The Full Wiki

Pula: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Pula

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pula
—  City  —
City of Pula
Grad Pula - Città di Pola[1]
Aerial view

Flag

Coat of arms
Pula is located in Croatia
Pula
Location of Pula in Croatia
Coordinates: 44°52′N 13°51′E / 44.867°N 13.85°E / 44.867; 13.85
Country Croatia
County Istria County
Government
 - Mayor Boris Miletić (IDS)
Area
 - City 51.65 km2 (19.9 sq mi)
 - Land 41.59 km2 (16.1 sq mi)
 - Water 10.09 km2 (3.9 sq mi)  19.54%
Elevation 30 m (98 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 62,080
 Density 1,201.9/km2 (3,113/sq mi)
 Metro 90,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 52100
Area code 052
Website http://www.pula.hr/

Pula (Latin: Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Italian: Pola; Slovene: Pulj) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006). Like the rest of the region, it is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature. The city has a long tradition of winemaking, fishing, shipbuilding, and tourism. Pula has also been Istria's administrative centre since ancient Roman times.

Contents

Population

Bronze model of Pula

Pula is the largest city in Istria county, with a metropolitan area of 90,000 people. The city itself has 62,080 residents (2005), while the metropolitan area includes Barban (2,802 residents), Fažana (3,050 residents), Ližnjan (2,945 residents), Marčana (3,903 residents), Medulin (6,004 residents), Svetvinčenat (2,218 residents) and Vodnjan (5,651 residents).

Its population density is 1,093.27 residents/km², ranking Pula fifth in Croatia.

Its birth rate is 1.795 per cent and its mortality rate is 1.014 per cent (in 2001 466 people were born and 594 deceased), with a natural population decrease of -0.219 per cent and vital index of 78.45.

The majority of its citizens are Croats representing 71.65% of the population (2001 census). Ethnic minorities and their composition is as follows: 3,415 Serbs (5.83 per cent), 2,824 Italians (4.82 per cent), 980 Bosniaks (1.67 per cent), 731 Slovenians (1.25 per cent) and the rest belong to other minor ethnic communities.[2]

History

Pre-history

The Arena (colosseum) in Pula

Evidence of presence of Homo erectus at 1 million years ago have been found in the cave of Šandalja near Pula.[3] Pottery from the Neolithic period (6000-2000 B.C.), indicating human settlement, have been found around Pula. In the Bronze Age (1800-1000 B.C.), a new type of settlement appeared in Istria, called 'gradine', or Hill-top fortificatations.[4] Many late Bronze Age bone objects, such as tools for smoothing, for drilling, sewing needles, as well as bronze spiral pendants, have found in the area around Pula.[5] The type of materials found in Bronze Age sites in Istria connects these with sites around the Danube.[5] The inhabitants of Istria in the Bronze Age are known as Proto Illyrians.[5]

The foundation of the settlement based on archaeological evidence dates to ca. the 10th century BC.[6] Greek pottery and a part of a statue of Apollo have been found, attesting to the presence of the Greek culture.[7]

Greek tradition attributed the foundation of Polai to the Colchians, mentioned in the context of the story of Jason and Medea, who had stolen the golden fleece. The Colchians, who had chased Jason into the northern Adriatic, were unable to catch him and ended up settling in a place they called Polai, signifying "city of refuge".[8]

Ancient period

View of coast through Pula Arena.

In classical antiquity, it was inhabited by the Histri,[9] a Venetic or Illyrian tribe recorded by Strabo in the 1st century AD. The Istrian peninsula was conquered by the Romans in 177 B.C.,[9] starting a period of Romanization. The town was elevated to colonial rank between 46-45 B.C. as the tenth region of the Roman Empire, under Julius Caesar.[9][10] During that time the town grew and had at its zenith a population of about 30,000. It became a significant Roman port with a large surrounding area under its jurisdiction. During the civil war of 42 B.C. of the triumvirate of Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus against Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius, the town took the side of Cassius, since the town had been founded by Cassius Longinus, brother of Cassius. After Octavian's victory, the town was demolished. It was soon rebuilt at the request of Octavian's daughter Iulia and was then called Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea'. Great classical constructions were built of which a few remain. A great amphitheatre, Pula Arena was constructed between 27 BC - 68 AD.[11], much of it still standing to this day. The Romans also supplied the city with a water supply and sewage systems. They fortified the city with a wall with ten gates. A few of these gates still remain: the triumphal Arch of the Sergii, the Gate of Hercules (in which the names of the founders of the city are engraved) and the Twin Gates. This town was the site of Gallus Caesar's execution. During the reign of emperor Septimius Severus the name of the town was changed into "Res Publica Polensis" In 425 A.D. the town became the centre of a bishopric, attested by the remains of foundations of a few religious buildings.[9]

