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Priestess of Delphi (1891) by John Collier; the Pythia was inspired by pneuma rising from below

The Pythia (Greek: Πυθία) was the priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. The Pythia was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by Apollo, giving her a prominence unusual for a woman in male-dominated ancient Greece. The Delphic oracle was established in the 8th century BC.[1] The last recorded response was given in AD 393, when the emperor Theodosius I ordered pagan temples to cease operation. During this period the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle in the Greek world. The oracle is one of the best-documented religious institutions of the classical Greek world. Writers who mention the oracle include Herodotus, Thucydides, Euripides, Sophocles, Plato, Aristotle, Pindar, Aeschylus, Xenophon, Diodorus, Strabo, Pausanias, Plutarch, Livy, Justin, Ovid, Lucan, Julian, and Clement of Alexandria.

The name 'Pythia' derived from Pytho, which in myth was the original name of Delphi. The Greeks derived this place-name from the verb pythein (πύθειν, "to rot"), used of the decomposition of the body of the monstrous serpent Python after she was slain by Apollo.[2] One common view has been that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from a chasm in the rock, and that she spoke gibberish which priests reshaped into the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature.[3]

This picture has been challenged by scholars such as Joseph Fontenrose and Lisa Maurizio, who argue that the ancient sources uniformly represent the Pythia speaking intelligibly, and giving prophecies in her own voice.[4] Recent geological investigations have shown that gas emissions from a geologic chasm in the earth could have inspired the Delphic Oracle to connect with the divine. Some researchers suggest the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia's state of inspiration. Others argue instead that methane might have been the gas emitted from the chasm, or CO2 and H2S arguing that the chasm itself might have been a seismic ground rupture.[5][6]

Contents

Origins of the Oracle

The earliest account of the origin of the Delphic oracle is provided in the Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo, which recent scholarship dates within a narrow range, ca. 580-570 BC.[7] It describes in detail how Apollo chose his first priests, whom he selected in their "swift ship"; they were "Cretans from Minos' city of Knossos" who were voyaging to sandy Pylos. But Apollo, who had Delphinios as one of his cult epithets,[8] leapt into the ship in the form of a dolphin (delphinos). Dolphin-Apollo revealed himself to the terrified Cretans, and bade them follow him up to the "place where you will have rich offerings". The Cretans "danced in time and followed, singing Iē Paiēon, like the paeans of the Cretans in whose breasts the divine Muse has placed "honey-voiced singing". G.L. Huxley observes, "If the hymn to (Delphic) Apollo conveys a historical message, it is above all that there were once Cretan priests at Delphi."[9] Robin Lane Fox notes that Cretan bronzes are found at Delphi from the eighth century onwards, and Cretan sculptures are dedicated as late as ca 620-600 BC: ""Dedications at the site cannot establish the identity of its priesthood," he observes, "but for once we have an explicit text to set beside the archaeological evidence."[10] An early visitor to these "dells of Parnassus", at the end of the eighth century, was Hesiod, who was shown the omphalos.

There are also many later stories of the origins of the Delphic Oracle. One late explanation, which is first related by the 1st century BC writer, Diodorus Siculus, tells of a goat herder named Coretas, who noticed one day that one of his goats, who fell into a crack in the earth, was behaving strangely. On entering the chasm, he found himself filled with a divine presence and could see outside of the present into the past and the future. Excited by his discovery he shared it with nearby villagers. Many started visiting the site to experience the convulsions and inspirational trances, though some were said to disappear into the cleft due to their frenzied state.[11] A shrine was erected at the site, where people began worshiping in the late Bronze Age, by 1600 BCE. The villagers chose a single young woman as the liaison for the divine inspirations. Eventually she spoke on behalf of gods.[12]

According to earlier myths,[13] the office of the oracle was initially held by the goddesses Themis and Phoebe, and that the site was sacred first to Gaia. Subsequently it was held sacred to Poseidon, the "Earth-shaker" god of earthquakes, a later offspring of Gaia. During the Greek Dark Age, from the 11th to the 9th century BC,[14] the arrival of a new god of prophecy saw the temple being seized by Apollo who expelled the twin guardian serpents of Gaia. Later myths stated that Phoebe or Themis had "given" the site to Apollo, rationalizing its seizure by priests of the new god, but presumably, having to retain the priestesses of the original oracle because of the long tradition. Apparently Poseidon was mollified by the gift of a new site in Troizen.

