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Quedlinburg
View from the castle
View from the castle
Coat of arms of Quedlinburg
Quedlinburg is located in Germany
Quedlinburg
Coordinates 51°47′30″N 11°8′50″E / 51.79167°N 11.14722°E / 51.79167; 11.14722
Administration
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Harz
Town subdivisions 3 Stadtteile
Mayor Eberhard Brecht (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 78.15 km2 (30.17 sq mi)
Elevation 123-182 m
Population 22,185  (31 December 2006)
 - Density 284 /km2 (735 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate HZ
Postal code 06484
Area code 03946
Website www.quedlinburg.de
Location of the town of Quedlinburg within Harz district
Map
Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The market square of Quedlinburg.
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 535
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1994  (18th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Quedlinburg (German pronunciation: [ˈkveːdlɪnbʊʁk]) is a town located north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. In 1994 the medieval old town was set on the UNESCO world heritage list.

Until 2007 it was the capital of the district of Quedlinburg.

Contents

Geography

The town is located north of the Harz mountains approximatively 123 meters above sea level. The nearest mountains reach 181 Meter above sea level. The biggest part of the town is located in the western part of the river Bodes bed. This river comes from the Harz mountains and flows into the river Saale and further into the river Elbe. The towns area is about 78.15 square kilometre.

History

The town of Quedlinburg is known since at least the early 9th century, when a settlement known as Gross Orden existed at the eastern bank of the river Bode. As such the city is first mentioned in 922, as part of a donation by Henry the Fowler. The records of this donation were collected at the abbey of Corvey.

After Henry's death in 936, his widow Saint Mathilda founded a religious community for women ("Frauenstift") on the castle hill, where daughters of the higher nobility were educated. The main task of this collegiate foundation, Quedlinburg Abbey (where the Annals of Quedlinburg were compiled), was to pray for the memory of King Henry and the rulers that came after him. The first abbess was Mathilde, granddaughter of Henry and Saint Mathilde.

The Quedlinburg castle complex, founded by Henry the Fowler and built up by Otto I the Great in 936, was an imperial palatinate of the Saxon emperors. The palatinate, including the male convent, was in the valley, where nowadays the Roman Catholic church of St Wiperti is situated, while the women's convent was located on the castle hill.

In 961 and 963 a Canon's monastery was established in St. Wiperti, south of the castle hill. It was abandoned in the 16th century, and at one time the church, which boasts a magnificent crypt from the 10th century, was even used as a barn and a pigsty before being restored in the 1950s.

In 973, shortly before the death of emperor Otto I the Great, a Reichstag (Imperial Convention) was held at the imperial court in which Mieszko, duke of Poland, and Boleslav, duke of Bohemia, as well as numerous other nobles from as far away as Byzantium and Bulgaria, gathered to pay homage to the emperor. In the occasion Otto the Great introduced his new daughter-in-law Theophanu, a Byzantine princess whose marriage to Otto II brought hope for recognition and continued peace between the rulers of the Eastern and Western empires.

In 994 Otto III granted the right of market, tax and coining and established the first market place to the north of the castle hill.

The town became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1426. Quedlinburg Abbey frequently disputed the independence of Quedlinburg, which sought the aid of the Bishopric of Halberstadt. In 1477 Abbess Hedwig, aided by her brothers Ernest and Albert, broke the resistance of the town and expelled the bishop's forces. Quedlinburg was forced to leave the Hanseatic League and was subsequently protected by the Electorate of Saxony. Both town and abbey converted to Lutheranism in 1539 during the Protestant Reformation.

In 1697 Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony sold his rights to Quedlinburg to Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg for 240,000 thalers. Quedlinburg Abbey contested Brandenburg-Prussia's claims throughout the 18th century, however. The abbey was secularized in 1802 during the German Mediatisation and Quedlinburg passed to the Kingdom of Prussia as part of the Principality of Quedlinburg. Part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807-13, it was included within the new Prussian Province of Saxony in 1815. In all this time, great ladies ruled Quedlinburg as abbesses without "taking the veil", they were free to marry. The last of these great ladies were a Swedish princess, an early fighter for women's rights, Sofia Albertina.

During the Nazi regime, the memory of Henry I became a sort of cult, as Heinrich Himmler saw himself as the reincarnation of the "most German of all German" rulers. The collegiate church and castle were to be turned into a shrine for Nazi Germany. The Nazi Party tried to create a new religion. The cathedral was closed from 1938 and during the war. Liberation in 1945 brought back the Protestant bishop and the church bells, and the Nazi style eagle was taken down from the tower.

Quedlinburg was administered within Bezirk Halle while part of the Communist East Germany from 1949 to 1990. It became part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt upon German reunification in 1990.

During Quedlinburg's Communist era as part of the GDR (1949-1990), restoration specialists from Poland were called in during the 1980s to carry out repairs on the old architecture. As in all German cities the Altstadt old city medieval sections, are the most popular attractions of any town. Now Quedlinburg is a center of restoration of Fachwerk houses.