Middle Ages

Chapel of St. Mary Formosa

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city and region were attacked by the Ostrogoths, Pula being virtually destroyed by Odoacer, a Germanic foederati general in 476 AD.[12] The town was ruled by the Ostrogoths from 493 to 538 AD.[12] When their rule ended, Pula came under the rule of the Exarchate of Ravenna (540-751). During this period Pula prospered and became the major port of the Byzantine fleet and integral part of the Byzantine Empire.[12][13] The Basilica of Saint Mary Formosa was built in this period.[12]

The first arrival of the Slavs in the environs of the town dates to the 7th century, but they never really settled the city, which kept its Roman soul. The history of the city continued to reflect its location and significance, like that of the region, in the redrawing of borders between European powers.

From 788 on Pula was ruled by the Frankish kingdom under Charlemagne, with the introduction of the feudal system.[13][14][15] Pula became the seat of the elective counts of Istria until 1077. The town was taken in 1148 by the Venetians and in 1150 Pula swore allegiance to the Republic of Venice, thus becoming a Venetian possession. For centuries thereafter, the city's fate and fortunes were tied to those of Venetian power. It was conquered by the Pisans in 1192 but soon reconquered by the Venetians.[16]

In 1238 Pope Gregory IX formed an alliance between Genoa and Venice against the Empire, and consequently against Pisa too. As Pula had sided with the Pisans, the city was sacked by the Venetians in 1243. It was destroyed again in 1267 and again in 1397 when the Genoese defeated the Venetians in a naval battle.

Pula then slowly went into decline. This decay was accelerated by the infighting of local families: the ancient Roman Sergi family and the Ionotasi (1258–1271) and the clash between Venice and Genoa for the control of the city and its harbour (late 13th - 14th century). In 1291 - by the Peace of Treviso - Patriarch Raimondo della Torre gained the city as part of the secular realm of his Patriarchate of Aquileia, only to lose it to Venice in 1331, which then held it until its downfall in 1797.

Pula is quoted by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri, who had visited Pula, in the Divine Comedy: "come a Pola, presso del Carnaro ch'Italia chiude e i suoi termini bagna" or "as Pula, along the Quarnero, that marks the end of Italy and bathes its boundaries".

Venetian, Napoleonic and early Habsburg rule

Venetians took over Pula in 1331 and would rule the city until 1797. During the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, Pula was attacked and occupied by the Genoese, a Hungarian army and the Habsburgs; several outlying medieval settlements and towns were destroyed. In addition to war, the plague, malaria and typhoid ravaged the city. By the 1750s there were only 3.000 inhabitants left in the city, wandering around the ancient city, now covered with weeds and ivy.[17]

With the collapse of the Venetian Republic in 1797, when Venice was beaten by the army of Napoleon, the city became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. It was invaded in 1805 after the French had beaten the Austrians. It was included in the French Empire's puppet Kingdom of Italy, then placed directly under the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces.

Austro-Hungarian and Italian rule

Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts at Pula.

In 1813, Pula and Istria were restored to the Austrian Empire (later the Austro-Hungarian Empire), and became part of the Austrian Littoral crown land. During this period Pula regained prosperity. From 1859 Pula's large natural harbour became Austria's main naval base and a major shipbuilding centre.[18][19] It was chosen for this honour by Hans Birch Dahlerup, a Danish admiral in the service of Austria.[17] The city transformed from a small city with a fading antique splendour into an industrial town. The island of Brijuni to the south of Pula became the summer vacation resort of Austria's Habsburg royal family.

