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Pyrroloquinoline quinone: Wikis


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Pyrroloquinoline quinone
Pyrroloquinoline quinone.svg
CAS number 72909-34-3
PubChem 1024
MeSH PQQ+Cofactor
ChemSpider ID 997
Molecular formula C14H6N2O8
Molar mass 330.206 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was discovered by Houge as the third redox cofactor after nicotinamide and flavin in bacteria.[1] Anthony and Zatman also found the unknown redox cofactor in alcohol dehydrogenase and named Metoxatin.[2] In 1979, Salisbury and colleagues[3] as well as Duine and colleagues[4] extracted this prosthetic group from Methanol dehydrogenase of methylotrophs and identified its molecular structure. Adachi and colleagues identified that PQQ was also found in Acetobacter.[5]

These enzymes containing PQQ are called quinoproteins. Glucose dehydrogenase, one of the quinoproteins, is used as a glucose sensor. Subsequently, PQQ was found to stimulate growth in bacteria.[6] In addition, antioxidant and neuro-protective effects were also found.

In 1989, Rucker and colleagues reported that mice deprived of PQQ showed various abnormalities, and it was suggested that PQQ may also have an important nutritional role in other mammals.[7] In 2003, it was reported that aminoadipate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (AASDH) might also use PQQ as a cofactor, suggesting a possibility that PQQ is a vitamin in mammals.[8] However, there is no direct evidence that AASDH requires PQQ as a cofactor in its enzymatic activity. Rucker and colleagues concluded that insufficient information is available so far to state that PQQ is a vitamin for mammals, although PQQ may be an important biological factor.[9] Interestingly, it was recently shown that PQQ may stimulate growth of plants (cucumbers and tomatoes) in hydroponic culture and may be the causative factor in plant growth stimulation by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium.[10]


  1. ^ Hauge JG (1964). "Glucose dehydrogenase of bacterium anitratum: an enzyme with a novel prosthetic group". J Biol Chem 239: 3630–9.   PMID 14257587
  2. ^ Anthony C, Zatman LJ (1967). "The microbial oxidation of methanol. The prosthetic group of the alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas sp. M27: a new oxidoreductase prosthetic group". Biochem J 104 (3): 960–9.   PMID 6049934
  3. ^ Salisbury SA, Forrest HS, Cruse WB, Kennard O (1979). "A novel coenzyme from bacterial primary alcohol dehydrogenases". Nature 280 (5725): 843–4. doi:10.1038/280843a0.   PMID 471057
  4. ^ Westerling J, Frank J, Duine JA (1979). "The prosthetic group of methanol dehydrogenase from Hyphomicrobium X: electron spin resonance evidence for a quinone structure". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 87 (3): 719–24. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(79)92018-7.   PMID 222269
  5. ^ Ameyama M, Matsushita K, Ohno Y, Shinagawa E, Adachi O (1981). "Existence of a novel prosthetic group, PQQ, in membrane-bound, electron transport chain-linked, primary dehydrogenases of oxidative bacteria". FEBS Lett 130 (2): 179–83. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(81)81114-3.   PMID 6793395
  6. ^ Ameyama M, Matsushita K, Shinagawa E, Hayashi M, Adachi O (1988). "Pyrroloquinoline quinone: excretion by methylotrophs and growth stimulation for microorganisms". Biofactors 1 (1): 51–3.   PMID 2855583
  7. ^ Killgore J, Smidt C, Duich L, Romero-Chapman N, Tinker D, Reiser K, Melko M, Hyde D, Rucker RB (1989). "Nutritional importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone". Science 245 (4920): 850–2. doi:10.1126/science.2549636. PMID 2549636.   PMID 2549636
  8. ^ Kasahara T, Kato T (2003). "Nutritional biochemistry: A new redox-cofactor vitamin for mammals". Nature 422 (6934): 832. doi:10.1038/422832a.   PMID 12712191
  9. ^ Rucker R, Storms D, Sheets A, Tchaparian E, Fascetti A (2005). "Biochemistry: is pyrroloquinoline quinone a vitamin?". Nature 433 (7025): E10–1; discussion E11–2. doi:10.1038/nature03323.   PMID 15689994
  10. ^ Choi, O., Kim, J., Kim, J.-G., Jeong, Y., Moon, J. S., Park, C. S., Hwang, I. (2008). "PLANTS INTERACTING WITH OTHER ORGANISMS Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Is a Plant Growth Promotion Factor Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16". Plant Physiology 146: 657–668. doi:10.1104/pp.107.112748. PMID 18055583.  

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