Diodorus also explained how, initially, the Pythia was an appropriately clad young virgin, for great emphasis was placed on the Oracle's chastity and purity to be reserved for union with the god Apollo.[15] But one consultant notes,

Echecrates the Thessalian, having arrived at the shrine and beheld the virgin who uttered the oracle, became enamoured of her because of her beauty, carried her away and violated her; and that the Delphians because of this deplorable occurrence passed a law that in the future a virgin should no longer prophesy but that an elderly woman of fifty would declare the Oracles and that she would be dressed in the costume of a virgin, as a sort of reminder of the prophetess of olden times.

The scholar Martin Litchfield West writes that the Pythia shows many traits of shamanistic practices, likely inherited or influenced from Central Asian practices, although there is no evidence of any Central Asian connection at this time. He cites the Pythia sitting in a cauldron on a tripod, while making her prophecies in an ecstatic trance state, like shamans, and her unintelligible utterings.[16]

Organization of the Oracle

Personnel

Though little is known of how the priestess was chosen, the Pythia was probably selected, at the death of her predecessor, from amongst a guild of priestesses of the temple. These women were all natives of Delphi and were required to have led a pure life and be of good character.[17][18] Although some were married, upon assuming their role as the Pythia, the priestesses ceased all family responsibilities, marital relations, and individual identity. In the heyday of the oracle, the Pythia may have been a woman chosen from a prominent family, well educated in geography, politics, history, philosophy, and the arts. In later periods, however, uneducated peasant women were chosen for the role, which may explain why the poetic pentameter or hexameter prophecies of the early period, later were made only in prose. The archaeologist John Hale reports:

the Pythia was (on occasion) a noble [woman] of aristocratic family, sometimes a peasant, sometimes rich, sometimes poor, sometimes old, sometimes young, sometimes a very lettered and educated woman to whom somebody like the high priest and the philosopher Plutarch would dedicate essays, other times [one] who could not write her own name. So it seems to have been aptitude rather than any ascribed status that made these women eligible to be Pythias and speak for the god [Apollo].[19]

Working in the role of the Pythia did allow for upward mobility of social standing; the job of a priestess, especially the Pythia, was a respectable career for Greek women. Priestesses enjoyed many liberties and rewards for her high societal position, such as freedom from taxation, the right to own property and attend public events, a salary and housing provided by the state, a wide range of duties depending on their affiliation, and often gold crowns.[20]

During the height of the oracle's popularity, as many as three women served as Pythia, another vestige of the triad, with two taking turns in giving prophecy and another kept in reserve.[21]

Several other officials served the oracle in addition to the Pythia.[22] After 200 BC at any given time there were two priests of Apollo, who were in charge of the entire sanctuary; Plutarch, who served as a priest in the late first century and early second century AD, gives us the most information about the organization of the oracle at that time. Before 200 BC, while the temple was dedicated to Apollo, there was probably only one priest of Apollo. Priests were chosen from among the leading citizens of Delphi, and were appointed for life. In addition to overseeing the oracle, priests would also conduct sacrifices at other festivals of Apollo, and had charge of the Pythian games. Earlier arrangements, before the temple became dedicated to Apollo, are not documented.

The other officials associated with the oracle are less well understood. These are the hosioi ("holy ones") and the prophētai (singular prophētēs). Prophētēs is the origin of the English word "prophet", but a better translation of the Greek word might be "one who speaks on behalf of another person. "The prophetai are referred to in literary sources, but their function is unclear; it has been suggested that they interpreted the Pythia's prophecies, or even reshaped her utterances into verse, but it has also been argued that the term prophētēs is a generic reference to any cult officials at the sanctuary, including the Pythia.[23] There were five hosioi, whose responsibilities are unclear, but may have been involved in some way with the operation of the oracle.

Oracular procedure

In the traditions associated with Apollo, the oracle only gave prophecies during the nine warmest months of each year. In the winter months, Apollo was said to have deserted his temple, his place being taken by his divine half-brother Dionysus, whose tomb was within the temple. It is not known whether the Oracle participated in the Dionysian rites of the Maenads or Thyades in the Korykion cave on Mount Parnassos, although Plutarch[24] informs us that his friend Clea was both a Priestess to Apollo and to the secret rites of Dionysus. The male priests seem to have had their own ceremonies to the dying and resurrecting God. Apollo was said to return at the beginning of Spring, on the 7th day of the month of Bysios, his birthday. This also would reiterate the absences of the great goddess Demeter in winter also, which would have been a part of the earliest traditions.