In World War I, the port was the main base for Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts and other naval forces of the Empire.[18]

During this period many inhabitants were Italian speaking. The 1910 Austrian census recorded a city population of 58,562 (45.8% Italian speaking; 15.2% Slavic).[20] However, this census focused on the spoken language, not the nationality of the citizens. Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Pula and the whole of Istria - except the territory of Kastav - were given to Italy under the peace treaty.[19] The decline in population after World War I was mainly due to economic difficulties caused by the large-scale reduction of the Austro-Hungarian military and bureaucratic facilities and the dismissal of workers from its shipyard.[21] Under the fascist government of Benito Mussolini, non-Italians, especially Slavic residents, faced huge political and cultural repression and many fled the city and Istria altogether. Italian rule lasted until its capitulation in September 1943. The Nazi German army entered to fill the vacuum left by retreating Italian soldiers. The whole city became part of “Küstenland”, the occupied zone under the Third Reich.[22] During German military rule (1943–1945), Pula was integrated into the Operational Zone Adriatic Coast, a German occupation zone. The city then saw a very difficult period: arrests, deportations and executions of people suspected of helping the Partisans' guerilla struggle. The city was subjected to repeated Allied air raids during the Second World War.

Post-WWII and modern era

Pula University building.

For several years after 1945, Pula was administered by the United Nations. Istria was partitioned into occupation zones until the region became officially united with the rest of Croatia within the SFR Yugoslavia on September 15, 1947. Pula formed an enclave of the Zone "A" defined by the Morgan Line within SFR Yugoslavia, occupied by a company of the United States 351st Infantry and a British battalion of the 24th Guards Brigade.

When the city was ceded to SR Croatia, a republic of SFR Yugoslavia, upon the ratification of the Italian Peace Treaty on 15 September 1947, creating the Free Territory of Trieste, its population of 45,000 was largely made up of ethnic Italians and Istro-Romanians. However, between December 1946 and September 1947, most of the city's Italian residents opted to emigrate to Italy during the Istrian exodus. On August 18, 1946 it was the site of the Vergarola explosion.

Subsequently, the city's Croatian name, 'Pula', became the official Italian name 'Pola'. Since the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1992, Pula and Istria have become part of the modern-day Republic of Croatia.

Geography and climate

Map of Istria

The city lies on and beneath seven hills on the inner part of a wide gulf and a naturally well-protected port (depth up to 38 metres (125 ft)) open to the northwest with two entrances: from the sea and through Fažana channel.

Today, Pula's geographical area amounts to 5,165 hectares (12,760 acres), 4,159 hectares (10,280 acres)[23] on land and 1,015 hectares (2,510 acres) at sea, bounded from the north by islands Sv. Jerolim and Kozada, city areas Štinjan, Veli Vrh and Šijanic forest; from the east area Monteserpo, Valmade, Busoler and Valdebek; from the south with the old gas works, commercial port Veruda and island Veruda; and from the west Verudela, Lungomare and Musil.

Protected from the north by the mountain chain of Alps as well the inner highland, the climate is Mediterranean, very pleasant, with the highest air temperature averaging 24 °C (75 °F) during August and lowest averaging 5 °C (41 °F), in January. Summers are usually warm during the day and cooler near the evening, although some strange heat wave patterns are also common.

Primarily, there is a lot of moisture in the air. Temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F) last for more than 240 days a year. There are two different kinds of winds are here - the bora is bringing cold and clear weather from the north in winters, and the southern jugo (jug=south) bringing rain in summer.[24] The 'Mistral' is a summer breeze blowing from the inland to the sea.

Like the rest of the region Pula is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature with an average of sunny days of 2,316 hours per year or 6.3 hours a day, with an average air temperature of 13.7 °C (56.7 °F)[25] (6.1 °C (43.0 °F) in February to 26.4 °C (79.5 °F) in July and August) and sea temperature from 7 °C (45 °F) to 26 °C (79 °F).[26][27][28]

Climate data for Pula
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10
(50)
10
(50)
13
(55)
16
(61)
21
(70)
25
(77)
28
(82)
28
(82)
24
(75)
20
(68)
14
(57)
10
(50)
18.25
(65)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
4
(39)
8
(46)
12
(54)
16
(61)
18
(64)
18
(64)
15
(59)
12
(54)
7
(45)
4
(39)
9.8
(50)
Rainfall mm (inches) 78
(3.07)
64
(2.52)
65
(2.56)
70
(2.76)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.09)
48
(1.89)
75
(2.95)
85
(3.35)
85
(3.35)
80
(3.15)
112
(4.41)
72.6
(2.86)
Source: EuroWeather 26 January 2010

Sights

Temple of Roma and Augustus

The city is best known for its many surviving ancient Roman buildings, the most famous of which is its first century amphitheatre, which is among the six largest surviving Roman arenas in the World.[11] and locally known as the Arena. This is one of the best preserved amphitheatres from antiquity and is still in use today during summer film festivals. During the World War II Italian fascist administration, there were attempts to disassemble the arena and move it to mainland Italy, which were quickly abandoned due to the costs involved.

