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Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico
  (Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Latin: Joannes Est Nomen Eius
Spanish: Juan es su nombre
English: John is his name
AnthemLa Borinqueña
Capital
(and largest city)
San Juan
18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.45°N 66.1°W / 18.45; -66.1
Official language(s) Spanish and English[1]
Ethnic groups  White (mostly Spanish origin) 76.2%, Black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, Mixed 4.4%, other 12%. (2007)[2]
Demonym Puerto Rican
Government Republic, three-branch government
 -  President Barack Obama (D)
 -  Governor Luis Fortuño (PNP)
 -  Federal legislative branch United States Congress
Sovereignty United States[3] 
 -  Cession December 10, 1898
from Kingdom of Spain 
Area
 -  Total 9,104 km2 (169th)
3,515 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 3,994,259 (127th in the world; 27th in U.S.)
 -  2000 census 3,913,055 
 -  Density 438/km2 (21st in the world; 2nd in U.S.)
1,115/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $77.4 billion (N/A)
 -  Per capita $19,600 (N/A)
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Time zone AST (UTC–4)
 -  Summer (DST) No DST (UTC–4)
Internet TLD .pr
Calling code +1 (spec. +1-787 and +1-939)
Puerto Rico (pronounced /ˌpwɛərtə ˈriːkoʊ/ or /ˌpɔrtə ˈriːkoʊ/), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: "Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico" — literally Associated Free State of Puerto Rico), is a self-governing unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "rich port") is composed of an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona. The main island of Puerto Rico is the smallest by land area and second smallest by population among the four Greater Antilles, which also include Cuba, Hispaniola, and Jamaica.
Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name.[4][5] The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as "La Isla del Encanto", which translated means "The Island of Enchantment."

Contents

History

Pre-Columbian era

The history of the archipelago of Puerto Rico before the arrival of Christopher Columbus is not well known. What is known today comes from archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Iñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, 293 years after the first Spaniards arrived on the island.[6]
Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center
The first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen. An archaeological dig in the island of Vieques in 1990 found the remains of what is believed to be an Arcaico (Archaic) man (named Puerto Ferro man) dated to around 2000 BC. Between AD 120 and 400 arrived the Igneri, a tribe from the South American Orinoco region. Between the 4th and 10th centuries, the Arcaicos and Igneri co-existed (and perhaps clashed) on the island. Between the 7th and 11th centuries the Taíno culture developed on the island, and by approximately 1000 AD had become dominant. This lasted until Christopher Columbus arrived in 1493.[7][8]

Spanish colony

When Christopher Columbus arrived in Puerto Rico during his second voyage on November 19, 1493, the island was inhabited by a group of Arawak Indians known as Taínos.[9] They called the island "Borikén" or, in Spanish, "Borinquen".[10] Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist. Later the island took the name of Puerto Rico while the capital was named San Juan. In 1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León became the island's first governor to take office.[11]
Garita at fort San Felipe del Morro
The Spanish soon colonized the island. Taínos were forced into slavery and were decimated by the harsh conditions of work and by diseases brought by the Spaniards.[12] In 1511, the Taínos revolted against the Spanish; cacique Urayoán, as planned by Agüeybaná II, ordered his warriors to drown the Spanish soldier Diego Salcedo to determine whether the Spaniards were immortal. After drowning Salcedo, they kept watch over his body for three days to confirm his death.[13]
The revolt was defeated by Ponce de León's men and within a few decades much of the native population had been decimated by disease, violence, and a high occurrence of suicide. By 1520, when Charles V issued a royal decree that collectively emancipated the remaining Taíno population, the Taíno presence had almost vanished.[14]
African slaves were introduced to replace the Taíno. Puerto Rico soon became an important stronghold and port for the Spanish Empire. Various forts and walls, such as La Fortaleza, El Castillo San Felipe del Morro and El Castillo de San Cristóbal, were built to protect the port of San Juan from European enemies. France, the Netherlands and England made several attempts to capture Puerto Rico but failed to wrest long-term occupancy. During the late 17th and early 18th centuries colonial emphasis was on the more prosperous mainland territories, leaving the island impoverished of settlers.
In 1809, in the midst of the Peninsular War, the Supreme Central Junta based in Cádiz recognized Puerto Rico as an overseas province of Spain with the right to send representatives to the recently convened Spanish parliament. The representative, Ramon Power y Giralt, died after serving a three-year term in the Cortes. These parliamentary and constitutional reforms, which were in force from 1810 to 1814 and again from 1820 to 1823, were reversed twice afterwards when the traditional monarchy was restored by Ferdinand VII. .Nineteenth century reforms augmented the population and economy, and expanded the local character of the island.^ The local character of the island expanded.
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^ Chinese labor was introduced in the nineteenth century, and immigrants came from Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque provinces, Galicia, and the Canary Islands.
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^ Puerto Rico – Prosperous and Progressive During the early nineteenth century, because of constitutional reforms, the economy and population of the island saw a surge with hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain and former Spainish colonies in South America, arriving in Puerto Rico.
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After the rapid gaining of independence by the South and Central American states in the first part of the century, Puerto Rico and Cuba became the only Spanish colonies found in the Americas. The Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815. This time the decree was printed in three languages — Spanish, English and French — intending to attract Europeans of non-Spanish origin, with the hope that the independence movements would lose their popularity and strength with the arrival of new settlers. Free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.[15]
The Original Lares Revolutionary Flag
Toward the end of the 19th century, poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as "Grito de Lares". It began in the rural town of Lares but was subdued when rebels moved to the neighboring town of San Sebastián. Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis. In 1897, Luis Muñoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to Charters of Autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico. In 1898, Puerto Rico's first, but short-lived, autonomous government was organized as an 'overseas province' of Spain. The charter maintained a governor appointed by Spain, which held the power to annul any legislative decision, and a partially elected parliamentary structure. In February, Governor-General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government under the Autonomous Charter. General elections were held in March and the autonomous government began to function on July 17, 1898.[16][17][18]

United States colony

On July 25, 1898, during the Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States with a landing at Guánica. As an outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam to the U.S. under the Treaty of Paris.[19]
The United States and Puerto Rico thus began a long-standing relationship. Puerto Rico began the 20th century under the military rule of the U.S. with officials, including the governor, appointed by the President of the United States. The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Rico a certain amount of civilian popular government, including a popularly elected House of Representatives, also a judicial system following the American legal system that includes both state courts and federal courts establishing a Puerto Rico Supreme Court and an United State District Court; and a non-voting member of Congress, by the title of "Resident Commissioner. In 1917, "Puerto Ricans were collectively made U.S. citizens"[20] via the Jones Act. The same Act also provided for a popularly elected Senate to complete a bicameral Legislative Assembly, a bill of rights and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner to a four year term. As a result of their new U.S. citizenship, many Puerto Ricans were drafted into World War I and all subsequent wars with U.S. participation in which a national military draft was in effect.
Natural disasters, including a major earthquake, a tsunami and several hurricanes, and the Great Depression impoverished the island during the first few decades under U.S. rule.[21] Some political leaders, like Pedro Albizu Campos who led the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, demanded change. On March 21, 1937, a march was organized in the southern city of Ponce by the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party which turned into a bloody event when the Insular Police[22] ("a force somewhat resembling the National Guard of the typical U.S. state" and which answered to the U.S.-appointed governor Blanton Winship)[23] opened fire upon, what a U.S. Congressman and others reported were, unarmed[24] and defenseless[25] cadets and bystanders alike,[26][27] killing 19 and badly wounding over 200 more,[28] many in their backs while running away.[29][30] An ACLU report declared it a massacre[31] and it has since been known as the Ponce massacre.
The internal governance changed during the latter years of the RooseveltTruman administrations, as a form of compromise led by Luis Muñoz Marín and others. It culminated with the appointment by President Truman in 1946 of the first Puerto Rican-born governor, Jesús T. Piñero. On June 11, 1948, Piñero, signed the "Ley de la Mordaza" (Gag Law) or Law 53 as it was officially known, passed by the Puerto Rican legislature which made it illegal to display the Puerto Rican Flag, sing patriotic songs, talk of independence and to fight for the liberation of the island. It resembled the anti-communist Smith Law passed in the United States.[32]

Commonwealth

In 1947, the U.S. granted Puerto Ricans the right to elect democratically their own governor. Luis Muñoz Marín was elected during the 1948 general elections, becoming the first popularly elected governor of Puerto Rico. In 1950, the U.S. Congress approved Public Law 600 (P.L. 81-600) which allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico to determine whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their own local constitution.[33] This Act left unchanged all the articles under the Jones Act of 1917 that regulated the relationships between Puerto Rico and the United States.[34]
On October 30, 1950, Pedro Albizu Campos and other nationalists led a 3-day revolt against the United States in various cities and towns of Puerto Rico. The most notable occurred in Jayuya and Utuado. In the Jayuya revolt, known as the Jayuya Uprising, the United States declared martial law and attacked Jayuya with infantry, artillery and bombers. The Utuado Uprising culminated in what is known as the Utuado massacre. On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate President Harry S Truman. Torresola was killed during the attack, but Collazo was captured. Collazo served 29 years in a federal prison, being released in 1979. Don Pedro Albizu Campos also served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico.[35]
The Constitution of Puerto Rico was approved by a Constitutional Convention on February 6, 1952, ratified by the U.S. Congress, approved by President Truman on July 3 of that year, and proclaimed by Gov. Muñoz Marín on July 25, 1952, on the anniversary of the arrival of U.S. troops to Puerto Rico in 1898, until then an annual Puerto Rico holiday. Puerto Rico adopted the name of Estado Libre Asociado (literally translated as "Free Associated State"), officially translated into English as Commonwealth, for its body politic.[36][37] The United States Congress legislates over many fundamental aspects of Puerto Rican life, including citizenship, currency, postal service, foreign affairs, military defense, communications, labor relations, the environment, commerce, finance, health and welfare, and many others.[38][39]
During the 1950s Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operación Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap"), an offshoot of FDR's New Deal, which aimed to transform Puerto Rico's economy from agriculture-based to manufacturing-based. Presently, Puerto Rico has become a major tourist destination, and it is the world's leading pharmaceutical manufacturing center.[40] Yet it still struggles to define its political status. Three plebiscites have been held in recent decades to resolve the political status but no changes have been attained. Support for the pro-statehood party, Partido Nuevo Progresista (PNP), and the pro-commonwealth party, Partido Popular Democrático (PPD), remains about equal. The only registered pro-independence party, the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño (PIP), usually receives 3-5% of the electoral votes.[citation needed]

Government and politics

South view of the Capitol, home of the Legislative Assembly in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico has a republican form of government,[41] subject to U.S. jurisdiction and sovereignty.[3] Its current powers are all delegated by the United States Congress and lack full protection under the United States Constitution.[42] Puerto Rico's head of state is the President of the United States.
The government of Puerto Rico, based on the formal republican system, is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch is headed by the Governor, currently Luis Fortuño. The legislative branch consists of a bicameral Legislative Assembly made up of a Senate upper chamber and a House of Representatives lower chamber. The Senate is headed by the President of the Senate, while the House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker of the House.
The judicial branch is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico. The legal system is a mix of the civil law and the common law systems. The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years. .Members of the Judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the "advice and consent" of the Senate.^ Judges of both courts are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Members of the Judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the "advice and consent" of the Senate.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The governor, with the consent of the legislature, appoints the heads of the commonwealths executive departments.

Puerto Rico is represented in the United States Congress by a nonvoting delegate, formally called a Resident Commissioner (currently Pedro Pierluisi). Current legislation has returned the Commissioner's power to vote in the Committee of the Whole, but not on matters where the vote would represent a decisive participation.[43] Puerto Rican elections are governed by the Federal Election Commission and the State Elections Commission of Puerto Rico.[44][45] While residing in Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, but they can vote in primaries. Puerto Ricans who become residents of a U.S. state can vote in presidential elections.
As Puerto Rico is not an independent country, it hosts no embassies. It is host, however, to consulates from 41 countries, mainly from the Americas and Europe.[46] Most consulates are located in San Juan. As an unincorporated territory of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have any first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. government, but has 78 municipalities at the second level. Mona Island is not a municipality, but part of the municipality of Mayagüez.[47]
Municipalities are subdivided into wards or barrios, and those into sectors. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a four year term. The municipality of San Juan (previously called "town"), was founded first, in 1521, San Germán in 1570, Coamo in 1579, Arecibo in 1614, Aguada in 1692 and Ponce in 1692. An increase of settlement saw the founding of 30 municipalities in the 18th century and 34 in the 19th. Six were founded in the 20th century; the last was Florida in 1971.[48]
From 1952 to 2007, Puerto Rico had three political parties which stood for three distinct future political scenarios. The Popular Democratic Party (PPD) seeks to maintain the island's "association" status as a commonwealth, improved commonwealth and/or seek a true free sovereign-association status or Free Associated Republic, and has won a plurality vote in referendums on the island's status held over six decades after the island was invaded by the U.S. The New Progressive Party (PNP) seeks statehood. The Puerto Rican Independence Party seeks independence. In 2007, a fourth party, the Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party (PPR), was ratified. The PPR claims that it seeks to address the islands' problems from a status-neutral platform. Non-registered parties include the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, the Socialist Workers Movement, the Hostosian National Independence Movement, and others.

Political status

Puerto Rico is an "unincorporated territory" of the United States which according to the U.S. Supreme Court's Insular Cases is "a territory appurtenant and belonging to the United States, but not a part of the United States."[49] Puerto Rico is subject to the Congress’ plenary powers under the territorial clause of Article IV, sec. 3, of the U.S. Constitution.[50] U.S. federal law applies to Puerto Rico, even though Puerto Rico is not a state of the American Union and has no voting representative in the U.S. Congress. Because of the establishment of the Federal Relations Act of 1950, all federal laws that are "not locally inapplicable" are automatically the law of the land in Puerto Rico.[51][52] In 1907, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Grafton v. United States[53], Justice Harlan clarified the meaning of plenary powers: "'The government of a state derives its powers from the people of the state, whereas the government of a territory owes its existence wholly to the United States'...The Court thus seems to equate plenary power to exclusive power. The U.S. government could exert over the territory power that it could not exercise over the state...This power, however, is not absolute, for it is restrained by some then-undefined fundamental rights possessed by anyone subject to the authority of the U.S. government." [54]
Since 1917, people born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens. However, federal electoral law does not grant a vote to any citizen who does not live in, or qualify as an absentee resident in, one of the fifty states or the District of Columbia. Thus, people who have always lived in Puerto Rico cannot vote in federal elections, but people born in Puerto Rico and living in a state or in DC can vote. See also: Voting rights in Puerto Rico

Estado Libre Asociado

In 1950, the U.S. Congress granted Puerto Ricans the right to organize a constitutional convention via a referendum that gave them the option of voting their preference, "yes" or "no", on a proposed U.S. law that would organize Puerto Rico as a "commonwealth" that would suppose continued United States sovereignty over Puerto Rico and its people. Puerto Rico's electorate expressed its support for this measure in 1951 with a second referendum to ratify the constitution. The Constitution of Puerto Rico was formally adopted on July 3, 1952. The Constitutional Convention specified the name by which the body politic would be known. The purpose of Congress in the 1950 and 1952 legislation was to accord to Puerto Rico the degree of autonomy and independence normally associated with a State of the Union.[55]
On February 4, 1952, the convention approved Resolution 22 which chose in English the word "Commonwealth", meaning a "politically organized community" or "state", which is simultaneously connected by a compact or treaty to another political system. The convention adopted a translation into Spanish of the term, inspired by the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) of "Estado Libre Asociado" (ELA) to represent the agreement. Literally translated into English the phrase Estado Libre Asociado means "Associated Free State."
While the approval of the commonwealth constitution marked a historic change in the civil government for the islands, neither it, nor the public laws approved by Congress in 1950 and 1952, revoked statutory provisions concerning the legal relationship of Puerto Rico to the United States. This relationship is based on the Territorial Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The statutory provisions that set forth the conditions of the relationship are commonly referred to as the Federal Relations Act (FRA). While specified subsections of the FRA were "adopted in the nature of a compact", other provisions, by comparison, are excluded from the compact reference. Matters still subject to congressional authority and established pursuant to legislation include the citizenship status of residents, tax provisions, civil rights, trade and commerce, public finance, the administration of public lands controlled by the federal government, the application of federal law over navigable waters, congressional representation, and the judicial process, among others.[56][57]
In 1967, the Puerto Rico's Legislative Assembly polled the political preferences of the Puerto Rican electorate by passing a plebiscite Act that provided for a vote on the status of Puerto Rico. This constituted the first plebiscite by the Legislature for a choice on three status options (commonwealth, statehood, and independence). Claiming "foul play" and dubbing the process as illegitimate and contrary to International Law norms regarding decolonization procedures, the plebiscite was boycotted by the major pro-statehood and pro-independence parties of the time, the [Republican Party of Puerto Rico] and the Puerto Rican Independence Party, respectively. The Commonwealth option, represented by the PDP, won with a majority of 60.4% of the votes. After the plebiscite, efforts in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, to enact legislation to address the status issue died in U.S. Congressional committees. In subsequent plebiscites organized by Puerto Rico held in 1993 and 1998 (without any formal commitment on the part of the U.S. Government to honor the results), the current political status failed to receive majority support (receiving 48.6% in 1993 and less than one percent, 0.3%, in 1998), when the "none of the above option" received the 50.3 % of the votes which was the Popular Democratic Party sponsored choice and was the winner option. Disputes arose as to the definition of each of the ballot alternatives; and Commonwealth advocates, among others, reportedly urged a vote for “none of the above".[58][59][60]

International status

On November 27, 1953, shortly after the establishment of the Commonwealth, the General Assembly of the United Nations approved Resolution 748, removing Puerto Rico's classification as a non-self-governing territory under article 73(e) of the Charter from UN. But the General Assembly did not apply its full list of criteria to Puerto Rico to determine if it has achieved self-governing status. According to the White House Task Force on Puerto Rico's Political Status in its December 21, 2007 report, the U.S., in its written submission to the UN in 1953, never represented that Congress could not change its relationship with Puerto Rico without the territory's consent.[61] It stated that the U.S. Justice Department in 1959 reiterated that Congress held power over Puerto Rico pursuant to the Territorial Clause[62] of the U.S. Constitution.[61]
In 1993, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit stated that Congress may unilaterally repeal the Puerto Rican Constitution or the Puerto Rican Federal Relations Act and replace them with any rules or regulations of its choice.[63] In a 1996 report on a Puerto Rico status political bill, the "U.S. House Committee on Resources stated that PR's current status does not meet the criteria for any of the options for full self-government". It concluded that PR is still an unincorporated territory of the U.S. under the territorial clause, that the establishment of local self-government with the consent of the people can be unilaterally revoked by the U.S. Congress, and that U.S. Congress can also withdraw the U.S. citizenship of PR residents of PR at any time, for a legitimate Federal purpose.[64] The application of the U.S. Constitution to Puerto Rico is limited by the Insular Cases.

Within the United States

Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a Commonwealth and Puerto Ricans have a degree of administrative autonomy similar to citizens of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act[65]. The act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on 2 March 1917. U.S. Federal law 8 U.S.C. § 1402, approved by President Harry S. Truman on 27 June 1952, declared all persons born in Puerto Rico on or after 13 January 1941 to be U.S. citizens at birth and all persons born in Puerto Rico between 11 April 1899 and 12 January 1941, and meeting certain other technical requirements, and not citizens of the United States under any other Act, are declared to be citizens of the U.S. as of 13 January 1941.[66]
In addition, an April 2000 report by the Congressional Research Service, asserts that citizens born in Puerto Rico are legally defined as natural born citizens and are therefore eligible to be elected President, provided they meet qualifications of age and 14 years residence within the United States. According to this report, residence in Puerto Rico and U.S. territories and possessions does not qualify as residence within the United States for these purposes.[67]
Since Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory (see above) and not a U.S. state, the United States Constitution does not fully enfranchise US citizens residing in Puerto Rico.[66][68]
Only the "fundamental rights" under the federal constitution apply to Puerto Rico, including the Privileges and Immunities Clause (U.S. Constitution, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1, also known as the 'Comity Clause') that prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner, with regard to basic civil rights. The clause also embraces a right to travel, so that a citizen of one state can have privileges and immunities in any other state; this constitutional clause regarding the rights, privileges, and immunities of citizens of the United States was expressly extended to Puerto Rico by the U.S. Congress through the federal law 48 U.S.C. § 737 and signed by President Truman in 1947.[68][69][70]
Other fundamental rights such as the due process clause and the equal protection guarantee of the Fourteenth Amendment were expressly extended to Puerto Rico by the U.S. Supreme court.[71][72] In a brief concurrence in the judgment of Torres v. Puerto Rico, 442 U.S. 465 (1979), Supreme Court Justice Brennan argued that any implicit limits from the Insular Cases on the basic rights granted by the Constitution (including especially the Bill of Rights) were anachronistic in the 1970s.[70][73][74]
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. This article was expressly extended to the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico by the U.S. Congress through Federal Law 89-571, 80 Stat. 764, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966. After that date, judges appointed to the Puerto Rico federal district court have been Article III judges appointed under the Constitution of the United States. In addition in 1984 one of the judges of the federal district court, Chief Judge Juan R. Torruella, a native of the island, was appointed to serve in the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit with jurisdiction over Puerto Rico, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maine, and New Hampshire.[75]
Federal executive branch agencies have significant presence in Puerto Rico, just as in any state, such as the U.S. Attorney, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Homeland Security, National Labor Relations Board, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Transportation Safety Authority, Environmental Protection Agency, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Internal Revenue Service, and Social Security Administration. The island’s economic, commercial, and banking systems are integrated to those of the United States.[76]
President George H. W. Bush issued a 30 November 1992 memorandum to heads of executive departments and agencies establishing the current administrative relationship between the federal government and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. This memorandum directs all federal departments, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state, insofar as doing so would not disrupt federal programs or operations.
Puerto Rico does participate in the internal political process of both the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S., accorded equal-proportional representation in both parties, and delegates from the islands vote in each party's national convention.
The U.S. Government classifies Puerto Rico as an independent taxation authority by Federal Law 48 U.S.C. § 734. Puerto Rico residents are required to pay U.S. federal taxes, import/export taxes,[77] federal commodity taxes,[78] social security taxes etc. The only exemption is federal income taxes since residents pay federal payroll taxes (Social Security[79] and Medicare),[80] as well as Commonwealth of Puerto Rico income taxes. All federal employees,[81] plus those who do business with the federal government,[82] in addition to Puerto Rico-based corporations that intend to send funds to the U.S.,[83] and some others[84] also pay federal income taxes.
Because residents of Puerto Rico pay into Social Security, they are eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement, but are excluded from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and the island actually receives less than 15% of the Medicaid funding it would normally receive if it were a U.S. state.[85] Yet Medicare providers receive less-than-full state-like reimbursements for services rendered to beneficiaries in Puerto Rico, even though the latter paid fully into the system.[86]
Since 1961 several Puerto Ricans have been appointed by the President, upon the advice and consent of the Senate to serve as United States Ambassadors to Venezuela, Spain, Costa Rica, Chile, the Dominican Republic, and the Republics of Mauritius and Seychelles. A Puerto Rican was also appointed by President Obama as ambassador to El Salvador, pending the advice and consent of the United States Senate. This evinces the extreme trust the President and Congress have placed upon these individuals, who serve the vital function of acting as the representative of the United States in foreign nations. As embassies fall within the Department of State, ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State.[75]
First Company of native Puerto Ricans enlisted in the American Colonial Army, 1899.
Puerto Ricans may enlist in the U.S. military. Since 1917 Puerto Ricans have been included in the compulsory draft whenever it has been in effect and more than 400,000 Puerto Ricans have served in the United States Armed Forces. Puerto Ricans have participated in all U.S. wars since 1898, most notably World War I, World War II, the Korean and Vietnam wars, as well as the current Middle Eastern conflicts. Several Puerto Ricans became notable commanders, five have been awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration in the United States, and several Puerto Ricans have attained the rank of General or Admiral, which requires a Presidential nomination and Senate confirmation, as is the case of judges and ambassadors.[87] In World War II,[88] the Korean War[89] and the Vietnam War[90] Puerto Ricans were the most decorated Hispanic soldiers and in some cases were the first to die in combat.[91][92]

