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Pupillary response
Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia.

Pupillary response or dilation of the pupil is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil of the eye via the iris dilator muscle. It can have a variety of causes. It may be an involuntary reflex reaction to inexposure to light. Or it may indicate interest in the subject of attention or indicate sexual stimulation.[1] The pupils contract immediately before someone falls asleep.[2]

A pupillary response can be intentionally conditioned as a Pavlovian response to some stimulus.[3]

The latency of pupillary response (the time in which it takes to occur) increases with age.[4]

Use of central nervous system stimulant drugs can cause dilation of the pupil.[5]

In ophthalmology, intensive studies of pupillary response are conducted via videopupillometry.[6]

See also


  1. ^ Hess, Eckhard H.; Polt, James M. (5 August 1960), "Pupil Size as Related to Interest Value of Visual Stimuli", Science 132 (3423): 349, doi:10.1126/science.132.3423.349, PMID 14401489  
  2. ^ Lowenstein, Otto; Feinberg, Richard; Loewenfeld, Irene E. (April 1963), "Pupillary Movements During Acute and Chronic Fatigue: A New Test for the Objective Evaluation of Tiredness", Investigative Ophthalmology (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company) 2 (2): 138–157,  
  3. ^ Baker, Lynn Erland (1938). The Pupillary Response Conditioned to Subliminal Auditory Stimuli. Ohio State University.  
  4. ^ Podolak, Edward; Feinberg, Richard (September 1965) (), Latency of pupillary reflex to light stimulation and its relationship to aging, Federal Aviation Agency, Office of Aviation Medicine, Georgetown Clinical Research Institute, pp. 12, OCLC 84657376,  
  5. ^ Jaanus SD (1992), "Ocular side effects of selected systemic drugs", Optom Clin 2 (4): 73–96, PMID 1363080  
  6. ^ Ishikawa, S.; Naito, M.; Inaba, K. (1970), "A new videopupillography", Ophthalmologica 160 (4): 248–259, PMID 5439164  

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