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Hungarian Oak
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Section: Mesobalanus
Species: Q. frainetto
Binomial name
Quercus frainetto
Ten.

The Hungarian Oak or Italian Oak (Quercus frainetto; syn. Quercus conferta Kit., Quercus farnetto Ten.) is a species of oak, native to southeastern Europe (parts of Italy, the Balkans, parts of Hungary, Romania) and Turkey; it is classified in Quercus sect. Mesobalanus.

Contents

Growth

It is a large deciduous tree, reaching heights of 38 m and a trunk diameter of nearly 2 m. The leaves are large, 14-25 cm long (occasionally up to 33 cm), variable in shape, divided into 6-10 very deep parallel lobes which are usually divided into sublobes. The leaf stalks are usually short, 2-6 mm (rarely to 22 mm) long. The leaves are widest close to the apex, which is broad and short pointed. The base of the leaf usually has auricles which sometimes overlap the twig. The light yellow green expanding leaves turn rich dark green by the beginning of summer. The leaves are covered with minute russet hairs, especially the lower surface. The leaves are concentrated at the ends of twigs. The leaves turn brown, russet or yellow in fall and sometimes remain attached to the twigs until the following spring. The buds are large, long and pointed, shiny russet or light brown in colour with minute tomentum. The twigs are stout and covered with russet upward pointed hairs.

The light brown acorns mature in about 6 months. They are 15-35 mm long, egg shaped, usually with a blunt apex. The acorn cup is covered with long overlapping scales and russet hairs. The acorns tend to concentrate in groups of two to eight at the ends of twigs.

Characteristics

The bark is light grey in colour and cracks into small square cracking plates.

The centre of its native range is in the Balkans. It is adapted to the subcontinental climate of southeast Europe but the main factor of its occurrence at a particular site is the soil. It is specially adapted to heavy acidic soils (cambisols and vertisols), typical of Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania. These soils are usually leached out, very dry in the summer and sometimes waterlogged in the spring. However, the Hungarian Oak does not tolerate flooding or high water tables. It is also extremely sensitive to the presence of lime in the soil. Hence, opposite to its English name, the Hungarian Oak is a very rare tree in Hungary, where the soils are generally very rich in lime. The Hungarian Oak-Turkey Oak forest (Quercetum frainetto-cerris Rud.) is the most widespread association of this oak in the Balkans, which is also the most common forest type in Serbia (see also Balkan mixed forests).

Cultivation

It is an outstanding ornamental tree for large gardens.

References


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Quercus frainetto

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales
Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Quercus frainetto

Name

Quercus frainetto Ten.

Reference

Flora Napolitana : ossia, Descrizione delle piante indigene del regno di Napoli, e delle piu rare specie di piante esotiche coltivate ne' Giardini ... Napoli : Nella Stamperia reale 1:lxxii. 1811-1815

Vernacular names

Dansk: Ungarsk Eg
English: Hungarian oak
Italiano: Farnetto
Türkçe: Macar meşesi
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Quercus frainetto on Wikimedia Commons.







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