, Special Forces and soldiers dressed in period uniform. The military displays tanks, Humvees and armored personnel carriers. Civilian participation includes school bands, students and floats, both from Mexico and from abroad.[31]

However, this holiday is not really celebrated anywhere else in Mexico.[30][31]

Education

UDLA's main Library

The Universidad de las Américas (UDLAP) was founded as part of the Mexico City College in 1940. In 1944, the first twelve students had graduated and by 1959, the college was accepted into the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools of the United States, when it was called the Universidad de las Américas. The Puebla campus was founded in 1967, when the Ex-Hacienda of Santa Catarina Mártir, Cholula, as donated to the school by Mary Street Jenkins. Since 2005, this has been the site of the Rectory of UDLAP. Today, the campus has more than 8,000 students studying at both the bachelor’s the graduate levels.[32]

Other universities include Universidad de Puebla [1], the Benemerita Universidad de Puebla [2], the Universidad Autónoma Popular de Puebla [3] and the Universidad Politécnica de Puebla [4].

Cuisine

mole poblano

The best-known mole is named after the city of Puebla, mole poblano. The origin of this sauce is disputed and there are two versions of the legend that are most often cited. The first states that 16th century nuns from the Convent of Santa Rosa were worried because they had just found out that the archbishop was going to visit them and they had nothing to prepare for him except for an old turkey in the yard. Supposedly due to divine inspiration, they began to mix together many of the spices and flavorings they had on hand in the kitchen, including different types of chili peppers, other spices, day-old bread, chocolate and approximately twenty other ingredients. They let the sauce simmer for hours and poured it over the turkey meat. Fortunately, the archbishop was very pleased with the meal and the nuns were able to save face.[33]

The other story states that the sauce is of pre-Hispanic times and this was served to Hernán Cortés and the other conquistadors by Moctezuma II.[33] The Aztecs did have a preparation called “chilmulli,” which in Nahuatl means “chili pepper sauce.” [34] However, there is no evidence that chocolate was ever used to flavor prepared foods or used in chilmulli.[33] What has happened is that the sauce gained ingredients as it was reinterpreted over the colonial period.[34] Many food writers and gourmets nowadays consider one particular dish, the famous turkey in mole poblano, which contains chocolate, to represent the pinnacle of the Mexican cooking tradition.[33]

Chiles en nogada

Another famous dish, chiles en nogada, was also supposedly invented here. The story begins with three sisters from Puebla who met officers from Agustin de Iturbide’s Army of the Three Guarantees in Mexico City and fell in love with them. Attempts were made to engage the couples but one problem was that none of the sisters knew how to cook. Upon returning to Puebla, their mother sent them to the Convent of Santa Monica to learn. The women decided they wanted to make an original dish to impress Iturbide and his officers when they were due to visit Puebla. The dish, chiles en nogada, represents the colors of the Mexican flag, green (poblano chili pepper), white (the walnut sauce) and red (pomegranate seeds). The dish was served for the first time at a banquet for Iturbide with great success.[35]

Cemita with milanesa

Another signature dish in Puebla is the “cemita,” which is a type of well-stuffed sandwich on a bun.[13] The cemita is considered to be the sister of the Mexican torta, the first cousin of the pambazo, the distant cousin of the paste and the sandwich and the precursor to the giant tortas that are now sold in most parts of Mexico today. This large, meaty sandwich is named after the bread on which is it is served, a cemita. This bread is based on a bread introduced by the French during the period of the French Intervention in Mexico (1863-1867), but since then has evolved to suit Mexican tastes, especially in Puebla state. In the early 20th century, the bread began to be served sliced with a filling of leftovers, generally potatoes, beans, nopal, beef, chicken or pork. The Victoria Market in Puebla became famous for a version with beef hoof, onions and chili peppers with a vinaigrette sauce. Other markets and food stands soon created their own versions of the cemita with just about any kind of filling combination possible. During the same time period, it became traditional to sprinkle sesame seeds onto the cemita bread, often with designs of flowers, stars, animals and other things. While the dish started out as a lower-class meal, it is now enjoyed by people of all social classes in the city as a form of fast-food.[36]

Talavera pottery

A Talavera cup made around 1960

Soon after its foundation, Puebla was well-known for its fine ceramics, especially for the style that would be called Talavera. This has been due to the abundance of quality clay in the region, drawing some of the best artisans. Between 1550 and 1570, Spanish potter from Talavera de la Reina in Spain came to Puebla to teach the locals European techniques of using the potter’s wheel and tin-glazing. These new methods were mixed with native designs to give rise to what became known as Poblano Talavera. The glazing technique was first used for the tiles that still decorate many of the buildings in this city. Later, it was used to make pots, plates, jars, religious figures and other items. By the mid 1600s, the industry here had become well-established. Guilds were formed and ordinances passed to ensure quality. Blue was used only on the most expensive pieces due to the cost of the mineral used to produce it. The period between 1650 and 1750 was known as the Golden Age.[37]

