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RMS Titanic 3.jpg
RMS Titanic departing from Southampton on 10 April 1912
Career (United Kingdom) White Star flaga.svg White Star Line
Name: RMS Titanic
Owner: White Star flaga.svg White Star Line
Port of registry: United Kingdom[1] Liverpool
Route: Southampton to New York City
Ordered: 31 July 1908[2]
Builder: Harland and Wolff yards in Belfast, Ireland
Yard number: 401
Laid down: 31 March 1909
Launched: 31 May 1911
Completed: 31 March 1912
Maiden voyage: 10 April 1912
In service: 1912
Identification: Radio Callsign "MGY"
UK Official Number: 131428
Fate: Vessel lost on 15 April 1912 after hitting an iceberg
General characteristics
Class and type: Olympic-class ocean liner
Tonnage: 46,328 gross register tons (GRT)
Displacement: 52,310 tons
Length: 882 ft 9 in (269.1 m)[3]
Beam: 92 ft 0 in (28.0 m)[3]
Height: 175 ft (53.3 m) (Keel to top of funnels)
Draught: 34 ft 7 in (10.5 m)
Depth: 64 ft 6 in (19.7 m)[3]
Decks: 9 (Lettered A through G)
Installed power:
Propulsion:
  • Two bronze triple-blade wing propellers
  • One bronze quadruple-blade centre propeller.
Speed:
  • 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph)
  • 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph) (maximum)
Capacity:
Passengers and crew (fully loaded):
  • 3547
Staterooms (840 total):
  • First Class: 416
  • Second Class: 162
  • Third Class: 262
  • plus 40 open berthing areas
Topics about Titanic
List of passengers
List of crew members
Films about the Titanic
Titanic Historical Society
.The RMS Titanic was an Olympic-class passenger liner owned by the White Star Line and was built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, in what is now Northern Ireland.^ Harland and Wolff yards in Belfast , Northern Ireland .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was built in Belfast Ireland in 1912 at the Harland & Wolff shipyard at a cost of $7.5 million.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The different classes of passengers on the Titanic ate in their own dining rooms.

.At the time of her construction, she was the largest passenger steamship in the world.^ At the time of her construction, she was the largest passenger steamship in the world.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, she was the largest and fastest ship in the world.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Titanic was constructed at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland and at the time of her voyage was the largest vessel afloat.
  • Newsvine - The RMS Titanic - Why Did She Really Sink? 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC spiggles.newsvine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Shortly before midnight on 14 April 1912, four days into the ship's maiden voyage, Titanic struck an iceberg and sank two hours and forty minutes later, early on 15 April 1912. The sinking resulted in the deaths of 1,517 of the 2,223 people on board, making it one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history.^ Sunday, April 14, 1912 and sank 2 hours, 40 minutes later at 2.20 a.m.

^ Some two hours later, she was still at it.

^ Died in the sinking of the "RMS Titanic" on April 14-15, 1912.
  • Find A Grave - Titanic Passengers 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.findagrave.com [Source type: General]

.The high casualty rate was due in part to the fact that, although complying with the regulations of the time, the ship did not carry enough lifeboats for everyone aboard.^ The high casualty rate was due in part to the fact that, although complying with the regulations of the time, the ship did not carry enough lifeboats for everyone aboard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They weren't part of the ship's crew (although they nominally signed ship's orders, they were carried as passengers), and they weren't needed to keep the power running or to load the lifeboats; likely no one would have protested if they had sought places in lifeboats.
  • snopes.com: Last Song on the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.snopes.com [Source type: General]

^ The government simply had not kept abreast of advances in marine engineering and based all life-saving regulations on ships up to 10,000 grt (gross registered tons) which were required to carry 16 lifeboats.
  • BBC - History - British History in depth: Titanic: Sinking the Myths 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The ship had a total lifeboat capacity of 1,178 people, although her maximum capacity was 3,547. A disproportionate number of men died due to the women and children first protocol that was followed.^ Women and children were first to get on.
  • Titanic discussion. | Titanic Exhibition Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vystava-titanic.cz [Source type: General]

^ If the lifeboats had been filled to capacity, 1,178 people could have been saved.