Recent developments

The nature of Puerto Rico's political relationship with the U.S. is the subject of ongoing debate in Puerto Rico, the United States Congress, and the United Nations.[93][94] In 2005 and 2007, two reports were issued by the U.S. President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status.[61][95] Both reports conclude that Puerto Rico continues to be a territory of U.S. under the plenary powers of the U.S. Congress.[61] Reactions from Puerto Rico's two major political parties were mixed. The Popular Democratic Party (PPD) challenged[citation needed] the task force's report and committed to validating the current status in all international forums, including the United Nations. It also rejects[citation needed] any "colonial or territorial status" as a status option, and vows to keep working for the enhanced Commonwealth status that was approved by the PPD in 1998 which included sovereignty, an association based on "respect and dignity between both nations", and common citizenship.[96] The New Progressive Party (PNP) supported[citation needed] the White House Report's conclusions and supported bills to provide for a democratic referendum process among Puerto Rico voters.
According to a CRS report, the recent activity regarding Puerto Rico’s political status—in Congress and on the island—suggests that action may be taken in the 111th Congress. The reports issued in 2007 and 2005 by the President’s Task Force on Puerto Rico’s Status may be the basis for reconsideration of the existing commonwealth status, as legislative developments during the 109th and 110th Congresses suggested. Agreement on the process to be used in considering the status proposals has been as elusive as agreement on the end result. Congress would have a determinative role in any resolution of the issue. The four options that appear to be most frequently discussed include continuation of the commonwealth, modification of the current commonwealth agreement, statehood, or independence. If independence, or separate national sovereignty, were selected, Puerto Rican officials might seek to negotiate a compact of free association with the United States.[97]
On June 15, 2009, the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization approved a draft resolution calling on the Government of the United States to expedite a process that would allow the Puerto Rican people to exercise fully their inalienable right to self-determination and independence.[98]

Geography

Puerto Rico consists of the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands, including Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Desecheo, and Caja de Muertos. Of these last five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round. Mona is uninhabited most of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. There are also many other even smaller islands including Monito and "La Isleta de San Juan" which includes Old San Juan and Puerta de Tierra.
Map of Puerto Rico
The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has an area of 13,790 square kilometers (5,320 sq mi), of which 8,870 km2 (3,420 sq mi) is land and 4,921 km2 (1,900 sq mi) is water.[99] The maximum length of the main island from east to west is 180 km (110 mi), and the maximum width from north to south is 65 km (40 mi).[100] Puerto Rico is the smallest of the Greater Antilles. It is 80% of the size of Jamaica,[101] just over 18% of the size of Hispaniola and 8% of the size of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles.[102]
Puerto Rico is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south. The main mountain range is called "La Cordillera Central" (The Central Range). The highest elevation in Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta 1,339 meters (4,393 ft),[99] is located in this range. Another important peak is El Yunque, one of the highest in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with an elevation of 1,065 m (3,494 ft).[103]
Puerto Rico has 17 lakes, all man-made, and more than 50 rivers, most originating in the Cordillera Central.[104] Rivers in the northern region of the island are typically longer and of higher water flow rates than those of the south, since the south receives less rain than the central and northern regions.
Puerto Rico is composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks, overlain by younger Oligocene and more recent carbonates and other sedimentary rocks.[105] Most of the caverns and karst topography on the island occurs in the northern region in the carbonates. The oldest rocks are approximately 190 million years old (Jurassic) and are located at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island. They may represent part of the oceanic crust and are believed to come from the Pacific Ocean realm.
Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates and is being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by their interaction. These stresses may cause earthquakes and tsunamis. These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean. The most recent major earthquake occurred on October 11, 1918 and had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale.[106] It originated off the coast of Aguadilla and was accompanied by a tsunami.
Corcho Beach in Vieques
The Puerto Rico Trench, the largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic, is located about 115 km (71 mi) north of Puerto Rico at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates.[107] It is 280 km (170 mi) long.[108] At its deepest point, named the Milwaukee Deep, it is almost 8,400 m (27,600 ft) deep, or about 5.2 miles.[107]
Located in the tropics, Puerto Rico has an average temperature of 82.4 °F (28 °C) throughout the year. Temperatures do not change drastically throughout the seasons. .The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island.^ In the mountains, the weather is considerably cooler than anywhere else on the Island.
  • Puerto Rico: Weather & When to Go - TripAdvisor 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The coolest temperatures on the island exist in the interior mountains.

The Hurricane season spans from June to November. The all-time low in Puerto Rico has been 39 °F (4 °C), registered in Aibonito.[109]
Species endemic to the archipelago are 239 plants, 16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles, recognized as of 1998. Most of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island.[110] The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí, a small frog easily identified by the sound of its call, and from which it gets its name. Most Coquí species (13 of 17) live in the El Yunque National Forest, a tropical rainforest in the northeast of the island previously known as the Caribbean National Forest. El Yunque is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic to the island. It is also home to 50 bird species, including the critically endangered Puerto Rican Amazon. Across the island in the southwest, the 40 km2 (15 sq mi) of dry land at the Guánica Commonwealth Forest Reserve[111] contain over 600 uncommon species of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 endemic to Puerto Rico.

Administrative divisions

Puerto Rico's municipalities
As an unincorporated territory of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have any first order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. Government, but there are 78 municipalities at the secondary level which function as counties. Municipalities are further subdivided into barrios, and those into sectors. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for four year terms.
The first municipality (previously called "town") of Puerto Rico, San Juan, was founded in 1521. In the 16th century two more municipalities were established, Coamo (1570) and San Germán (1570). Three more municipalities were established in the 17th century. These were Arecibo (1614), Aguada (1692) and Ponce (1692). The 18th and 19th century saw an increase in settlement in Puerto Rico with 30 municipalities being established in the 18th century and 34 more in the 19th century. Only six municipalities were founded in the 20th century with the last, Florida, being founded in 1971.[112]

Economy

In the early 1900s the greatest contributor to Puerto Rico's economy was agriculture and its main crop was sugar. In the late 1940s a series of projects codenamed Operation Bootstrap encouraged a significant shift to manufacture via tax exemptions. Manufacturing quickly replaced agriculture as the main industry of the island. Puerto Rico is classified as a high income country by the World Bank.[113][114]
Economic conditions have improved dramatically since the Great Depression because of external investment in capital-intensive industries such as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and technology. .Once the beneficiary of special tax treatment from the U.S. government, today local industries must compete with those in more economically depressed parts of the world where wages are not subject to U.S. minimum wage legislation.^ Read More → Experience the San Sebastian Market If you want to be part of a local experience, get up early on a Friday and head to the San Sebastian Market.
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

^ Meterorologist Ernesto morales warned that for tomorrow there are similar conditions as those of today so more thunderstoms and rain are expected.
  • Puerto Rico - Local Reports (Caribbean Hurricane Network) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC stormcarib.com [Source type: General]

^ Those measures included the introduction of American currency, health programs, hydroelectric power and irrigation programs, and economic policies designed to attract U.S. industry and provide more employment opportunities for native Puerto Ricans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years, some U.S. and foreign owned factories have moved to lower wage countries in Latin America and Asia.^ GRT or over) 36,728 GRT/37,048 DWT by type: roll on/roll off 2 foreign-owned: 2 (United States 2) registered in other countries: 1 (2005) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flight of industry to cheaper labor markets in Asia and Latin America and the rise of transnational business have reduced the process of industrialization.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Puerto Rico is subject to U.S. trade laws and restrictions.^ Subject: Who is providing Internet services in Puerto Rico?
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ But Puerto Rico is also subject to federal law and constitutes a district within the U.S. federal court system, with a local district court that has jurisdiction over federal law cases.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The treatment the United States affords its citizens of Puerto Rican nationality after the establishment of Puerto Rico's independence is a matter of U.S. policy, subject only to constitutional limitations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

Milla de Oro is a major financial centre in Puerto Rico.
Also, starting around 1950, there was heavy migration from Puerto Rico to the Continental United States, particularly New York City, in search of better economic conditions. Puerto Rican migration to New York displayed an average yearly migration of 1,800 for the years 1930-1940, 31,000 for 1946–1950, 45,000 for 1951–1960, and a peak of 75,000 in 1953.[115] As of 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that more people of Puerto Rican birth or ancestry live in the U.S. than in Puerto Rico.[116]
On May 1, 2006, the Puerto Rican government faced significant shortages in cash flows, which forced the closure of the local Department of Education and 42 other government agencies. .All 1,536 public schools closed, and 95,762 people were furloughed in the first-ever partial shutdown of the government in the island's history.^ The first quarterly period will encompass the time from which all parties sign this Agreement through December 31, 2004.
  • Department of Education; Notice of written findings, compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and subsequent actions [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Implement Public School Choice for all schools in school improvement.
  • Department of Education; Compliance Agreement; Notice of written findings and compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although English is taught to most elementary school children in Puerto Rican public schools, Spanish remains the primary language on the island of Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117] On May 10, 2006, the budget crisis was resolved with a new tax reform agreement so that all government employees could return to work. .On November 15, 2006 a 5.5% sales tax was implemented.^ Municipalities have the option of imposing an additional sales tax of up to 1.5% (effective on November 15, 2006).
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Municipalities are required by law to apply a municipal sales tax of 1.5% bringing the total sales tax to 7%.[118]
Tourism is an important component of Puerto Rican economy supplying an approximate $1.8 billion. In 1999, an estimated 5 million tourists visited the island, most from the U.S. Nearly a third of these are cruise ship passengers. A steady increase in hotel registrations since 1998 and the construction of new hotels and new tourism projects, such as the Puerto Rico Convention Center, indicate the current strength of the tourism industry.
Puerto Ricans had median household income of $17,741 for 2007, which makes Puerto Rico's economy comparable to the independent nations of Latvia or Poland.[119] By comparison, the poorest state of the Union, Mississippi, had median household income of $36,338 in 2007.[119] Nevertheless, Puerto Rico's GDP per capita compares favorably to other independent Caribbean nations, and is one the highest in North America. [120] Puerto Rico's public debt has grown at a faster pace than the growth of its economy, reaching $46.7 billion in 2008.[121] In January 2009, Luis Fortuño enacted several measures aimed at eliminating the government's $3.3 billion deficit,[122] including laying off nearly 24,000 government employees. Puerto Rico's unemployment rate exceeded 15 percent in August, according to the U.S.[123] Bureau of Labor Statistics. Some analysts said they expect the government's layoffs to propel that rate to 17 percent.[124]

Demographics

Population and racial makeup

Royal Decree of Graces, 1815.
During the 1800s hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families arrived in Puerto Rico, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain (mainly from Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands) and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America. Other settlers included Irish, Scots, Germans, Italians and thousands others who were granted land by Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 ("Royal Decree of Graces of 1815"), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land.
.This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century.^ Yet the island was populated in 1898 by almost a million people that had developed a distinct national identity and consciousness as an integral part of the Latin American family of nations.
  • Puerto Rico's Decolonization - Rub�n Berr�os Mart�nez 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.independencia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the early 19th century, the island's most-feared pirate, Roberto Cofresi, terrorized the Puerto Rican coastline from a secret lair in a cave nearby.
  • Puerto Rico : Regions in Brief | Frommers.com 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico Careers: As of 2009, Puerto Rico’s population was estimated at almost four million; Puerto Rico was ranked 9th of 181 countries in a 2009 “Best Country to Start a Business” survey.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

A census conducted by royal decree on September 30, 1858, gives the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at this time: 300,430 identified as Whites; 341,015 as Free colored; and 41,736 as Slaves.[125]
During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s. In 1952, some Jewish families from the United States settled in Puerto Rico and founded the first synagogue. In 1959, there was an influx of Jewish emigres from Cuba, following the Cuban Revolution.[126]
Demographic distribution
Population density, Census 2000
Recently, Puerto Rico has become the permanent home of over 100,000 legal residents who immigrated from not only Spain, but from Latin America: Argentines, Cubans, Dominicans, Colombians and Venezuelans. Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history. Starting soon after World War II, poverty, cheap airfare and promotion by the island government caused waves of Puerto Ricans to move to the United States, particularly to New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Florida. This trend continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined.
According to a census held in 2000, there were almost four million inhabitants. Eighty percent of Puerto Ricans described themselves as "white"; 8% as "black"; 12% as "mulatto" and 0.4% as "American Indian or Alaska Native".[129]

Language

The official languages are Spanish and English with Spanish being the primary language. English is taught as a second language in public and private schools from elementary levels to high school and in universities.[130] Particularly, the Spanish of Puerto Rico, has evolved into having many idiosyncrasies that differentiate it from the language as spoken in other Spanish-speaking countries. This is mainly due to the influences from ancestral languages, such as those from the Taínos and Africans, and more recently from the English language influence resulting from its relationship with the United States. According to a study by the University of Puerto Rico, nine of every 10 Puerto Ricans residing in Puerto Rico do not speak English at the advanced level [131] and according to a brief report of the U.S. Census 2000, seven of every 10 Puerto Ricans residing in Puerto Rico does not speak English at the advanced level.[132]

Religion

The Roman Catholic Church has historically been the dominant religion in Puerto Rico. The first dioceses in the Americas was erected in Puerto Rico in 1511.[133] All municipalities in Puerto Rico have at least one Catholic church (building), most of which are located at the town center or "plaza". Protestantism which was suppressed under the Spanish regime has been encouraged under American rule making modern Puerto Rico interconfessional. Taíno religious practices have been rediscovered/reinvented to a degree by a handful of advocates. Various African religious practices have been present since the arrival of African slaves. In particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santeria and/or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe find adherence among a few individuals who practice some form of African traditional religion. In 2007, Islam had over 5,000 Muslims in Puerto Rico, representing about 0.10% of the population[134][135]
There were eight Islamic mosques spread throughout the island, with most Muslims living in Rio Piedras[136][137]. Puerto Rico is also home to the largest and richest Jewish community in the Caribbean with 3,000 Jewish inhabitants. Puerto Rico is the only Caribbean island in which the Conservative, Reform and Orthodox Jewish movements are represented.[126][138]

Culture

Kapok tree (Ceiba), the national tree of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rican culture is a mix of four cultures, African (from the slaves), Taíno (Amerindians), Spanish, and more recently, North American. From Africans, the Puerto Ricans have obtained the "bomba and plena", a type of music and dance including percussions and maracas. From the Amerindians (Taínos), they kept many names for their municipalities, foods, musical instruments like the güiro and maracas. .Many words and other objects have originated from their localized language.^ However, they have adopted other elements of African and local origin.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

From the Spanish they received the Spanish language, the Catholic religion and the vast majority of their cultural and moral values and traditions. From the United States they received the English language, the university system and the adoption of some holidays and practices. On March 12, 1903, University of Puerto Rico was officially founded, branching out from the "Escuela Normal Industrial", a smaller organism that was founded in Fajardo three years before.
Much of the Puerto Rican culture centers on the influence of music. Like the country as a whole, Puerto Rican music has been developed by mixing other cultures with local and traditional rhythms. Early in the history of Puerto Rican music, the influences of African and Spanish traditions were most noticeable. However, the cultural movements across the Caribbean and North America have played a vital role in the more recent musical influences that have reached Puerto Rico.[139][140]
The official symbols of Puerto Rico are the Reinita mora or Puerto Rican Spindalis (a type of bird), the Flor de Maga (a type of flower), and the Ceiba or Kapok (a type of tree). The unofficial animal and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí, a small frog genus. Other popular symbols of Puerto Rico are the "jíbaro", the "countryman", and the carite.

Sports

Baseball was one of the first sports to gain widespread popularity in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Baseball League serves as the only active professional league, operating as a winter league. No Major League Baseball franchise or affiliate plays in Puerto Rico, however, San Juan hosted the Montreal Expos for several series in 2003 and 2004 before they moved to Washington, D.C. and became the Washington Nationals. Puerto Rico has participated in the World Cup of Baseball winning one gold (1951), four silver and four bronze medals and the Caribbean Series, winning fourteen times. Famous Puerto Rican baseball players include Roberto Clemente and Orlando Cepeda, enshrined in the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1973 and 1999, respectively.[141][142]
Boxing, basketball, and volleyball are considered popular sports as well. Wilfredo Gómez and McWilliams Arroyo have won their respective divisions at the World Amateur Boxing Championships. Other medalists include José Pedraza, who holds a silver medal, as well as three boxers that finished in third place, José Luis Vellón, Nelson Dieppa and McJoe Arroyo. In the professional circuit, Puerto Rico has the third-most boxing world champions and its the global leader in champions per capita. These include Miguel Cotto, Félix Trinidad, Wilfred Benítez and Gómez among others. The Puerto Rico national basketball team joined the International Basketball Federation in 1957. Since then, it has won more than 30 medals in international competitions, including gold in three FIBA Americas Championships and the 1994 Goodwill Games. August 8, 2004, became a landmark date for the team when it became the first team to defeat the United States in an Olympic tournament since the integration of National Basketball Association players. Winning the inaugural game with scores of 92-73 as part of the 2004 Summer Olympics organized in Athens, Greece.[143]
Miscellaneous practices of this sport have experienced some success, including the "Puerto Rico All Stars" team, which has won twelve world championships in unicycle basketball.[144] Organized Streetball has gathered some exposition, with teams like "Puerto Rico Street Ball" competing against established organizations including the Capitanes de Arecibo and AND1's Mixtape Tour Team. Consequently, practitioners of this style have earned participation in international teams, including Orlando "El Gato" Meléndez, who became the first Puerto Rican born athlete to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.[145] Orlando Antigua, whose mother is Puerto Rican, made history in 1995, when he became the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.[146]
The Puerto Rico Islanders Football Club, founded in 2003, plays in the United Soccer Leagues First Division, which constitutes the second tier of football in North America. Puerto Rico is also a member of FIFA and CONCACAF. In 2008 the archipelago's first unified league, the Puerto Rico Soccer League, was established. Secondary sports include Professional wrestling and road running. The World Wrestling Council and International Wrestling Association are the largest wrestling promotions in the main island. The World's Best 10K, held annually in San Juan, has been ranked among the 20 most competitive races globally.
Puerto Rico has representation in all international competitions including the Summer and Winter Olympics, the Pan American Games, the Caribbean World Series, and the Central American and Caribbean Games. Puerto Rican athletes have won 6 medals (1 silver, 5 bronze) in Olympic competition, the first one in 1948 by boxer Juan Evangelista Venegas. On March 2006 San Juan's Hiram Bithorn Stadium hosted the opening round as well as the second round of the newly formed World Baseball Classic. The 2010 Central American and Caribbean Games will be held in Mayagüez in 2010.

Education

Education in Puerto Rico is divided in three levels — Primary (elementary school grades 1-6), Secondary (intermediate and high school grades 7-12), and Higher Level (undergraduate and graduate studies). As of 2002, the literacy rate of the Puerto Rican population was 94.1%; by gender, it was 93.9% for males and 94.4% for females.[147] According to the 2000 Census, 60.0% of the population attained a high school degree or higher level of education, and 18.3% has a bachelor's degree or higher.
Instruction at the primary school level is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 18 and is enforced by the state. The Constitution of Puerto Rico grants the right to an education to every citizen on the island. To this end, public schools in Puerto Rico provide free and non-sectarian education at the elementary and secondary levels. At any of the three levels, students may attend either public or private schools. As of 1999, there were 1532 public schools[148] and 569 private schools in the island.[citation needed]
The largest and oldest university system in Puerto Rico is the public University of Puerto Rico (UPR) with 11 campuses. The largest private university systems on the island are the Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez which operates the Universidad del Turabo, Metropolitan University and Universidad del Este, the multi-campus Inter American University, the Pontifical Catholic University, and the Universidad del Sagrado Corazón. Puerto Rico has four schools of Medicine and four Law Schools.

Transportation

Tren Urbano at Bayamón Station
Cities and towns in Puerto Rico are interconnected by a system of roads, freeways, expressways, and highways maintained by the Highways and Transportation Authority under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and patrolled by the Police of Puerto Rico. The island's metropolitan area is served by a public bus transit system and a metro system called Tren Urbano (in English: Urban Train). Other forms of public transportation include seaborne ferries (that serve Puerto Rico's archipelago) as well as Carros Públicos (private mini buses).
The island has three international airports, the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in Carolina, Mercedita Airport in Ponce, and the Rafael Hernández Airport in Aguadilla, and 27 local airports. The Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport is the largest aerial transportation hub in the Caribbean, and one of the largest in the world in terms of passenger and cargo movement.[149]
Puerto Rico has 9 ports in different cities across the main island. The San Juan Port is the largest in Puerto Rico, and the busiest port in the Caribbean and the 10th busiest in the United States in terms of commercial activity and cargo movement, respectively.[150] The second largest port is the Port of the Americas in Ponce currently under expansion to increase cargo capacity to 1.5 million 20 ft. containers (TEUs) per year.[151]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Nancy Morris (1995), Puerto Rico: Culture, Politics, and Identity, Praeger/Greenwood, p. 62, ISBN 0275952282, http://books.google.com/books?id=vyQDYqz2kFsC&pg=RA1-PA62&lpg=RA1-PA62&dq=%22puerto+rico%22+official+language+1993&source=web&ots=AZKLran6u3&sig=8fkQ9gwM0B0kwVYMNtXr-_9dnro 
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  3. ^ a b U.S. Department of State. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty
  4. ^ Allatson, Paul. Key Terms in Latino/a Cultural and Literary Studies, p. 47. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1405102500.
  5. ^ Dictionary: Taino Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean Retrieved: February 21, 2008. (Based on the encyclopedia "Clásicos de Puerto Rico", 2nd. edition. Ed. Cayetano Coll y Toste. Publisher: Ediciones Latinoamericanas, S.A., 1972.).
  6. ^ Abbad y Lasierra, Iñigo. Historia Geográfica, Civil y Natural de la Isla de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico. 
  7. ^ Cheryl Mahaffy (2006-01-30). "Vieques Island: What lies beneath". Edmonton Journal. http://www.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/travel/story.html?id=eb3c0119-8328-4b52-96ed-4a63763160f7. 
  8. ^ 500 Years of Puerto Rican History through the Eyes of Others. The Newberry library.
  9. ^ "History of Puerto Rico". http://welcome.topuertorico.org/history.shtml. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  10. ^ Today, Puerto Ricans are also known as Boricuas, or people from Borinquen.
  11. ^ Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was the first appointed governor but he never arrived on the island.
  12. ^ "History of Smallpox - Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services.
  13. ^ Mari, Brenda A. (April 22, 2005). "The Legacy of Añasco: Where the Gods Come to Die". Puerto Rico Herald. http://web.archive.org/web/20060427181624/http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues2/2005/vol09n16/PRSST0916-en.shtml. Retrieved 2006-03-01. 
  14. ^ Puerto Rico. Russell Schimmer, GSP, Yale University.
  15. ^ Real Cédula de 1789 "para el comercio de Negros".
  16. ^ "USA Seizes Puerto Rico". History of Puerto Rico. solboricua.com. 2000. http://www.solboricua.com/history2.htm#usa. 
  17. ^ Magaly Rivera. "History". topuertorico.org. http://www.topuertorico.org/history4.shtml. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  18. ^ "Chronology of Puerto Rico in the Spanish-American War". The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War. Hispanic Division, Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/chronpr.html. 
  19. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain". The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. December 10, 1898. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/spain/sp1898.htm. 
  20. ^ The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion: 1803-1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Page 166, 178. "U.S. citizenship was extended to residents of Puerto Rico by virtue of the Jones Act, chap. 190, 39 Stat. 951 (1971) (codified at 48 U.S.C. § 731 (1987)")
  21. ^ "Sistema de Alerta de Tsunamis de Puerto Rico y el Caribe" (in Spanish). Red Sísmica de Puerto Rico. http://redsismica.uprm.edu/spanish/tsunami/index.php. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  22. ^ Law Library Microform Consortium
  23. ^ Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico. The Commission, 70p, np, May 22, 1937.
  24. ^ Law Library.
  25. ^ Don Luis Sanchez Frasquieri, President of the Ponce Rotary Club at the time.
  26. ^ The "police riot" shot at the demonstrators as well as the crowd standing by.
  27. ^ US Congressman Vito Macartonio.
  28. ^ Over 200 were wounded.
  29. ^ Photos of police shooting with rifles (from positions previously occupied by marchers and bystanders) at bystanders running away.
  30. ^ Five Years of Tyranny, Speech before the U.S. House of Representatives. The entire speech is contained in the Congressional Record of August 14, 1939. It is reported in the Cong. Rec., and various other publications elsewhere, that among those shot in their backs was a 7-year-old girl, Georgina Maldonado, who "was killed through the back while running to a nearby church"
  31. ^ Report of the ACLU as echoed by U.S. Congressman Vito Marcantonio.
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  83. ^ Joint Committee on Taxation. An Overview of the Special Tax Rules Related to Puerto Rico and an Analysis of the Tax and Economic Policy Implications of Recent Legislative Options
  84. ^ Members of the military must pay federal income tax (See http://www.heritage.org/research/taxes/wm2338.cfm) as well as those who are residents of Puerto Rico but with income sourced in the US mainland(See http://www.jct.gov/x-24-06.pdf).
  85. ^ Puerto Rico receives less than 15% of the Medicaid funding that similar states of the Union currently receive
  86. ^ Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration.
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External links

Puerto Rican government
United States government
United Nations (U.N.) Declaration on Puerto Rico
General information



Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.This article contains quotes about the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

^ Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the U.S. and as such uses the U.S. dollar.

