Linear analog electronic filters 

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An RLC circuit (also known as a resonant circuit, tuned circuit, or LCR circuit) is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. This configuration forms a harmonic oscillator.
Tuned circuits have many applications particularly for oscillating circuits and in radio and communication engineering. They can be used to select a certain narrow range of frequencies from the total spectrum of ambient radio waves. For example, AM/FM radios typically use an RLC circuit to tune a radio frequency. Most commonly a variable capacitor allows you to change the value of C in the circuit and tune to stations on different frequencies. Other practical designs vary the inductance L to adjust tuning.
An RLC circuit is called a secondorder circuit as any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a secondorder differential equation for circuit analysis.
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Every RLC circuit consists of two components: a power source and resonator. There are two types of power sources – Thévenin and Norton. Likewise, there are two types of resonators – series LC and parallel LC. As a result, there are four configurations of RLC circuits:
It is relatively easy to show that each of the two series configurations can be transformed into the other using elementary network transformations – specifically, by transforming the Thévenin power source to the equivalent Norton power source, or vice versa. Likewise, each of the two parallel configurations can be transformed into the other using the same network transformations. Finally, the series/Thévenin and the parallel/Norton configurations are dual circuits of one another. Likewise, the series/Norton and the parallel/Thévenin configurations are also dual circuits.
The expressions for the bandwidth in the series and parallel configuration are inverses of each other. This is particularly useful for determining whether a series or parallel configuration is to be used for a particular circuit design. However, in circuit analysis, usually the reciprocal of the latter two variables is used to characterize the system instead. They are known as the resonance frequency and the Q factor respectively.
There are two fundamental parameters that describe the behavior of RLC circuits: the resonance frequency and the attenuation (or, alternatively, the damping factor). In addition, other parameters derived from these first two are discussed below.
The undamped resonance frequency of an RLC circuit (in radians per second) is given by
In the more familiar unit hertz (or cycles per second), the resonance frequency becomes
Resonance occurs when the complex impedance Z_{LC} of the LC resonator becomes zero:
Both of these impedances are functions of angular frequency ω:
Setting the magnitude of the impedance to be zero at ω = ω_{0} and using j^{2} = − 1:
The attenuation α is defined as
for the series RLC circuit, and
for the parallel RLC circuit.
The damping factor ζ is the ratio of the attenuation α to the resonance frequency ω_{0} :
for a series RLC circuit, and:
for a parallel RLC circuit.
It is sometimes more convenient to use the damping factor, which is dimensionless, instead of the attenuation factor, which has dimensions of radians per second, to analyze the properties of a resonant circuit.
For applications in oscillator circuits, it is generally desirable to make the attenuation (or equivalently, the damping factor) as small as possible. In practice, this objective requires making the circuit's resistance R as small as physically possible for a series circuit, or alternatively increasing R to as much as possible for a parallel circuit. In either case, the RLC circuit becomes a good approximation to an ideal LC circuit. However, for very low attenuation circuits (high Qfactor) circuits, issues such as dielectric losses of coils and capacitors can become important.
For applications in bandpass filters, the value of the damping factor is chosen based on the desired bandwidth of the filter. For a wider bandwidth, a larger value of the damping factor is required (and vice versa). In practice, this requires adjusting the relative values of the resistor R and the inductor L in the circuit.
The derived parameters include bandwidth, Q factor, and damped resonance frequency.
The RLC circuit may be used as a bandpass or bandstop filter by replacing R with a receiving device with the same input resistance. In the Series case the bandwidth (in radians per second) is
Alternatively, the bandwidth in hertz is
The bandwidth is a measure of the width of the frequency response at the two halfpower frequencies. As a result, this measure of bandwidth is sometimes called the fullwidth at halfpower. Since electrical power is proportional to the square of the circuit voltage (or current), the frequency response will drop to at the halfpower frequencies.
The Q factor can be expressed in terms of the three devices in the circuit, from the basis of the definition:
The damped resonance frequency can be expressed in terms of the undamped resonance frequency and the damping factor. If the circuit is underdamped, meaning
or equivalently
then we can define the damped resonance as
In an oscillator circuit
or equivalently
As a result
In this circuit, the three components are all in series with the voltage source.