^ If the lifeboats were filled to capacity 1,178 people could have been saved.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic was designed by some of the most experienced engineers, and used some of the most advanced technologies available at the time.^ Titanic 's design used some of the most advanced technology available at the time and the ship was popularly believed to be "unsinkable."

^ Titanic's design used some of the most advanced technology available at the time and the ship was popularly believed to be unsinkable.

^ Titanic 's design used some of the most advanced technology available at the time and the ship was popularly believed to be "unsinkable".
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was popularly believed to have been unsinkable.^ Titanic 's design used some of the most advanced technology available at the time and the ship was popularly believed to be "unsinkable".
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic 's design used some of the most advanced technology available at the time and the ship was popularly believed to be "unsinkable."

^ The Titanic's design used some of the most advanced technology available at the time and the ship was popularly believed to be "unsinkable."
  • MySpace - RMS TITANIC - 98 - Female - UK - myspace.com/titanic_shipofdreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .It was a great shock to many that, despite the extensive safety features, the Titanic sank.^ It was a great shock to many that, despite the extensive safety features, the Titanic sank.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two workers lost their lives in construction accidents during Titanic's building, which was actually a good safety record compared to many others in this era.

^ As news of the disaster spread many people were shocked that the Titanic could sink with such great loss of life despite all the technological advances that it represented.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The frenzy on the part of the media about Titanic's famous victims, the legends about the sinking, the resulting changes to maritime law, and the discovery of the wreck have contributed to the continuing interest in, and notoriety of, the Titanic.^ The frenzy on the part of the media about Titanic ' s famous victims, the legends about the sinking, the resulting changes to maritime law , and the discovery of the wreck have contributed to the continuing interest in, and notoriety of, the Titanic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The media frenzy about Titanic's famous victims, the legends about what happened on board the ship, the resulting changes to maritime law, and the discovery of the wreck in 1985 by a team led by Robert Ballard and Jean-Louis Michel have made Titanic persistently famous in the years since.

^ Common misconceptions about the sinking of the Titanic .
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Construction

.The Titanic was built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, and designed to compete with the rival Cunard Line's Lusitania and Mauretania.^ Construction of the Olympic and Titanic begins in Belfast, Ireland, at the Harland and Wolff shipyards.
  • Facts about the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC drewsworld.org [Source type: General]

^ The Titanic designed and constructed at the Harland & Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
  • Encyclopedia Titanica : Titanic Facts, Survivors Stories, Passenger and Crew Biography and Titanic History 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.encyclopedia-titanica.org [Source type: General]

^ Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland (now in Northern Ireland ) and was designed to compete with rival company Cunard Line's Lusitania and Mauretania .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic, along with her Olympic-class sisters, the Olympic and the soon-to-be-built Britannic (which was to be called Gigantic at first), were intended to be the largest, most luxurious ships ever to operate.^ The Titanic was the most impressive ship of her day.
  • National Geographic Explorer (Student Magazine) - Return to Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC magma.nationalgeographic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic , along with her Olympic -class sisters, the Olympic and the soon-to-be-built Britannic (which was to be called Gigantic at first), were intended to be the largest, most luxurious ships ever to operate.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What: Hatched a plan to build 3 huge ships Olympic, Titanic, and Gigantic.
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

.The designers were Lord Pirrie,[7] a director of both Harland and Wolff and White Star, naval architect Thomas Andrews, Harland and Wolff's construction manager and head of their design department,[8] and Alexander Carlisle, the shipyard's chief draughtsman and general manager.^ Chief architect and managing director of the Titanic's construction, Thomas Andrews sailed with his ship on its maiden voyage and did not survive the disaster.
  • r.m.s. titanic reading room: bibliography & bookstore 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www2.lv.psu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Titanic under construction at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Ireland.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sepia Thomas Andrews Photograph The head of the guarantee team was the Managing Director of Harland & Wolff, Thomas Andrews.
  • Elias P. Kline Memorial Lecture for the 69th Shock and Vibration Symposium, 1998 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.cuug.ab.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Carlisle's role in this project was the design of the superstructure of these ships, particularly the superstructures' streamlined joining to the hulls[citation needed] as well as the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design.^ Carlisle's role in this project was the design of the superstructure of these ships, particularly the superstructures' streamlined joining to the hulls [ citation needed ] as well as the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, lifeboat davits capable of handling up to four boats per pair of davits were designed by Alexander Carlisle and installed to give a total potential capacity of 64 boats.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Suddenly the whole superstructure of the ship appeared to split, well forward to midship, and blow or buckle upwards....
  • TITANIC - A Voyage of Discovery (discover) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.euronet.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carlisle would leave the project in 1910, before the ships were launched, when he became a shareholder in Welin Davit & Engineering Company Ltd, the firm making the davits.^ Carlisle would leave the project in 1910, before the ships were launched, when he became a shareholder in Welin Davit & Engineering Company Ltd , the firm making the davits.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, several of these ships altered course towards the collision site, but when it became apparent that Carpathia alone would make it to the scene of the accident in reasonable time, they resumed their previous courses.