Two other notable and well-preserved ancient Roman structures are the 1st century AD triumphal arch, the Arch of the Sergii and the co-eval temple of Rome and Augustus, built in the 1st century AD built on the forum during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus.

The Twin Gates (Porta Gemina) is one of the few remaining gates after the city walls were pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century. It dates from the mid-2nd century, replacing an earlier gate. It consists of two arches, columns, a plain architrave and a decorated frieze. Close by are a few remains of the old city wall.

The Gate of Hercules dates from the first century. At the top of the single arch one can see the bearded head of Hercules, carved in high-relief, and his club on the adjoining voussoir. A damaged inscription, close to the club, contains the names of Lucius Calpurnius Piso and Gaius Cassius Longinus who were entrusted by the Roman senate to found a colony at the site of Pula. Thus it can be deduced that Pula was founded between 47 and 44 BC.

The Augustan Forum was constructed in the first century BC, close to the sea. In Roman times it was surrounded by temples of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. This Roman commercial and administrative centre of the city remained the main square of classical and medieval Pula. It still is the main administrative and legislative centre of the city. The temple of Roma and Augustus is still preserved today. A part of the back wall of the temple of Juno was integrated into the Communal Palace in the 13th century.

Two Roman theatres have withstood the ravages of time: the smaller one (diam. circa 50 m; 2nd c. AD) near the centre, the larger one (diam. circa 100 m; 1st c. AD) on the southern edge of the city.

The city's old quarter of narrow streets, lined with Medieval and Renaissance buildings, are still surfaced with ancient Roman paving stones.

The Byzantine chapel of St. Mary Formosa was built in the 6th century (before 546) in the form of a Greek cross, resembling the churches in Ravenna. It was built by deacon Maximilian, who became later Archbishop of Ravenna. It was, together with another chapel, part of a Benedictine abbey that was demolished in the 16th century. The floors and the walls are decorated with 6th-century mosaics. The decoration bears some resemblance to the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna. The wall over the door contains a Byzantine carved stone panel. The 15th-century wall paintings may be restorations of Early Christian paintings. When the Venetians raided Pula in 1605, they removed many treasures from this chapel to Venice, including the four columns of oriental alabaster that stand behind the high altar of St Mark's Basilica.

Church of St. Francis

The Church of St. Francis dates from the end of the 13th century. It was built in 1314 in late Romanesque style with Gothic additions such as the rose window. The church consists of a single nave with three apses. An unusual feature of this church is the double pulpit, with one part projecting into the street. A 15th-century wooden polyptych from an Emilian artist adorns the altar. The west portal is decorated with shell motifs and a rose window. The adjoining monastery dates from the 14th century. The cloisters display some antique Roman artifacts.

The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was built in the 6 th century, when Pula became the seat of a bishopry, over the remains over the original site where the Christians used to gather and pray in Roman times. It was enlarged in the 10th century. After its destruction by Genoese and Venetian raids, it was almost completely rebuilt in the 15th century. It got its present form when a late Renaissance façade was added in the early 16th century. The church still retains several Romanesque and Byzantine characters, such as some parts of the walls (dating from the 4th century), a few of the original column capitals and the upper windows of the nave. In the altar area and in the room to the south one can still see fragments of 5th to 6th-century floor mosaics with memorial inscriptions from worshippers who paid for the mosaics. The windows of the aisles underwent reconstruction in Gothic style after a fire in 1242. The belfry in front the church was built between 1671 and 1707 with stones form the amphitheatre. There also used to stand a baptistery from the 5th century in front of the church, but it was demolished in 1885.

The Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas with its Ravenna-style polygonal apse, originally dates from the 6th century, but was partially rebuilt in the 10th century. In 1583 it was assigned to the Orthodox community of Pula, mainly immigrants from Cyprus and Nauplion. The church owns several icons from the 15th and the 16th century and an iconostasis from the Greek artists Tomios Batos from the 18th century.

A Roman relief at the Archaeological Museum of Istria

The star-shaped castle with four bastions is situated on top of the central hill of the old city. It was built, over the remains of the Roman capitolium, by the Venetians in the 14th century, following the plans of the French military architect Antoine de Ville. Since 1961 it now houses the Historical Museum of Istria. Close by, on the north-eastern slopes, one can see the remains of a 2nd-century theatre.

