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R-type calcium channel: Wikis


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calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit
External IDs OMIM601013 MGI106217 HomoloGene20185 IUPHAR: Cav2.3 GeneCards: CACNA1E Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 777 12290
Ensembl ENSG00000198216 ENSMUSG00000004110
UniProt Q15878 O88405
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000721 NM_009782
RefSeq (protein) NP_000712 NP_033912
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
179.65 - 180.04 Mb
Chr 1:
156.24 - 156.57 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit forms the pore through which calcium enters the cell and determines most of the channel's properties. This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1E gene.[1][2][3]

They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have a high threshold of activation and relatively slow kinetics.


  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: CACNA1E calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit".  
  2. ^ Soong TW, Stea A, Hodson CD, Dubel SJ, Vincent SR, Snutch TP (May 1993). "Structure and functional expression of a member of the low voltage-activated calcium channel family". Science (journal) 260 (5111): 1133–6. doi:10.1126/science.8388125. PMID 8388125.  
  3. ^ Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J (December 2005). "International Union of Pharmacology. XLVIII. Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels". Pharmacol. Rev. 57 (4): 411–25. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.5. PMID 16382099.  

Further reading

  • McNaughton NC, Green PJ, Randall AD (2001). "Inhibition of human alpha1E subunit-mediated ca2+ channels by the antipsychotic agent chlorpromazine.". Acta Physiol. Scand. 173 (4): 401-8. PMID 11903132.  
  • Berrou L, Klein H, Bernatchez G, Parent L (2002). "A specific tryptophan in the I-II linker is a key determinant of beta-subunit binding and modulation in Ca(V)2.3 calcium channels.". Biophys. J. 83 (3): 1429-42. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(02)73914-3. PMID 12202369.  
  • Raybaud A, Baspinar EE, Dionne F, et al. (2007). "The role of distal S6 hydrophobic residues in the voltage-dependent gating of CaV2.3 channels.". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (38): 27944-52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M703895200. PMID 17660294.  
  • Toro-Castillo C, Thapliyal A, Gonzalez-Ochoa H, et al. (2007). "Muscarinic modulation of Cav2.3 (R-type) calcium channels is antagonized by RGS3 and RGS3T.". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 292 (1): C573-80. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00219.2006. PMID 16855219.  
  • Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J (2005). "International Union of Pharmacology. XLVIII. Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels.". Pharmacol. Rev. 57 (4): 411-25. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.5. PMID 16382099.  
  • Kang HW, Moon HJ, Joo SH, Lee JH (2007). "Histidine residues in the IS3-IS4 loop are critical for nickel-sensitive inhibition of the Cav2.3 calcium channel.". FEBS Lett. 581 (30): 5774-80. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.11.045. PMID 18037383.  
  • Natrajan R, Little SE, Reis-Filho JS, et al. (2006). "Amplification and overexpression of CACNA1E correlates with relapse in favorable histology Wilms' tumors.". Clin. Cancer Res. 12 (24): 7284-93. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1567. PMID 17189400.  
  • Holmkvist J, Tojjar D, Almgren P, et al. (2007). "Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel Ca (V)2.3 (CACNA1E) are associated with type 2 diabetes and impaired insulin secretion.". Diabetologia 50 (12): 2467-75. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0846-2. PMID 17934712.  
  • Nyholt DR, LaForge KS, Kallela M, et al. (2008). "A high-density association screen of 155 ion transport genes for involvement with common migraine.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 17 (21): 3318-31. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn227. PMID 18676988.  
  • Suzuki T, Delgado-Escueta AV, Aguan K, et al. (2004). "Mutations in EFHC1 cause juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.". Nat. Genet. 36 (8): 842-9. doi:10.1038/ng1393. PMID 15258581.  
  • Hainsworth AH, McNaughton NC, Pereverzev A, et al. (2003). "Actions of sipatrigine, 202W92 and lamotrigine on R-type and T-type Ca2+ channel currents.". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 467 (1-3): 77-80. PMID 12706458.  
  • Kamp MA, Krieger A, Henry M, et al. (2005). "Presynaptic 'Ca2.3-containing' E-type Ca channels share dual roles during neurotransmitter release.". Eur. J. Neurosci. 21 (6): 1617-25. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03984.x. PMID 15845089.  
  • Berrou L, Bernatchez G, Parent L (2001). "Molecular determinants of inactivation within the I-II linker of alpha1E (CaV2.3) calcium channels.". Biophys. J. 80 (1): 215-28. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(01)76008-0. PMID 11159396.  
  • Meza U, Thapliyal A, Bannister RA, Adams BA (2007). "Neurokinin 1 receptors trigger overlapping stimulation and inhibition of CaV2.3 (R-type) calcium channels.". Mol. Pharmacol. 71 (1): 284-93. doi:10.1124/mol.106.028530. PMID 17050807.  
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.  
  • Bernatchez G, Sauvé R, Parent L (2001). "State-dependent inhibition of inactivation-deficient Ca(V)1.2 and Ca(V)2.3 channels by mibefradil.". J. Membr. Biol. 184 (2): 143-59. PMID 11719851.  
  • Pereverzev A, Leroy J, Krieger A, et al. (2002). "Alternate splicing in the cytosolic II-III loop and the carboxy terminus of human E-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels: electrophysiological characterization of isoforms.". Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 21 (2): 352-65. PMID 12401453.  
  • Fernandez F, Curtain RP, Colson NJ, et al. (2007). "Association analysis of chromosome 1 migraine candidate genes.". BMC Med. Genet. 8: 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-57. PMID 17727731.  
  • Vajna R, Klöckner U, Pereverzev A, et al. (2001). "Functional coupling between 'R-type' Ca2+ channels and insulin secretion in the insulinoma cell line INS-1.". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (4): 1066-75. PMID 11179973.  
  • Muller YL, Hanson RL, Zimmerman C, et al. (2007). "Variants in the Ca V 2.3 (alpha 1E) subunit of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians.". Diabetes 56 (12): 3089-94. doi:10.2337/db07-0587. PMID 17720895.  

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