^ Carlisle's role in this project was the design of the superstructure of these ships, particularly the superstructures' streamlined joining to the hulls [ citation needed ] as well as the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
Construction of RMS Titanic, funded by the American J.P. Morgan and his International Mercantile Marine Co., began on 31 March, 1909. Titanic's hull was launched on 31 May 1911, and her outfitting was completed by 31 March the following year. .Her length overall was 882 feet 9 inches (269.1 m), the moulded breadth 92 feet 0 inches (28.0 m),[11] the tonnage 46,328 GRT, and the height from the water line to the boat deck of 59 feet (18 m).^ She was 882 feet 9 inches (269.1 m) long and 92 feet 0 inches (28.0 m) wide, [ 3 ] with a gross register tonnage of 46,328 long tons and a height from the water line to the boat deck of 59 feet (18 m).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was a vessel of 46,328 tons register; her length was 882.6 feet, and her breadth was 92.6 feet.
  • TIP | United States Senate Inquiry | Report | Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicinquiry.org [Source type: General]

^ Beam - 92 feet 6 inches.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

.She was equipped with two reciprocating four-cylinder, triple-expansion steam engines and one low-pressure Parsons turbine, which combined drove three propellers.^ Titanic contained two reciprocating four cylinder, triple expansion, inverted engines and one low pressure Parsons turbine which powered three propellers.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each outboard propeller was driven by a separate, four-cylinder reciprocating steam engine.
  • Trick Engineering Question: Everyone Knows that an Iceberg Sank the Titanic, Right? : Industry Market Trends 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contained two reciprocating four- cylinder , triple expansion, inverted steam engine s and one low pressure Parsons turbine which powered three propeller s.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were 29 boilers fired by 159 coal burning furnaces that made possible a top speed of 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph).^ There were 25 double-ended and 4 single-ended Scotch-type boiler s fired by 159 coal burning furnace s that made possible a top speed of 23 knot s (43 km/h).
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were 29 boilers fired by 159 coal burning furnaces that made possible a top speed of 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were 25 double-ended and 4 single-ended Scotch-type boilers fired by 159 coal burning furnaces that made possible a top speed of 23 knots (43 km/h).
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only three of the four 62 feet (19 m) funnels were functional: the fourth, which served only for ventilation purposes, was added to make the ship look more impressive.^ Only three of the funnels were functional, the fourth funnel being added to make the ship look more impressive and only functioned as a steam vent.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only three of the four 63 foot (19 m) tall funnels were functional; the fourth, which served only as a vent, was added to make the ship look more impressive.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only three of the four 63 foot (19 m) tall funnels were functional; the fourth funnel, which only served as a vent, was added to make the ship look more impressive.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ship could carry a total of 3,547 passengers and crew.^ The ship could carry a total of 3,547 passengers and crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic, considered the premier ship of its time, sailed on April 10, 1912, from Southampton with 2,200 passengers and crew, according to Encyclopedia Titanic.
  • Lifestyle | ajc.com 19 September 2009 20:59 UTC www.ajc.com [Source type: News]

^ Sixteen sets of these davits were installed, giving Titanic the ability to carry 64 [ 18 ] wooden lifeboats—a total capacity of over 4,000 people, compared with Titanic ' s total carrying capacity of about 3,600 passengers and crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Features