The Archaeological Museum of Istria is situated in the park on a lower level than the Roman theatre and close to the Twin Gates. Its collection was started by Marshall Marmont in August 1802 when he collected the stone monuments from the temple of Roma and Augustus. The present-day museum was opened in 1949. It displays treasures from Pula and surroundings from prehistory until the Middle Ages.

Culture

As a result of its rich political history, Pula is a city with a cultural mixture of people and languages from the Mediterranean and Central Europe, ancient and contemporary. Pula's architecture reflects these layers of history. Residents are commonly fluent in foreign languages, especially Italian, often also German and English. From October 30, 1904 to March 1905 Irish writer James Joyce taught English at the Berlitz School; his students were mainly Austro-Hungarian naval officers who were stationed at the Naval Shipyard. While he was in Pula he organised the local printing of his broadsheet The Holy Office, which satirised both William Butler Yeats and George William Russell.[29]

Notable Residents

Italian natives of the city are known as "polesi" and "polesani"

Economy

The Uljanik shipyard in Pula

Major industries include shipbuilding, processing industry, tourism, traffic, food industries, construction industries and other non-metal industries.

Major companies located in Pula:

Sport

  • Football -NK Istra 1961 (first Croatian league) and NK Istra (third Croatian league)
  • Volleyball -OK OTP Banka Pula (first Croatian league)
  • Handball -RK Arena
  • Basketball -KK Stoja and KK Pula1981
  • Swimming -SK Arena
  • Judo -JK Istarski borac and JK PulaFit
  • Rowing -VK Istra
  • Tennis -Smrikve Tennis Club (Smrikva Bowl)

Tourism

View of marina in Verudela

The natural beauty of Pula's surrounding countryside and turquoise water of the Adriatic have made the city an internationally popular summer vacation destination. The pearl nearby is Brijuni national park visited by numerous world leaders since it was the summer residence of Josip Broz Tito. Roman villas and temples still lie buried among farm fields and along the shoreline of the dozens of surrounding fishing and farming villages. The coastal waters offer beaches, fishing, wreck dives to ancient Roman galleys and World War I warships, cliff diving, and sailing to unspoiled coves and islands large and small.

Pula is the end point of the EuroVelo 9 cycle route that runs from Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea through Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia.

It is possible to track dinosaur footprints on the nearby sea shores; certain more important finds have been made at an undisclosed location near Bale.

Transport

Pula had an electric tramway system in the early 20th century. It was built in 1904 as a part of Pula's economic crescendo during the Austro-Hungarian rule. After WWI, during the Fascist rule, the need for tram transportation declined and it was finally dismantled in 1934.

Pula Airport is located north-east of Pula, and serves both domestic and international destinations.[31] Similarly to nearby Rijeka Airport, it is not a major international destination. However, this is likely to change as low-cost airline, Ryanair has started scheduled flights to Pula since November 2006. Nearby international airports include Trieste in Italy, Zagreb, Croatia's capital and Ljubljana, Slovenia's capital. There are direct flights into Pula airport from London and Dublin during whole year and several other large airports in Western Europe during summer.

A train service operates north from Pula through to Slovenia, however the line remains disconnected from the rest of the Croatian Railways network. Plans to tunnel the 'missing link' between this line and from Rijeka have existed for many years, and despite work commencing on this project previously, has never seen completion.

Buses serve Pula from a wide range of local, domestic and international locations and operate from the large bus terminal on the edge of the city centre. Public bus operation is ran by Pulapromet.

Passenger ferries also operate from the port area to nearby islands, and also to Venice and Trieste in Italy.

Nearby towns and villages

Beach in Verudela, Pula.
  • Šišan
  • Štinjan
  • Valtura
  • Vinkuran
  • Vodnjan

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Pula is twinned with:

Other forms of city partnership
Friendly relationships

See also

References

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ The official site, see also the list of towns and municipalities in the Istria County (ref. to [1]) and the narodne-novine list (ref. to [2])
  2. ^ Croatia 2001 census
  3. ^ A short historical overview of Istria and, especially, Pula
  4. ^ "Istria on the Internet - Archeology - Bronze Age Excavation Sites". istrianet.org. http://www.istrianet.org/istria/archeology/istria_bronze.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c "Istria on the Internet - Archeology - Castellieri / Gradine / Hillforts". istrianet.org. http://www.istrianet.org/istria/archeology/castellieri/hillforts-istria-slovenia.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 7
  7. ^ "A short historical overview of Istria and, especially, Pula". www.croatianhistory.net. http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/jadran.html. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  8. ^ "Istria on the Internet - Customs - Legends - Pola". istrianet.org. http://www.istrianet.org/istria/legends/pola_myth.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d "A HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF ISTRIA". www2.arnes.si. http://www2.arnes.si/~mkralj/istra-history/ancient.html. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  10. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 10
  11. ^ a b Kristina Džin: 2009, Page 7
  12. ^ a b c d Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 12
  13. ^ a b "Arheoloski muzej Istre". mdc.hr. http://www.mdc.hr/pula/eng/zbirke/sredvijek/index.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  14. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 13
  15. ^ "THE MUSEUM OF CROATIAN ARCHEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS > exhibitions > Charlemagne - The making of Europe". mhas-split.hr. http://www.mhas-split.hr/english/exhibitions/CharlemagneThemakingofEurope/tabid/141/AlbumID/496-24/language/hr-HR/Default.aspx. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  16. ^ "A HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF ISTRIA". zrs-kp.si. http://www.zrs-kp.si/zrs/zgodovina/e-middle.html. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  17. ^ a b Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 15
  18. ^ a b First World War - Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 186-187
  19. ^ a b Cresswell, Peterjon: 2006, Page 117
  20. ^ Kocsis, Károly; Az etnikai konfliktusok történeti-földrajzi háttere a volt Jugoszlávia területén; Teleki László Alapítvány, 1993 ISBN 9630428555
  21. ^ "Summary: Islam in Europe, European Islam". Cser.it. http://www.cser.it/sunti_147.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  22. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 20
  23. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 24
  24. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "sirocco". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 
  25. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 28
  26. ^ Ana Ivelja-Dalmatin: 2009, Page 29
  27. ^ "CLIMATE PULA - Weather". tutiempo.net. http://www.tutiempo.net/en/Climate/PULA/132090.htm. Retrieved 26 January 2010. 
  28. ^ "EuroWEATHER - Maximum temperature, Pula, Croatia - Climate averages". eurometeo.com. http://www.eurometeo.com/english/climate/city_LDPL/meteo_Pula. Retrieved 26 January 2010. 
  29. ^ "Dear Dirty Dublin - redirect". Lib.utulsa.edu. http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/JJoyce/dear_dirty_dublin.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  30. ^ "DURAN GROUP - Labware - SCHOTT Boral". Web.archive.org. 2007-11-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20071102102752/http://www.duran-group.com/english/products/boral/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  31. ^ AIP from the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation
  32. ^ "Twin Towns - Graz Online - English Version". www.graz.at. http://www.graz.at/cms/beitrag/10045157/606819/. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  33. ^ (A request for partnership in 2003.)
  34. ^ (Document of friendship and cultural cooperation in 2002)
  35. ^ (Protocol of partnership and town twinning in 1997)
  36. ^ location of Croatian rebellion

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Zlatna vrata
Zlatna vrata

Pula (Italian Pola, Slovene Pulj) is a nice town at the tip of the Istrian peninsula, Croatia. Its history started about 3000 years ago when it was built by Illyrians. Romans occupied Istria in 177 B.C. After destruction of Western Roman empire, Istrian peninsula was devastated by Ostrogoths. Slavs came in Istria during migration period in 7th century but mostly lived on countryside. At that time Pula was still inhabited mostly by Italians. Landlords in Pula changed quite frequently in middle ages from republic of Venice to Genoa to Illyrian Provinces to Austria–Hungary and many others. After second world war it has been part of Croatia. In that time Italians fled to mother Italy and Pula was inhabited by Croats. Although most of the population still consists of Croats there are lots of quite big minorities in Pula such as Serbs, Italians, Bosniaks and Slovenes.

Most tourists visit in the summer months, with most tourist trips and restaurants closing between October and May.

Get in

By plane

Pula has its own international airport [1] with daily flights to Zagreb, and direct services from many European cities including Amsterdam, Edinburgh, London, Manchester, Oslo, Vienna and Zurich. Ryanair operates direct flights from London three times a week. Many flights to Pula are charter rather than scheduled, while other flights are seasonal (summer only).

There is a scheduled bus service from the bus station in town to the airport. Buses are operated by Brioni [2] and connect to most major flights. The cost of a one-way ticket is 25kn. A taxi from the bus station to the city should be around 85 kuna in the low season and much higher in the summer.