By non-Puerto Ricans

.
  • The United States for many years has tried to convert Puerto Rico into a model of hybrid culture: the Spanish language with English inflections, the Spanish language with hinges on its backbone--the better to bow down before the Yankee soldier.^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

    ^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

    ^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

    .Puerto Rican soldiers have been used as cannon fodder in imperialist wars, as in Korea, and have even been made to fire at their own brothers, as in the massacre perpetrated by the U.S. army a few months ago against the unarmed people of Panama--one of the most recent crimes carried out by Yankee imperialism.^ Even during the “off-season” of this festival, the spirit of Le Lo Lai can be seen every night through the delicious dishes and cheerful faces of the Puerto Rican people.

    ^ The dynamic background of the Puerto Rican people is seen through the songs, dancing and delicious food that accompany every festival.

    ^ The most exuberant display of Puerto Rican culture is found in the Le Lo Lai Festival.

    And yet, despite this assault on their will and their historical destiny, the people of Puerto Rico have preserved their culture, their Latin character, their national feelings, which in themselves give proof of the implacable desire for independence lying within the masses on that Latin American island.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North America : Caribbean : Puerto Rico
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:rq-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital San Juan
Government Commonwealth
Currency US dollar (USD)
Area 9,104 km2
Population 3,957,988 (July 2002 est.)
Language Spanish, English
Religion Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%
Electricity 120V/60Hz (North American plug)
Calling Code +1
Internet TLD .pr
Time Zone UTC -4
.Puerto Rico [1] is a Caribbean island that is a self governing commonwealth of the United States of America.^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

.Located in the Caribbean Sea to the east of the Dominican Republic and west of the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico lies on a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal, the Mona Passage.^ Or discover the secrets of Puerto Rico’s hidden wonder, Mona Island.

^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

  • Puerto Rico - the main island itself
  • Culebra
  • Vieques, also known as Isla Nena or Little Island, is a small, rural island approximately 7 miles East of the big island of Puerto Rico.
Map of Puerto Rico
Map of Puerto Rico
.
This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
  • San Juan - the capital - has one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean
  • Arecibo - home of the world's largest radio telescope
  • Carolina
  • Dorado - Nice Public Park, Nolos Morales Beach, Sheltered Family area
  • Guayama
  • Luquillo - best public beach, reef protected swimming area with views of El Yunque.^ San Juan is also world's second largest cruise ship homeport.
    • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

    ^ San Juan airport is roughly 9 km away, the Condado region is some 16 km from the hotel and El Yunque may be reached within a 45-minute drive.
    • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Holiday Inn San Juan (No Meals) Located one block from the beach in the activity-packed Isla Verde tourist area, this family-friendly hotel features a freeform pool with an adjacent spray park- offers great value, free high-speed internet in rooms- highly trained and qualified personnel.
    • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

    .Rainforest
  • Ponce - Puerto Rico's second city
  • Mayaguez - Puerto Rico's third city
  • Rincón
  • Salinas
  • El Yunque National Forest
  • Guánica State Forest (Bosque Estatal de Guánica) is also the name of a small dry forest reserve east and west of the town, the largest remaining tract of tropical dry coastal forest in the world, and designated an international Biosphere Reserve in 1981. The park comprising much of the dry forest is known as el bosque seco de Guánica.
  • San Juan National Historic Site - includes forts San Cristóbal, San Felipe del Morro, and San Juan de la Cruz, also called El Cañuelo, plus bastions, powder houses, and three fourths of the city wall.^ San Juan is also world's second largest cruise ship homeport.
    • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

    ^ San Juan airport is roughly 9 km away, the Condado region is some 16 km from the hotel and El Yunque may be reached within a 45-minute drive.
    • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

    .All these defensive fortifications surround the old, colonial portion of San Juan, Puerto Rico and are among the oldest and best preserved Spanish fortifications of the Americas.
  • Mona Island, off of the west coast of PR, half way to the Dominican Republic, this island is a secluded island only inhabited by wildlife.^ Or discover the secrets of Puerto Rico’s hidden wonder, Mona Island.

    ^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

    ^ Puerto Rico, meaning “Rich Port,” has been a coveted island since it was first inhabited in 4500 B.C. These mysterious people dominated the island until their replacement by the Taino Indians in 800 A.D. It wasn’t until Columbus’ famous 1493 voyage that European contact was made.

    .You can only go to the island by appointment.
  • Rio Camuy Caverns in the north/northwest; a 45 minute guided walking tour of the main cave, Cueva Clara, including a view of the "3rd largest underground river in the world" and an enormous sinkhole.
  • Lajas
  • Caja de Muertos Island, or Caja de Muertos for short, is an uninhabited island off the southern coast of Puerto Rico.^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

    ^ El Conquistador Resort and Golden Door Spa Next to the fishing village of Las Croabas at the eastern end Puerto Rico, the hotel is 31 miles from the SJU International Airport.
    • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

    ^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

    The island is protected because of its native turtle traffic. Hikers and beachgoers are often seen in the island, which can be reached by ferry or through diving tour operators from the La Guancha Boardwalk sector of Ponce Playa.

Understand

History

.Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Puerto Rico in 1493 on his second voyage of discovery, and originally named it San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist.^ The attractions of the San Juan area are close to the hotel and include the beautiful, historic area of Old San Juan Puerto Rico with its Spanish forts and narrow streets lined with landmark buildings.
  • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico, meaning “Rich Port,” has been a coveted island since it was first inhabited in 4500 B.C. These mysterious people dominated the island until their replacement by the Taino Indians in 800 A.D. It wasn’t until Columbus’ famous 1493 voyage that European contact was made.

^ San Juan is also world's second largest cruise ship homeport.
  • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

.The name of the island's present day capital, San Juan, honors the name Columbus first gave the island.^ Four Points by Sheraton Palmas del Mar The property is located just 45 minutes from San Juan on the east coast of the island.
  • Puerto Rico Vacation Packages - Save on air + hotel Puerto Rico packages - Cheap Puerto Rico Vacations 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.beachdestinations.com [Source type: General]

Climate

.Puerto Rico has a tropical marine climate, which is mild and has little seasonal temperature variation.^ Continuous tropical weather and an endless coastline set the stage for Puerto Rico’s thrilling sports and recreations.

^ Even a short visit to Puerto Rico will find your tropical intentions fully satisfied and far exceeded.

^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

Temperatures range from 70˚F to 90˚F (21˚C to 32˚C), and tend to be lower at night and up in the mountains. .The average annual temperature is 26°C (80°F).^ Puerto Rico enjoys an annual average temperature of 80 degrees Fahrenheit.

Hurricane season spans between June and November, where rain showers occur once a day, almost every day. Periodic droughts sometimes affect the island.

Terrain

.Puerto Rico is mostly mountainous, although there is a coastal plain belt in the north.^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

^ The volcanic origins of Puerto Rico have created an island rich in tropical flora, rugged mountains and white flowing streams.

^ Rugged mountains, rushing rivers and tropical terrain challenge the most daring explorers to engage the untamed side of Puerto Rico.

The mountains precipitous to the sea on the west coast. There are sandy beaches along most of the coast. .There are many small rivers about the island and the high central mountains ensure the land is well watered, although the south coast is relatively dry.^ Exciting eco-tours and extreme sports are rightfully centered on the mountains, caves, rivers and beaches that span the island.

The coastal plain belt in the north is fertile. .Puerto Rico's highest point is at Cerro de Punta, which is 1,338 m above sea level.^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ Puerto Rico boasts more than 20 breathtaking courses that will challenge and inspire players of every level.

Get in

.Since Puerto Rico is a US territory, US citizens do not need a passport to travel to Puerto Rico, from the US or vice versa.^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

^ Puerto Rico’s ecology is without fail, the centerpiece of traveler’s affections.

^ However, All Inclusive Outlet recommends the use of a passport for US Citizens traveling to this area.

A driver's license should suffice. .For foreigners, the entry requirements are exactly the same as those for the United States.^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

However, for temporary residents (H1B, F-1 student, J-1 visas etc..) traveling directly from a state to .Puerto Rico would only require a driver's license.^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

^ A doctor in Puerto Rico must sign the marriage license after examining the bride and groom.

Though bringing a valid passport and supporting documents is highly advised. .This also means you do not need a valid visa to travel from a state directly to Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico is on Atlantic Standard Time (AST) which is just one hour later than Eastern Standard Time (EST) and four hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

By plane

.Puerto Rico's main airport is Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport (IATA: SJU) in Carolina, near San Juan.^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

^ Destination Wedding Resorts The following resorts are recommended for destination weddings: Caribe Hilton El Conquistador El San Juan Rio Mar Beach Resort Honeymoon Resorts The following resorts are recommended for honeymoons: Caribe Hilton Copamarina Beach El Conquistador El San Juan Gran Melia Puerto Rico InterContinental San Juan Rio Mar Beach Resort .

^ PUERTO RICO (SJU) .

Jet Blue, Continental and Delta Connection also fly to smaller airports in the cities of Aguadilla and Ponce.
.As Puerto Rico is part of the US commonwealth, U.S. Immigration and Customs Laws and Regulations apply, however, U.S. citizens flying back to the U.S. mainland from Puerto Rico will not have to pass through Customs before boarding their flight.^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

^ However, All Inclusive Outlet recommends the use of a passport for US Citizens traveling to this area.

^ The story of Puerto Rico is told through the mysterious ruins, ancient structures and astonishing museums that adorn the island.

Travel between the mainland and San Juan, Ponce and Aguadilla is the same as if it were between two mainland cities.
.Most U.S. and many international airlines offer direct flights from many cities to Puerto Rico.^ The spirit of Puerto Rico’s wild terrain is somehow adopted into the electric nightlife of its cities and resort areas.

^ Miles of pristine coastline dressed in sands of every color invite beach lovers and romantics to Puerto Rico’s most popular attraction.

^ Most resorts offer in-house specialties and are found within Puerto Rico’s culinary hot spots.

Flights are economical and numerous. SJU is the biggest and most modern airport in the Caribbean and offers all the conveniences and services (McDonalds, Dominos, Starbucks, etc.) of a major city airport. American Eagle operates a hub at SJU and airlines like Caribbean Sun, Liat and Cape Air offer cheap and easy connections to most Caribbean islands.
.If you have lots of luggage, beware there are no baggage carts in the domestic terminal, although there are plenty of baggage porters available to help you for a tip or fee.^ We’re helping you get there with Warm Up Rates up to 60% off select resorts.

Luggage Carts are available in the international terminal of the airport. At the exit, a porter will assist you with your luggage for a fee.
Transferring from the airport to your hotel usually requires taking a taxi, although some hotels provide complimentary transportation to their properties in special buses. .Puerto Rico Tourism Company representatives at the airport will assist you in finding the right transportation.^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

^ Even a short visit to Puerto Rico will find your tropical intentions fully satisfied and far exceeded.

All major car rental agencies are located at the airport, and others offer free transportation to their off-airport sites.
Typical flight times (outbound flights are slightly longer due to headwinds):
.On your way back out of Puerto Rico, note that you'll be required to pass all your check-in bags through a US Dept of Agriculture inspection before checking in.^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

Many agricultural products, including most fruits and vegetables, are in fact permitted [2], but will be checked for disease. Cruise ship passengers with ship luggage tags are exempted.

By boat

A commercial ferry service connects the west coast city of Mayaguez and Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. This service is very popular and convenient way to travel between both cities. There is also a ferry from the city of Fajardo to St. Thomas, USVI for around $80 round trip. .Also, more than a million passengers visit the island on cruise ships every year, whether on one of the many cruise lines whose homeport is San Juan, or on one of the visiting lines.^ Puerto Rico boasts more than 20 breathtaking courses that will challenge and inspire players of every level.

.No passport is required for U.S. citizens who use this service.^ However, All Inclusive Outlet recommends the use of a passport for US Citizens traveling to this area.

Get around

.Public transportation in Puerto Rico is fairly bad: outside San Juan, there are no scheduled buses or trains.^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

^ No matter your location, Puerto Rico’s beautiful terrain is a backdrop that can’t be ignored.

^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

Most travelers choose to rent their own cars, but intrepid budget travelers can also explore the shared cab (público) system.

By taxi

Official Tourism Company-sponsored taxis on the Island are clean, clearly identifiable and reliable. Look for the white taxis with the official logo and the "Taxi Turístico" on the front doors. Under a recently instituted Tourism Taxi Program, set rates have been established for travel between San Juan's major tourist zones. Rates are as follows:
No Zone Piers (Old San Juan) to Plaza Las Americas - $14 No Zone Piers (Old San Juan) to Plaza Carolina - $24 No Zone Airport LMM to Plaza Las Americas - $18 No Zone Airport LMM to Plaza Carolina - $14 Zone 1 Airport LMM to hotels in Isla Verde - $10 Zone 2 Airport LMM to hotels in Condado/Ocean Park/Miramar - $14 Zone 3 Airport LMM to hotels and piers in Old San Juan - $19 Zone 4 Piers in Old San Juan to hotels in Old San Juan area- $7 Zone 5 Piers in Old San Juan to hotels in Puerta de Tierra - $7 Zone 6 Piers in Old San Juan to hotels in Condado/Ocean Park/Miramar - $12 Zone 7 Piers in Old San Juan to hotels in Isla Verde - $19
Additional metered rates are available which are not to/from the major tourist areas in San Juan: Types of Charges Charges Initial Charge $1.75 Charge per 1/19 of mile $0.10 Charge for waiting every 25 seconds $0.10 Charge per piece of luggage (up to 3) $0.50 Charge per piece of luggage (4 or more) $1 Charge per call $1 Charge for rental per hour $36 Night charge (10:00PM until 6:00AM) $1 Minimal charge per trip $3 Charge for 5 passengers or more (only in vans) $2
Several taxi company numbers: Asociación Dueños de Taxi de Carolina (787) 762-6066
Asociación Dueños de Taxi de Cataño y Levittown (787) 795-5286
Cooperativa de Servicio Capetillo Taxi (787) 758-7000
Cooperativa de Taxis de Bayamón (787) 785-2998
Cooperativa Major Taxi Cabs (787) 723-2460 or 723-1300
Metro-Taxi Cab. Inc. (787) 725-2870
Ocean Crew Transport (787) 645-8294 or 724-4829
Rochdale Radio Taxi (787) 721-1900
Santana Taxi Service, Inc. (787) 547-1926

By car

.If you are planning to explore outside of San Juan, renting a car is by far the most convenient way to get around.^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

Rentals are available from the airport as well as larger hotels. Rental cars can be had for as little as $28 a day.
.Parking in the Old Town of San Juan is virtually non-existent (there is a public parking lot called "La Puntilla" which on weekends you only pay a fixed rate for the whole day, and it always has parkings available) and traffic in all major cities is bad during rush hour (8AM-10AM, 4PM-6PM), so give yourself plenty of time coming and going.^ Search for city - search for a city not listed here Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Fixed Time Calculator - If it's 3 pm in New York, what time is it in the rest of the world?
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^ Your email will not be sold or provided to third parties, and you will only receive emails from Caribbean Tours and Cruises / All Inclusive Outlet.

^ Available Resorts Caribe Hilton Copamarina Beach El Conquistador El San Juan Gran Melia Puerto Rico InterContinental San Juan Rio Mar Beach Resort Getting There Entry Requirements .

Road signs are Spanish language versions of their U.S. counterparts, so you shouldn't have trouble figuring them out. However, note that distances are in kilometers, while speed limits are in miles. Gas is also sold by the liter, not by the gallon, and costs significantly more than on the mainland.
In addition to the regular free highway (carretera) network, there are three toll roads (autopista) on Puerto Rico. They're much faster and less congested than the highways, and it's worth using them if in any kind of hurry. Tolls for a 2-axle car range from $0.50 and $1.50. The lanes on the left are reserved for people with RFID (Autoexpreso) toll passes, which you probably won't have on your rental car. If you need change, head for the lanes marked with a "C", usually the furthest to the right.
.Off the main highways, roads in Puerto Rico quickly become narrow, twisty and turny, especially up in the mountains.^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

^ The volcanic origins of Puerto Rico have created an island rich in tropical flora, rugged mountains and white flowing streams.

Roads that are only one-and-a-half lanes wide are common, so do like the locals do and beep before driving into blind curves. Signage is often minimal, although intersections do almost always show the road numbers, so a detailed highway map will come in handy.
Police cars are easy to spot, as by local regulation, they must keep their blue light bar continuously illuminated any time they are in motion. Avoid getting a speeding ticket: fines start at $50 + $5 for each mile above the speed limit.

By público

A público is a shared taxi service and is much cheaper than taking a taxi around the island, and depending on your travel aspirations, might be cheaper than renting a car. Públicos can be identified by their yellow license plates with the word "PUBLICO" written on top of the license plate. .The "main" público station is in Río Piedras, a suburb of San Juan.^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

They're also known as colectivos and pisicorres.
There are two ways of getting on a público. The easier way is to call the local público stand the day before and ask them to pick you up at an agreed time. (Your hotel or guesthouse can probably arrange this, and unlike you, they probably know which of the multitude of companies is going your way.) This is convenient, but it'll cost a few bucks extra and you'll be in for a wait as the car collects all the other departing passengers. .The cheaper way is to just show up at the público terminal (or, in smaller towns, the town square) as early as you can (6-7 AM is normal) and wait for others to show up; as soon as enough have collected, which may take minutes or hours, you're off.^ We’re helping you get there with Warm Up Rates up to 60% off select resorts.

Públicos taper off in the afternoon and stop running entirely before dark.
.Públicos can make frequent stops to pick up or drop off passengers and may take a while to get to their destination terminal, but you can also request to be dropped off elsewhere if it's along the way or you pay a little extra.^ We’re helping you get there with Warm Up Rates up to 60% off select resorts.

Prices vary depending on the size of the público and the distance being traveled. As an example, a small público that can seat three or four passengers from Ponce to San Juan will cost roughly $15, while a 15 passenger público that is traveling between San Juan and Fajardo will cost about $5 each person.

By ferry

Ferries depart from San Juan and Fajardo & the most popular arrivals are Cataño, Vieques Island & Culebra Island. .Also the Mayaguez fery travels between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico’s ecology is without fail, the centerpiece of traveler’s affections.

^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

^ Dominican Republic - Puerto Plata .

By train

Tren Urbano — or Urban Train in English — is a 10.7 mile (17.2 km) fully automated rapid transit that serves the metropolitan area of San Juan, which includes the municipalities of San Juan, Bayamón, and Guaynabo. Tren Urbano consists of 16 stations on a single line.
The Tren Urbano complements other forms of public transportation on the island such as the public bus system, taxis, water ferries and shuttles. The entire mass transportation system has been dubbed the “Alternativa de Transporte Integrado” (Integrated Transportation Alternative) or “ATI”.
It's services are very reliable and are on almost always time.
Fares - A single trip costs $1.50 ($0.75 if you transfer from an AMA bus) including a 2 hour bus transfer period. .If you exit the station and wish to get back on the train the full fare must be re-paid; there is no train to train transfer period.^ We’re helping you get there with Warm Up Rates up to 60% off select resorts.

Students and Seniors (60-74 years old) pay 75 cents per trip. Senior citizens older than 75 and children under 6 ride for free. Several unlimited passes are also available.
A stored-value multi-use farecard may be used for travel on buses as well as on trains. The value on the card is automatically deducted each time it is used. .It is a system similar to the Metrocard system used in New York City.^ NEW YORK CITY, NY (NYC) .

By bus

Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses, also known in English as Metropolitan Bus Authority or by its initials in Spanish, AMA, is a public bus transit system based in San Juan, Puerto Rico
The AMA provides daily bus transportation to residents of San Juan, Guaynabo, Bayamón, Trujillo Alto, Cataño, and Carolina through a network of 30 bus routes, including 2 express routes and 3 "Metrobus" routes. Its fleet consists of 277 regular buses and 54 paratransit vans for handicapped persons. Its ridership is estimated at 112,000 on work days.
The daily, weekend and holiday bus service from 4:30 AM to 10PM with the exception of a few routes that are limited to certain hours and the express routes.
There are two routes which are very reliable, M-I & M-II, commonly called Metrobus (metroboos). MetroBus M1 transit between Old San Juan to Santurce downtown, Hato Rey Golden Mile banking zone and Rio Piedras downtown where a nice open walking street mall and great bargains could be found, the Paseo De Diego. The Metrobus II transit from Santurce to Bayamon city, passing Hato Rey, including Plaza Las Americas Mall and to Guaynabo City. Many interesting places could be found on the routes, like the remains of the first european settlement on the island and the oldest under USA government, the Caparra Ruins (Ruinas de Caparra Museum).

Do

Horseback Riding
.Whether you're dreaming about spectacular surfing waves, a challenging golf course, or the perfect sunbathing beach, Puerto Rico offers the active traveler a tremendous array of opportunities.^ Puerto Rico’s ecology is without fail, the centerpiece of traveler’s affections.

^ Puerto Rico boasts more than 20 breathtaking courses that will challenge and inspire players of every level.

^ Miles of pristine coastline dressed in sands of every color invite beach lovers and romantics to Puerto Rico’s most popular attraction.

.Surfing and golf compete with tennis, fishing, kayaking, scuba diving, and horseback riding, not to mention windsurfing and parasailing, for your active time.^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

.The island has over 15 championship golf courses a short drive away from the San Juan metropolitan area.^ Traverse the fairways of championship golf courses that bear the design work of pros such as Robert Trent Jones, Jack Nicklaus and Greg Norman.