Gymnasium aboard the Titanic
The first-class Grand Staircase aboard the Titanic
Size comparison with the Airbus A380, a car, a bus and an average size human
.Titanic surpassed all her rivals in luxury and opulence.^ In her time, Titanic surpassed all rivals in luxury and opulence.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For her time, Titanic was unsurpassed in luxury and opulence.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For her time, the Titanic was unsurpassed in luxury and opulence.
  • MySpace - RMS TITANIC - 98 - Female - UK - myspace.com/titanic_shipofdreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The First-class section had an on-board swimming pool, a gymnasium, a squash court, Turkish bath, Electric bath and a Verandah Cafe.^ A swimming pool, Turkish Baths, Squash courts and a gym were provided.
  • Titanic's Interior 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.titanicandco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic was one of the first ships to ever have a swimming pool on board.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ She offered an onboard swimming pool, a gymnasium, a Turkish bath, a library and a squash court.
  • MySpace - RMS TITANIC - 98 - Female - UK - myspace.com/titanic_shipofdreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First-class common rooms were adorned with ornate wood panelling, expensive furniture and other decorations.^ Second class cabins and common rooms were equal to first class on some other ships.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First-class common rooms were adorned with elaborate wood panelling, expensive furniture and other elegant decorations.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First-class common rooms were adorned with elaborate wood paneling, expensive furniture and other elegant decorations.

.In addition, the Café Parisien offered cuisine for the first-class passengers, with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.^ In addition, the Café Parisien offered superb cuisine for the first-class passengers, with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First class Titanic passengers .
  • Titanic@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, the Café Parisien offered superb cuisine for the first-class passengers with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .There were libraries and barber shops in both the first and second-class.^ There were two barber shops on the Titanic , one in First-Class and one in Second-Class.
  • TITANIC - A Voyage of Discovery (palace) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.euronet.nl [Source type: General]

^ There were libraries and barber shops in both the first and second-class.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first he learned of it was shortly after midnight, 25 or 30 minutes after the collision, when he was awakened by a knock at the door of his second-class cabin and told to put on his life vest.
  • titanic – Neatorama 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

[13] .The third class general room had pine panelling and sturdy teak furniture.^ The General Room was the heart of the Steerage, third class community.
  • Titanic's Interior 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.titanicandco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The third class general room had pine panelling and sturdy teak furniture.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was panelled in pine and finished in enamel white with teak furniture.
  • Titanic's Interior 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.titanicandco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The ship incorporated technologically advanced features for the period.^ The ship was also unusually technologically advanced for the time period.
  • MySpace - RMS TITANIC - 98 - Female - UK - myspace.com/titanic_shipofdreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ship was technologically advanced for the period.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ship incorporated technologically advanced features for the period.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She had three electric elevators in first class and one in second class.^ Titanic had three elevators for the use of first-class passengers and, as an innovation, offered one lift for second-class passengers.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One first class woman is barefoot.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ship offered three elevators for use of passengers in first class, and as an innovation, it offered one elevator for the second class passengers.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She had also an extensive electrical subsystem with steam-powered generators and ship-wide wiring feeding electric lights and two Marconi radios, including a powerful 1,500-watt set manned by two operators working in shifts, allowing constant contact and the transmission of many passenger messages.^ She had an extensive electrical subsystem with steam-powered generators and ship-wide electrical wiring feeding electric lights.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She also boasted two wireless Marconi sets, including a powerful 1,500-watt radio manned by operators who worked in shifts, allowing constant contact and the transmission of many passenger messages.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She also boasted two wireless Marconi radio sets manned by operators who worked in shifts, allowing constant radio contact and the transmission of many passenger messages.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .First-class passengers paid a hefty fee for such amenities.^ Meneiko A. Peterson was a first-class passenger.
  • TITANIC Assignment 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC teachingvision.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First class Titanic passengers .
  • Titanic@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ She was a first class passenger.
  • TITANIC Assignment 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC teachingvision.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most expensive one-way trans-Atlantic passage was US$4,350 (which is more than US$95,860 in 2008 dollars).^ The most expensive one-way trans-Atlantic passage was US$4,350 (which is more than US$95,860 in 2008 dollars).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Olympic began her Atlantic service in 1911, but it was the Titanic -- a thousand tons larger and far more luxurious than her sister -- that caught the public's fancy.
  • The Memphis Flyer: Cover Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.memphisflyer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost every street in the Chapel district of the town lost more than one resident and over 500 households lost a member.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16][17]