Once a month thereafter the oracle would undergo purification rites, including fasting, to ceremonially prepare the Pythia for communications with the divine. On the seventh day of each month, she would bathe in the Castalian Spring then would drink the holier waters of the Kassotis, which ran closer to the temple, where a naiad possessing magical powers was said to live.[25]

She then descended into the adyton (Greek for "inaccessible" or "do not enter") and mounted her tripod seat, holding laurel leaves and a dish of Kassotis spring water into which she gazed. Nearby was the omphalos (Greek for "navel"), which was flanked by two solid gold eagles representing the authority of Zeus, and the cleft from which emerged the sacred Pneuma.

Consultants, carrying laurel branches sacred to Apollo, approached the temple along the winding upward course of the Sacred Way, bringing an animal for sacrifice in the forecourt of the temple, and a monetary fee. Petitioners drew lots to determine the order of admission, but representatives of a city-state or those who brought larger donations to Apollo were secured a higher place in line. The sacrificial animal, often a goat as representation of the site's discovery, was first showered with water and observed to ensure that it shivered from the hooves upward, an auspicious sign that the oracular reading could proceed. Upon sacrifice, the animal's organs, particularly its liver, were examined to ensure the signs were favorable. Plutarch describes the events of one session in which the omens were ill-favored, but the Oracle was consulted nonetheless. The priests pressed onward to receive the prophecy, but the result was a hysterical uncontrollable reaction from the priestess that resulted in her death a few days later.

At times when the Pythia was not available, consultants could obtain guidance by asking simple questions to the priests. A response was returned by the tossing of colored beans, one color designating "yes," another "no." Little else is known of this practice.[26]

Between 535 and 615 of the Oracles of Delphi are known to have survived since classical times, of which over half are said to be historically accurate (see the article Famous Oracular Statements from Delphi for some examples)[27].

The experience of supplicants

It would appear that the supplicant to the oracle would undergo a four stage process, typical of shamanic journeys.

  • Step 1: The Journey to Delphi — Supplicants were motivated by some need to undertake the long and sometimes arduous journey to come to Delphi in order to consult the oracle. This journey was motivated by an awareness of the existence of the oracle, the growing motivation on the part of the individual or group to undertake the journey, and the gathering of information about the oracle as providing answers to important questions.
  • Step 2: The Preparation of the Supplicant — Supplicants were interviewed in preparation of their presentation to the Oracle, by the priests in attendance. The genuine cases were sorted and the supplicant had to go through rituals involving the framing of their questions, the presentation of gifts to the Oracle and a procession along the Sacred Way carrying laurel leaves to visit the temple, symbolic of the journey they had made.
  • Step 3: The Visit to the Oracle — The supplicant would then be led into the temple to visit the adyton, put his question to the Pythia, receive his answer and depart. The degree of preparation already undergone would mean that the supplicant was already in a highly aroused and meditative state, similar to the shamanic journey elaborated on in the article.
  • Step 4: The Return Home — Oracles were meant to give advice to shape future action, that was meant to be implemented by the supplicant, or by those that had sponsored the supplicant to visit the Oracle. The validity of the Oracular utterance was confirmed by the consequences of the application of the oracle to the lives of those people who sought Oracular guidance.

Science and the Pythia

There have been many occasional attempts to find a scientific explanation for the Pythia's inspiration. However, most commonly,[28] these refer to an observation made by Plutarch, who presided as high priest at Delphi for several years, who stated that her oracular powers appeared to be linked to vapors from the Kerna spring waters that ran under the temple. It has often been suggested that these vapors may have been hallucinogenic gases.

Beginning in 1892, a team of French archaeologists led by Theophile Homolle of the Collège de France excavated the site at Delphi. Contrary to ancient literature, they found no fissure and no possible means for the production of fumes. Adolphe Paul Oppé in 1904 flatly stated that the French excavations had found no evidence for a chasm underneath the temple.

Following this definitive statement, such scholars as Frederick Poulson, E.R. Dodds, Joseph Fontenrose, and Saul Levin all stated that there were no vapors and no chasm. For the decades to follow, scientists and scholars believed the ancient descriptions of a sacred, inspiring pneuma to be fallacious.