.Learn about the different character of Puerto Rico's favorite beaches, or find out where to participate in your favorite sports.^ Continuous tropical weather and an endless coastline set the stage for Puerto Rico’s thrilling sports and recreations.

^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

^ Even a short visit to Puerto Rico will find your tropical intentions fully satisfied and far exceeded.

The hardest part will be choosing what to do first.
Golf
.The Trump International Golf Club boasts Puerto Rico’s first course of legendary proportions, designed by PGA Professional Tom Kite.^ Traverse the fairways of championship golf courses that bear the design work of pros such as Robert Trent Jones, Jack Nicklaus and Greg Norman.

^ Puerto Rico boasts more than 20 breathtaking courses that will challenge and inspire players of every level.

^ Lively resorts offer nightly entertainment and are often surrounded by Puerto Rico’s clubs, bars and fine casinos.

Comprised of two 18-hole championship courses, the Championship and the International.
Blue Flag in Puerto Rico
The Blue Flag Program, initiated in Europe since 1987 has been modified for implementation in the Caribbean. It is voluntary program and it has proven along the years to be a very effective strategy to guarantee the best quality in beach services for bathers in different parts of the world.
Snorkel and Scuba dive
... .Puerto Rico's Caribbean coasts.^ Puerto Rico is a stirring display of the Caribbean’s untamed wonder and the consoles of island hospitality.

^ The capital of Puerto Rico is also known as the capital of Caribbean nightlife and entertainment.

Especially out of Fajardo. But be sure that if you book with a snorkel trip -- that they guarantee you you'll be taken to true snorkeling sites. .Dive operators (for instance, the outfit named Sea Ventures) have been known to book snorkelers on day trips along with scuba divers, taking them all to deep water sites suited only to scuba diving!^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

El Yunque
.El Yunque, Puerto Rico's rain forest is a must see.^ A doctor in Puerto Rico must sign the marriage license after examining the bride and groom.

^ This is a great way to see Puerto Rico’s history of Taino, African and Spanish influence in its finest harmony.

It spreads out over a mountain, so if you walk uphill from the road you're in a sicknasty rain forest. At any altitude you'll see numerous varieties of plant and animal life. .If you're lucky you can catch a glimpse of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot & hear the song of the local Coqui tree frog.^ The dynamic background of the Puerto Rican people is seen through the songs, dancing and delicious food that accompany every festival.

^ Miles of breathtaking coastline introduce the island and have spawned the useful slogan, ‘You’re not dreaming… you’re in Puerto Rico.’ .

There are many hiking trails and the Yokahu tower is a great spot to see the forest from above. There are also two trails that lead you straight down to La Mina waterfalls. You can swim at the bottom of the falls in the cold refreshing water.
There are short hiking trails and long hiking trails and they do overlap. Pay close attention to the signs to ensure that you do not bite off more than you can chew.
Since it is a RAIN forest, expect it to rain daily and frequently. This means you may wish to leave your expensive Louis Vuitton hand-bag at the hotel.
Outdoor Adventures
There is plenty to do outside the metropolitan areas. .Many small family owned tour companies provide guided tours of the Central Mountains in Utuado near Río Tanama, Repelling in Arecibo, kayak tours of Lake Guajataka, and horse back riding on the beach in Aguadilla.^ Exciting eco-tours and extreme sports are rightfully centered on the mountains, caves, rivers and beaches that span the island.

Some of the tour operators also provide low cost or free lodging. .Let's Go Puerto Rico has listed a few of these outfitters or you can simply do an internet search with the name of the area you would like to visit to find things to do.^ The spirit of Puerto Rico’s wild terrain is somehow adopted into the electric nightlife of its cities and resort areas.

^ Even a short visit to Puerto Rico will find your tropical intentions fully satisfied and far exceeded.

^ Miles of breathtaking coastline introduce the island and have spawned the useful slogan, ‘You’re not dreaming… you’re in Puerto Rico.’ .

The individual towns also have yearly festivals listed in the tourism guides available at both major airports.
Bioluminescent Bays
The bioluminescent bays near Fajardo and in Vieques are a soul-healing experience that should not be missed. The microscopic organisms that live in every drop of water in these bays will glow when they dart away from movement. Take a kayak or boat tour during a new moon for the best results; they're hard to see during a full moon and impossible to see in sunlight. .The biolumicescent bay in Lajas is by far the most famous one to visit with many kiosks and restaurants there for the traveler to enjoy as well as boat tours.^ Please visit www.cdc.gov for the most current traveler's health information.

Casinos
In the metropolitan area in San Juan they have luxurios hotels with casinos similar to las Vegas...if you like to gamble, San Juan will be a great place to stay while vacationing in the island.
See also: Spanish phrasebook
Both Spanish and English are the official languages of Puerto Rico, but Spanish is without a doubt the dominant language. Fewer than 20 percent of Puerto Ricans speak English fluently, according to the 1990 U.S. Census. .Spanish is the mother tongue of all native Puerto Ricans, and any traffic signs and such are written exclusively in Spanish, with the exception of San Juan and Guaynabo.^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

^ Puerto Rican cuisine is called Criolla, and is a blissful blend of Taino, Spanish and African flavors.

However, people working in tourism-related businesses are usually fluent in English, locals in less touristed areas of the island can usually manage basic English, as it's taught as a foreign language in school. Menus in restaurants, even off the beaten track, are almost invariably bilingual.
That said, as anywhere, it's respectful to try make an effort and try to learn at least the basics of Spanish. .Average Puerto Ricans appreciate efforts to learn the most widely spoken language of their territory, and most are more than happy to help you with your pronunciation.^ Puerto Rico boasts more than 20 breathtaking courses that will challenge and inspire players of every level.

^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

^ The most exuberant display of Puerto Rican culture is found in the Le Lo Lai Festival.

.If you're already familiar with the language, be aware that Puerto Rican Spanish speakers have a very distinct accent, similar to the Cuban accent, which is full of local jargon and slang unfamiliar to many outside the island.^ Miles of breathtaking coastline introduce the island and have spawned the useful slogan, ‘You’re not dreaming… you’re in Puerto Rico.’ .

^ Puerto Rican cuisine is called Criolla, and is a blissful blend of Taino, Spanish and African flavors.

Puerto Ricans also have a tendency to "swallow" consonants that occur in the middle of a word. Puerto Ricans also speak at a relatively faster speed than Central Americans or Mexicans.
Examples of words that are unique to Puerto Rican Spanish include:
  • chína - orange (ordinarily naranja)
  • zafacón - trash can (basura)
  • chavo - loose change (moneda)
  • frajlai - flashlight (linterna)
  • wikén - weekend (fín de semana)
Taino influence
When the Spanish settlers colonized Puerto Rico in the early 16th century, many thousands of Taíno people lived on the island. Taíno words like hamaca (meaning “hammock”) and hurakán (meaning "hurricane") and tobacco came into general Spanish as the two cultures blended. .Puerto Ricans still use many Taíno words that are not part of the international Spanish lexicon.^ Puerto Rican cuisine is called Criolla, and is a blissful blend of Taino, Spanish and African flavors.

.The Taino influence in Puerto Rican Spanish is most evident in geographical names, such as Mayagüez, Guaynabo, Humacao or Jayuya.^ The most exuberant display of Puerto Rican culture is found in the Le Lo Lai Festival.

^ This is a great way to see Puerto Rico’s history of Taino, African and Spanish influence in its finest harmony.

^ Puerto Rican cuisine is called Criolla, and is a blissful blend of Taino, Spanish and African flavors.

You will also find Taino words in different parts of the Caribbean.
African influence
The first African slaves were brought to the island in the 16th century. .Although 31 different African tribes have been recorded in Puerto Rico, it is the Kongo from Central Africa that is considered to have had the most impact on Puerto Rican Spanish.^ Weddings and Honeymoons Considered by some to be the pinnacle of romantic destinations, Puerto Rico is a sanctuary for those seeking a surreal wedding or honeymoon getaway.

^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

^ The most exuberant display of Puerto Rican culture is found in the Le Lo Lai Festival.

Many of these words are used today.

Buy

Plaza las Americas, is currently the largest such shopping mall in the Caribbean and offers a wide array of stores, eating facilities and a multi screen movie theater. Most major U.S. mainland and European mass retailers are located in the mall.
The Condado section of San Juan is home to fine designer stores such as Cartier, Gucci, Ferragamo, Mont Blanc and Dior.
You might want to check out the Belz Factory Outlets and the Prime Outlets of Puerto Rico. They house stores like Polo, Hilfiger, Banana Republic, Puma, Gap, PacSun, etc.
Most of the large cities on the island have a large regional mall with very familiar international stores.
There are plenty of ATM around the commonwealth. Most are linked to the Cirrus, Plus, American Express and Discover networks.
If you're looking for local crafts of all sorts, and want to pay less than in Old San Juan while getting to know the island, try going to town festivals. Artisans from around the island come to these festivals to sell their wares: from typical foods, candies, coffee and tobacco to clothing, accessories, paintings and home décor. Some of these festivals are better than others, though: be sure to ask for recommendations. One of the most popular (yet remote) festivals is the "Festival de las Chinas" or Orange Festival in Las Marías.

Eat

.Puerto Rico is a drive-through buffet.^ The story of Puerto Rico is told through the mysterious ruins, ancient structures and astonishing museums that adorn the island.

^ The cheerful spirit of Puerto Rico seeps through masterful culinary presentations, delicately prepared rum and distinct Latin dances.

.All you need is a car, an appetite (the bigger the better), time, and the realization that your swimsuit won't fit as well when you get to your destination.^ Your email will not be sold or provided to third parties, and you will only receive emails from Caribbean Tours and Cruises / All Inclusive Outlet.

The island has the most diverse culinary offerings in the entire Caribbean. There's something for everyone. You can enjoy the finest Puerto Rican food at most traditional town squares and also (for those of you who get homesick) have a steak at a place like Morton's.
Mofongo con camarones
Mofongo con camarones
Fish with plantain fritters (tostones) and salad
Fish with plantain fritters (tostones) and salad
A typical Puerto Rican meal: pork chops (chuletas), rice & beans (arroz y habichuelas), a bottle of sofrito and some token greens to appease the tourists
A typical Puerto Rican meal: pork chops (chuletas), rice & beans (arroz y habichuelas), a bottle of sofrito and some token greens to appease the tourists
.Authentic Puerto Rican food (comida criolla) can be summed up in two words: plantains and pork, usually served up with rice and beans (arroz y habichuelas).^ The dynamic background of the Puerto Rican people is seen through the songs, dancing and delicious food that accompany every festival.

^ Puerto Rican cuisine is called Criolla, and is a blissful blend of Taino, Spanish and African flavors.

It is rarely if ever spicy, and to many visitors' surprise has very little in common with Mexican cooking.
Plantains (plátanos) are essentially savory bananas and the primary source of starch back in the bad old days, although you will occasionally also encounter cassava (yuca) and other tropical tubers. Served with nearly every meal, incarnations include:
  • mofongo - plantains mashed, fried, and mashed again, when filled up (relleno) with seafood this is probably the best-known Puerto Rican dish of them all
  • tostones - twice deep-fried plantain chips, best when freshly made
  • sopa de plátanos - mashed plantain soup
.The main meat eaten on Puerto Rico is pork (cerdo), with chicken a close second and beef and mutton way down the list.^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ Four-wheel vehicles, horseback tours and private charters provide multiple ways to absorb the treasures of Puerto Rico.

^ Or speed down the flowing rapids of Puerto Rico’s freshwater torrents.

.Seafood, surprisingly, is only a minor part of the traditional repertoire: the deep waters around Puerto Rico are poorly suited to fishing, and most of the seafood served in restaurants for tourists is in fact imported.^ The water in Puerto Rico is safe to drink.

^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ Most resorts offer in-house specialties and are found within Puerto Rico’s culinary hot spots.

Still, fresh local fish can be found in restaurants across the east and west coast of the island, especially in Naguabo or Cabo Rojo respectively.
.
  • chicharrones - crispy dry pork rinds, Puerto Rico's favorite snack
  • chuletas - huge, juicy pork chops, available grilled or deep fried.
  • lechón asado - roast suckling pig, this is the pinnacle of Puerto Rican porkcraft.^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

    ^ Weddings and Honeymoons Considered by some to be the pinnacle of romantic destinations, Puerto Rico is a sanctuary for those seeking a surreal wedding or honeymoon getaway.

    Served at specialty restaurants, with the town of Guavate off the San Juan-Ponce highway being particularly famous.
  • morcilla - blood sausage
  • pernil de cerdo - pork shoulder with oregano and garlic
A few other puertorriqueño classics include:
  • arroz con gandules - rice with pigeon peas, the unofficial national dish of Puerto Rico
  • arroz con jueyes - rice with land crab meat
  • asopao - a spicy tomato stew with rice and chicken or seafood
  • bacalaitos — salted cod fritters
  • chillo - red snapper, the most common fresh fish on the island
  • empanadillas — fritters of cheese, meat or lobster
  • sofrito - a fragrant sauce of sweet pepper, herbs, garlic and oil, used as base and seasoning for many dishes
  • quenepas - a green grape-like fruit common in summer, don't eat the skin or seeds (and watch where you put them, they stain clothes easily)

Places to eat

Meals in sit-down restaurants tend to be fairly pricy and most touristy restaurants will happily charge $10-30 for mains. Restaurants geared for locals may not appear much cheaper, but the quality (and quantity) of food is usually considerably better. It's not uncommon for restaurants to charge tourists more than locals, so bring along a local friend if you can! Note that many restaurants are closed on Mondays and Tuesday.
If you want to eat like a local, look for places that are out of the way. There is a roadside food stand or 10 at every corner when you get out of the cities. Deep-fried foods are the most common, but they serve everything from octopus salad to rum in a coconut. You might want to think twice and consult your stomach before choosing some items - but do be willing to try new things. .Most of the roadside stand food is fantastic, and if you're not hung up with the need for a table, you might have dinner on a beach, chomping on all sorts of seafood fritters at $1 a pop, drinking rum from a coconut.^ We’re helping you get there with Warm Up Rates up to 60% off select resorts.

At the end of dinner, you can see all the stars. In the southwest of the island, in Boqueron, you might find fresh oysters and clams for sale at 25 cents a piece.
If you are really lucky, you might get invited to a pork roast. It's not just food - it's a whole day - and it's cultural. .Folks singing, drinking, hanging out telling stories, and checking to see if the pig is ready, and staying on topic, you'll find the pig likely paired with arroz con gandules.^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

Typical fast food restaurants, such as McDonald's and Wendy's are numerous in Puerto Rico and identical to their American counterparts. Some feel, however, that fried chicken restaurants are somewhat different in PR.
.Finally, there are some wonderful restaurants, and like everywhere, the best are found mostly near the metropolitan areas.^ These wonders are complemented by the elaborate casinos, thumping discos and premier Puerto Rican restaurants that fill the resort areas.

Old San Juan is probably your best bet for a 4-star meal in a 4-star restaurant. However if your experimental nature wanes, there are lots of "Americanized" opportunities in and around San Juan. Good luck, keep your eyes open for the next roadside stand, and make sure to take advantage of all the sports to counteract the moving buffet.

Dietary restrictions

.Strict vegetarians will have a tough time in Puerto Rico, although the larger towns have restaurants that can cater to their tastes.^ Puerto Rico is on Atlantic Standard Time (AST) which is just one hour later than Eastern Standard Time (EST) and four hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

^ Puerto Rico does not observe Daylight Savings Time.

.Traditionally almost all Puerto Rican food is prepared with lard, and while this has been largely supplanted by cheaper corn oil, mofongo is still commonly made using lard, bacon or both.^ The dynamic background of the Puerto Rican people is seen through the songs, dancing and delicious food that accompany every festival.

Drink

.Unlike most U.S. territories and states Puerto Rico's drinking age is 18. That coupled with the fact that the U.S. does not require U.S. residents to have a passport to travel between Puerto Rico and the continental U.S. means Puerto Rico is becoming increasingly popular during spring break.^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

^ The water in Puerto Rico is safe to drink.

^ All travelers between the U.S. and the Caribbean are required to carry passports beginning January 1, 2007 as mandated by the United States Department of Homeland Security and the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative.

Beer and hard liquor is available at almost every grocery store, convenience store, panadería (bakery) and meat shop.
Puerto Rico is obviously famous for its rum and rum drinks, and is the birthplace of the world renowned Piña Colada. .Several rums are made in Puerto Rico, including Bacardì, Captain Morgan and Don Q. Rum is, unfortunately, not a connoisseur's drink in the same way as wine or whiskey, and you may get a few odd looks if you ask for it straight since it is almost always drunk as a mixer.^ The water in Puerto Rico is safe to drink.

^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

The best rum available in Puerto Rico is known as Ron del Barrilito. It isn't available in the mainland US, and is considered to be the closest to the rums distilled in the Caribbean in the 17th and 18th centuries, both in taste and the way it is distilled. It has an amber-brown color and a delicious, clean, slightly sweet taste. Very refreshing on a hot day with ice and a mint leaf.
During Christmas season, Puertoricans also drink "Coquito" an eggnog-like alcoholic beverage made with rum, egg yolks, coconut milk, coconut cream, sweet condensed milk, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves.
Most stores stock a locally-produced beer called Medalla Light that can be purchased for $1-$2 each. Medalla Light is only sold in Puerto Rico, and is first in the Puerto Rican market share. Other beer options for the discriminating drinker include Presidente, a light pilsner beer from nearby Dominican Republic (note: it's a different brew from the Dominican version), and Beck's. .Beck's imported to Puerto Rico and the rest of the Caribbean is a different brew from the one that makes it to the U.S., and is considered by many to be better.^ Puerto Rico is on Atlantic Standard Time (AST) which is just one hour later than Eastern Standard Time (EST) and four hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ The capital of Puerto Rico is also known as the capital of Caribbean nightlife and entertainment.

Other beers which have popularity on the island are Budweiser, Bud Light, Heineken, Corona and Coors Light, which happen to be one of the prime international markets. Many other imported beers are also available, but usually at a higher price.
Most of the beers sold vary from 10 to 12 ounce bottles or cans. The portions are small (compared to the Mainland) in order to be consumed before the beer has time to warm up. .Tap water is treated and is officially safe to drink.^ The water in Puerto Rico is safe to drink.

.If you are an avid coffee drinker, you may find heaven in Puerto Rico.^ Even a short visit to Puerto Rico will find your tropical intentions fully satisfied and far exceeded.

^ Miles of breathtaking coastline introduce the island and have spawned the useful slogan, ‘You’re not dreaming… you’re in Puerto Rico.’ .

^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

Nearly every place to eat, from the most expensive restaurants to the lowliest street vendors, serves coffee that is cheap, powerful, and deliciious. .Puerto Ricans drink their coffee in a way particular to the Caribbean, known as a café cortadito, which is espresso coffee served with sweetened steamed milk.^ The capital of Puerto Rico is also known as the capital of Caribbean nightlife and entertainment.

A cup of coffee at a good panadería is rarely more than $1.50.
.As a legacy of Puerto Rico's status as one of centers of world sugercane production, nearly everything is drunk or eaten with sugar added.^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ Puerto Rico is on Atlantic Standard Time (AST) which is just one hour later than Eastern Standard Time (EST) and four hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

This includes coffee, teas, and alcoholic drinks, as well as breakfast foods such as avena (hot oatmeal-like cereal) and mallorcas (heavy egg buns with powdered sugar and jam). Be aware of this if you are diabetic.
.
  • All major international hotel chains have properties in Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico boasts a digital telephone system, high-speed Internet capabilities, cellular telephone service, radio broadcast communications and all 4 major U.S. television networks.

    ^ Volcanic outflows, ancient civilizations and lapping tides have all formed the fascinating island of Puerto Rico.

    ^ The main airport in Puerto Rico is the Luis Munoz Marin International Airport (SJU) and is located just outside of San Juan.

    Guests can expect a high level of service even in lower quality properties. The San Juan area is very popular and perennially full of visitors but also suffers from a shortage of hotel rooms which results in high prices during the winter season. New developments on the horizon look to alleviate this problem.
International chains such as Sheraton, Westin, Marriott, Hilton, Ritz-Carlton, Holiday Inn as well as some luxurious independent resorts offer very reliable accommodations. There is a boom underway in boutique hotel construction which promise a higher level of service and Miami-chic appeal. Most large cities have at least one international chain hotel.
There are also many fully furnished apartments you can rent by the day, week and month, especially in Old San Juan. These are usually inexpensive, clean and comfortable and owned by trustworthy people. They are located mostly in the residential area, which is safe (day and night), and within walking distance to everything from museums to nightlife.
See the San Juan section for contact numbers for hotels and short-term rental apartments.

Learn

.Most universities in Puerto Rico are accredited by US authorities and they offer quality educational programs.^ Miles of pristine coastline dressed in sands of every color invite beach lovers and romantics to Puerto Rico’s most popular attraction.

^ Most resorts offer in-house specialties and are found within Puerto Rico’s culinary hot spots.

^ Lively resorts offer nightly entertainment and are often surrounded by Puerto Rico’s clubs, bars and fine casinos.

Its very easy to find Spanish courses as well as learn to dance salsa. Puerto Rico has 3 ABA-accredited law schools which are very competitive. .The University of Puerto Rico Law School is very friendly towards international students and is a great option for foreigners looking for a quality, cheap education (subsidized by the government)that is less than 10 minutes from a beach!^ Puerto Rico is on Atlantic Standard Time (AST) which is just one hour later than Eastern Standard Time (EST) and four hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

^ Puerto Rico boasts more than 20 breathtaking courses that will challenge and inspire players of every level.

^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

.Also the island has major medical teaching centers which are internationally acclaimed such as the University of Puerto Rico Center for Medical Sciences and the Ponce School of Medicine.^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

^ Or discover the secrets of Puerto Rico’s hidden wonder, Mona Island.

^ Volcanic outflows, ancient civilizations and lapping tides have all formed the fascinating island of Puerto Rico.

Work

There is a small international workforce on the island. In general, it's possible to find a nice job on the island doing various things. The island is full of international businesses which look for skilled labor all the time. .Tourism is obviously a big industry for Puerto Rico.^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

Also, the majority of pharmaceutical companies can be found in PR & the island plays a very important part in pharmaceutical manufacturing for the US & other places in the world.

Stay safe

.If you look at the statistics, it's clear that Puerto Rico has a crime problem.^ No matter your beach aspirations, you’ll find them satisfied on the shores of Puerto Rico.

^ Swaying palms border the soft sands and clear waters of Puerto Rico’s beaches.

^ Miles of breathtaking coastline introduce the island and have spawned the useful slogan, ‘You’re not dreaming… you’re in Puerto Rico.’ .

As of 2002 the island's murder rate was twice that of New York City (but less than Washington DC). The crime rate is lowest in the wealthy suburbs outside major metropolitan areas, such as San Patricio or Guaynabo.
Nearly all crime is concentrated in the big metropolitan cities of San Juan and Ponce, and most of it is connected to the drug trade. However, the tourist areas of both cities are heavily patrolled by police, and violent crime directed against tourists is very rare. The main problem is theft: don't leave your belongings unattended on the beach. Car theft is also an issue, so take care where you leave your car and don't leave valuables inside.
Make sure to stay away from public housing complexes known as caseríos, which are numerous and widespread throughout the island, and avoid shanty slums as well (La Perla in San Juan). These are frequently the location of drug dealers and other illegal activity as well as violent crime. If you must venture into such a location, avoid doing so at night and do not take pictures or film local residents without permission. You should never take pictures of children without permission, as this can be quite rude. Avoid drawing a lot of attention to yourself and be polite at all times.