Lifeboats

For her maiden voyage, Titanic carried a total of 20 lifeboats of three different varieties:[18]
  • Lifeboats 1 and 2: emergency wooden cutters: 25'2" long by 7'2" wide by 3'2" deep; capacity 326.6 cubic feet or 40 persons
  • Lifeboats 3 to 16: wooden lifeboats: 30' long by 9'1" wide by 4' deep; capacity 655.2 cubic feet or 65 persons
  • Lifeboats A, B, C and D: Englehardt "collapsible" lifeboats: 27'5" long by 8' wide by 3' deep; capacity 376.6 cubic feet or 47 persons
.
The lifeboats were predominantly stowed in chocks on the boat deck, not connected to the falls of the davits.
^ In appearance the Britannic resembled the Titanic, having an enclosed promenade A-Deck, but one big difference was the lifeboat davits which were much more prominent on the Britannic.

^ The shipping industry was aware that the lifeboat regulations were going to be changed soon and Titanic’s deck space and davits were designed for the anticipated "boats for all" policy, but until the law actually changed, White Star was not going to install them.
  • Making Light: Why RMS Titanic Didn't Have Enough Lifeboats 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC nielsenhayden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lifeboats 1 and 2: emergency wooden cutters : 25'2" long by 7'2" wide by 3'2" deep; capacity 326.6 cubic feet or 40 persons Lifeboats 3 to 16: wooden lifeboats: 30' long by 9'1" wide by 4' deep; capacity 655.2 cubic feet or 65 persons Lifeboats A, B, C and D: Englehardt "collapsible" lifeboats: 27'5" long by 8' wide by 3' deep; capacity 376.6 cubic feet or 47 persons The lifeboats were predominantly stowed in chocks on the boat deck, not connected to the falls of the davits.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of the lifeboats, including the collapsibles, were placed on the ship by the giant gantry crane at Belfast.^ All of the lifeboats, including the collapsibles, were placed on the ship by the giant gantry crane at Belfast.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crew – 892 / Officers (not including Captain) - 7 • Life boats - 2 Emergency Lifeboats (40 persons), 14 wooden lifeboats (65 persons) and 4 Engelhardt Collapsible (49 persons) - Total capacity 1,186 persons or 35.5% of total ships full compliment.
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

^ Camera cranes and jacks were placed above the ship for the final filming stages, when the ship was separated into two pieces.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those on the starboard side were numbered 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 from bow-to-stern, while those on the port side were numbered 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 from bow-to-stern.^ The iceberg struck the Titanic near the bow on the starboard (right) side about 4 m above the keel.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Trick Engineering Question: Everyone Knows that an Iceberg Sank the Titanic, Right? : Industry Market Trends 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 2:18, when the bow reached a weight of about 16,000 tons, it ripped loose from the stern.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1:15 am water has reached Titanic's name on the bow and she now lists to port.
  • Phil Ottewell's Titanic Pages, Earl Chapman's Titanic Chronology 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC titanic.pottsoft.com [Source type: General]

.The emergency cutters (lifeboats 1 and 2) were kept swung out, hanging from the davits, ready for immediate use while collapsible lifeboats C and D were stowed on the boat deck immediately in-board of boats 1 and 2 respectively.^ The emergency cutters (lifeboats 1 and 2) were kept swung out, hanging from the davits, ready for immediate use while collapsible lifeboats C and D were stowed on the boat deck immediately in-board of boats 1 and 2 respectively.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the sinking, lowering collapsibles A and B proved difficult as it was first necessary to slide the boats on timbers and/or oars down to the boat deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the insufficiency of lifeboats, there were not enough trained seaman or officers to carry out the emergency orders .

.Collapsible lifeboats A and B were stored on the roof of the officer's quarters, on either side of number 1 funnel.^ Collapsible lifeboats A and B were stored on the roof of the officer's quarters, on either side of number 1 funnel.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other survivors recalled seeing Moody for the last time with Murdoch and possibly Wilde struggling to free a collapsible boat lashed down to the roof of the officers quarters as Titanic was just about to go completely under.

