The Queen's Guard and Queen's Life Guard are the names given to contingents of infantry and cavalry soldiers charged with guarding the official royal residences in London. The British Army had regiments of both Horse Guards and Foot Guards predating the English Restoration (1660), and since the reign of King Charles II these have been responsible for guarding the Sovereign's Palaces.
The Queen's Guard and Queen's Life Guard is mounted at the royal residences that come under the operating area of the British Army's London District, which is responsible for the administration of the Household Division. This covers Buckingham Palace, St James's Palace and the Tower of London, as well as Windsor Castle. The Queen's Guard is also mounted at the sovereign's other official residence, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, but not as regularly as in London. In Edinburgh, the guard is the responsibility of the resident infantry battalion at Redford Barracks. It is not mounted at the Queen's private residences at Sandringham or Balmoral.
The Queen's Guard is the name given to the contingent of infantry responsible for guarding Buckingham Palace and St. James's Palace (including Clarence House) in London. The guard is made up of a company of soldiers from a single regiment, which is split in two, providing a detachment for Buckingham Palace and a detachment for St James's Palace. Because the Sovereign's official residence is still St James's, the guard commander (called the 'Captain of the Guard') is based there, as are the regiment's colours. When the Sovereign is in residence, the Queen's Guard numbers three officers and 40 other ranks, with four sentries each posted at Buckingham Palace (on the forecourt) and St James's Palace (two at the main entrance in Pall Mall, two in Friary Court). This reduces to three officers and 31 ORs, with two sentries each when the Sovereign is not in residence. The Queen's Guard is not purely ceremonial in nature. They provide sentries during the day and night, and during the latter hours they patrol the grounds of the Palace. Until 1959, the sentries at Buckingham Palace were stationed outside the fence. This stopped following an incident involving a female tourist and a Coldstream Guardsman — due to the continued pestering of tourists and sightseers, the guardsman kicked the tourist on the ankle as he marched. The tourist made a complaint to the police and, despite sympathy, the sentry was confined to barracks for ten days. Not long after, the sentries were moved inside the fence.
At any one time, three infantry battalions are posted for public duties; two of these are Guards battalions (one based at Wellington Barracks next to Buckingham Palace and one at Victoria Barracks in Windsor), while the third is a line infantry unit (based at Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow). In addition, there are three incremental companies based at Chelsea Barracks. All of these units come under the administrative authority of London District — as public duties units, they not only take part in ceremonial, but are also committed to providing military aid to the civilian authorities.
The guard is usually found from one of the five regiments of foot guards:
However, in theory any Commonwealth unit can provide the guard. On many occasions, the Gurkhas, RAF Regiment and Royal Marines have provided the guard, while a handful of units from other Commonwealth countries have also done so (see below). Only one unit has come from a Commonwealth country of which the Queen is not head of state, namely the 1st Battalion Royal Malay Regiment in 2008.
The following is a list of units of the Gurkhas and Royal Marines to have mounted the Queen's Guard since the Second World War
Unlike the Gurkhas and the Royal Marines, the RAF Regiment has a dedicated ceremonial unit, the Queen's Colour Squadron. It is this that represents the RAF whenever it provides the Queen's Guard.
Prior to Options for Change, because there were a total of eight guards battalions, it was rare for battalions of line infantry to mount the Queen's Guard and, as such, was a significant honour. Before 1996, only two battalions had served on public duties as part of an operational tour in London District. However, when the 2nd Battalions of the Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards and Scots Guards were put in suspended animation, a decision to replace one of the three Foot Guard battalions then engaged on public duties by a line infantry battalion was taken, so as to enable the Foot Guards battalion to increase the proportion of its effort employed on training for operational roles. Since 1996, a line infantry battalion has been stationed at Hounslow under the command of London District:
One of the public duties battalions or incremental companies is responsible for providing the guard at Windsor Castle. The location of the ceremony at Windsor varies; in the summer, when the Queen is in residence it usually takes place on the lawn in the Castle's quadrangle. In wet weather or winter to protect the lawn, or when the Queen is not in residence, the ceremony occurs outside the Guardroom by Henry VIII's Gateway at the foot of Castle Hill.
A detachment of the regiment on guard at Buckingham Palace and St James's Palace is also responsible for providing the guard at the Tower of London. As the Tower is still officially a royal residence, and is also the location of the crown jewels, it remains the army's obligation to guard it. The Tower guard numbers one officer, 6 NCOs and 15 soldiers, and usually posts a sentry outside the Jewel House and one outside the Queen's House. As the protection of the Tower is their responsibility (in conjunction with the Yeomen Warders, and the Jewel House wardens), the guard must also see it is secure at night. (see Ceremony of the Keys).