Stay healthy

Fresh water lakes and streams in metropolitan areas are often polluted so avoid going in for a dip. You can, however, find freshwater streams and ponds in the rain forest that are safe to swim in. Generally, if you see Puerto Ricans swimming in it then you are probably okay, especially high in the rain forest. .Puerto Rico is a tropical island but is free of most diseases that plague many other tropical countries of the Caribbean and the world.^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ Continuous tropical weather and an endless coastline set the stage for Puerto Rico’s thrilling sports and recreations.

^ From the sand on the shore to the peaks of the mountains, Puerto Rico is an island made for romantic endeavors.

.Tap water is safe to drink almost everywhere, and your hosts will let you know if their water is suspect.^ The water in Puerto Rico is safe to drink.

Bottled water, if necessary, is available, at grocery and drugstores in gallons, and most small stores have bottled water as well.
Medical facilities are easily available all around the Island, and there are many trained physicians and specialists in many medical fields. There are a number of government as well as private hospitals. Health services are fairly expensive. Keep in mind that a visit to the doctor may not be as prompt as one is used to, and it is common to have to wait quite some time to be seen.
Visitors should expect a high level of quality in their medical service - it is comparable to the U.S. mainland. Drug stores are plentiful and very well stocked. Walgreens and El Amal are the biggest and most popular chains, although Walmart, K-Mart, and Costco offer medicines, as do numerous smaller local chains.

Respect

Politeness and a simple smile will get you far. Many locals are willing to help tourists provided no arrogance is shown. For either gender, it is very common to customarily kiss on one cheek when greeting a female. This is never done by a male to another male (except between relatives). Puerto Rican society is in general very social, and you will commonly see neighbors out at night chatting or gossiping with each other.
It is wise in some cases to avoid discussing the island's politics, especially with regards to its political status with the United States. Arguments are often very passionate, and can lead to heated debates. In the same manner it may be wise to neither discuss the political parties, as Puerto Ricans can be very passionate about the party they affiliate with. .Puerto Rico has 3 political parties, marked (amongst other things) by different stances towards the relation to the United States: PNP (statehood), PPD (commonwealth) and PIP (independence).^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ Puerto Rico is considered a United States territory and does not require a passport for travel.

PNP and PPD share the majority of the voters, whilst PIP has a relatively small rating.
It is common for attractive women to have cat calls, whistles and loud compliments directed at them. These are usually harmless and it is best to just ignore them.
While more tolerant than many Caribbean nations, homosexuality is still a somewhat taboo subject in Puerto Rico. Nevertheless, youth are usually more open than the older generation, and there are gay friendly areas in San Juan.

Contact

Cell phones

Puerto Rico has a very advanced communications network. Sprint, AT&T and T-Mobile have native coverage. Verizon roams on their legacy network on the island, now operated by Claro. Other national CDMA carriers roam on Centennial Puerto Rico. [3].

Internet

The island also has widely available broadband internet access. High speed public wireless internet service in public areas (coffee shops, restaurants, hotels and malls) finally is also growing and free in most places. Look for Blue Zones or for DMAX [4] hotspots. Third Generation (3G) wireless internet access, through Sprint and AT&T is widely available all over the Island.
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

From Spanish for "Rich Port"

Pronunciation

  • (US) IPA: /ˌpɔɹɾɚˈɹikoʊ/

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
.
  1. A self-governing Commonwealth in the Caribbean which is a territory of the United States.^ Puerto Rico is unique in that it is an autonomous Commonwealth of the United States, and its people think of the island as un estado libre asociado, or a "free associate state" of the United States—a closer relationship than the territorial possessions of Guam and the Virgin Islands have to America.
    • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MR. RODRIGUEZ-ORELLANA: Like right now, we are subject to the whims of the United States government.
    • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Santería is prominent throughout the Caribbean and in many places in the southern United States and has had a strong influence on Catholic practices on the island.
    • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Official name: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Translations

See also


Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˌpwertoˈriko/

Proper noun

  1. Puerto Rico. Full name: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Estado Libre Asociado
de Puerto Rico

Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico Coat of Arms of Puerto Rico
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: Latin: Joannes Est Nomen Eius
Spanish: Juan es su nombre
Anthem: "La Borinqueña"
Location of Puerto Rico
Capital San Juan
{{{latd}}}°{{{latm}}}′ {{{latNS}}} {{{longd}}}°{{{longm}}}′ {{{longEW}}}
Largest city San Juan
Official languages Spanish and English
Government
{{{leader_titles}}}
Commonwealth
{{{leader_names}}}
Sovereignty
{{{established_events}}}
{{{established_dates}}}
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
[[{{{area_magnitude}}} m²|{{{area}}} km²]] ({{{area_rank}}})
{{{percent_water}}}
Population
 • [[As of {{{population_estimate_year}}}|{{{population_estimate_year}}}]] est.
 • [[As of {{{population_census_year}}}|{{{population_census_year}}}]] census
 • Density
 
{{{population_estimate}}} ({{{population_estimate_rank}}})
{{{population_census}}}
{{{population_density}}}/km² ({{{population_density_rank}}})
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2006 estimate
{{{GDP_PPP}}} (N/A)
$22,058 (N/A)
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
AST (UTC-4)
No DST (UTC-4)
Internet TLD .pr
Calling code +1
.Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: "Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico", pronouncedImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif [esˈt̪að̞o ˈliβ̞ɾe asoˈsjað̞o ð̞e ˈpweɾt̪o ˈriko]), is a self governing unincorporated territory of the United States with Commonwealth status.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It remains a self-governing unincorporated U.S. territory today.
  • Puerto Rico Venues & Meeting Planning Guide | Cvent Destination Guide 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cvent.com [Source type: News]

^ Puerto Rico has a republican form of government and is subject to United States jurisdiction and sovereignty.
  • Kooky Plan: the wiki for entrepreneurs / Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kookyplan.pbworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .It is located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands; approximately 1,280 miles (2,000 km) off the coast of Florida (the nearest of the mainland United States).^ The State Forest of Ceiba is located adjacent to El Yunque, off the east coast of the Island.

^ The airport is also the islands primary connection to the mainland United States.

^ Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is a self-governing unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands.

.The archipelago of Puerto Rico includes the main island of Puerto Rico, the smallest of the Greater Antilles, and a number of smaller islands and keys, the largest of which are Mona, Vieques, and Culebra.^ Puerto Rico is composed of an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands and keys, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is one of the larger islands of the West Indies, and the commonwealth also includes several small islands, such as Culebra, Mona, and Vieques.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vieques Times, Puerto Rico, 1995 .
  • Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Puerto Ricans sometimes refer to their island as Borikén, or the Spanish variant Borinquen, a name for the island used by indigenous Taíno people.^ Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Puerto Rico Rental Car Shopper 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertorico.rentalcarshopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Puerto Rico | EyeTour Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC eyetour.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Ricans sometimes refer to their island as Borikén, or the Spanish variant Borínquen, a name for the island used by indigenous Taíno people.
  • Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.newsday.com [Source type: General]
  • Puerto Rico | ajc.com 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC projects.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Nowadays, this term is still used to refer to the people and the Island of Puerto Rico.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The current term boricua derives from the Taíno name for the island, and is commonly used to identify oneself as Puerto Rican.^ The terms boricua and borincano derive fromBorikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage.
  • Puerto Rico | EyeTour Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC eyetour.com [Source type: General]

^ The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Puerto Rico Rental Car Shopper 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertorico.rentalcarshopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Puerto Rico Rental Car Shopper 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertorico.rentalcarshopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Puerto Rico | EyeTour Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC eyetour.com [Source type: General]

.Even though all people born in Puerto Rico are statutory U.S. citizens, the nature of Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States is the subject of ongoing debate on the island, in the United States Congress, and in the United Nations.^ All places in Puerto Rico .

^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico could be said to be a separate 'cultural nation', but politically it is part of the United States.
  • Puerto Rico History 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elyunque.com [Source type: Original source]

[3][4] .According to a President's Task Force report,[5] Puerto Rico is an unincorporated organized territory of the United States, subject to the plenary powers of the U.S. Congress and with the right to establish a constitution for the internal administration of government and on matters of purely local concern.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The treatment the United States affords its citizens of Puerto Rican nationality after the establishment of Puerto Rico's independence is a matter of U.S. policy, subject only to constitutional limitations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico has a republican form of government and is subject to United States jurisdiction and sovereignty.
  • Kooky Plan: the wiki for entrepreneurs / Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kookyplan.pbworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Main article: History of Puerto Rico

Pre-Columbian era

.The history of the island of Puerto Rico (Spanish for "rich port") before the arrival of Christopher Columbus is not well understood.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico translates to "rich port," and our island is certainly rich with things to do .
  • Puerto Rico Resort - Wyndham Rio Mar Beach Resort & Spa : Wyndham.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.wyndham.com [Source type: General]

.What is known today comes from findings and from early Spanish accounts.^ What is known today comes from archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These General Fund results do not include losses experienced in the Health Facilities and Services Administration (known by its Spanish acronym, AFASS), which was accounted for as an enterprise fund.
  • PUERTO RICO HERALD: MOODY'S IMPROVES COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO'S CREDIT OUTLOOK TO POSITIVE FROM STABLE 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Iñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, 293 years after the first Spaniards arrived on the island.^ Click here for the History of Puerto Rico .

^ First tanning salon in Puerto Rico.
  • Carolina: Isla Verde, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricoplanner.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico , island (2005 est.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center
.The first indigenous settlers of Puerto Rico were the Ortoiroid, an Archaic age culture.^ First tanning salon in Puerto Rico.
  • Carolina: Isla Verde, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricoplanner.com [Source type: General]

^ Tanos of Puerto Rico, a cultural site .
  • Ta�nos of Puerto Rico, a cultural site 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elboricua.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is your first visit to Puerto Rico?
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

.An archaeological dig in the island of Vieques in 1990 found the remains of what is believed to be an Arcaico (Archaic) man (named Puerto Ferro man) which was dated to around 2000 BCE.[7] Between CE 120 and 400, the Igneri, a tribe from the Orinoco region, arrived on the island.^ An archaeological dig in the island of Vieques in 1990 found the remains of what is believed to be an Arcaico (Archaic) man (named Puerto Ferro man) dated to around 2000 BC. Between AD 120 and 400 arrived the Igneri, a tribe from the South American Orinoco region.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico, but not on the island of Vieques.
  • Puerto Rico History 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elyunque.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (in Spanish, "Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico"), is a freely associated commonwealth of the United States, composed of one large island and several small islands named Culebra, Desecheo, Mona, and Vieques.

[8] Between the 7th and 11th century the Taíno culture developed on the island and, by approximately CE 1000, the Taíno culture had become dominant, a trend that lasted until the Spanish arrived in 1493.

Spanish colony

.When Christopher Columbus arrived at Puerto Rico during his second voyage on November 19, 1493, the island was inhabited by a group of Arawak Indians known as Taínos.^ Christopher Columbus sailed to Puerto Rico during his second voyage to the Western Hemisphere.
  • HowStuffWorks "History of Puerto Rico" 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The European discovery was made by Christopher Columbus on his second voyage to the Anitlles on November 19, 1493.
  • Información sobre Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kluna.bol.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In November 19 of the same year he discovered Puerto Rico.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Taínos called the island "Borikén" or "Borinquen".[9] Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist.^ Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On his second voyage to the Indies, Christopher Columbus arrives on the island and claims it for Spain, renaming it San Juan Bautista (Saint John the Baptist).
  • Masterpiece Theatre | American Collection | Almost a Woman | Puerto Rico: A Timeline 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Celebration in honor of San Juan's patron saint.
  • Carolina: Isla Verde, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricoplanner.com [Source type: General]

.Later the island took the name of Puerto Rico (English: Rich Port ) while the capital was named San Juan.^ San Juan, Puerto Rico  00919-5552 .
  • FEC Combined Federal/State Disclosure & Election Directory: PUERTO RICO 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fec.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ San Juan, the capital and chief port, is the most important city on the island.
  • Puerto Rico - MSN Encarta 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San Juan , on the northeastern coast, is Puerto Rico’s capital, chief port, and largest city.
  • Puerto Rico - MSN Encarta 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is estimated that there may have been as many as 250,000 Tainos in the Caribbean when the Spanish first arrived.^ The Spanish enslaved the island's 30,000 Taino and set them to work in the gold mines, but inevitably there was conflict and the Indians were decimated.

^ An island in the Greater Antilles called “Borinquén” by the Taino (Arawakan‐speaking) people who were living there when Christopher Columbus landed in 1493, “Puerto Rico” (“wealthy port”) was the name given to the island by the first Spanish governor of the island.
  • University of Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about University of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Six years and a Taino rebellion later, there were only 4,000 natives left.
  • Puerto Rico@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

.In 1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León became the island's first governor to take office.^ In 1948, Muoz became the first elected governor of the island.

^ In 1508, the Spanish granted settlement rights to Juan Ponce de León, who established a settlement at Caparra and became the first governor.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León became the island's first governor to take office.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.The island was soon colonized by the Spanish.^ The Spanish soon colonized the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A peaceful agricultural people, the Arawaks on the island of Puerto Rico were enslaved and virtually exterminated at the hands of their Spanish colonizers.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taínos were forced into slavery by the Spanish crown but were decimated by diseases brought by the Spaniards and the harsh conditions in which they were forced to work.^ Taínos were forced into slavery and were decimated by the harsh conditions of work and by diseases brought by the Spaniards.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They commited group suicide as an escape, but it was mainly disease that decimated the Tanos so quickly.
  • Ta�nos of Puerto Rico, a cultural site 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elboricua.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.African slaves were introduced as labor to replace the decreasing populations of Taíno.^ African slaves were introduced to replace the Taíno.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The colonizers consequently introduced African slaves to take part in sugar cane agriculture.
  • Puerto Rico@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Puerto Rico soon became an important stronghold and port for the Spanish Empire in the Caribbean, gaining the title of "La Llave de las Americas" (The Key of the Americas).^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crónicas de Puerto Rico , 1958.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico became a semiautonomous commonwealth .
  • Puerto Rico - Factbites 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

.Colonial emphasis during the late 17th - 18th centuries, however, focused on the more prosperous mainland territories, leaving the island impoverished of settlers.^ During the late 17th and early 18th centuries colonial emphasis was on the more prosperous mainland territories, leaving the island impoverished of settlers.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The center of Ponce dates from the late 17th century and has plazas, churches, colonial homes, fountains, an ancient cathedral, and charming town square.
  • Puerto Rico Flights and Travel Guide 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cheapflights.com [Source type: News]

^ The impoverished island nation, a colony of the United States since 1898, is already facing over 15% unemployment at the beginning of the year.
  • Puerto Rico // Current 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC current.com [Source type: General]

.By the beginning of the 18th century the Taino Indians had been reduced to less than 10,000 people primarily inhabiting the central mountainous region (Las Cordillas) of Puerto Rico comprising the areas currently consisting of the municipalities of Orocovis, Morovis, Ciales and Corozal.^ Marine protected areas in Puerto Rico: Historical and current perspectives .
  • NOAA CoRIS - Regional Portal - Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC coris.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Central Lakes Some popular lakes can also be found in Puerto Rico's central region.

^ Puerto Rico is mountainous.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Puerto Rico 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.caribbeantown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A prominent resident of this early period was Bernardo de Balbuena, Bishop of Puerto Rico, who wrote Baroque poetry extolling the beauty of the New World, especially Mexico.^ Servicios Legales de Puerto Rico ...
  • Puerto Rico -- Sources [ ALSO! -- U.S. Law ] 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.lawsource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elementos de geografía de Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico: Information Sources 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most beautiful moorage in Puerto Rico.
  • Salinas, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC puertoricoguest.com [Source type: General]

Many of his manuscripts were burned by Dutch pirates when they sacked the island in 1625.
Garita at Fort San Felipe del Morro
.Because of concerns of threats from European enemies, over the centuries various forts and walls, such as La Fortaleza, El Castillo San Felipe del Morro and El Castillo de San Cristóbal, were built to protect the port of San Juan.^ Beach Casa de San Juan .
  • Family and Group Vacation Rentals in Puerto Rico, Caribbean from VacationRentals.com. Great deals on vacation rentals in fabulous places, Puerto Rico Vacation Rentals Deals, Puerto Rico Last Minute Vacation Deals 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.vacationrentals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last thing we did in San Juan was see the El Morro Fort.
  • Puerto Rico - Trip Planner - Yahoo! Travel 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC travel.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San Juan: Academia Puertorriqueña de la Historia, 1968-.
  • Puerto Rico: Information Sources 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The French, Dutch and English made several attempts to capture Puerto Rico but failed to wrest long-term occupancy of the island.^ Puerto Rico , island (2005 est.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico english version .

^ Long live innocent Puerto Rico!
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1809, while Napoleon occupied the majority of the Iberian peninsula, a populist assembly based in Cádiz recognized Puerto Rico as an overseas province of Spain with the right to send representatives to the Spanish Court.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US high court denies Puerto Rico voting right .

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.The representative Ramon Power y Giralt died soon after arriving in Spain.^ The representative, Ramon Power y Giralt, died after serving a three-year term in the Cortes.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.These constitutional reforms were reversed when autocratic monarchy was restored.^ These parliamentary and constitutional reforms, which were in force from 1810 to 1814 and again from 1820 to 1823, were reversed twice afterwards when the traditional monarchy was restored by Ferdinand VII. Nineteenth century reforms augmented the population and economy, and expanded the local character of the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nineteenth century reforms augmented the population and economy, and expanded the local character of the island.^ The local character of the island expanded.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese labor was introduced in the nineteenth century, and immigrants came from Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque provinces, Galicia, and the Canary Islands.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico – Prosperous and Progressive During the early nineteenth century, because of constitutional reforms, the economy and population of the island saw a surge with hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain and former Spainish colonies in South America, arriving in Puerto Rico.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the rapid gains of independence by the South and Central American states in the first part of the century, Puerto Rico and Cuba became the sole New World remnants of the large Spanish empire.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico became a semiautonomous commonwealth .
  • Puerto Rico - Factbites 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

The Original Lares Revolutionary Flag.
.Toward the end of the 19th century, poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as "Grito de Lares". The uprising was easily and quickly crushed.^ Toward the end of the 19th century, poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as "Grito de Lares".
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward the end of the 19th century, poor economic and political situations with Spain led to an attempted uprising in 1868 known as "El Grito de Lares".
  • Información sobre Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kluna.bol.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Most notable was the Lares rebellion ( Grito de Lares ) of 1868.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican nation, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis.^ The Puerto Rican Independence Party seeks independence.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American policies have repressed the Puerto Rican independence movement .
  • Puerto Rico's Decolonization - Rub�n Berr�os Mart�nez 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.independencia.net [Source type: Original source]

.Later, another political stronghold was the autonomist movement originated by Román Baldorioty de Castro and, toward the end of the century, by Luis Muñoz Rivera.^ Champions of this autonomist movement were such political leaders as Ramon Baldorioty de Castro, and towards the end of the century, Luis Muñoz Rivera.
  • Información sobre Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kluna.bol.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward the end of the 19th century, poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as "Grito de Lares".
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward the end of the 19th century, poor economic and political situations with Spain led to an attempted uprising in 1868 known as "El Grito de Lares".
  • Información sobre Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kluna.bol.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1897, Muñoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to a Charters of Autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico government job openings .
  • Puerto Rico Government Jobs and Federal Employment state, local and federal government jobs 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.federaljobsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.The following year in 1897, Puerto Rico's first, but short-lived, autonomous government was organized as an 'overseas province' of Spain.^ Puerto Rico government job openings .
  • Puerto Rico Government Jobs and Federal Employment state, local and federal government jobs 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.federaljobsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Gold was the first economy of Puerto Rico and the gold was sent to Spain.
  • Puerto Rico History 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elyunque.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First tanning salon in Puerto Rico.
  • Carolina: Isla Verde, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricoplanner.com [Source type: General]

.The charter maintained a governor appointed by Spain, who held the power to annul any legislative decision he disagreed with, and a partially elected parliamentary structure.^ The charter maintained a governor appointed by Spain, which held the power to annul any legislative decision, and a partially elected parliamentary structure.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the provisions of Puerto Rico’s constitution, residents elect a governor and legislators who control local matters on the island, and the U.S. government maintains jurisdiction over the island’s defense, foreign relations, and trade agreements.
  • Puerto Rico - MSN Encarta 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1992, New Progressive party candidate Pedro Rosselló was elected governor (he was reelected in 1996).
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In February of 1898, Governor General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government under the Autonomous Charter, this gave town councils complete autonomy in local matters.^ February Governor General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government of Puerto Rico under the Autonomous Charter which gave town councils complete autonomy in local matters.
  • Chronology--Puerto Rico 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In February, Governor-General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government under the Autonomous Charter.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1897, Luis Muñoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to Charters of Autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subsequently, the governor had no authority to intervene in civil and political matters unless authorized to do so by the Cabinet.^ Subsequently, the governor had no authority to intervene in civil and political matters unless authorized to do so by the Cabinet.
  • Chronology--Puerto Rico 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While Puerto Rico has no Electoral College votes, political parties can authorize primaries to allow delegate representation at the parties' conventions.
  • Puerto Rico Primary Facts and Figures - US News and World Report 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: General]

.General elections were held in March and on July 17,1898. Puerto Rico's autonomous government began to function, but not for long.^ At 5:45 A.M. on the morning of July 25th, the invasion of Puerto Rico began.
  • Puerto Rico - A Moonlight Picnic 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico government jobs > > .
  • Puerto Rico Education Jobs and Teaching jobs - government jobs 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.federaljobsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Long live innocent Puerto Rico!
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] [12] [13]

Puerto Rico under United States sovereignty

.On July 25, 1898 at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States with a landing at Guánica.^ Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not pure.
  • Si-Puerto Rico Hotel & Resort Travel Guide - About Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.si-puertorico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico was acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 , ushering what would eventually become a wave of change.
  • Puerto Rico - dKosopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC dkosopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Following the outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States under the Treaty of Paris.^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As an outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam to the U.S. under the Treaty of Paris.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is a part of United States.
  • » Puerto Rico Holidays Puerto Rico Hotels Puerto Rico Apartments 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricobest.com [Source type: General]

[14] .Puerto Rico began the twentieth century under the military rule of the United States with officials, including the governor, appointed by the President of the United States.^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

^ Puerto Rico is a part of United States.
  • » Puerto Rico Holidays Puerto Rico Hotels Puerto Rico Apartments 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricobest.com [Source type: General]

.The Foraker Act of 1900 had given Puerto Rico a certain amount of popular government including a popularly-elected House of Representatives.^ Puerto Rico government jobs > > .
  • Puerto Rico Education Jobs and Teaching jobs - government jobs 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.federaljobsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Rico a certain amount of popular government, including a popularly-elected House of Representatives.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico Act 146 (2000).
  • SIECUS - Puerto Rico State Profile Fiscal Year 2008 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.siecus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1917, the Jones-Shafroth Act granted U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans - a status they still hold today - and provided for a popularly-elected Senate to complete a bicameral elected Legislative Assembly.^ In 1917 all Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship.
  • Puerto Rico History 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elyunque.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens since 1917.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Ricans have been granted U.S. citizenship in 1917 due to the Jones-Shafroth Act.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Until the first gubernatorial election in 1948, the Presidency of the Senate and the Resident Commissioner seat in Congress were held by Puerto Rico's top politicians.^ Top puerto rico Cities .
  • puerto rico Vacations, puerto rico Hotels, puerto rico Travel - AOL Travel 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travel.aol.com [Source type: News]

^ First tanning salon in Puerto Rico.
  • Carolina: Isla Verde, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricoplanner.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico has 1 resident Commissioner in the Congress of the United States with voice, but no vote.
  • Puerto Rican Poll Power - Michael Barone (usnews.com) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: General]

.Many Puerto Ricans served in the U.S. Armed Forces beginning in World War I.^ Since a great many Puerto Ricans are of mixed Spanish and African descent, they have had to endure the same sort of racial discrimination often experienced by African Americans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 18th and 19th centuries, Puerto Rican coffee was exported to Europe and was the finest in the world.
  • Puerto Rico: Did you know? About Puerto Rico - TripAdvisor 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ The page features Puerto Rican artists around the world, articles, electronic publications, calendar of activities, and call for participation for cultural events.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Natural disasters and the Great Depression impoverished the island.^ Natural disasters, including a major earthquake, a tsunami and several hurricanes, and the Great Depression impoverished the island during the first few decades under American rule.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Natural and human-made features associated with the island are imbued with great value.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Ricans are great hosts, eager to entertain and intensely proud of their island's natural beauty, their culture, and their achievements as a people.
  • Puerto Rico : Regions in Brief | Frommers.com 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.Some political leaders demanded change; some, like Pedro Albizu Campos, would lead a nationalist (The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party) movement in favor of independence.^ The Puerto Rican Independence Party seeks independence.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elected president of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.
  • Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pedro Albizu Campos' pardon was revoked.
  • Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He served many years in prison for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. Government in Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico government job openings .
  • Puerto Rico Government Jobs and Federal Employment state, local and federal government jobs 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.federaljobsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Don Pedro Albizu Campos also served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico government jobs > > .
  • Puerto Rico Education Jobs and Teaching jobs - government jobs 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.federaljobsearch.com [Source type: News]

[15] .Luis Muñoz Marín initially favored independence, but saw a severe decline of the Puerto Rican economy, as well as growing violence and uprisings and opted to support the "commonwealth" option instead.^ The Puerto Rican Independence Party seeks independence.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Puerto Rican economy suffered several setbacks in the mid-1990s.