^ The last two lifeboats floated off the deck, collapsible B upside down, collapsible A half-filled with water after the supports for its canvas sides were broken in the fall from the roof of the officers quarters.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However there were no davits mounted on the officer's quarters to lower collapsibles A and B and the both of them weighed a considerable amount empty.^ However there were no davits mounted on the officer's quarters to lower collapsibles A and B and the both of them weighed a considerable amount empty.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the length of the ship, a given number of davits, which are the mechanism used to raise and lower the lifeboats, are mounted along the perimeter of the lower deck.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bride climbs to the roof of the officer's quarters and assists with launching collapsible lifeboat B - Phillips disappears aft.
  • THE TITANIC RADIO PAGE 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.hf.ro [Source type: General]
  • The Jack Phillips Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.gdrs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the sinking, lowering collapsibles A and B proved difficult as it was first necessary to slide the boats on timbers and/or oars down to the boat deck.^ During the sinking, lowering collapsibles A and B proved difficult as it was first necessary to slide the boats on timbers and/or oars down to the boat deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weight of the boat snaps the oars and it crashes to the deck, upside down.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boat A and Boat B floated off during sinking.
  • Titanic Lifeboats Project 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.dweephor.com [Source type: General]

.During this procedure, collapsible B capsized and subsequently floated off the ship upside down.^ The boat, still upside down, is swept off the ship.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During this procedure, collapsible B capsized and subsequently floated off the ship upside down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boat A and Boat B floated off during sinking.
  • Titanic Lifeboats Project 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.dweephor.com [Source type: General]

.At the design stage Carlisle suggested that Titanic use a new, larger type of davit, manufactured by the Welin Davit & Engineering Co Ltd, each of which could handle four lifeboats.^ At the design stage Carlisle suggested that Titanic use a new, larger type of davit , manufactured by the Welin Davit & Engineering Co Ltd, each of which could handle four lifeboats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In appearance the Britannic resembled the Titanic, having an enclosed promenade A-Deck, but one big difference was the lifeboat davits which were much more prominent on the Britannic.

^ As news of the disaster spread many people were shocked that the Titanic could sink with such great loss of life despite all the technological advances that it represented.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sixteen sets of these davits were installed, giving Titanic the ability to carry 64[19] wooden lifeboats—a total capacity of over 4,000 people, compared with Titanic's total carrying capacity of about 3,600 passengers and crew.^ Sixteen sets of these davits were installed, giving Titanic the ability to carry 64 [ 18 ] wooden lifeboats—a total capacity of over 4,000 people, compared with Titanic ' s total carrying capacity of about 3,600 passengers and crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic did not carry sufficient lifeboats for all of her passengers and crew.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic carried 20 lifeboats with a total capacity of 1,178 persons for the ship's total complement of passengers and crew of 2,223.

.However, the White Star Line, while agreeing to the new davits, decided that only 16 wooden lifeboats (16 being the minimum required by the Board of Trade, based on the Titanic's projected tonnage) would be carried (there were also four folding lifeboats, called collapsibles), which could accommodate only 1,178 people (33% of Titanic's total capacity).^ The White Star Line exceeded the regulations by including four collapsible lifeboats, bringing total lifeboat capacity to 1,178.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the lifeboats had been filled to capacity, 1,178 people could have been saved.