During the last months of World War II, the United States Military occupied Quedlinburg. In the 1980s, upon the death of one of the US Military men, the Theft of medieval art from Quedlinburg came to light.

Main sights

The castle

In the innermost parts of the town a wide selection of half-timbered buildings from at least five different centuries are to be found (including a 14th century structure one of Germany's oldest), while around the outer fringes of the old town there are wonderful examples of Jugendstil buildings, dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Since December 1994 the old town of Quedlinburg and the castle mount with the collegiate church are listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.[1] Quedlinburg is one of the best-preserved medieval and renaissance towns in Europe, having escaped major damage in World War II.

In 2006 the Harzer Schmalspurbahnen Selketal branch was extended into Quedlinburg from Gernrode giving access to the historic steam narrow gauge railway, Alexisbad and high Harz plateau.

The castle and the cathedral still towers above the city the way they dominated the town in early Middle Ages. The cathedral is a prime example of German Romanesque style. The Domschatz, the treasure containing ancient artefacts and books, was stolen by an American soldier and finally bought back to Quedlinburg in 1993 and is again on display here.

Climate

Quedlinburg has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification) resulting from Prevailing Westerlies, blowing from the high pressure area in the central Atlantic towards Scandinavia. Snowfall occurs almost every winter. January and February are the coldest months of the year, with an average temperature of 0.1 °C and 0.4 °C. July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 17.8 °C (63 °F) and 17.2 °C. The average annual precipitation is close to 438 millimetres with rain occurring usually from May to September. This precipitation is one of the lowest in Germany, which has an annual average close to 700 millimetres.

Weather data for Quedlinburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 0.1
(32)
0.4
(33)
3.7
(39)
7.8
(46)
12.9
(55)
16.7
(62)
17.8
(64)
17.2
(63)
13.9
(57)
9.6
(49)
4.7
(40)
1.5
(35)
Average low °C (°F) x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
x
(x)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
22
(0.87)
28
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
53
(2.09)
57
(2.24)
47
(1.85)
54
(2.13)
33
(1.3)
27
(1.06)
30
(1.18)
26
(1.02)
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Normalperiode 1961-1990[2]

Transportation

Air

The airports nearest to Quedlinburg are the Airport Hannover in a distance of 120 kilometre in direction North-West and the Leipzig/Halle Airport 90 kilometer in the South-East. Much closer, but only served by small private air planes and business jets is the Airport Magdeburg-Cochstedt.

Train

Regional trains run on normal-gauge tracks by Deutsche Bahn and the private company Connex connect Quedlinburg with Magdeburg, Thale, Halberstadt and the rest of Europe.

In 2006 the Harzer Schmalspurbahnen Selketal branch was extended into Quedlinburg from Gernrode, giving access to the historic steam narrow gauge railway, Alexisbad and high Harz plateau.

Bus

Quedlinburg is connected by regional buses to the surrounding villages and small towns.

Additionally there are also buses to Berlin, run by the company BerlinLinienBus.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Quedlinburg is twinned with:

References

Sources

  • Honan, William H. (1997). Treasure Hunt. A New York Times Reporter Tracks the Quedlinburg Hoard. New York: Fromm International Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0-88064-174-6.  
  • Kogelfranz, Siegfried; Willi A. Korte (1994). Quedlinburg – Texas and Back. Black Marketeering with Looted Art.  

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

QUEDLINBURG, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Saxony, situated on the Bode, near the N.W. base of the Harz Mountains, 12 miles S.E. by rail from Halberstadt on the line Magdeburg-Thale. Pop. (1905) 24,798, almost all Protestants. It consists of the old town, which is still partly surrounded by a turreted wall, the new town and four suburbs. On the west it is commanded by the castle, formerly the residence of the abbesses of Quedlinburg, connected with which is the interesting Schlosskirche, which was dedicated in 1129 and completely restored in 1862-82. The German king, Henry the Fowler, his wife Matilda, and Aurora, countess of KiMigsmark, the mistress of Augustus the Strong, are buried in the Schlosskirche. There are many interesting articles in the treasury. The Gothic town hall, a 14th-century building, restored and enlarged in 1900, contains a collection of antiquities, and near it stands a stone figure of Roland. The town also possesses a gymnasium founded in 1540 and now containing the abbey library and a municipal museum. It has a fine memorial of the war of 1870-71. Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America. Its chief manufactures are iron goods, machinery and cloth, and it has a trade in grain and cattle. Near the town is the church of St Wipertus, which dates from the 12th century, and has a crypt of the 10th century.

