Quirinus: Wikis

  
  

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Ancient Roman religion

Bacchian rite, from the Villa of the Mysteries

Main doctrines

Polytheism & numen
Mythology
Imperial cult · Festivals

Practices

Temples · Funerals
Votive offerings · Animal sacrifice

Apollo · Ceres · Diana · Juno
Jupiter · Mars · Mercury · Minerva
Neptune · Venus · Vesta · Vulcan

Other major deities

Divus Augustus · Divus Julius · Fortuna
The Lares · Quirinus · Pluto · Sol Invictus

Lesser deities

Adranus · Averrunci · Averruncus
Bellona · Bona Dea · Bromius
Caelus · Castor and Pollux · Clitunno
Cupid · Dis Pater · Faunus · Glycon
Inuus · Lupercus

Texts

Sibylline Books · Sibylline oracles
Aeneid · Metamorphoses
The Golden Ass

See also

Decline and persecution
Nova Roma
Greek polytheism

In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus.[1] His name is derived from Quiris meaning "spear."

Contents

History

Quirinus was originally most likely a Sabine god of war. The Sabines had a settlement near the eventual site of Rome, and erected an altar to Quirinus on the Collis Quirinalis, the Quirinal Hill, one of the Seven Hills of Rome. When the Romans settled there, they absorbed the cult of Quirinus into their early belief system — previous to direct Greek influence — and by the end of the first century BC Quirinus was considered to be the deified Romulus.[2][3] He soon became an important god of the Roman state, being included in the earliest precursor of the Capitoline Triad, along with Mars (then an agriculture god) and Jupiter.[4] Varro notes the Capitolium Vetus an earlier cult sited on the Quirinal, devoted to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva,[5] among whom Martial makes a distinction between the "old Jupiter" and the "new".[6]

In later times, however, Quirinus became far less important, losing his place to the later, more widely known Capitoline Triad (Juno and Minerva took his and Mars' place). Later still, Romans began to drift away from the state belief system in favor of more personal and mystical cults (such as those of Bacchus, Cybele, and Isis). In the end, he was worshiped almost exclusively by his flamen, the Flamen Quirinalis, who remained, however, one of the patrician flamines maiores, the "greater flamens" who preceded the Pontifex Maximus in precedence.[7]

Depiction

In earlier Roman art, he was portrayed as a bearded man with religious and military clothing. However, he was almost never depicted in later Roman belief systems. He was also often associated with the myrtle.

Festivals

His festival was the Quirinalia, held on February 17.

Legacy

Even centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Quirinal hill in Rome, originally named from the deified Romulus, was still associated with power - it was chosen as the seat of the royal house after the taking of Rome by the Savoia and later it became the residence of the Presidents of the Italian Republic.

In Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher is named Quirinus Quirrel. His name is likely a reference to the fact that Quirinus is an epithet of Janus, since both Janus and Quirrel have two faces, one on either side of their heads.

Notes

  1. ^ In the prayer of the fetiales quoted by Livy (I.32.10); Macrobius (Sat. I.9.15);
  2. ^ Fishwich, Duncan The Imperial Cult in the Latin West Brill, 2nd edition, 1993 IBSN:978-9004071797 [1]
  3. ^ Evans, Jane DeRose The Art of Persuasion University of Michigan Press 1992 ISBN:0472102826 [2]
  4. ^ Inez Scott Ryberg, "Was the Capitoline Triad Etruscan or Italic?" The American Journal of Philology 52.2 (1931), pp. 145-156.
  5. ^ Varro, De lingua latina V.158.
  6. ^ Martial, (V, 22.4) remarks on a position on the Esquiline from which one might see hinc novum Iovem, inde veterem, "here the new Jupiter, there the old."
  7. ^ Festus, 198, L: "Quirinalis, socio imperii Romani Curibus ascito Quirino".

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

QUIRINUS, the Sabine name of the god Mars, probably an adjective meaning "wielder of the spear" (Quiris, cf. Janus Quirinus). Other suggested etymologies are: (i) from the Sabine town Cures; (2) from curia, i.e. he was the god of the Roman state as represented by the thirty curies. A. B. Cook (Class. Rev. xviii., p. 368) explains Quirinus as the oak-god (quercus), and Quirites as the men of the oaken spear. From early times he was worshipped at Rome on the Quirinal hill, whither, according to tradition, a body of Sabines under Titus Tatius had migrated from Cures and taken up their abode. In the religious system of Numa, Quirinus and Mars were both recognized as divine beings, distinct but of similar attributes and functions; thus, like Mars, Quirinus was at once a god of war and a nature god, the protector of fields and flocks. Subsequently, at the end of the republic, Quirinus became identified with the deified Romulus, son of Mars. One of the greater flamens was attached to the service of Quirinus, a second college of Salii founded in his honour, and a festival "Quirinalia" celebrated on the 17th of February, the day of the supposed translation of Romulus to heaven. Old Roman formula of prayer mention a Hora Quirini, his female cult associate, afterwards identified with Hersilia, the wife of Romulus.

The name was also borne by the following saints: (1) a Roman tribune who suffered martyrdom under Hadrian; (2) a bishop of Siscia in Pannonia; (3) the patron of the Tegernsee in Bavaria, beheaded in Rome in 269 and invoked by those suffering from gout. The petroleum (Quirinus-oil) found in the neighbourhood of the lake takes its name from him.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Latin

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Proper noun

Quirinus

  1. An old Roman deity whose origin is uncertain.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Cyrenius article)

From BibleWiki

The Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria at the time of Jesus' birth.

Cilicia, which he ruled, being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he was de jure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was appointed governor of Syria for the second time. During his tenure of office, at the time of Jesus' birth (Lk 2:2), a "taxing" (R.V., "enrolment;" i.e., a registration) of the people was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under his government.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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