^ Survivors aboard one of the Titanic 's four collapsible lifeboats.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the time, the Board of Trade's regulations stated that British vessels over 10,000 tons must carry 16 lifeboats with a capacity of 5,500 cubic feet (160 m3), plus enough capacity in rafts and floats for 75% (or 50% in case of a vessel with watertight bulkheads) of that in the lifeboats.^ The British Board of Trade Rules for supplying them were based on cubic feet of lifeboat space per ton of ship...
  • Elias P. Kline Memorial Lecture for the 69th Shock and Vibration Symposium, 1998 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.cuug.ab.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, the Board of Trade's regulations stated that British vessels over 10,000 tons must carry 16 lifeboats with a capacity of 5,500 cubic feet (160 m 3 ), plus enough capacity in rafts and floats for 75% (or 50% in case of a vessel with watertight bulkheads) of that in the lifeboats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The existing Board of Trade required a passenger ship to provide lifeboat capacity for 1060 people for any ship over 10,000 tons.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore, the White Star Line actually provided more lifeboat accommodation than was legally required.^ The ship was owned by White Star Line.
  • Titanic discussion. | Titanic Exhibition Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vystava-titanic.cz [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, the White Star Line actually provided more lifeboat accommodation than was legally required.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed by Thomas Andrews, and built by The White Star Line in England, the Titanic was completed in 1912 and weighed over 45,000 tons.
  • Titanic: A Critical Appraisal 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]
.The regulations had made no extra provision for larger ships since 1894, when the largest passenger ship under consideration was the Cunard Line's Lucania, only 13,000 tons.^ The regulations had made no extra provision for larger ships since 1894, when the largest passenger ship under consideration was the Cunard Line's Lucania , only 13,000 tons.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The closest ship was Cunard Line's RMS Carpathia which was 58 miles (93 km) and would arrive in about four hours, too late to get to Titanic in time.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed by Thomas Andrews, and built by The White Star Line in England, the Titanic was completed in 1912 and weighed over 45,000 tons.
  • Titanic: A Critical Appraisal 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

Sir Alfred Chalmers, nautical adviser to the Board of Trade from 1896 to 1911, had considered the matter "from time to time", but because he thought that experienced sailors would have to be carried "uselessly" aboard ship for no other purpose than lowering and manning lifeboats, and the difficulty he anticipated in getting away a greater number than 16 in any emergency, he "did not consider it necessary to increase [our scale]".[21]
.Carlisle told the official inquiry that he had discussed the matter with J. Bruce Ismay, White Star's Managing Director, but in his evidence Ismay denied that he had ever heard of this, nor did he recollect noticing such provision in the plans of the ship he had inspected.^ The ship was owned by White Star Line.
  • Titanic discussion. | Titanic Exhibition Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vystava-titanic.cz [Source type: General]

^ Carlisle told the official inquiry that he had discussed the matter with J. Bruce Ismay , White Star's Managing Director, but in his evidence Ismay denied that he had ever heard of this, nor did he recollect noticing such provision in the plans of the ship he had inspected.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also travelling in first class were White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay and ship's designer Thomas Andrews.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][22] .Ten days before the maiden voyage Axel Welin, the maker of Titanic's lifeboat davits, had announced that his machinery had been installed because the vessel's owners were aware of forthcoming changes in official regulations, but Harold Sanderson, vice-president of the International Mercantile Marine and former general manager of the White Star Line, denied that this had been the intention.^ Ten days before the maiden voyage Axel Welin , the maker of Titanic ' s lifeboat davits, had announced that his machinery had been installed because the vessel's owners were aware of forthcoming changes in official regulations, but Harold Sanderson, vice-president of the International Mercantile Marine and former general manager of the White Star Line, denied that this had been the intention.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ship was owned by White Star Line.
  • Titanic discussion. | Titanic Exhibition Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vystava-titanic.cz [Source type: General]

^ Harold Sanderson, Vice President of International Mercantile Marine refuted this allegation during the British Inquiry.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Pumps

.Titanic was fitted with five ballast and bilge pumps, used for trimming the vessel, and three bilge pumps.^ Titanic was fitted with five ballast and bilge pumps, used for trimming the vessel, and three bilge pumps.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic had three elevators for the use of first-class passengers and, as an innovation, offered one lift for second-class passengers.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why would a vessel within five miles of the foundering Titanic shut off her lights and steam away?

[24] .Two 10-inch main ballast pipes ran the length of the ship and valves controlling the distribution of water were operated from the bulkhead deck, above.^ Two 10-inch main ballast pipes ran the length of the ship and valves controlling the distribution of water were operated from the bulkhead deck, above.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comments 10/03/08 Andrew L. Urban Urban Cinefile Now it can be told: The Titanic went down because of two distracting smoochers on the poop deck.
  • Titanic Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over twenty-two tons of tallow and soap was spread one inch thick on the ways to better help the ship slide easily into the water during the launching the Titanic reached a speed of twelve knots during the launch, stopping in about her own length dragging chains to slow her down.