Quedlinburg was founded as a fortress by Henry the Fowler about 922, its early name being Quitlingen. Soon it became a favourite residence of the Saxon emperors and was the scene of several diets. It afterwards joined the Hanseatic League. The abbey of Quedlinburg was planned by Henry the Fowler, although its actual foundation is due to his son Otto the Great. It was a house for the daughters of noble Saxon families and was richly endowed; owning at one time a territory about 40 sq. m. in area. The abbesses, who were frequently members of the imperial house, the second of them being Otto's daughter Matilda, ranked among the princes of the empire, and had no ecclesiastical superior except the pope. The town at first strove vigorously to maintain its independence of them, and to this end invoked the aid of the bishop of Halberstadt. In 1477, however, the abbess Hedwig, aided by her brothers, Ernest and Albert of Saxony, compelled the bishop to withdraw, and for the next 200 years both town and abbey were under the protection of the elector of Saxony. In 1539 the townsmen accepted the reformed doctrines and the abbey was converted into a Protestant sisterhood. In 1697 the elector of Saxony sold his rights over Quedlinburg to the elector of Brandenburg for 240,000 thalers. The abbesses, however, retained certain rights of jurisdiction, and disputes between them and the Prussian government were frequent until the secularization of the abbey in 1803. The last abbess was Sophia Albertina (d. 1829), sister of King Charles XIII. of Sweden. After forming for a few years part of the kingdom of Westphalia, the abbey lands were incorporated with Prussia in 1815.

See the Urkundenbuch der Stadt Quedlinburg, edited by. Janicke (Halle, 1873-82); Ranke and Kugler, Beschreibung and Geschichte der Schlosskirche zu Quedlinburg (Berlin, 1838); Lorenz, Alt - Quedlinburg,1485-1698(Halle, 1900); and Huchs, Fiihrer durch Quedlinburg. For the history of the abbey see Fritsch, Geschichte des Reichsstifts and der Stadt Quedlinburg (Quedlinburg, 1828).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

German

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Wikipedia

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Quedlinburg

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Proper noun

Quedlinburg

  1. A town located north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. A UNESCO World Heritage Site

Simple English

Quedlinburg
Quedlinburg's Skyline

Quedlinburg
Coordinates 51°47′30″N 11°08′50″E / 51.79167°N 11.14722°E / 51.79167; 11.14722
Administration
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Harz
Town subdivisions 3 districts
Mayor Eberhard Brecht (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 78.15 km2 (30.17 sq mi)
Elevation 150 m  (492 ft)
Population 22,185  (31 December 2006)
 - Density 284 /km2 (735 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate HZ (formerly QLB)
Postal code 06484
Area code 03946
Website www.quedlinburg.de
Satellite picture Quedlinburg
Source: World Wind

Quedlinburg is a City in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The city covers an area of 78 km2 (30.1 sq mi) . 22,795 people live there (2005). The place is located just 8 kilometers north of the Harz mountains. The small river called Bode is flowing through the city. In 1994 the UNESCO set the old town Quedlinburg on the list of World Heritage Sites.

Contents

History

In the year 922 the name Quedlinburg was first mentioned in a paper from King Henry I the Fowler of Germany. In the first half of the 10th century the Hungarians with their horses attaced many place all over central Europe. King Henry build up a castle to give the farmers around a place to flee. In 936 the king died and his body was buried on the castles hill in Quedlinburg. His widow Matilda and his son King Otto I set up an convent für ladies. The tasks of this convent was to remind the memory of King Henry I and to educate young ladies to get better chaces to get married. This convent on the hill existed until it was dissolved in 1803. First abbess of the ladies-convent was Matilda the daughter of King Otto I and granddaughter of Queen Matilda. In the valley north of that hill in 994 King Otto III founded the old town. He was ask to do so from his aunt abbess Matilda.

This old town was used by merchants to sell and buy textiles and so it grow up. In the middle of the 12th century a new town was created by the abbess of the ladies-convent. In 1330 both towns were united. They got stronger in power and in 1477 they tried to get toally independent from the abbess. But military troops from the brothers of the abbess occupied both towns. All the citizens got under control of the abess again. In 1541 the Protestant Reformation reached the convent and the town and everybody changed his beliefs to Protestant religion. Surprisingly during the Thirty Years' War the town was not destroyed, because the abbess made diplomatic arrangements with all the bypassing military leaders.

Geography and Climate

The city is located 8 kilometers north of the Harz mountains around 123 meters above sea level. The surroundig mountains reach abaout 180 meters above sea level. Most of the town is on the western site of the rivers Bode bank. The town area covers around 78,15 square kilometers.

The average temperature of the year is 8,8 degree. January and February are the coldest months of the year, with an average temperature of 0,1 °C and 0,4 °C. July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 17,8 °C (63 °F) and 17,2 °C. The average annual rainfall is about 438 millimetres. The rain occurs usually from May to September. This rainfall is one of the lowest in Germany, which has an annual average around 800 millimetres.

Sister cities

Quedlinburg has partnerships with 5 cities. Each of the 5 boroughs also has their sister cities, sometimes called twin towns.

References

Other websites

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