The Guard is also mounted in Edinburgh at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the Queen's official residence in Scotland, and at Edinburgh Castle. Unlike in London, there is no Guards battalion permanently based in the city, so the guard is provided by whichever the resident infantry battalion is at Redford Barracks in the city. The guard is not mounted throughout the year — it is usually mounted daily during the week that the Queen spends at the palace (prior to her summer break at Balmoral), and during the Lord Commissioner's Week. Until 2002, sentries were permanently posted on the Esplanade at the entrance of the castle, ostensibly as the guards to the Honours of Scotland housed inside. The sentries were changed every hour. However, cutbacks in the size of the army led to the permanent castle guard being abolished — now, the guard is mounted at the same time as the guard at the Palace, or when there is a royal visitor to Edinburgh. Sentries are also posted during the month of the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, usually from a unit that has an anniversary from the year.
As part of the reorganisation of the infantry, the 1st and 2nd Battalions, Royal Regiment of Scotland (the Royal Scots Borderers and Royal Highland Fusiliers) will be permanently based in Edinburgh, rotating between 19 Light Brigade or 52 Infantry Brigade. Whichever battalion is assigned to 52 Brigade would then be responsible for performing public duties in Edinburgh.
The Queen's Guard is an operational posting, with the primary purpose of protecting the Sovereign. However, there have been a handful of incidents over the years when this protection has been tested; in 1982, a man named Michael Fagan was able to evade the sentries stationed in the grounds of Buckingham Palace and make his way to the Queen's bedroom, before he was captured by police. In this instance, security of the Queen's room was the task of the Metropolitan Police. In 2004, a member of the pressure group Fathers4Justice spent five and a half hours standing on the parapet by the balcony at the front of Buckingham Palace (See Fathers 4 Justice Buckingham Palace protest). Again, the security was the primary responsibility of the Metropolitan Police; although the Queen was not present at the time, it raised fears of the possibility of a terrorist attack on the palace, and gave rise to calls for the British Army to be given a greater hand in the overall security of the Royal Family.
Battalions on public duties were part of the regular arms plot, a system where infantry battalions were periodically rotated to various locations and different roles. Following the restructuring of the army announced in 2006, the arms plot system ceased — infantry battalions have now been given fixed roles and locations. In theory, this includes public duties in London, which will retain its two guards and one line infantry battalion. However, for unpopular postings (including public duties), light role infantry battalions will continue to rotate. In the case of public duties in London, the four Guards battalions will rotate every two years, while the line infantry battalion will rotate with battalions assigned to 52 Infantry Brigade and British Forces Cyprus.
In the British Armed Forces, women are not permitted to serve in combat units (that is cavalry and infantry). They are however permitted to serve in combat support units, which are units that provide second and third line support to front line combat units. Combat support includes artillery, engineers, air support, logistic support and other services. In April 2007, the first serving women in the British Army served on detachments of the Queen's Guard when the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery took over the guard at Windsor Castle, while the Army Air Corps took on public duties in London.
This is not the first occasion that women have provided the Queen's Guard. In 2000, the Australian Federation Guard performed public duties in London for a month, and included several women amongst its number.