It is possible to also consider Rijeka Airport [3] on the island of Krk and Trieste Airport [4] in nearby Italy to access Pula as they are close by and offer flights to different destinations.

By land

The large and modern bus station is on the edge of the 'old town' district and is the hub of local, domestic and international bus routes. There are direct buses from Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, Trieste, Ljubljana, Belgrade and Venice. Online timetables are listed at [5] and [6].

There is also a train station near the waterfront with services serving Istria and into Slovenia due to historical circumstance rather than back towards the rest of Croatia (though a connecting coach service operates for services to Rijeka and Zagreb). Ticket prices, timetables and other information are on the Croatian Railways [7] website.

Hitchhiking from Zagreb works very well. In Zagreb start from the petrol station after the "Billa" supermarket on the southside of the Sava river. In Rijeka ask people to drop you off at the little SOS stop after a pretty sharp right bend of the motor way around Rijeka.

By sea

Hydrofoil services operate from the wharf both around the Croatian coastline, and across to Venice. These are pricey, though provide a quick journey and provide some great views.

Venezia Lines [8] ferry connects Pula with Venice. It runs five times a week, travel time is around 3hr.

Forum
Forum

For local transport the cheap taxis from CityTax (25/30 Kuna) can be a good alternative for the public buses (10 Kuna per person). (This taxi service my no longer be available.)

If you want to take a small backpack with you on an Autotrans bus, first ask the driver if this is OK before buying the ticket. Otherwise you might be refused entry on the bus and your ticket will not be refunded, even if you have bought it off the driver just 2 minutes earlier (the Brioni company seems OK -onboard small backpacks are allowed, but you have to insist.)

All buses have a luggage area. The service is charged separately from the ticket and it usually costs 7kn. Every ticket can be refunded at the ticket office (a fee will be charged). There should be no problem taking a small backpack or a small suitcase on the bus as long as you can fit it in the overhead compartment (which is rather small) or under your seat/legs..

The Roman Arena
The Roman Arena
  • The Arena, the 6th largest surviving Roman amphitheatre. Towering over the nearby buildings this huge structure was barely saved from destruction several times during its life, mostly by various Venetians with plans to take to to Venice stone by stone as demonstration of the might of the Venetian empire. Many stones were taken to build houses and other structures around Pula, but fortunately this practice was stopped before the whole structure was destroyed. Entry (20 kn) gives you access to wander the inside of the Colosseum and visit the caverns beneath. The audio tour is very worthwhile.
  • The Forum is the main square in the center of the city. The square is built on the place of the ancient Roman forum. On the square there is city hall that was built in 10th century (parts of an old temple were used for the building as it can be seen on the rear side of the hall) and the Temple of August, from the first century.
  • Archeology Museum (12 kn).
  • Zlatna vrata (Triumphal arch, 1st century BC), Dvojna vrata (Twin gate, 2-3rd century), Herkulova vrata (Hercules gate, 1st century BC).
  • St. Francis church and monastery, 14th century
  • Orthodox church, 6th century
  • Kaštel, a Castle from the 17th century features Istrian history museum
  • Malo rimsko kazalište, Little Roman theatre behind the Archeology museum
  • Mornaričko groblje, Sailors' cemetery (1866. - about 150 000 soldiers of Austro-Hungarian nations were buried there) and Mornarička crkva, Sailors' Church
  • Visit Brijuni. Group of islands famous for their scenic beauty. They are a holiday resort and a Croatian National Park. They were also setlement in roman times and were part of Republic of Venice. There is also now famous Tito (leader of former Yugoslavia) residence. Boats go from small town near Pula named Fažana [9].
  • Go on Fish picnic. You can take a walk through local marina and check out timetables and prices. Prices are usually around 30€ (250hrk)per person.
  • Visit Pula Film Festival [10] takes place in Arena and lasts from 18th to 25 july.
  • Walk down the Sergijevaca street where are many small shops, souvenir shops, bars and even sweet shops.
  • Truffles. Istria is famous for its truffles and various truffle products.
  • Malvazija and Teran. Autochthonous Istrian wine sorts.
  • Medica. A honey rakija ,
  • Biska. A rakija with mistletoe.
  • Restaurant Galeb. You won't find this one in any tourist guide, but everyone in the city knows the place: they serve best "chevapchichi" (minced meat, 2in long, 1/2in wide) in the city.
  • Restaurant Gina[11]. Excellent food in a unique setting that combines elegance with history.
  • Restaurant Asterix. The best pizza in town. You should try the Asterix pizza, which means you can have a pizza divided into thirds, with a different set of toppings (kinds of pizza) on each one.
  • Pizzeria Bambino. Good quality pizza and grill.
  • Pizzeria Jupiter. Near Arena, the Roman amphitheatre - very good pizza.
  • Restaurant El Pulari. A mexican restaurant.
  • Restaurant Biska.