^ Law, which criminalizes all acts which favor Puerto Rican Independence.
  • Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "commonwealth" was supported before Luis Muñoz Marín by other political leaders.^ Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1897, Luis Muñoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to Charters of Autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, a very recent poll showed that 92 percent of commonwealth supporters in Puerto Rico want it to be a sovereign political status.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.Change in the nature of the internal governance of the island came about during the later years of the RooseveltTruman administrations, as a form of compromise spearheaded by Muñoz Marín and others, and which culminated with the appointment by President Harry Truman in 1946 of the first Puerto Rican-born governor, Jesus T. Piñero.^ In 1948 Puerto Ricans elected Luis Muñoz Marín governor of the island, the first native puertorriqueño to hold such a post.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SAN JUAN , Puerto Rico (AP) -- Puerto Rican officials have killed 800 monkeys blamed for scavenging crops and damaging natural resources in the island's southwest region.
  • Puerto Rico - Caribbean - Americas - World - news 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.wikio.com [Source type: News]

^ Luis Muñoz Marín, the first Puerto Rican elected to this office (1949–1965), spearheaded a program of industrial development called “Operation Bootstrap” (“Operación Manos a la Obra”).
  • University of Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about University of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1947, the United States granted the right to democratically elect the governor of Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

^ Puerto Rico is a part of United States.
  • » Puerto Rico Holidays Puerto Rico Hotels Puerto Rico Apartments 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricobest.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1947 Congress permitted Puerto Ricans to elect their governor.
  • University of Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about University of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Luis Muñoz Marín became the first elected governor of Puerto Rico in the 1948 general elections, serving as such for 16 years, until 1964.
.Starting at this time, there was heavy migration from Puerto Rico to the Continental United States, particularly New York City, in search of better economic conditions.^ PUERTO RICO there's a fire!
  • Gas Plant Explosion Rocks Puerto Rico - CBS News 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a professional class in Puerto Rico.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico is a part of United States.
  • » Puerto Rico Holidays Puerto Rico Hotels Puerto Rico Apartments 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricobest.com [Source type: General]

.Puerto Rican migration to New York displayed an average yearly migration that is summarized as follows: 1930-1940, 1,800 per year (avg.^ Puerto Rican migration to New York displayed an average yearly migration of 1,800 for the years 1930-1940, 31,000 for 1946-1950, 45,000 for 1951-1960, and a peak of 75,000 in 1953.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pioneer Puerto Rican politician dies in New York .
  • Puerto Rico: News & Videos about Puerto Rico - CNN.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico: News & Videos about Puerto Rico - CNN.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ New York City became a major focal point for Puerto Rican migration.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

); .1946-1950, 31,000 per year; 1951-1960, 45,000 per year, including 75,000 in the peak year of 1953.[16] As of 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that there are more people of Puerto Rican birth or ancestry living in the United States than in Puerto Rico itself.^ More than 30,000 people in Puerto Rico have HIV/AIDS, and more than 19,000 Puerto Ricans have died from AIDS-related causes.

^ PUERTO RICO there's a fire!
  • Gas Plant Explosion Rocks Puerto Rico - CBS News 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rican migration to New York displayed an average yearly migration of 1,800 for the years 1930-1940, 31,000 for 1946-1950, 45,000 for 1951-1960, and a peak of 75,000 in 1953.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate President Harry S Truman.^ The continuing Nationalist campaign for independence, however, was dramatized by an attempt to assassinate President Harry S. Truman in 1950 and by a shooting attack in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1954.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elected president of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.
  • Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harry S Truman , 33rd President of the USA talking to the nation after he had taken over office following the death of President Roosevelt.
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

.Subsequently, the Truman Administration allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico to determine whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their own local constitution.^ The Democratic nomination may be determined by the delegation from Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rican Poll Power - Michael Barone (usnews.com) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Jobs of Puerto Rico are for Puerto Ricans only.
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico has its own constitution.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Puerto Rico adopted its own local constitution in July 25, 1952 which adopted the name of "Estado Libre Asociado" (Free Associated State), translated into English as Commonwealth, for the body politic and which continues to denote Puerto Rico's current relationship with the United States.^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1952 the electorate approved the new constitution, and on July 25 Governor Muoz proclaimed the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

[19][20] .During the 1950s Puerto Rico experienced a rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operación Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap") (an offshoot of FDR's New Deal) which aimed to industrialize Puerto Rico's economy from agriculture-based into manufacturing-based.^ Puerto Rico is a part of United States.
  • » Puerto Rico Holidays Puerto Rico Hotels Puerto Rico Apartments 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricobest.com [Source type: General]

^ Travel deals: Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico Restaurants: Read Puerto Rico Restaurant Reviews - TripAdvisor 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ During the 1950s Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operación Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap"), an offshoot of FDR's New Deal, which aimed to transform Puerto Rico's economy from agriculture-based to manufacturing-based.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Present-day Puerto Rico has become a major tourist destination and a leading pharmaceutical and manufacturing center.^ That is, statehood doesn't have a majority in Puerto Rico.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is a year-round destination.
  • Puerto Rico : Planning a Trip : When to Go | Frommers.com 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico is a destination unlike any other!
  • Puerto Rico Travel: Book Your Puerto Rico Hotel Online | BookIt.com� 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC bookit.com [Source type: General]

.Still, Puerto Rico continues to struggle to define its political status.^ Yet it still struggles to define its political status.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The title defines the term "state" to include the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and all US possessions excluding the Panama Canal Zone.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Powerful tectonic forces that over millions of years have created these features still occasionally cause earthquakes in Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three locally-authorized plebiscites have been held in recent decades to decide whether Puerto Rico should pursue independence, enhanced commonwealth status, or statehood.^ That is, statehood doesn't have a majority in Puerto Rico.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Three plebiscites have been held in recent decades to resolve the political status but no changes have been attained.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What places should we visit in Puerto Rico?
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Narrow victories by commonwealth supporters over statehood advocates in the first two plebiscites and an unacceptable definition of Commonwealth by the pro statehood leadership on the ballots in the third has allowed the relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States government to remain unchanged.^ Puerto Rico has a republican form of government and is subject to United States jurisdiction and sovereignty.
  • Kooky Plan: the wiki for entrepreneurs / Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kookyplan.pbworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is a member of the commonwealth of the United States and is led by an elected governor.

.In the latest status referendum of 1998, the "none of the above" option won over Statehood, a rejection by Commonwealthers of the definition of their status on the ballots, with 50.2% of the votes.^ The only place in the world where the option 'None of the Above' has won an election was in Puerto Rico, during the 1998 referendum that option got over 50% of the votes.
  • Puerto Rico: Did you know? About Puerto Rico - TripAdvisor 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ The Commonwealth option, represented by the PDP, won with a majority of 60.4% of the votes.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Forty‐seven percent voted for statehood; independence and two other variants on Commonwealth status received a total of 4 percent of the vote; while 50 percent voted for “none of the above,” producing a result that amounted to an ambivalent endorsement of the status quo.
  • University of Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about University of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Support for the pro-statehood party (Partido Nuevo Progresista or PNP) and the pro-commonwealth party (Partido Popular Democrático or PPD) remains about equal.^ The PNP emerged in 1965, succeeding an old pro-statehood party.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Support for the pro-statehood party, Partido Nuevo Progresista (PNP) and the pro-commonwealth party, Partido Popular Democrático (PPD) remains about equal.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a 1998 referendum, statehood again failed to command a majority of Puerto Ricans: about 50 percent voted for “none of the above,” the choice favored by the pro-commonwealth forces, compared with 46.5 percent for statehood, 2.5 percent for independence, and 1 percent for other options.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only registered independence party on the island, the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño or PIP, usually receives 3-5% of the electoral votes, though there are several smaller independence groups like the Partido Nacionalista de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rican Nationalist Party), el Movimiento Independentista Nacional Hostosiano (National Hostosian Independence Movement), and the Macheteros - Ejercito Popular Boricua (or Boricua Popular Army).^ PUERTO RICO there's a fire!
  • Gas Plant Explosion Rocks Puerto Rico - CBS News 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The Puerto Rican Independence Party seeks independence.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a professional class in Puerto Rico.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 25 October2006, the Puerto Rico State Department conferred to Juan Mari Brás Puerto Rico Citizenship.^ Sergeant William Bula-Reyes Puerto Rico Police Department, PR EOW: Sunday, November 29, 1998 Cause of Death: Gunfire .
  • Puerto Rico Police Department, Puerto Rico Fallen Officers 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC odmp.org [Source type: News]

^ Policeman Eugenio Vigo-Rodriguez Puerto Rico Police Department, PR EOW: Saturday, October 13, 1962 Cause of Death: Gunfire .
  • Puerto Rico Police Department, Puerto Rico Fallen Officers 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC odmp.org [Source type: News]

^ Policeman Anibal Loperena-Soto Puerto Rico Police Department, PR EOW: Thursday, September 12, 1974 Cause of Death: Gunfire .
  • Puerto Rico Police Department, Puerto Rico Fallen Officers 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC odmp.org [Source type: News]

.The Puerto Rico Supreme Court and the Puerto Rican Secretary of Justice determined that the Puerto Rican citizenship in fact exists and was recognized in the Constitution of Puerto Rico, as in the Insular Cases (Casos Insulares in Spanish) of 1901 through 1922 of the U.S. Supreme Court.^ Jobs of Puerto Rico are for Puerto Ricans only.
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico has its own constitution.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Puerto Rico State Department has developed, since the summer of 2007, the protocol to grant the Puerto Rican citizenship to Puerto Ricans[21]

Geography

Map of Puerto Rico
Main article: Geography of Puerto Rico
.Puerto Rico consists of a main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands, including Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Desecheo, and Caja de Muertos.^ Cayo de Luis Pea (more) > Puerto Rico > Culebra .
  • Culebra, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricoguest.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico is composed of an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands and keys, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ San Juan de Puerto Rico .
  • IBERIA.COM Puerto Rico. The Best prices for Iberia flights. 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.iberia.com [Source type: General]

.Of the latter five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round.^ Of these last five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mona is uninhabited through large parts of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources.^ At this time, Mona Island became part of Puerto Rico.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of Natural Resources of Puerto Rico patrols the waters of and surrounding Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico History 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elyunque.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is a year-round destination.
  • Puerto Rico : Planning a Trip : When to Go | Frommers.com 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.There are also many other even smaller islands including Monito and "La Isleta de San Juan" known as Old San Juan.^ Beach Casa de San Juan .
  • Family and Group Vacation Rentals in Puerto Rico, Caribbean from VacationRentals.com. Great deals on vacation rentals in fabulous places, Puerto Rico Vacation Rentals Deals, Puerto Rico Last Minute Vacation Deals 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.vacationrentals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San Juan de Puerto Rico .
  • IBERIA.COM Puerto Rico. The Best prices for Iberia flights. 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.iberia.com [Source type: General]

^ San Juan: Academia Puertorriqueña de la Historia, 1968-.
  • Puerto Rico: Information Sources 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Puerto Rico has an area of 5,324 sq mi (13,790 km²), and is slightly smaller than Connecticut.^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Puerto Rico -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico has a total area of 9,104 km 2 (3, 508 mi 2 ).
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico has an area of 8876 sq km (3427 sq mi).

.It is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south regions of the island.^ The north region, and especially the mountain areas, receives the most precipitation.

^ The main island is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The narrow coastal plain rises into green ( low ) hills and mountains central and south.
  • Kooky Plan: the wiki for entrepreneurs / Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kookyplan.pbworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main mountainous range is called "La Cordillera Central" (The Central Range).^ La Sierra Bermeja is the smallest branch of the Central Mountain ranges.

^ The main mountain range is called "La Cordillera Central" (The Central Range).
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is crossed by mountain ranges, notably the Cordillera Central, which rises to 4,389 ft (1,388 m) in the Cerro de Punta.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest elevation point of Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta (4,390 feet; 1,338 m),[22] is located in this range.^ San Juan de Puerto Rico .
  • IBERIA.COM Puerto Rico. The Best prices for Iberia flights. 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.iberia.com [Source type: General]

^ It's highest peak, and the country's highest point, is Cerro de Punta.

^ The highest elevation in Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta (4,390 feet; 1,338 m),[49] is located in this range.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another important peak is El Yunque, located in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with a maximum elevation of 3,494 feet (1,065 m).^ Another important peak is El Yunque, one of the highest in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with an elevation of 3,494 feet (1,065 m).
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ El Yunque is the only tropical rain forest in the U.S. National Forest system.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A unique dry forest, the Gunica Dry Forest is an important international asset, having been designated a World Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations.

.The capital, San Juan, is located on the main island's north coast.^ Most consulates are located in San Juan.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The capital and largest city is San Juan .
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest and best-preserved complex of Spanish colonial architecture in the Caribbean, Old San Juan (founded in 1521) is the oldest capital city under the U.S. flag.
  • Puerto Rico : Regions in Brief | Frommers.com 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.Located in the tropics, Puerto Rico enjoys an average temperature of 82.4 °F (28 °C) throughout the year.^ All year round travelers enjoy nightlife in Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Guestbook | Win a free all-inclusive trip! (no purchase necessary) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricoguestbook.com [Source type: General]

^ A tropical rainforest in Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When to Go Puerto Rico enjoys year round summer temperatures, an average annual temperature of 80°F (26°C).
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The seasons do not change very drastically.^ Temperatures do not change drastically throughout the seasons.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Temperatures: Being that Puerto Rico is in the tropics, it is summer all year long, so in other words, the temperature changes very little from season to season.
  • Puerto Rico: Weather & When to Go - TripAdvisor 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

.The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island.^ In the mountains, the weather is considerably cooler than anywhere else on the Island.
  • Puerto Rico: Weather & When to Go - TripAdvisor 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The coolest temperatures on the island exist in the interior mountains.

.Hurricane season spans between June and November.^ The Hurricane season spans from June to November.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hurricane season, the curse of Puerto Rican weather, lasts -- officially, at least -- from June 1 to November 30.
  • Puerto Rico : Planning a Trip : When to Go | Frommers.com 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ The best time to avoid the crowds is the low season between May and November, which, unfortunately, coincides with hurricane season .
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also: Climate of Puerto Rico
.Puerto Rico has 17 lakes, all of which are man-made reservoirs,[23] and more than 50 rivers, most born in the Cordillera Central.^ Central Lakes Some popular lakes can also be found in Puerto Rico's central region.

^ Fajardo Airport (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Introduccion Puerto Rico All Stars (5:50) 2.
  • Puerto Rico All Stars on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rivers in the northern region of the island are typically larger and with higher water flow rates than those of the south region, given that the south receives less rain than the central and north regions.^ Rivers in the northern region of the island are typically longer and of higher water flow rates than those of the south, since the south receives less rain than the central and northern regions.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rates might be a little higher than U.S. .
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The south is usually a few degrees higher than the north.

.As of 1998, 239 plants, sixteen birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles have been discovered that are endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico.^ For comprehensive list of endemic birds to Puerto Rico, click here .
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Species endemic to the archipelago are 239 plants, 16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles, recognized as of 1998.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After discovering the Virgin Islands, they spotted Puerto Rico and the Sierra de Luquillo.
  • Ta�nos of Puerto Rico, a cultural site 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elboricua.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island.^ Most of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí, a small frog easily recognized by the sound from which it gets its name.^ Most Puerto Ricans are of Spanish ancestry.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí, a small frog easily identified by the sound of its call, and from which it gets its name.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 10 species of snakes only 2 get to grow a considerable size, the Puerto Rican Boa, and the Mona Boa.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The El Yunque National Forest in the north east, previously known as the Caribbean National Forest, a tropical rainforest is home to the majority (13 of 16) of species of coquí.^ Eastern Region El Yunque Rain Forest, known also as the Caribbean National Forest , rest in the north-most corner of the east coast.

^ El Yunque Rain Forest is the only tropical rain forest in the US National Parks system.
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

^ Most Coquí species (13 of 17) live in the El Yunque National Forest, a tropical rainforest in the northeast of the island previously known as the Caribbean National Forest.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is also home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic and 50 bird species, including one of the top 10 endangered birds in the world, the Puerto Rican Amazon.^ It is also home to 50 bird species, including the critically endangered Puerto Rican Amazon.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ El Yunque is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic to the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AIDS has killed more than 25 million people, with an estimated 38.6 million people living with HIV, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history.

.The Guánica Dry Forest Reserve in the south west, 10,000 acres (40 km2) of dry land inhabited by over 600 uncommon types of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 that are endemic to Puerto Rico.^ Puerto Rico textile plant to close .

^ Across the island in the southwest, the 10,000 acres (40 km2) of dry land at the Guánica Dry Forest Reserve contain over 600 uncommon species of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 endemic to Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Forest is located in the dry south, and harbors some 700 plant species, of which 48 are endangered and 16 exist exclusively on the island.

See also: Fauna of Puerto Rico

Geology

.Puerto Rico is composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks, which are overlain by younger Oligocene and more recent carbonates and other sedimentary rocks.^ Fajardo Airport (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Culebra Divers (more) > Puerto Rico > Culebra .
  • Culebra, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricoguest.com [Source type: General]

^ More news from Puerto Rico...

.Most of the caverns and karst topography on the island occurs in the northern region in the carbonates.^ Most of the caverns and karst topography on the island occurs in the northern region in the carbonates.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A rugged central mountain range constitutes two-thirds of the island and separates a northern coastal plain noted for karst formations from a drier southern plain.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rivers in the northern region of the island are typically longer and of higher water flow rates than those of the south, since the south receives less rain than the central and northern regions.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.The oldest rocks are approximately 190 million years old (Jurassic) and are located at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island.^ The oldest rocks are approximately 190 million years old (Jurassic) and are located at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even now, at least five million tourists —mostly from United States— visit this island every year, contributing nearly 2 billion dollars to its economy.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the west end of the island La Cordillera Central faces the sea in an abrupt steepness, but not before branching out to form La Sierra Bermeja mountain range.

.These rocks may represent part of the oceanic crust and are believed to come from the Pacific Ocean realm.^ They may represent part of the oceanic crust and are believed to come from the Pacific Ocean realm.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates and is currently being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by the interaction of these plates.^ Current location: Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates and is being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by their interaction.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PUERTO RICO's heart is not American.
  • Puerto Rico's Decolonization - Rub�n Berr�os Mart�nez 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.independencia.net [Source type: Original source]

.These stresses may cause earthquakes and tsunamis.^ These stresses may cause earthquakes and tsunamis.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Powerful tectonic forces that over millions of years have created these features still occasionally cause earthquakes in Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean.^ These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A few of these areas are some of the most astonishing geological creations this side of the globe.

^ Come and experience these beautiful coasts with some of the most stunning beaches on the Island.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most recent major earthquake occurred on October 11, 1918 and had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale.^ The original lighthouse was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami of 11 October 1918.
  • Lighthouses of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: General]

^ The most recent major earthquake occurred on October 11, 1918 and had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .It originated off the coast of Aguadilla and was accompanied by a tsunami.^ It originated off the coast of Aguadilla and was accompanied by a tsunami.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Puerto Rico Trench, the largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic, is located about 75 miles (120 km) north of Puerto Rico in the Atlantic Ocean at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates.^ Two miles north of Puerto Rico, below the rough seas of the Atlantic, the ocean floor drops about 600 feet.

^ Current location: Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ The deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Puerto Rico Trench, is to the north of our Island.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .The trench is 1,090 miles (1,754 km) long and about 60 miles (97 km) wide.^ It is 1,090 miles (1,750 km) long and about 60 miles (97 km) wide.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The depression, lies parallel to the northern coast and measures about 1,090 miles (1,750 km) long by 60 miles (100 km) wide.

^ It is 28,000 feet deep and about 1,090 miles long and 60 miles wide.
  • Discover Puerto Rico » Pure Adventure PR 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.pureadventurepr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At its deepest point, named the Milwaukee Deep, it is 27,493 feet (8,380 m) deep, or about 5.2 miles (8.38 km).^ It starts at KM 13.5 on Road 191 and climbs about 1100 feet to El Toro Peak, the highest peak in the rain forest.
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

^ It is 1,090 miles (1,750 km) long and about 60 miles (97 km) wide.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At its deepest point, named the Milwaukee Deep, it is 27,493 feet (8,380 m) deep, or about 5.2 miles (8.4 km).
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

[26]

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Puerto Rico
Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
.During the 1800s, hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain (mainly from Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands) and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America, arrived in Puerto Rico.^ Chinese labor was introduced in the nineteenth century, and immigrants came from Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque provinces, Galicia, and the Canary Islands.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico , island (2005 est.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other settlers have included Irish, Scots, Germans, Italians, and thousands others who were granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land.^ There were other settlers, too, which included Irish, Scots, Germans, Italians, and thousands who were granted land from Spain during the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815, which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San German -- Located on the island's southwestern corner, small, sleepy, and historic San Germán was named after the second wife of Ferdinand of Spain, Germaine de Foix, whom he married in 1503.
  • Puerto Rico : Regions in Brief | Frommers.com 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ The nineteenth century also brought Corsican, French, German, Lebanese, Scottish, Italian, Irish, English, and American immigration.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century.^ Yet the island was populated in 1898 by almost a million people that had developed a distinct national identity and consciousness as an integral part of the Latin American family of nations.
  • Puerto Rico's Decolonization - Rub�n Berr�os Mart�nez 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.independencia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the early 19th century, the island's most-feared pirate, Roberto Cofresi, terrorized the Puerto Rican coastline from a secret lair in a cave nearby.
  • Puerto Rico : Regions in Brief | Frommers.com 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico Careers: As of 2009, Puerto Rico’s population was estimated at almost four million; Puerto Rico was ranked 9th of 181 countries in a 2009 “Best Country to Start a Business” survey.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

.A census conducted by royal decree on September 30,1858, gives the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at this time, with 300,430 identified as Whites ; 341,015 as Free colored; and 41,736 as Slaves.^ The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí, a small frog easily identified by the sound of its call, and from which it gets its name.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 30,000 people in Puerto Rico have HIV/AIDS, and more than 19,000 Puerto Ricans have died from AIDS-related causes.