|117th (Eastern Townships) Battalion,CEF||Canada||September 1916|
|Canadian Coronation Contingent||Canada||May 1937|
|Australian Coronation Contingent||Australia||May 1937|
|Royal 22e Régiment||Canada||April 1940|
|Toronto Scottish Regiment||Canada||April 1940|
|The Royal Canadian Regiment||Canada||April 1940|
|Canadian Coronation Contingent||Canada||May 1953|
|Australian Coronation Contingent||Australia||May 1953|
|South African Coronation Contingent||South Africa||June 1953|
|New Zealand Coronation Contingent||New Zealand||June 1953|
|Ceylon Coronation Contingent||Ceylon||June 1953|
|Pakistan Coronation Contingent||Pakistan||June 1953|
|Royal New Zealand Artillery
Detachment Commander, Maj S. Cocks
|1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment
Detachment Commander, LtCol J.P. Salter MC
|3rd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian
Detachment Commander, Maj I. Hunt
|2nd Battalion, Jamaica Regiment||Jamaica||April 1999|
|Australian Federation Guard
plus the Band of the Royal Military College, Duntroon
Detachment Commander, Capt C. Anderson
|2nd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment
Detachment Commander, Maj J. Fife
|Royal Gibraltar Regiment||Gibraltar||March 2001|
|1st Battalion, Jamaica Regiment
plus the Combined Band of the JDF
Detachment Commander, Lt Col D. Robinson
|1st Battalion, Royal Malay Regiment
plus the Band of the Royal Malay Regiment
Detachment Commander, Maj Norhisham bin Kamar
The Changing of the Guard takes place in the forecourt of Buckingham Palace at around 11am. The St. James' Palace detachment of the Queen's Guard, led usually by the Corps of Drums, and bearing the Colour (if the Queen is in residence, then this will be the Queen's Colour; if she is not, then it is the Regimental Colour), marches along the Mall to Buckingham Palace, where the Buckingham Palace detachment has formed up to await their arrival. These two detachments are the Old Guard. Meanwhile the New Guard is forming up and are awaiting inspection by the Adjutant on the parade square at Wellington Barracks. The Band, having been inspected by the Adjutant, forms a circle to play music whilst the New Guard is inspected. The Guard provides a full Military Band consisting of no fewer than 35 musicians (usually, though not always, from one of the Guards regiments) accompanied by their Director of Music. When the New Guard is formed up, led by the Band, it marches across into the forecourt of Buckingham Palace. Once there, the New Guard advances towards the Old Guard in slow time and halts. The Old Guard presents arms, followed by the New Guard presenting arms. The Captains of the Guards march towards each other for the handing over of the Palace keys. The new reliefs are marched to the guardrooms of Buckingham Palace and St James' Palace where new sentries are posted.
During this time the Band has taken its place by the centre gate, formed up in a half-circle, where it plays music to entertain the New and Old Guard as well as the watching crowds. During this period, the two regimental colours are paraded up and down by the Ensigns (usually junior officers of 2nd Lieutenant rank or equivalent). With the Old and New Guards formed up once again, the Old Guard and the Band marches out through the centre gates in slow time to their Regimental Slow march played by the Band. At the end of the slow march the Captain of the Old Guard gives the word of command to 'Break into Quick Time' and with a brisk five pace roll from the drums, the Band leads the way back to Wellington Barracks.
During any given month, as many as five different units can be assigned to the Queen's Guard. The guard is changed daily at both Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle from April to July. From August to March, the guard is changed at both sites on alternate days.
The ceremony for changing the Windsor Guard is broadly the same as that which takes place at Buckingham Palace. At 10.40am, the New Guard marches from Victoria Barracks, through Windsor and turns onto Castle Hill into the quadrangle of the castle itself, where the Old Guard has formed. Once there, while the band plays and the Ensigns march the colours, the Captain of the Old Guard hands the keys to the Captain of the New Guard. The new sentries are posted, and any special orders given, before the Old Guard is marched back to barracks, and the New Guard takes over.
The Queen's Life Guard is the mounted guard at the entrance to Horse Guards. Horse Guards is the official main entrance to both St James's Palace and Buckingham Palace (a tradition that stems from the time when The Mall was closed at both ends); however, sentries have been posted there since the Restoration, when the Palace of Whitehall was the main royal residence. The guard is on horseback from 10am until 4pm, with the two sentries changing every hour. From 4pm until 8pm a pair of dismounted sentries remain. At 8pm, the gates of Horse Guards are locked, and a single sentry remains until 7am.
When The Queen is in London, the Guard consists of 1 Officer, 1 Corporal Major (who carries the Standard), 2 Non-Commissioned Officers, 1 Trumpeter and 10 Troopers. This is known as a Long Guard. When Her Majesty is not resident in London, the Guard is reduced to 2 Non-Commissioned Officers and 10 Troopers. This is known as a Short Guard.
The guard is usually provided by the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment, with the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals alternating. When the HCMR leaves London for a month of summer training (and vacation for the horses), the guard is provided by the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. Only two other regiments have had the honour of mounting the Queen's Life Guard; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police did so leading up to the Coronation of King George VI. Lord Strathcona's Horse did so in 2000 during the same period as the Royal Canadian Regiment provided the Queen's Guard.
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police||Canada||1937|
|Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Canada||2000|
At the time of Guard Changing, the Old Guard forms up on the north side of the enclosure on Horse Guards Parade and the New Guard on the south side. As the New Guard arrives, each Guard carries the Standard and the Trumpeters of both Old and New Guards sound the Royal Salute on the arrival of the New Guard and on the departure of the Old Guard. When both Guards have formed up in the enclosure, the Corporal Major, Senior NCO and the sentries of the first relief of the New Guard leave for the Guard Room which is then handed over. The sentries of the Old Guard, after being relieved, rejoin the remainder of the Old Guard on the north side of the enclosure. The Standard and Trumpeters are only on parade with a Long Guard.