Series RLC Circuit notations:

Given the parameters v, R, L, and C, the solution for the charge, q, can be found using Kirchhoff's voltage law. (KVL) gives
For a timechanging voltage v(t), this becomes
Using the relationship between charge and current:
The above expression can be expressed in terms of charge across the capacitor:
Dividing by L gives the following second order differential equation:
We now define two key parameters:
Substituting these parameters into the differential equation, we obtain:
or
The series RLC can be analyzed in the frequency domain using complex impedance relations. If the voltage source above produces a complex exponential waveform with complex amplitude V(s) and angular frequency s = σ + iω , KVL can be applied:
where I(s) is the complex current through all components. Solving for I(s):
And rearranging, we have at
Next, we solve for the complex admittance Y(s):
Finally, we simplify using parameters α and ω_{o}
Notice that this expression for Y(s) is the same as the one we found for the Zero State Response.
The zeros of Y(s) are those values of s such that Y(s) = 0:
The poles of Y(s) are those values of s such that . By the quadratic formula, we find
Notice that the poles of Y(s) are identical to the roots λ_{1} and λ_{2} of the characteristic polynomial.
If we now let s = iω....
Considering the magnitude of the above equation:
Next, we find the magnitude of current as a function of ω
If we choose values where R = 1 ohm, C = 1 farad, L = 1 henry, and V = 1.0 volt, then the graph of magnitude of the current i (in amperes) as a function of ω (in radians per second) is:
Note that there is a peak at i_{mag}(ω) = 1. This is known as the resonance frequency. Solving for this value, we find:
Parallel RLC Circuit notations:

The complex admittance of this circuit is given by adding up the admittances of the components:
The change from a series arrangement to a parallel arrangement has some very real consequences for the behaviour. This can be seen by plotting the magnitude of the current . For comparison with the earlier graph we choose values where R = 1 ohm, C = 1 farad, L = 1 henry, and V = 1.0 volt and ω in radians per second:
There is a minimum in the frequency response at the resonance frequency .
A parallel RLC circuit is an example of a bandstop circuit response that can be used as a filter to block frequencies at the resonance frequency but allow others to pass.
An RLC circuit (also known as a resonant circuit, tuned circuit, or LCR circuit) is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. This configuration forms a harmonic oscillator.
Tuned circuits have many applications particularly for oscillating circuits and in radio and communication engineering. They can be used to select a certain narrow range of frequencies from the total spectrum of ambient radio waves. For example, AM/FM radios with analog tuners typically use an RLC circuit to tune a radio frequency. Most commonly a variable capacitor is attached to the tuning knob, which allows you to change the value of C in the circuit and tune to stations on different frequencies.
An RLC circuit is called a secondorder circuit as any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a secondorder differential equation for circuit analysis.
Contents 
Every RLC circuit consists of two components: a power source and resonator. There are two types of power sources – Thévenin and Norton. Likewise, there are two types of resonators – series LC and parallel LC. As a result, there are four configurations of RLC circuits:
The expressions for the bandwidth in the series and parallel configuration are inverses of each other. This is particularly useful for determining whether a series or parallel configuration is to be used for a particular circuit design. However, in circuit analysis, usually the reciprocal of the latter two variables is used to characterize the system instead. They are known as the resonant frequency and the Q factor respectively.
There are two fundamental parameters that describe the behavior of RLC circuits: the resonant frequency and the damping factor. In addition, other parameters derived from these first two are discussed below.
The undamped resonance or natural frequency] of an RLC circuit (in radians per second) is given by
In the more familiar unit hertz (or cycles per second), the natural frequency becomes
Resonance occurs when the complex impedance Z_{LC} of the LC resonator becomes zero:
Both of these impedances are functions of angular frequency ω:
Setting the magnitude of the impedance to be zero at ω = ω_{0} and using j^{2} = − 1:
The normalized damping factor of the circuit is:
for a series RLC circuit, and:
for a parallel RLC circuit.
It's desirable to use the normalized damping factor (nondimensional) instead of the regular one (in radians per second) to analyze the properties of the resonant circuit.
For applications in oscillator circuits, it is generally desirable to make the damping factor as small as possible, or equivalently, to increase the quality factor (Q) as much as possible. In practice, this requires decreasing the resistance R in the circuit to as small as physically possible for a series circuit, and increasing R to as large a value as possible for a parallel circuit. In this case, the RLC circuit becomes a good approximation to an ideal LC circuit.
Alternatively, for applications in bandpass filters, the value of the damping factor is chosen based on the desired bandwidth of the filter. For a wider bandwidth, a larger value of the damping factor is required (and vice versa). In practice, this requires adjusting the relative values of the resistor R and the inductor L in the circuit.
The derived parameters include Bandwidth, Q factor, and damped resonance frequency.
The RLC circuit may be used as a bandpass or bandstop filter by replacing R with a receiving device with the same input resistance. In the Series case the bandwidth (in radians per second) is
Alternatively, the bandwidth in hertz is
The bandwidth is a measure of the width of the frequency response at the two halfpower frequencies. As a result, this measure of bandwidth is sometimes called the fullwidth at halfpower. Since electrical power is proportional to the square of the circuit voltage (or current), the frequency response will drop to at the halfpower frequencies.
The damped resonance frequency derives from the natural frequency and the damping factor. If the circuit is underdamped, meaning
then we can define the damped resonance as
In an oscillator circuit
As a result
See discussion of underdamping, overdamping, and critical damping, below.
In this circuit, the three components are all in series with the voltage source.