.More recently, Puerto Rico has become the permanent home of over 100,000 legal residents who immigrated from not only Spain, but from Latin America as well.^ Focuses on works related to Puerto Rico and all of Latin America.
  • Puerto Rico: Information Sources 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fajardo Airport (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Culebra Divers (more) > Puerto Rico > Culebra .
  • Culebra, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricoguest.com [Source type: General]

Argentines, Cubans, Dominicans, Colombians and Venezuelans can also be counted as settlers.
.Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history as well.^ That is, statehood doesn't have a majority in Puerto Rico.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Iñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, 293 years after the first Spaniards arrived on the island.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks, overlain by younger Oligocene and more recent carbonates and other sedimentary rocks.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.Starting in the Post-WWII period, due to poverty, cheap airfare, and promotion by the island government, waves of Puerto Ricans moved to the continental United States, particularly to New York City Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Camden, New Jersey; Chicago; Springfield and Boston; Orlando, Miami and Tampa, Florida; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Hartford; Washington, and Los Angeles.^ Over 2 million Puerto Ricans live in the United States, primarily in the northeast.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1959 the first New York City Puerto Rican Day parade was held.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cities in Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts also have a significant number of Puerto Rican residents.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined.^ PUERTO RICO ECONOMY (early 1990s) .
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico’s public debt has grown at a faster pace than the growth of its economy, reaching $46.7 billion in 2008.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Economy of Puerto Rico In the early 1900s the greatest contributor to Puerto Rico's economy was agriculture, its main crop being sugar.
  • Kooky Plan: the wiki for entrepreneurs / Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC kookyplan.pbworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emigration continues at the present time, and this, combined with Puerto Rico's greatly lowered birth rate, suggests that the island's population will age rapidly and start to decline sometime within the next couple of decades.^ Puerto Rico is sometimes called the Island of Enchantment.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Puerto Rico 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.caribbeantown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico is densely populated and urbanized.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico , island (2005 est.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 2000 U.S. Census Puerto Ricans were asked to indicate in which racial categories they consider themselves to belong.^ Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since a great many Puerto Ricans are of mixed Spanish and African descent, they have had to endure the same sort of racial discrimination often experienced by African Americans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Puerto Ricans are American citizens, they are considered U.S. migrants as opposed to foreign immigrants.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The breakdown is as follows: 80% described themselves as "white"; 8% described themselves as "black"; 12% described themselves as "mulatto" and only 0.4% described themselves as "American Indian or Alaska Native" (the US Census does not consider Hispanic to be a race, and asks if a person considers himself Hispanic in a separate question).^ According to 1990 U.S. Census Bureau statistics, 31 percent of all Puerto Rican men and 59 percent of all Puerto Rican women were not considered part of the American labor force.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicholasa Mohr (1935– ) is the only Hispanic American woman to write for major U.S. publishing houses, including Dell, Bantam, and Harper.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the island of Puerto Rico, skin color ranges from black to fair, and there are many ways of describing a person's color.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27][28]
.A recent study of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 800 individuals found 61.1% as having Amerindian maternal mtDNA, 26.4% as having African maternal mtDNA, and 12.5% as having Caucasian maternal mtDNA.[29] Conversely, patrilineal input, as indicated by the Y chromosome, showed that 70% of all Puerto Rican males have inherited Y chromosome DNA from a male European ancestor, 20% have inherited Y chromosome DNA from a male African ancestor, and fewer than 10% have inherited Y chromosome DNA from a male Amerindian ancestor.^ Puerto Rican lady explaining to tourists that it is not the angelic Puerto Ricans who create all the problems on the Island “ The best Marine lovers in the universe are Puerto Rican women!
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My mother broke away as most puerto rican children do to explore, and do to this my older brother and sister are half italian, my brother and myself are part basian (from Barbados)and african-american, and my baby sister is part cherokee indian and caucasian.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Ricans make good cannon fodder, Americans usualy use them in the front lines in almost any conflict ranging from Vietnam all the way to Iraq.
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In summary, the results suggest that the three largest components of the Puerto Rican genetic pool are European/Caucasian, Amerindian, and African, in descending order.^ My mother broke away as most puerto rican children do to explore, and do to this my older brother and sister are half italian, my brother and myself are part basian (from Barbados)and african-american, and my baby sister is part cherokee indian and caucasian.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These three backward shitholes envy the fact that the friendly, prosperous and innocent angels- Puerto Ricans- are US citizens and are rich and handsome because of that.
  • Puerto Rico - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since a great many Puerto Ricans are of mixed Spanish and African descent, they have had to endure the same sort of racial discrimination often experienced by African Americans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Languages

.The official languages of the island are Spanish and English.^ Spanish and English are the official languages, although Spanish is predominant.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is the medium of instruction, but English is studied as a second language by all students.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And some Puerto Ricans are further handicapped by the Spanish-to-English language barrier in American cities.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spanish is the primary language of Puerto Ricans, though English is taught as a second language in public and private schools from elementary levels to high school.^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Although English is taught to most elementary school children in Puerto Rican public schools, Spanish remains the primary language on the island of Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Puerto Ricans are of Spanish ancestry.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[30] The Spanish of Puerto Rico is well known for some interesting linguistic features.^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico holiday rentals in this less popular area are in the midst of several small towns with rich architecture and a variety of museums as well as some outstanding beaches.
  • Puerto Rico Vacation Rentals by Owner, Puerto Rico VRBO®, Puerto Rico Villas, Puerto Rico USA Rentals 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to common misconception, residents of Puerto Rico pay some U.S. federal taxes: import/export taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes, etc.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1991, Governor Rafael Hernández Colón signed a law declaring Spanish as the sole official language of the island's government.^ Ponce -- Puerto Rico's second-largest city, Ponce has always prided itself on its independence from the Spanish-derived laws and taxes that governed San Juan and the rest of the island.
  • Puerto Rico : Regions in Brief | Frommers.com 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ The legislature voted to make Spanish the official language of Puerto Rico.

^ Faros de Puerto Pico An excellent Spanish-language site by Alexis Colón-Sepúlveda, featuring photos and historical information on the historic Spanish lighthouses.
  • Lighthouses of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: General]

.While some applauded the governor's decision (mainly members of the political parties supporting commonwealth-status and independence), others opposed it, including statehood supporters.^ The commonwealth - The debate over political status .
  • Puerto Rico -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political parties are based on the three traditional positions on status: autonomy in an enhanced commonwealth status, statehood, and independence.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1993 and 1998, however, voters in nonbinding referenda rejected any change from commonwealth status by narrow margins, although more U.S. politicians voiced support for the statehood option.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result of his actions, the People of Puerto Rico won the Literature's Prince of Asturias Award in 1991, which is awarded annually to those who defend and contribute to the growth of the Spanish language.^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The legislature voted in 1991 to make Spanish the sole official language of Puerto Rico.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where are the people of Puerto Rico originally from?
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .Upon his election as governor in 1993, pro-statehood former Governor Pedro Rosselló overturned the law enacted by his predecessor and once again established both English and Spanish as official languages.^ Spanish and English are the official languages, although Spanish is predominant.
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legislature voted to make Spanish the official language of Puerto Rico.

^ In 1992, New Progressive party candidate Pedro Rosselló was elected governor (he was reelected in 1996).
  • Puerto Rico Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This move by the pro-statehood governor was seen by many as another attempt to move the island closer to statehood, however, despite many attempts and plebiscites, it never came about during his two consecutive terms.^ The authorities acted swiftly, however, crushing the revolt at San Sebastian, which came to symbolize the island's struggle for independence.

^ However, many Puerto Ricans are more receptive to attend a religious event during the week so we took advantage of the opportunity to preach the gospel to them.

^ During that action he had braved enemy fire, despite having two horses shot out from under him, to lead and encourage his soldiers.
  • Puerto Rico - A Moonlight Picnic 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Religion

.The Roman Catholic Church has been historically the most dominant religion of the majority of Puerto Ricans, although the presence of various Protestant denominations has increased under American sovereignty, making modern Puerto Rico an interconfessional country.^ Oil is the dominant fuel in Puerto Rico.

^ That is, statehood doesn't have a majority in Puerto Rico.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Filed under: Puerto Rico .

.Protestantism was suppressed under the Spanish regime, but encouraged under American rule of the island.^ Puerto Rico, the easternmost island of the Greater Antilles, was a Spanish colony until it was captured by U.S. forces during the Spanish-American War of 1898.
  • Lighthouses of Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: General]

^ Natural disasters, including a major earthquake, a tsunami and several hurricanes, and the Great Depression impoverished the island during the first few decades under American rule.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The push to Yauco was the first steps in General Miles' developing NEW plan to topple San Juan and the Spanish rule over the island.
  • Puerto Rico - A Moonlight Picnic 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taíno religious practices have to a degree been rediscovered/reinvented by a handful of advocates. Various African religious practices have been present since the arrival of enslaved Africans. .In particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santeria and/or Ifá, and the Kongo derived Palo Mayombe (sometimes called an African belief system, but rather a way of Bantu lifestyle of Congo origin) find adherence among very few individuals who practice some form of African traditional religion.^ Among Puerto Rican Catholics, a small minority actively practice some version of santería ("sahnteh-REE-ah"), an African American pagan religion with roots in the Yoruba religion of western Africa.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the help of some people on the TripAdvisor.com Puerto Rico forum who provided the initial directions, we set off to find this secret treasure!
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

^ Many Puerto Rican customs and superstitions blend the Catholic religious traditions of Spaniards and the pagan religious beliefs of the West African slaves who were brought to the island beginning in the sixteenth century.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Politics

Government of Puerto Rico

Main article: Government of Puerto Rico
.Puerto Rico's head of state is the President of the United States.^ Puerto Rico's head of state is the President of the United States.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Three, United States and Puerto Rico will exchange diplomatic representations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparative compendium of Puerto Rico & the United States .
  • Puerto Rico: Information Sources 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The government of Puerto Rico is based on the formal republican system composed of three branches: the Executive branch headed by the Governor, currently Anibal Acevedo Vila, the Legislative branch consisting of a bicameral Legislative Assembly (a Senate and a House of Representatives), headed by the President of the Senate, currently Kenneth McClintock and the House Speaker, currently Jóse Aponte Hernandez, and the Judicial branch, headed by the Chief Justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, currently Federico Hernandez Denton, that form the formal government.^ Puerto Rico's head of state is the President of the United States.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The executive branch is headed by the Governor, currently Mr. Luis Fortuño.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Court victory for ex-Puerto Rico governor .

.The legal system is based on a mix of the civil law and the common law systems.^ The legal system is a mix of the civil law and the common law systems.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Civil law requires that a third of an estate must be bequeathed equally among all the legal heirs.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legal practice incorporates elements from Anglo-American common law and the continental civil code law inherited from Spain.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The governor as well as legislators are elected by popular vote every four years.^ A bicameral legislature is elected every four years.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A local governor is elected every four years through universal suffrage.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Members of the Judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the "advice and consent" of the Senate.^ Judges of both courts are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Puerto Rico 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.caribbeantown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the Judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the "advice and consent" of the Senate.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The governor, with the consent of the legislature, appoints the heads of the commonwealths executive departments.

.Puerto Rico has limited representation in the U.S. Congress in the form of a Resident Commissioner, currently Luis Fortuño, a nonvoting delegate, and the current Congress had returned the Commissioner's power to vote in the Committee of the Whole, but not on matters where the vote would represent a decisive participation.^ An elected resident commissioner represents the island in the U.S. Congress but has no vote.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico is represented by a nonvoting resident delegate in the U.S. Congress.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Return from Puerto Rico/report .
  • Puerto Rico - Reports/Forums/jerrylabella.com 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.jerrylabella.com [Source type: General]

[32] .Because no federal elections are held in any of the unincorporated territories, Puerto Rico does not have electors in the U.S. Electoral College.^ Puerto Rico is no exception.
  • Puerto Rico - Local Reports (Caribbean Hurricane Network) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC stormcarib.com [Source type: General]

^ WASHINGTON, USA (AFP): The US Supreme Court rejected Monday a bid to give residents of the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico the right to vote in US presidential elections.

^ Don Pedro Albizu Campos also served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Properties 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricopropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

Administrative divisions

Main article: Municipalities of Puerto Rico
.As an unincorporated territory of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have any first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. Government, but there are 78 municipalities at the second level (Mona Island is not a municipality, but part of the municipality of Mayagüez).^ In other words, Puerto Rico is a colony of the United States of America .
  • Puerto Rico Statehood Society 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC studentorgs.gwu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a professional class in Puerto Rico.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico is not divided into counties but has 78 municipios (municipalities).
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] Municipalities are subdivided into wards or barrios, and those into sectors. .Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a 4 year term.^ Legislators are popularly elected to 4-year terms.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each is governed by a popularly elected mayor and municipal assembly.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bicameral legislature is elected every four years.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first municipality (previously called "town") of Puerto Rico, San Juan, was founded in 1521. In the 16th century two more municipalities were established, San Germán (1570), and Coamo (1579).^ First tanning salon in Puerto Rico.
  • Carolina: Isla Verde, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricoplanner.com [Source type: General]

^ Fajardo Airport (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Culebra Divers (more) > Puerto Rico > Culebra .
  • Culebra, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricoguest.com [Source type: General]

Three more municipalities were established in the 17th century. These were Arecibo (1614), Aguada (1692) and Ponce (1692). .The 18th and 19th century saw an increase in settlement in Puerto Rico.^ Old forts, mid-century churches and ancient courtyards still stand as a modern testament to Puerto Rico’s history.

^ Puerto Rico vacations offer four centuries of Spanish Caribbean culture mixed with the American convenience store.
  • Puerto Rico Gran Canaria - we suggest you Puerto Rico hotels fligts cruises and more 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricovacations.mobi [Source type: General]

^ The United States acquired Puerto Rico through conquest as a military outpost to protect its strategic interests in the Caribbean early in the century.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

30 municipalities were established in the 18th century and 34 more were established in the 19th century. Only six municipalities were founded in the 20th century. The last municipality was Florida, founded in 1971.[33]

Political history

Main article: Politics of Puerto Rico
.In 1950, the U.S. Congress gave Puerto Ricans the right to organize a constitutional convention, contingent on the results of a referendum, where the electorate would determine if they wished to organize their own government pursuant to a constitution of their own choosing.^ Puerto Rico has its own constitution.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 23, 2009 A House committee approved a proposal Wednesday that would let Puerto Ricans decide their island’s political status.
  • Puerto Rico Hispanic y Latino News & Info - Noticias de Puerto Rico 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.hispanictips.com [Source type: General]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Puerto Ricans expressed their support for this measure in a 1951 referendum, which gave voters a yes-or-no choice for the commonwealth status, defined as a 'permanent association with a federal union' but which did not offer independence or statehood as ballot options.^ The attainment of commonwealth status did not halt agitation for total independence.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Africans gave Puerto Rican Spanish defining nuances.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Puerto Ricans fighting for statehood .

A second referendum was held to approve the constitution, which was adopted in 1952.
.Prior to approving the new constitution, the Constitutional Convention specified the name by which the body politic would be known.^ In March 1952 the electorate approved the new constitution, and on July 25 Gov. Muñoz proclaimed the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On February 4 1952, the convention approved Resolution 22 which chose in English the word “Commonwealth ”, meaning a “politically organized community” or “state,” which is simultaneously connected by a compact or treaty to another political system.^ The existing compact of free association are, constitutionally speaking, both laws and treaties or international agreements of the United States.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 3.22 further states that government auditors can be presumed to be free from organizational impairments to independence when reporting externally to third parties.
  • Department of Education; Compliance Agreement; Notice of written findings and compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four, the procedure and substance of the disposition of the territory and the simultaneous entering into a treaty of union would be a political question, not subject to judicial review as has been determined by Circuit Courts in the case of the Free Associated States of the Pacific.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.The convention adopted a translation into Spanish of the term, inspired by the Irish saorstát (Free State) of “Estado Libre Asociado” (ELA) to represent the compact between the people of Puerto Rico and the United States.^ At that time, the people of Puerto Rico were required to elect between retaining their Spanish nationality or accepting the nationality of the United States.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Three, United States and Puerto Rico will exchange diplomatic representations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

Literally translated into English, the phrase means “Associated Free State.”
.In 1967, the Legislative Assembly tested political interests of the Puerto Rican people by passing a plebiscite Act that allowed a vote on the status of Puerto Rico.^ WASHINGTON, USA (AFP): The US Supreme Court rejected Monday a bid to give residents of the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico the right to vote in US presidential elections.

^ Passing legislation to lower taxes in a staggered manner over the next three years, getting the U.S. Congress to approve a binding status plebiscite for the island and to include Puerto Rico on an equal footing in the U.S. national reform of healthcare; and passing legislation to reduce the Puerto Rico Legislatures budget by one-third to one-half and holding a referendum to approve the constitutional amendments needed to do this.
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Many people in Puerto Rico already use solar power to heat water in their houses, and in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico was awarded an international award for the design of an entirely solar-powered home.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

.This constituted the first plebiscite by the Legislature for a choice on three status options.^ There are only three real options for the people of Puerto Rico: independence, statehood, and continued rule by Congress pursuant to the Territory Clause of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I would stress from the outside that, unlike other status options, Puerto Rico's independence poses no constitutional obstacles whatsoever for the United States.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.Puerto Rican leaders had lobbied for such an opportunity repeatedly, in 1898, 1912, 1914, 1919, 1923, 1929, 1932, 1939, 1943, 1944, 1948, 1956, and 1960. The Commonwealth option, represented by the PDP, won with an overwhelming majority of 60.4 percent of the votes.^ In a narrow vote of 48 percent to 46 percent, Puerto Ricans opted to remain a Commonwealth.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Ricans share most rights and obligations of other U.S. citizens; residents of the commonwealth may not vote in U.S. presidential elections, however, and, except for federal employees and members of the U.S. armed forces, are not required to pay federal income taxes.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a 1998 referendum, statehood again failed to command a majority of Puerto Ricans: about 50 percent voted for “none of the above,” the choice favored by the pro-commonwealth forces, compared with 46.5 percent for statehood, 2.5 percent for independence, and 1 percent for other options.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Statehood Republican Party, as well as the Puerto Rico Independence Party boycotted the vote.^ That is, statehood doesn't have a majority in Puerto Rico.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Else Puerto Rico is not going to be independent.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a 1998 referendum, statehood again failed to command a majority of Puerto Ricans: about 50 percent voted for “none of the above,” the choice favored by the pro-commonwealth forces, compared with 46.5 percent for statehood, 2.5 percent for independence, and 1 percent for other options.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the plebiscite, efforts in the 1970s to enact legislation to address the status issue died in Congressional committees.^ The manual comes at a time when the government has already announced the possibility of a local plebiscite if the U.S. Congress ultimately does not evaluate a proposed two-tier status legislation.
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ This Compliance Agreement addresses the following issue areas: Grants Management generally, Grants Management for several specific program areas, Payroll, and Procurement and Property Management.
  • Department of Education; Notice of written findings, compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and subsequent actions [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to a discussion of the individual issues and what the options are to address them, I particularly would like our witnesses to discuss exactly what the status options are that should trigger consideration of these issues.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1993 plebiscite, in which Congress played a more substantial role, Commonwealth status was again upheld.^ In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose to retain commonwealth status.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He pressed the issue in a 1993 plebiscite, but 48 percent of the voters elected to petition the U.S. Congress to retain the commonwealth, with enhanced status; 46 percent chose statehood; and 4 percent voted for independence.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The manual comes at a time when the government has already announced the possibility of a local plebiscite if the U.S. Congress ultimately does not evaluate a proposed two-tier status legislation.
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

[34] .In the 1998 plebiscite, all the options were rejected when an absolute majority of the voters (50.3%) voted in favor of the "none of the above" option, again favoring the commonwealth status quo by default.^ In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose to retain commonwealth status.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a 1998 referendum, statehood again failed to command a majority of Puerto Ricans: about 50 percent voted for “none of the above,” the choice favored by the pro-commonwealth forces, compared with 46.5 percent for statehood, 2.5 percent for independence, and 1 percent for other options.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if you keep what the commonwealth as it is now, the status quo, I want to say we will(?
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

[35]

International status

.On November 27, 1953, shortly after the establishment of the Commonwealth, the General Assembly of the UN approved Resolution 748, removing Puerto Rico’s classification as a non-self-governing territory under article 73(e) of the Charter from United Nations.^ The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is governed under a constitution of 1952, as amended.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though Puerto Rico is a United States commonwealth, its culture and retail landscape was different enough from the mainland to give Developers Diversified an idea of what to expect when venturing internationally.
  • Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ddrc.com [Source type: News]

^ Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States of America and we have common citizenship, currency and defense.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.However, the UN General Assembly did not apply its full list of criteria to Puerto Rico for determining whether or not self-governing status had been achieved.^ A Closer Look: Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War in 1898, and Puerto Ricans were granted full U.S. citizenship in 1917.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ On September of 1996, about 700 acres of this region were handed over to the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources by the government of Puerto Ricos Land Authority for public use.

^ Continuous and Meaningful Reassessment of Compliance Status The Department, with PRDE and Puerto Rico, will continuously reassess the action steps and timelines in this Agreement and in the various Corrective Action Plans to determine whether: (1) The action steps fully meet the requirements of this Agreement, (2) the action steps will move Puerto Rico and PRDE toward achieving required measurable objectives, and ultimately, [[Page 30693]] full programmatic compliance within three years, and (3) the timelines' need to be modified within the time boundaries set forth in this Agreement.
  • Department of Education; Compliance Agreement; Notice of written findings and compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, in a 1996 report on a Puerto Rico status political bill, the U.S. Committee on Resources stated that Puerto Rico’s current status “does not meet the criteria for any of the options for full self-government.” The House Committee concluded that Puerto Rico is still an unincorporated territory of the United States under the territorial clause, that the establishment of local self-government with the consent of the people can be unilaterally revoked by the U.S. Congress, and that U.S. Congress can also withdraw the U.S. citizenship presently enjoyed by the residents of Puerto Rico at any time, as long as it achieves a legitimate Federal purpose.^ Puerto Rico-born U.S. citizens currently enjoy all of these attributes of citizenship.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Return from Puerto Rico/report .
  • Puerto Rico - Reports/Forums/jerrylabella.com 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.jerrylabella.com [Source type: General]

^ SENATOR GRAHAM: -- as one of the options for the people of Puerto Rico.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.[36] The application of the Constitution to Puerto Rico is limited by the Insular Cases.^ Why is this very clear case of hatred not being prosecuted as a hate crime when Puerto Rico has had a hate crimes law on the books since 2002?
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ The treatment the United States affords its citizens of Puerto Rican nationality after the establishment of Puerto Rico's independence is a matter of U.S. policy, subject only to constitutional limitations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are only three real options for the people of Puerto Rico: independence, statehood, and continued rule by Congress pursuant to the Territory Clause of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even though Puerto Rico has no established embassies, it hosts Consulates from 42 countries, mainly from the Western Hemisphere and Europe.^ Puerto Rico is no exception.
  • Puerto Rico - Local Reports (Caribbean Hurricane Network) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC stormcarib.com [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico hosts Consulates from 42 countries from the Western Hemisphere and Europe.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though Puerto Rico is a United States commonwealth, its culture and retail landscape was different enough from the mainland to give Developers Diversified an idea of what to expect when venturing internationally.
  • Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ddrc.com [Source type: News]

.Most consulates are located in the vicinity of San Juan, capital of Puerto Rico.^ Most consulates are located in San Juan.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of Puerto Rico’s major cultural institutions are in San Juan.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Current location: Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

Political status within the United States

.Under its 1952 constitution, Puerto Rico is a Commonwealth and enjoys an administrative-autonomy similar to that of a state of the Union.^ Puerto Rico has its own constitution.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though Puerto Rico is a United States commonwealth, its culture and retail landscape was different enough from the mainland to give Developers Diversified an idea of what to expect when venturing internationally.
  • Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ddrc.com [Source type: News]

^ The title defines the term "state" to include the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and all US possessions excluding the Panama Canal Zone.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Puerto Ricans are statutory U.S. Citizens but, because Puerto Rico is an insular area and not a U.S. state, the U.S. Constitution does not enfranchise U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico.^ Founded in 1987, the council was formed to help create a positive awareness of Puerto Rico in the United States and to forge new links between the mainland and the island.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 2 million Puerto Ricans live in the United States, primarily in the northeast.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Dorado Area, Puerto Rico Hotel .
  • WhereToStay.com: Puerto Rico Villas, Hotels and Resorts with reviews. 25 September 2009 3:47 UTC www.wheretostay.com [Source type: General]

.Puerto Rico does participate in the internal political process of both the Democratic and Republican Parties in the United States (although not accorded equal-proportional representation in both parties), and delegates from the island vote in each party's national convention.^ Three, United States and Puerto Rico will exchange diplomatic representations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is an island of diversity.