A recent re-examination of the French excavations, however, has shown that this consensus may be mistaken. Broad (2006) demonstrates that a French photograph of the excavated interior of the temple clearly depicts a springlike pool as well as a number of small vertical fissures, indicating numerous pathways by which vapors could enter the base of the temple.[29]

The interdisciplinary team of geologist Jelle Zeilinga de Boer,[30] archaeologist John R. Hale,[31] forensic chemist Jeffrey P. Chanton,[32] and toxicologist Henry R. Spiller[33] investigated the site at Delphi using this photograph and other sources as evidence.

It has been shown that the temple of Delphi lies exactly on the intersection of two major fault lines, one lying north-south, the Kerna fault, and the other lying east-west, the Delphic fault, which parallels the shore of the Corinthian Gulf. The bedrock below is made of limestone, approximately 20% of which is bituminous, rich in hydrocarbons and full of pitch. The rift of the Gulf of Corinth is one of the most geologically active sites on Earth; shifts there impose immense strains on nearby fault lines, such as those below Delphi. Friction created by earthquakes heat the bituminous layers resulting in vaporization of the hydrocarbons which rise to the surface through small fissures in the rock.[34]

It has been disputed as to how the adyton was organized, but it appears clear that this temple was unlike any other in Ancient Greece. The small chamber was located below the general floor of the temple and offset to one side, perhaps specifically constructed over the crossing faults. [35] The intimate chamber allowed the escaping vapors to be contained in close enough quarters to provoke intoxicating effects. Plutarch reports that the temple was filled with a sweet smell when the deity was present:

Not often nor regularly, but occasionally and fortuitously, the room in which the seat the god's consultants is filled with a fragrance and breeze, as if the adyton were sending forth the essences of the sweetest and most expensive perfumes from a spring (Plutarch Moralia 437c).

De Boer's research led him to identify ethylene as a gas known to possess this sweet odor. [36] Toxicologist Henry R. Spiller specified that inhalation of even a small amount of ethylene can cause both benign trances and euphoric frenzied states. Other effects include physical detachment, loss of inhibitions, the relieving of pain, and rapidly changing moods without dulling consciousness. He also noted that uncontrolled doses can lead to confusion, agitation, delirium, and loss of muscle coordination.[37] Anesthesiologist Isabella Herb found that a dose of 20% ethylene gas administered to a subject was a clear threshold. A dosage higher than 20% caused unconsciousness. With less than 20% a trance was induced where the subject could sit up, hear questions and answer them logically, although the tone of their voice might be altered, their speech pattern could be changed, and they may have lost some awareness of their hands and feet, (with some it was possible to have poked a pin or pricked them with a knife and they would not feel it). When patients were removed from the area where the gas accumulated they had no recollection of what had happened, or what they had said. With a dosage of more than 20% the patient lost control over the movement of their limbs and may thrash wildly, groaning in strange voices, losing balance and frequently repeatedly falling. According to Plutarch, who witnessed many prophecies, all of these symptoms match the experience of the Pythia in action.[38]

In 2001 water samples from the nearby springs hailed evidence of the presence of the hallucinogenic hydrocarbon. The Kerna spring, originating uphill from the temple, yielded 0.3 parts per million of ethylene.[39] Today, the waters of the Kerma spring are diverted from the temple for use by the nearby modern town of Delphi. It is unknown the degree to which ethylene or other gases would be detected at the temple should these waters still run free, as they did in the ancient world.[40]

Chunks of travertine, calcareous rock formed of mineral spring deposits, were also extracted from the temple and tested, but no traces of ethylene were identified. The nature of the hydrocarbon accounts for this. Ethylene is extremely light and volatile having a highly reactive nature, and therefore could have presumably escaped the rock long ago. By testing the samples from the spring water, the team was at least able to identify the substance's current presence at the site, giving them insight that a presumably larger quantity existed in the waters thousands of years earlier.[41]

Frequent earthquakes produced by the fact that Greece lies at the intersection of three separate tectonic plates seem to have been responsible for the observed cracking of the limestone, and the opening up of new channels by which hydrocarbons enter the flowing waters of the Kassotis. This would cause the amounts of ethylene emitted to fluctuate, increasing or decreasing the potency of the drug released, over time. It has been suggested that the decline in the importance of the Oracle after Hadrian was in part due to the fact that there had not been an earthquake in the area for a significant length of time.