Series RLC Circuit notations:

Given the parameters v, R, L, and C, the solution for the charge, q, can be found using Kirchhoff's voltage law. (KVL) gives
For a timechanging voltage v(t), this becomes
Using the relationship between charge and current:
The above expression can be expressed in terms of charge across the capacitor:
Dividing by L gives the following second order differential equation:
We now define two key parameters:
Substituting these parameters into the differential equation, we
obtain:
or
The series RLC can be analyzed in the frequency domain using complex impedance relations. If the voltage source above produces a complex exponential wave form with amplitude v(s) and angular frequency s = σ + iω , KVL can be applied:
where i(s) is the complex current through all components. Solving for i:
And rearranging, we have at
Next, we solve for the complex admittance Y(s):
Finally, we simplify using parameters ζ and ω_{o}
Notice that this expression for Y(s) is the same as the one we found for the Zero State Response.
The zeros of Y(s) are those values of s such that Y(s) = 0:
The poles of Y(s) are those values of s such that . By the quadratic formula, we find
Notice that the poles of Y(s) are identical to the roots λ_{1} and λ_{2} of the characteristic polynomial.
If we now let s = iω....
Taking the magnitude of the above equation:
Next, we find the magnitude of current as a function of ω
If we choose values where R = 1 ohm, C = 1 farad, L = 1 henry, and V = 1.0 volt, then the graph of magnitude of the current i (in amperes) as a function of ω (in radians per second) is:
Note that there is a peak at i_{mag}(ω) = 1. This is known as the resonant frequency. Solving for this value, we find:
Parallel RLC Circuit notations:

The complex impedance of this circuit is given by adding up the impedances in parallel:
The change from a series arrangement to a parallel arrangement has some very real consequences for the behaviour. This can be seen by plotting the magnitude of the current . For comparison with the earlier graph we choose values where R = 1 ohm, C = 1 farad, L = 1 henry, and V = 1.0 volt and ω in radians per second:
There is a minimum in the frequency response at the resonant frequency .
A parallel RLC circuit is a example of a bandstop circuit response that can be used as a filter to block frequencies at the resonance frequency but allow others to pass.
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A much more elegant way of recovering the circuit properties of an RLC circuit is through the use of nondimensionalization.
For a parallel configuration of the same components, where Φ is the magnetic flux in the system
with substitutions
The first variable corresponds to the maximum magnetic flux stored in the circuit. The second corresponds to the period of resonant oscillations in the circuit.
[Category: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Analog_circuits Analog circuits]
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A circuit containing resistance(R), inductance(L), and capacitance(C) is called an RLC circuit. I shall here discuss only series simple RLC circuits(only one R,L,C). With a resistance R present,the total electromagnetic energy U of the circuit(the sum of the electric energy and magnetic energy)is no longer cistant: instead, it decreases with time as energy is transferred to thermal energy in the resistance. Because of this loss of energy, the oscillations of charge, current and potential difference continuosly decrease in amplitude, and the oscillations are said to be damped. As you will see, they are damped in exactly the same way as those of the damped blockspring oscillarator. to analyze the ocillations of this circuit, we write an equation for the total electromagnetic energy U in the circuit at any instant. Because the resistance does not store electromagnetic energy.
However, this total energy decreases as energy is transferred to thermal energy.
where the minus sign indicates that U decreases. By differentiating Eq.1 with respect to time and then substituting the result in Eq.2, we obtain
Substituting $dq/dt$ for $i$ and $d^2/dt^2$ for $di/dt$, we obtain