^ And it has to do with the problems that that would create for both an independent Puerto Rico and for the United States.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.Puerto Rico is classified by the U.S. government as an independent taxation authority by mutual agreement with the U.S. Congress.^ Else Puerto Rico is not going to be independent.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress has not treated Puerto Rico like it treated the Philippines, which was bound for independence.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently, these positions are represented by the Popular Democratic Party (PPD), the New Progressive Party (PNP), and the Independence Party of Puerto Rico (PIP).
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common misconception is that residents of Puerto Rico do not have to pay federal taxes.^ Taxes & Tips Puerto Rico has a 5.5% sales tax.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking advantage of the tax exemptions, factories flourished, and slowly Puerto Rico’s economy transformed from being agricultural-based to manufacturing.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Residents of the island pay federal taxes (import/export taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes, etc.^ Puerto Ricans share most rights and obligations of other U.S. citizens; residents of the commonwealth may not vote in U.S. presidential elections, however, and, except for federal employees and members of the U.S. armed forces, are not required to pay federal income taxes.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ These include, of course, veterans benefits, federal pensions, and Social Security.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

) and some even pay federal income taxes .(Puerto Rico residents who are federal employees, or who do business with the federal government, Puerto Rico-based corporations that intend to send funds to the U.S., etc).^ An "employee" is one who is employed by the federal government.
  • Supreme Law Library: The Cooper File 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Taking advantage of the tax exemptions, factories flourished, and slowly Puerto Rico’s economy transformed from being agricultural-based to manufacturing.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.While most residents of the island do not pay federal income tax, they do pay federal payroll taxes (Social Security and Medicare), as well as Puerto Rico income taxes.^ Taxes & Tips Puerto Rico has a 5.5% sales tax.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Ricans share most rights and obligations of other U.S. citizens; residents of the commonwealth may not vote in U.S. presidential elections, however, and, except for federal employees and members of the U.S. armed forces, are not required to pay federal income taxes.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, because the cutoff point for income taxation is lower than that of the IRS code, and because the per-capita income in Puerto Rico is much lower than the average per-capita income on the mainland, more Puerto Rico residents pay income taxes to the local taxation authority than if the IRS code were applied to the island.^ Fajardo Airport (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Island Flyer (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Plaza Fajardo (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

.Puerto Rico residents are eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement.^ Today Puerto Rico elects a resident commissioner to serve four-years terms as non-voting members of the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ When you are looking for exotic locations, miles upon miles of white sand beaches, plus an unbelievable rain forest and mountains, you come to Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Puerto Rico is excluded from Supplemental Security Income (SSI).^ The title defines the term "state" to include the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and all US possessions excluding the Panama Canal Zone.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name: E-mail: Security Code: Comment: (50-4000 characters) Culture of Puerto Rico forum « Culture of Portugal .
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Puerto Rico receives less than 15% of the Medicaid funding it would be allotted as a state.^ The title defines the term "state" to include the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and all US possessions excluding the Panama Canal Zone.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States of America and we have common citizenship, currency and defense.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Puerto Rico is on Atlantic Standard Time (AST) which is just one hour later than Eastern Standard Time (EST) and four hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

.As statutory U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans may enlist in the U.S. military.^ The treatment the United States affords its citizens of Puerto Rican nationality after the establishment of Puerto Rico's independence is a matter of U.S. policy, subject only to constitutional limitations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Ricans share most rights and obligations of other U.S. citizens; residents of the commonwealth may not vote in U.S. presidential elections, however, and, except for federal employees and members of the U.S. armed forces, are not required to pay federal income taxes.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Puerto Ricans are American citizens, they are considered U.S. migrants as opposed to foreign immigrants.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Puerto Ricans have been included in the compulsory draft, when it has been in effect.^ They also included statistics about Puerto Ricans in the United States and a directory of Puerto Rican organizations.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Nearly 30 percent of Puerto Ricans identify themselves as Protestants of various denominations, including Lutheran, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, and Christian Scientist.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The show uses special lighting, sound, laser and water effects to bring important moments in Puerto Rican history to life.
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

.Puerto Ricans have fully participated in all U.S. wars since 1898, most notably in World War II, in the Korean and Vietnam wars, and the current Middle-Eastern conflicts.^ Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens since 1917.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Puerto Ricans are of Spanish ancestry.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Closer Look: Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War in 1898, and Puerto Ricans were granted full U.S. citizenship in 1917.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

Recent developments on status

.According to a December 2005 report by the President’s Task Force on Puerto Rico’s Status, it is not possible “to bind future (U.S.) Congresses to any particular arrangement for Puerto Rico as a Commonwealth”.^ Return from Puerto Rico/report .
  • Puerto Rico - Reports/Forums/jerrylabella.com 28 January 2010 0:42 UTC www.jerrylabella.com [Source type: General]

^ "Each and every participant in the President's Task Force should realize that Puerto Rico is in crisis.
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Marín favored Commonwealth status for Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This determination was based on articles in the U.S. Constitution regarding territories.^ Also, the courts have concluded that congressional determinations with regards to the free association compacts constitute a non-judicially reviewable political question.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

The Gov. Anibal Acevedo Vilá has since challenged the task force report, while his party, the Popular Democratic Party (PPD), denounced the task force as a political fraud that represents a threat to democracy and is a violation of the basic agreements held between the people of Puerto Rico and the United States since 1952.[37] It also announced a commitment to challenge the task force's report and validate the current status in all international forums including the United Nations. .It also rejects any colonial or territorial status as a status option, and vows to keep working for the enhanced Commonwealth status that was approved by the PPD in 1998 which included sovereignty, an association based on "respect and dignity between both nations", and common citizenship.^ Free association is a treaty-based status outside of U.S. sovereignty that can be terminated by either nation.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States of America and we have common citizenship, currency and defense.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ This option response to the commonwealth party proposal, then the president said, "The Senate can still consider a proposal that provides for an association between the United States and Puerto Rico based on Puerto Rican sovereignty."
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.The Legislative Branch, controlled by the opposing New Progressive Party (PNP), supported the White House Report's conclusions and has supported bills introduced by Reps.^ In the election of 1968, Luis Alberto Ferré (1904–2003), candidate of the New Progressive party, was elected governor.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electorate shifted again in 1976, as the New Progressives regained control of the legislature and Carlos Romero Barceló (1932– ) was elected governor.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1992 Pedro Rosselló (1944– ) of the New Progressive party was elected governor on a pro-statehood platform.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-432&article_id=777&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Puerto_Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jose Serrano (D-NY) and Luis Fortuño (R-PR) and Sens.^ Policeman Jose Luis Troche-Vargas Puerto Rico Police Department, PR EOW: Wednesday, December 2, 1981 Cause of Death: Gunfire .
  • Puerto Rico Police Department, Puerto Rico Fallen Officers 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC odmp.org [Source type: News]

.Ken Salazar (D-CO) and Mel Martinez (R-FL) to provide for a democratic referendum process among Puerto Rico voters.^ Thomas Cook holidaymaker books trip to Costa Rica but arrives in Puerto Rico (telegraph.co.uk) .
  • Puerto Rico Guestbook | Win a free all-inclusive trip! (no purchase necessary) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puertoricoguestbook.com [Source type: General]

^ Subject: Who is providing Internet services in Puerto Rico?
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Policeman Manuel Martinez Puerto Rico Police Department, PR EOW: Friday, February 10, 1978 Cause of Death: Automobile accident .
  • Puerto Rico Police Department, Puerto Rico Fallen Officers 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC odmp.org [Source type: News]

Political parties

Main article: List of political parties in Puerto Rico
.As unincorporated territory dependent on the U.S. since 1952, the ideology of Puerto Ricans is represented by its political parties, which stand for three distinct future political scenarios that are non-conformist regarding Puerto Rico's territorial or colonial status: (1) those who favor an autonomous, sovereign bilateral relationship with the United States (so-called "improved"/"enhanced" U.S. Commonwealth outside the U.S. Constitution's "Territorial Clause" or Free Associated Republic status); (2) those that favor that Puerto Rico's national independence should be recognized by the United States, as a full-fledged sovereign republic within the concert of the international community at-large; and, (3) those who favor Puerto Rico's entry into the United States as a full-fledged state of the federated union, by becoming the 51st state of the aforementioned country.^ The treatment the United States affords its citizens of Puerto Rican nationality after the establishment of Puerto Rico's independence is a matter of U.S. policy, subject only to constitutional limitations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Concerned with the overall improvement of Puerto Rican and Hispanic communities throughout the United States .
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico has its own constitution.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Popular Democratic Party (PPD) seeks to maintain the island's "association" status as a commonwealth, improved commonwealth and/or seek a true free sovereign-association status or Free Associated Republic, and has won a plurality vote in referendums on the island's status held over six decades after the island was invaded by the United States (that said, most referendums' fairness have been impugned by one or two of the opposition parties).^ These states are now fully sovereign foreign nations in free association with the United States.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose to retain commonwealth status.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP (pro-US statehood) [Pedro ROSSELLO]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD (pro-commonwealth) [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA]; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP (pro-independence) [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The New Progressive Party (PNP) seeks statehood for Puerto Rico.^ People just like you make Puerto Rico News on Topix better every day.
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Founded in 1987, the council was formed to help create a positive awareness of Puerto Rico in the United States and to forge new links between the mainland and the island.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, these positions are represented by the Popular Democratic Party (PPD), the New Progressive Party (PNP), and the Independence Party of Puerto Rico (PIP).
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Puerto Rican Independence Party and the Nationalist Party both seek independence for the nation of Puerto Rico, albeit through different means.^ Else Puerto Rico is not going to be independent.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the 1959 Communist revolution in Cuba, Puerto Rican nationalism lost much of its steam; the main political question facing Puerto Ricans in the mid-1990s was whether to seek full statehood or remain a Commonwealth.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto Rico is the perfect vacation destination for both culture junkies and those looking to simply get away from it all and relax.
  • Puerto Rico Travel: Book Your Puerto Rico Hotel Online | BookIt.com� 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC bookit.com [Source type: General]

.The Nationalist Party, for example, does not participate in elections held every four years.^ A bicameral legislature is elected every four years.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sai retreat every year was a moving and revealing experience for all the participants.
  • Sai Movement in Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC sathyasai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every previous election, a few party faithful showed up and anointed the sole remaining candidate.
  • Puerto Rico moves - Ben Smith's Blog - Politico.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Although they maintain close relations and are considered allies within an otherwise rather divided Puerto Rican Independence Movement, the Puerto Rican Independence Party, on the other hand, does participate in nation-wide gubernatorial elections held every four years since 1948.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Puerto Rico
.In the early 1900s the greatest contributor to Puerto Rico's economy was agriculture, its main crop being sugar.^ A Closer Look: Typically a billion dollar industry, tourism is one of the most important contributors to Puerto Rico’s economic success.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Puerto Rico survived on contraband and piracy, trading cattle, hides, sugar, tobacco, and foodstuffs directly with other nations.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contributors must use their own judgement to decide the relevance of their articles to the topics discussed in soc.culture.puerto-rico .
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

In the late 1940s a series of projects codenamed Operation Bootstrap encouraged, using tax exemptions, the establishment of factories. Thus manufacturing replaced agriculture as the main industry. .Puerto Rico is currently classified as a high income country by the World Bank.^ Current location: Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico News - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]
  • Puerto Rico Forum - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ World-renowned deep-sea fishing and exotic scuba diving make Puerto Rico a haven for maritime adventure.

^ Although Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, residents of Puerto Rico do not pay federal income tax (but neither can they vote in presidential elections).
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[39] [40]
.The economic conditions in Puerto Rico have improved dramatically since the Great Depression due to external investment in capital-intensive industry such as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and technology.^ In 1898, Puerto Rico officially joined the United States as a result of the Treaty of Paris, paving the way for a blossoming tourism industry.

^ On Monday, we were scheduled to travel on a boat to Culebra Island, off the East coast of Puerto Rico for an excursion, but everything was cancelled due to Tropical Storm Ana.

^ Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the beneficiary of special tax treatment from the U.S. government, today local industries must compete with those in more economically depressed parts of the world where wages are not subject to U.S. minimum wage legislation.^ Read More → Experience the San Sebastian Market If you want to be part of a local experience, get up early on a Friday and head to the San Sebastian Market.
  • Puerto Rico Day Trips | The Best Puerto Rico Travel Guide Featuring Reviews, Tips and Inside Information 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.puertoricodaytrips.com [Source type: General]

^ Meterorologist Ernesto morales warned that for tomorrow there are similar conditions as those of today so more thunderstoms and rain are expected.
  • Puerto Rico - Local Reports (Caribbean Hurricane Network) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC stormcarib.com [Source type: General]

^ Those measures included the introduction of American currency, health programs, hydroelectric power and irrigation programs, and economic policies designed to attract U.S. industry and provide more employment opportunities for native Puerto Ricans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years, some U.S. and foreign owned factories have moved to lower wage countries in Latin America and Asia.^ GRT or over) 36,728 GRT/37,048 DWT by type: roll on/roll off 2 foreign-owned: 2 (United States 2) registered in other countries: 1 (2005) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flight of industry to cheaper labor markets in Asia and Latin America and the rise of transnational business have reduced the process of industrialization.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Puerto Rico is subject to U.S. trade laws and restrictions.^ Subject: Who is providing Internet services in Puerto Rico?
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ But Puerto Rico is also subject to federal law and constitutes a district within the U.S. federal court system, with a local district court that has jurisdiction over federal law cases.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The treatment the United States affords its citizens of Puerto Rican nationality after the establishment of Puerto Rico's independence is a matter of U.S. policy, subject only to constitutional limitations.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tourism is an important component of the Puerto Rican economy supplying an approximate $1.8 billion.^ A Closer Look: Typically a billion dollar industry, tourism is one of the most important contributors to Puerto Rico’s economic success.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Paradores Puertorrique~nos (Puerto Rican Country Inns) is (officially) an organization sponsored by the Puerto Rico Tourism Company that promotes the use of the "paradores" around the island.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Additionally, to maintain the present level of federal funding for a reasonable amount of years can promote the Puerto Rican economy.
  • Oversight Hearing on Issues Raised by Puerto Rico Separate Sovereignty and Independence 25 September 2009 3:58 UTC www.puertorico-herald.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1999, an estimated 5 million tourists visited the island, most from the United States.^ Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 2004.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Founded in 1987, the council was formed to help create a positive awareness of Puerto Rico in the United States and to forge new links between the mainland and the island.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 2 million Puerto Ricans live in the United States, primarily in the northeast.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.Nearly a third of these are cruise ship passengers.^ There is no regular passenger service to Puerto Rico by sea, but more than a million passengers visit the island on cruise ships every year.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A steady increase in hotel registrations, which has been observed since 1998, and the construction of new hotels and new tourism projects, such as the Puerto Rico Convention Center, are indicators of the current strength of the tourism industry.^ Current location: Puerto Rico .
  • Puerto Rico Forum - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ Fajardo Tourism (more) > Puerto Rico > Fajardo .
  • Fajardo, Puerto Rico (English, Travel) 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC travelandsports.com [Source type: General]

^ Manufacturing: The manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and electronics lead Puerto Rico’s diverse industrial sector, which also yields significant clothing production and food processing.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

See also: Tourism in Puerto Rico
.Puerto Ricans had a per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) estimate of $22,058 for 2006,[1] which demonstrates a growth over the $14,412 level measured in the 2002 Current Population Survey by the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund.^ Agriculture: Agriculture accounts for less than 1% of Puerto Rico’s gross domestic product; however the territory is a key international producer of sugarcane, coffee, livestock products and tropical fruits including bananas and pineapple.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Outside of New York City, Puerto Ricans often boast higher college graduation rates and higher per capita incomes than their counterparts in other Latino groups, even when those groups represent a much higher proportion of the local population.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite these problems, Puerto Ricans, like other Latino groups, are beginning to exert more political power and cultural influence on the mainstream population.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .In that survey, Puerto Ricans had a 48.2% poverty rate.^ Still, some studies reveal that there is a substantially higher rate of voter participation among Puerto Ricans on the island than on the U.S. mainland.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a narrow vote of 48 percent to 46 percent, Puerto Ricans opted to remain a Commonwealth.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, U.S. Census Bureau reports indicate that for at least 25 percent of all Puerto Ricans living on the mainland (and 55 percent living on the island) poverty is a serious problem.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By comparison, the poorest State of the Union, Mississippi, had a median level of $21,587, according to the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey, 2002 to 2004 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.^ According to the 1990 U.S. Census Bureau report, the island of Puerto Rico has a population of 3,522,037.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to 1990 U.S. Census Bureau statistics, 31 percent of all Puerto Rican men and 59 percent of all Puerto Rican women were not considered part of the American labor force.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Census projections for 2000 place the population at 3,916,000, not including the estimated 2.7 million Puerto Ricans in the mainland United States.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .Since 1952, the gap between Puerto Rico's per capita income and U.S. national levels has essentially remained unchanged — one third the U.S. national average and roughly half that of the poorest state.^ A U.S. commonwealth since 1952, Puerto Rico has maintained a strong sense of nationalism.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To our loved ones in the States: Greetings from Puerto Rico!

^ The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (in Spanish, "Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico"), is a freely associated commonwealth of the United States, composed of one large island and several small islands named Culebra, Desecheo, Mona, and Vieques.

.The United Nation's Human Development Index ranking is not regularly available for Puerto Rico, though the UN Development Program assigned it a .942 score in 1998, which would place it among the top 15 countries in the HDI rankings.^ What places should we visit in Puerto Rico?
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ A Closer Look: Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War in 1898, and Puerto Ricans were granted full U.S. citizenship in 1917.
  • Puerto Rico Career, Job Search and Employment Resources - Careers.org 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC puerto-rico.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States of America and we have common citizenship, currency and defense.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

[43]
See also: List of countries by Human Development Index
.On May 1, 2006, the Puerto Rican government faced significant shortages in cash flows, which forced the closure of the local Department of Education and 42 other government agencies.^ On September of 1996, about 700 acres of this region were handed over to the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources by the government of Puerto Ricos Land Authority for public use.

^ Facing his Independent Brigade would be the Spanish Regulars of the 24th Rifle Battalion, 6 companies of the Alfonso XIII auxiliaries, as well as other scattered Spanish and Puerto Rican guerilla forces.
  • Puerto Rico - A Moonlight Picnic 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CNNMoney: Puerto Rico may cut 30,000 government jobs .
  • Puerto Rico: News & Videos about Puerto Rico - CNN.com 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.All 1,536 public schools closed, and 95,762 people were furloughed in the first-ever partial shutdown of the government in the island's history.^ The first quarterly period will encompass the time from which all parties sign this Agreement through December 31, 2004.
  • Department of Education; Notice of written findings, compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and subsequent actions [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Implement Public School Choice for all schools in school improvement.
  • Department of Education; Compliance Agreement; Notice of written findings and compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although English is taught to most elementary school children in Puerto Rican public schools, Spanish remains the primary language on the island of Puerto Rico.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .On May 10, 2006, the budget crisis was resolved with a new tax reform agreement, with plans to apply a temporary 1% tax input so that all government employees could return to work.^ Also upon entering into the Agreement, the Department and PRDE worked together to develop corrective action plans covering grants management, payroll, property management, and procurement.
  • Department of Education; Notice of written findings, compliance agreement with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and subsequent actions [OS] 15 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than the government postponing the start of public schools by a week (from August 3 to August 10), things are returning back to normal.

^ Vehicles/Automobiles: 3,167,862 (2000) All vehicles available in Puerto Rico are imported, mainly from the U.S. Due to transportation costs and import taxes, prices may be higher than in the U.S. Taxes apply to both new and used vehicles.
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On November 15, 2006 a 5.5% sales tax was implemented.^ Municipalities have the option of imposing an additional sales tax of up to 1.5% (effective on November 15, 2006).
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Municipalities have the option of applying a municipal sales tax of 1.5% bringing the total sales tax to 7%.^ Municipalities have the option of imposing an additional sales tax of up to 1.5% (effective on November 15, 2006).
  • Puerto Rico Tourist Information 18 September 2009 15:51 UTC welcome.topuertorico.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
See also: 2006 Puerto Rico budget crisis

Culture

Main article: Culture of Puerto Rico
Kapok tree (Ceiba) the national tree of Puerto Rico.
.Puerto Rican culture is a mix of four cultures, African (from the slaves), Taíno (Amerindians), Spanish, and, more recently, North American.^ I am doing a paper on Puerto Rican Americans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puerto rican not racist toward african...
  • Puerto Rico Forum - Topix 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ However, Africans gave Puerto Rican Spanish defining nuances.
  • Culture of Puerto Rico - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Africans, the Puerto Ricans have obtained the "bomba and plena", a type of music and dance including percussions and maracas.^ Since a great many Puerto Ricans are of mixed Spanish and African descent, they have had to endure the same sort of racial discrimination often experienced by African Americans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Rico has a rich folk music tradition, fast-tempoed salsa music is the most widely known indigenous Puerto Rican music.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dynamic background of the Puerto Rican people is seen through the songs, dancing and delicious food that accompany every festival.

.From the Amerindians (Tainos), Puerto Ricans have kept many names for their municipalities, foods, musical instruments like the güiro and maracas.^ Since a great many Puerto Ricans are of mixed Spanish and African descent, they have had to endure the same sort of racial discrimination often experienced by African Americans.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Puerto Rico has a rich folk music tradition, fast-tempoed salsa music is the most widely known indigenous Puerto Rican music.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dynamic background of the Puerto Rican people is seen through the songs, dancing and delicious food that accompany every festival.

.Many words and other objects have originated from their localized language.^ However, they have adopted other elements of African and local origin.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.From the Spanish they got the Spanish language, the Catholic religion and the vast majority of their cultural and moral values and traditions.^ By that time, West African cultural traditions had been deeply intertwined with those of the native Puerto Ricans and the Spanish conquerors.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The festivities include religious processions since they were originated as a Catholic tradition.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.From the United States they received the English language, the university system -- the University of Puerto Rico was founded in 1903, --five years after the island became part of the United States -- and a variety of hybrid cultural forms that developed between the United States mainland and the island of Puerto Rico.^ Founded in 1987, the council was formed to help create a positive awareness of Puerto Rico in the United States and to forge new links between the mainland and the island.
  • Puerto Rican Americans - Overview, History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns 11 September 2009 9:37 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Language: Spanish is Puerto Rico's principal language.
  • SOC.CULTURE.PUERTO-RICO: Introduction and FAQ 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ "The island of Puerto Rico was fairly won by the right of conquest, and became a part of the United States.
  • Puerto Rico - A Moonlight Picnic 10 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]