Another interpretation, by the author Merlin Stone, suggests the use of venom rather than ethylene. As she describes in "When God was a Woman", when people are bitten after they have been immunized , especially by krait, cobra or other elapids, the subject experiences an emotional and mental state that has been compared to the effects of hallucinogenic drugs.[citation needed]

Plutarch said[citation needed] that the Pythia's life was shortened through the service of Apollo. The sessions were said to be exhausting. At the end of each period the Pythia would be like a runner after a race or a dancer after an ecstatic dance. It clearly had a physical effect on the health of the Pythia.

Notes

  1. ^ Morgan 1990, p. 148.
  2. ^ Homeric Hymn to Apollo 363-369.
  3. ^ For an example, see Lewis Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, 1907, vol. IV, p.189. "But all this came to be merely considered as an accessory, leading up to the great moment when the Pythoness ascended into the tripod, and, filled with the divine afflatus which at least the latter ages believed to ascend in vapour from a fissure in the ground, burst forth into wild utterance, which was probably some kind of articulate speech, and which the Ὅσιοι [Osioi], 'the holy ones', who, with the prophet, sat around the tripod, knew well how to interpret. ... What was essential to Delphic divination, then, was the frenzy of the Pythoness and the sounds which she uttered in this state which were interpreted by the Ὅσιοι [Osioi] and the 'prophet' according to some conventional code of their own."
  4. ^ Fontenrose 1978, pp. 196-227; Maurizio 2001, pp. 38-54.
  5. ^ Piccardi, 2000; Spiller et al., 2000; de Boer, et al., 2001; Hale et al. 2003; Etiope et al., 2006; Piccardi et al., 2008.
  6. ^ Mason, Betsy. The Prophet of Gases in ScienceNow Daily News 2 October 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
  7. ^ Martin L. West, Homeric Hymns, pp 9-12, gives a summary for this dating, at or shortly after the inauguration of chariot-racing at the Pythian Games, 582 BC; M. Chappell, "Delphi and the Homeric Hymn to Apollo", Classical Quarterly 56 (2006:331-48)
  8. ^ As Robin Lane Fox observes in discussing this origin of the Delphic priesthood, in Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:341ff.
  9. ^ Huxley, "Cretan Paiawones". Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 16 (1975:119-24) p. 122, noted by Fox 2008:343.
  10. ^ Fox 2008:342.
  11. ^ Diodorus Siculus 16.26.1-4.
  12. ^ Broad, W. J. (2007), p.21. It was also said that the young woman was given a tripod on which to be seated, which acted on behalf of her own safety during her frenzied states.
  13. ^ Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology notes on this point Ovid, Metamorphoses i. 321, iv. 642; Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica iv. 800; Servius, commentary on the Aeneid iv. 246; pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke i. 4. § 1 ; Pausanias x. 5. § 3; Aeschylus, The Eumenides opening lines; see excerpts in translation at Theoi Project: Themis.
  14. ^ D. S. Robertson, "The Delphian Succession in the Opening of the Eumenides" The Classical Review 55.2 (September 1941, pp. 69-70) p. 69,reasoning that in the three great allotments of oracular powers at Delphi, corresponding to the three generations of the gods, "Ouranos, as was fitting, gave the oracle to his wife Gaia and Kronos appropriately allotted it to his sister Themis." In Zeus' turn to make the gift, however, Aeschylus could not report that the oracle was given directly to Apollo, who had not yet been born, Robertson notes, and thus Phoebe was interposed. These supposed male delegations of the powers at Delphi as expressed by Aeschylus are not borne out by the usual modern reconstruction of the sacred site's pre-Olympian history.
  15. ^ Broad, W. J. (2007), p.30-31
  16. ^ Martin Litchfield West, The Orphic Poems, p.147. "The Pythia resembles a shamaness at least to the extent that she communicates with her [deity] while in a state of trance, and conveys as much to those present by uttering unintelligible words. [cf. Spirit Language, Mircea Eliade]. It is particularly striking that she sits on a cauldron supported by a tripod, reiterating the triad of the great goddess. This eccentric perch can hardly be explained except as a symbolic boiling, and, as such, it looks very much like a reminiscence of the initiatory boiling of the shaman translated from hallucinatory experience into concrete visual terms. It was in this same cauldron, probably, that the Titans boiled Dionysus in the version of the story known to Callimachus and Euphorion, and his remains were interred close by". Update: Modern Oracles understand that women have the ability to communicate to Mother Earths consciousness directly and no gas is needed and was misunderstood in Ancient Greek translations. The female seers and oracles actually read on mangetic fields that releases energy and this is how they tapped into speaking with mother earth, like female shamans.