In 1813, the constitution eradicated the potter's guild and revoked the ordinances established in 1653 to standardize production. Now anybody could use this ceramic method in any style they wanted, and the lack of regulations led to a decline in technique and artistic quality. The Talavera market crashed. Out of the 46 workshops in production since the 1700s, only seven remained. When Enrique Luis Ventosa, a 29-year old Catalan, arrived in Puebla in 1897, there were just six workshops left. Ventosa was fascinated by the history and fine craft work that had distinguished Puebla from the rest of Mexico. He became the leading force behind a renaissance in Talavera ware.[37]

Another impetus to the rebirth of Puebla tile was that collectors found out about it. In 1904 an American named Emily Johnston de Forrest traveled to Mexico with her husband and discovered Talavera. She established contact with scholars, collectors, and dealers who assisted her in building her collection. Eventually her collection was given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Other museums, like the Pennsylvania Museum of Art, built their own collections. The Franz Mayer Museum in Mexico City has the largest collection of 726 pieces.[37]

Legend of the China Poblana

Catarina de San Juan, in a 17th century woodcut

According to legend, a young Indian woman named Mirra was kidnapped by Portuguese pirates and taken to Cochin (modern-day Kochi), in the south of India. There, she escaped her kidnappers and took refuge in a Jesuit mission, where she was baptized with the name Catarina de San Juan. Mirra was again kidnapped by the same pirates that had taken her from her birth parents, and in Manila they delivered her to the merchant who later took her to New Spain. Once in Acapulco, she was sold to a Puebla merchant by the name of Miguel de Sosa. Through her life, Catarina or Mirra continued to dress in a sari. It is possible that is this gave rise to the “china dress” that became popular in Mexico in the 17th century. A few years after her arrival in Mexico, Miguel de Sosa died, providing in his will for the manumission of his slave. She was taken in by a convent, where it is said she began to have visions of the Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus. The “China Poblana” died on 5 January, 1688 at the age of 82. In Puebla, she was venerated as a saint until 1691, when the Mexican Inquisition prohibited open devotion to her. Today, the Templo de la Compañía, in Puebla, is known as La Tumba de la China Poblana because in its sacristy lie the remains of Catarina de San Juan.[38]

Sports

Team Sport League Stadium
Pericos de Puebla Baseball Liga Mexicana de Béisbol Estadio Hermanos Serdán
Puebla F.C. Soccer Primera División de México Estadio Cuauhtémoc
Lobos de la BUAP Soccer Primera División A Estadio Cuauhtémoc
Aztecas de la UDLA American Football ONEFA Templo del Dolor
Ángeles de Puebla Basketball LNBP Gimnasio "Miguel Hidalgo"

Puebla has two professional soccer teams, "Puebla F.C." and "Lobos BUAP". The biggest soccer stadium in the city, "Cuauhtémoc", with a capacity of 49,914, was built in 1968 as a second soccer field for the 1968 Olympic Games. Matches for the 1970 and 1986 FIFA World Cups were also played in Estadio Cuauhtémoc.

Puebla has a professional baseball team, the "Pericos de Puebla". Puebla, through the conurbated area of Cholula, has one college American football team, the "Aztecas" of the Universidad de las Américas. The Aztecas have won the championship three times since the creation of the Mexican College Football Organization (ONEFA) in 1978 (1995, 1996, and 1997). The team has been runner's up in the league 5 times, most recently in 2006 and 2007, losing the championship game all five times to the ITESM Campus Monterrey Borregos Salvajes. The Azteca's home stadium is the Templo del Dolor (Temple of Pain).

Transportation

Puebla is served by Hermanos Serdán International Airport, which is part of the metropolitan airport group for the Mexican capital and an alternate airport for Mexico City. It provides domestic services and flights to the United States. The airport is going under a construction phase to build a new terminal which would be capable of handling many international flights. The airport is also used as a place to manufacture goods and export and import due to prime location.

The government of the state of Puebla has begun a program of pink taxis exclusively for women, driven by women and equipped with mechanisms to deter assaults. The first 35 taxis have taken to the streets to provide secure rides 24 hours a day.[39]

Twin towns - Sister cities

Puebla is twinned with:

References

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  40. ^ "Twin Cities". The City of Łódź Office. Uk flag.gif Flag of Poland.svg (in English and Polish) © 2007 UMŁ. http://en.www.uml.lodz.pl/index.php?str=2029. Retrieved 2008-10-23.  

External links

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Coordinates: 19°03′05″N 98°13′04″W / 19.05139°N 98.21778°W / 19.05139; -98.21778


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