Drink

Drinking is a pleasurable pastime in Croatia

Sleep

Tourist information can provide you with a list of accommodation in Pula, although they will not make reservations for you.

  • Hotel Riviera (1-star). Fabulous looking hotel built in 1907 for the high-ranking officers in the Austro-Hungarian army. Never properly refurbished since then it is now showing its age, but structurally it is impressive and looks oh-so-grand from the outside. The rooms are currently decked out with 1960s/70s fittings (orange bedcovers, brown wooden panelling, lime green phone), with the sparseness showing the lack of funds for upkeep. Having said all that, it's clean, tidy, and comfortable. No doubt within a few years someone will make the investment to bring it back to its former glory. Quite expensive for its facilities.
  • Youth hostel and youth camp. [12] Not such a nice looking place, but it is situated some ten meters from the beach, so you can almost jump directly from your bedroom right into the sea. (To get there, take bus 2a from the city (3a to return) and get off at Zlatne Stijene then follow the signs.)
  • Villa Mihaela [13] 3 apartments for 2to4 persons.Each of the apartments has a parking lot, and is equipped with air conditioner, SAT TV, and all other appliances that will make your stay pleasant.
  • Apartments Alexandra & Erika, Kozada 12/a, Štinjan, Pula, +385 52 223505, [14]. Attactive apartments in the proximity of the well known Brijuni Islands national park. A quiet place in a family house, built in 2004. in Štinjan only a few kilometers away from the center of Pula. Air condition, SAT TV, fridge with freezer, kitchen with all the accessories, cooking stove (electricity+gas), washing machine, balcony.  edit
  • Pula Art Hostel, +385(0)95/846-65-17, [15]. Small, family-run, newly refurbished art hostel in the centre of Pula. The hostel offers 2 fully equipped kitchens and beds for couples; grill on terrace.  edit
  • Apartments with Swimming pool Slivar (Apartments pool Pula), Samagher 17 (veli vrh, Pula North), [16]. checkin: 14:00; checkout: 10:00. 3 modern fully equipped apartments for 2-6 persons in a calm part of Pula 150m from the sea and 3km from the beach. The spacious swimming pool in situated in our award winning garden (over 1500m2). Our apartments feature: SAT TV, microwave owen, coffee machine, and two apartments also offer a wash machine and air condition. We also offer free of charge the use of grill and bikes and a save place  edit
  • National Park Brijuni - The beautiful Brijuni islands (also referred to as Brioni) [17] stretch alongside the south-west coast of the Istrian peninsula. The national park offers too many attractions for all of them to be described here (dinosaur footprints, archaeological finds and sites, a little zoo, extremely rich flora and fauna, beautiful beaches, a former resort for European royals) so visit their website for more information [18].
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also pula, and pulă

Contents

English

Proper noun

Pula

  1. the largest city in Istria, in Croatia.

Translations

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of alpu
  • Paul

French

Proper noun

Pula

  1. Pula

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of alpu
  • Paul

Simple English

City of Pula
Grad Pula
Città di Pola
Aerial view
File:Flag of
Flag
Coordinates: 44°52′N 13°51′E / 44.867°N 13.85°E / 44.867; 13.85
Country Croatia
County Istria County
Government
 - Mayor Boris Miletić (IDA)
Area
 - City 51.65 km2 (19.9 sq mi)
Elevation 30 m (98 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 62,080
 Density 1,093.27/km2 (2,831.6/sq mi)
 Metro 90,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 52100
Area code(s) 52
Website http://www.pula.hr/
File:Pula
The Arena (colosseum) in Pula

[[File:|thumb|200px|left|The Arena (colosseum) in Pula]] [[File:|thumb|150px|right|Temple of Roma and Augustus]] Pula (Latin: Pietas Iulia) is the biggest city in Istria County, Croatia. It has a population of about 62,000 people as of the year 2006. It has a long tradition of winemaking, fishing, shipbuilding, and tourism. Pula is also an administrative center of Istria since Roman times.

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message