  17. ^ Broad, W. J. (2007), p.31-32
  18. ^ Herbert W Parke, History of the Delphic Oracle and H.W. Parke and D.E.W. Wormell The Delphic oracle, 1956 Volume 1: The history attempt the complicated reconstruction of the oracle's institutions; a recent comparison of the process of select at Delphi with Near Eastern oracles is part of Herbert B. Huffman, "The Oracular Process: Delphi and the Near East" Vetus Testamentum 57.4, (2007:449-60).
  19. ^ quoted in an interview on the radio program "The Ark", transcript available.
  20. ^ Broad, W. J. (2007), p.32
  21. ^ Plutarch Moralia 414b.
  22. ^ On the temple personnel, see Roux 1976, pp. 54-63.
  23. ^ Bowden 2005, pp. 15-16; see also Herodotus 8.36, Euripides Ion 413-416.
  24. ^ Plutarch, op cit
  25. ^ Broad, W. J. (2007), p.34-36. Euripides described this ritual purification ceremony, starting first with the priest Ion dancing on the highest point of Mount Parnassus, going about his duties within the temple, and sprinkling the temple floor with holy water. The purification ceremonies always were performed on the seventh day of the month, which was sacred to and associated with the god Apollo.
  26. ^ Broad, W. J. (2007), p.38-40
  27. ^ Fontenrose, op cit
  28. ^ J.Z. De Boer, and J. R. Hale. “The Geological Origins of the Oracle of Delphi, Greece,” in W.G. McGuire, D.R. Griffiths, P Hancock, and I.S. Stewart, eds. The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes. (Geological Society of London) 2000. Popular accounts in A&E Television Networks. History Channel documentary Oracle at Delphi, Secrets Revealed, 2003, and in William J. Broad, The Oracle: The Lost Secrets and Hidden Message of Ancient Delphi. (New York: Penguin) 2006.
  29. ^ Broad (2006), pp. 146-7: "[A] French photo of the temple's interior showed not only a spring-like pool but fissures... in the bedrock, suggesting a specific pathway by which intoxicating gases could have risen into the oracle's sanctum...What delighted de Boer so much was not the verification of the spring-like pool at the heart of the chasm, as the revelation of the bedrock's composition... there right above the waterline, the photograph clearly showed vertical fissures running through the bedrock. No denial could hide that fact, no scholarly disclaimer could deny the reality.... [The] cracks ...[showed] evidence of tectonic jolts and protracted flows of mineralized water."
  30. ^ Jelle Zeilinga de Boer - Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  31. ^ John R. Hale - Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  32. ^ Jeffrey P. Chanton - Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  33. ^ Henry R. Spiller - Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  34. ^ Board (2007), p. 155-7
  35. ^ In the French excavation report on the temple, Fernand Courby shows that the adyton was unlike those found in other temples as it was not central, but on the southwestern side, interrupting the normal symmetry of the Doric temple. It was divided into two areas, one small area 9 by 16 feet for the oracle, one for the supplicant. Modern research reported by Broad (p. 37) suggests that both the supplicant and the Pythia descended a flight of five steps into a small room within the temple with its own low ceiling. Walter Miller has argued that the stone block 3.5-4 feet, that Courby described as being part of the floor, was in fact the site where the oracle sat. It showed a square 6 inch hole, that widened to 9 inches, immediately under the triangular grooves for the tripod. Strange channels, possibly to carry water from the spring, surrounded the tripodal grooves. That these had in fact carried waters for long periods was confirmed by the layers of travertine that encrusted it. Nothing like this has been found at any other Greek temple. Holland (1933) argues that these channels and the hollow nature of the omphalos found by the French were to channel the vapors of intoxicant gases.
  36. ^ Broad (2007), p. 172
  37. ^ Board (2007), p.212-4
  38. ^ John R. Hale - Retrieved on 2006-04-20.
  39. ^ Broad (2007), p. 198. Methane (15.3 parts per million) and ethane (0.2 ppm) were also detected in the Kerna sample. However, the intoxicating effects of ethylene are more powerful than those of methane or ethane.
  40. ^ "the Kerna Spring, once alive but now vanished since Greek engineers had re-routed its waters to supply the town of Delphi" Tests from a number of nearby sites showed the concentration of Ethylene at Kerna was ten times that of other nearby springs. In an interview reported in Broad (2006, p. 152), de Boer stated that "the Kerna sample, because of the spring's rerouting, had to be drawn from a city's holding tank ... letting some of the gas escape as it sat... and lessened the water concentrations. If so the actual levels of the methane, ethane and ethylene that came out of the ground would have been higher".
  41. ^ Broad (2007), p. 194-5

References

Ancient sources

Modern sources

  • de Boer, J.Z., J.R. Hale, and J. Chanton, "New Evidence for the Geological Origins of the Ancient Delphic Oracle," Geology 29.8 (2001) 707-711.
  • Bouché-Leclercq, Auguste, Histoire de la divination dans l'Antiquité, I-IV volumes, Paris, 1879-1882.
  • Bowden, Hugh (2005). Classical Athens and the Delphic Oracle: Divination and Democracy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53081-4. 
  • Broad, William J. (2007).The Oracle: Ancient Delphi and the Science Behind Its Lost Secrets. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-14-303859-7.
  • Broad, William J (2006). The Oracle: the lost secrets and hidden message of ancient Delphi. Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-081-5. 
  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985.
  • Connelly, Joan Breton, Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, Princeton University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-691-12746-8
  • Courby, Fernand Feuilles de Delphi: Tome 2, Topographie et Architecture, La Terrace du Temple, 1927.
  • Dempsey, T., Reverend, The Delphic oracle, its early history, influence and fall, Oxford : B.H. Blackwell, 1918.
  • Dodds, E. R. The Greeks and the Irrational (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1963).
  • Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Cults of the Greek States, in five volumes, Clarendon Press, 1896-1909. (Cf. especially, volume IV on the Pythoness and Delphi).
  • Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy, The Delphic oracle, its responses and operations, with a catalogue of responses, Berkeley : University of California Press, 1978. ISBN 0-520-03360-4
  • Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy, Python; a study of Delphic myth and its origins, New York, Biblio & Tannen, 1959, 1974. ISBN 0-8196-0285-X
  • Goodrich, Norma Lorre, Priestesses, New York : F. Watts, 1989. ISBN 0-531-15113-1; Harper Collins, Perennial, November 1990, ISBN 0-06-097316-1
  • Guthrie, William Keith Chambers, The Greeks and their Gods, 1955.
  • Hale, John R., Jelle Zeilinga de Boer, Jeffrey P. Chandon and Henry A. Spiller, Questioning the Delphic Oracle, Scientific American August 2003.
  • Hall, Manly Palmer, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, 1928. Ch. 14 cf. Greek Oracles,www, PRS
  • Holland, Leicester B. "The Mantic Mechanism at Delphi," American Journal of Archaeology 37 (1933) 201-214.
  • Maass, E., De Sibyllarum Indicibus, Berlin, 1879.
  • Maurizio, Lisa, The Voice at the Centre of the World: The Pythia's Ambiguity and Authority pp. 46–50 in Andre Lardinois and Laura McClure, eds., Making Silence Speak: Women's Voices in Greek Literature and Society, (Princeton University Press 2001).
  • Miller, Water, Daedalus and Thespis Vol 1, 1929.
  • Morgan, Catherine. Athletes and Oracles (Cambridge 1990).
  • Mitford, William, The History of Greece, 1784. Cf. v.1, Chapter III, Section 2, p. 177, Origin and Progress of the Oracles.
  • Parke, Herbert William, History of the Delphic Oracle, 1939.
  • Parke, Herbert William, Sibyls and Sibylline Prophecy, 1988.
  • Potter, David Stone, Prophecy and history in the crisis of the Roman Empire: a historical commentary on the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle, 1990. Cf. Chapter 3.
  • Poulson, Frederick. Dephi (London, Gleydenhall, 1920).
  • Rohde, Erwin, Psyche, 1925.
  • Spiller, Henry A., John R. Hale, and Jelle Z. de Boer. "The Delphic Oracle: A Multidisciplinary Defense of the Gaseous Vent Theory." Clinical Toxicology 40.2 (2000) 189-196.
  • West, Martin Litchfield (1983). The Orphic Poems. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814854-2. 

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