[25] .The total discharge capacity from all eight pumps operating together was 1700 tons or 425000 gallons per hour.^ The total discharge capacity from all eight pumps operating together was 1700 tons or 425000 gallons per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore lifeboat davits capable of handling up to six boats per pair of davits were designed and installed, to give a total potential capacity of 65 boats.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore lifeboat davits capable of handling up to four boats per pair of davits were designed and installed, to give a total potential capacity of 64 boats [ 98 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Comparisons with the Olympic

.The Titanic closely resembled her older sister Olympic.^ The Titanic closely resembled her older sister Olympic but there were a few differences.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic closely resembled her older sister Olympic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic was the middle sister weighing in at 46,328 gross tons, only slightly larger than the Olympic at 45,323 gross tons.

.Although she enclosed more space and therefore had a larger gross register tonnage, the hull was almost the same length as the Olympic's.^ Although she enclosed more space and therefore had a larger gross tonnage, her hull was exactly the same length as her elder sister Olympic.
  • RMS Titanic - .ceneus.notes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC notes.ceneus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although she enclosed more space and therefore had a larger gross register tonnage, the hull was almost the same length as the Olympic ' s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic was the middle sister weighing in at 46,328 gross tons, only slightly larger than the Olympic at 45,323 gross tons.

.Two of the most noticeable differences were that half of the Titanics's forward promenade A-Deck (below the boat deck) was enclosed against outside weather, and her B-Deck configuration was different from the Olympic's.^ Later they moved on to the forward half of the boat deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two of the most noticeable differences were that half of the Titanics ' s forward promenade A-Deck (below the boat deck) was enclosed against outside weather, and her B-Deck configuration was different from the Olympic ' s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later they would move on to the forward half of the boat deck.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As built the Olympic did not have an equivalent of the Titanic's Café Parisien: the feature was not added until 1913. Some of the flaws found on the Olympic, such as the creaking of the aft expansion joint, were corrected on the Titanic.^ Some of the flaws found on the Olympic , such as the creaking of the aft expansion joint, were corrected on the Titanic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the flaws found on Olympic , such as the creaking of the aft expansion joint, were corrected on Titanic .

^ The Titanic had a speciality restaurant called Café Parisien, a feature that the Olympic did not receive until 1913.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The skid lights that provided natural illumination on A-deck were round, while on Olympic they were oval.^ Other differences such as Titanic's skid lights, that provide natural illumination on A-deck, were round while on Olympic they were oval.

^ The skid lights that provided natural illumination on A-deck were round, while on Olympic they were oval.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The skid lights that provided natural illumination on A-deck, were round, while on Olympic they were oval.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic's wheelhouse was made narrower and longer than the Olympic's.^ The Titanic ' s wheelhouse was made narrower and longer than the Olympic ' s.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic's wheelhouse was made narrower and longer than the Olympic's.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wheelhouse on Titanic was modified to be narrower and longer [ 1 ].
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] These, and other modifications, made the Titanic 1,004 gross register tons larger than the Olympic and thus the largest active ship in the world during her maiden voyage in April 1912.

Ship history

Sea trials

.Titanic's sea trials took place shortly after she was fitted out at Harland & Wolff shipyard.^ The Titanic under construction at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Ireland.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland.
  • Trick Engineering Question: Everyone Knows that an Iceberg Sank the Titanic, Right? : Industry Market Trends 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly after being fitted out, Titanic's sea trials took place, where the crew tested out the ship to determine whether or not she was ready for sea.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.The trials were originally scheduled for 10.00am on Monday, 1 April, just 9 days before she was due to leave Southampton on her maiden voyage, but poor weather conditions forced the trials to be postponed until the following day.^ The trials were originally scheduled for 10.00am on Monday, 1 April, just 9 days before she was due to leave Southampton on her maiden voyage, but poor weather conditions forced the trials to be postponed until the following day.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic began its maiden voyage to New York just before noon on April 10, 1912, from Southampton, England.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic sailed from Southampton at noon on April 10, 1912, picked up more passengers at Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown, Ireland, and steamed west the following day.
  • The Memphis Flyer: Cover Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.memphisflyer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aboard Titanic were 78 stokers, greasers and firemen, and 41 members of crew.^ Aboard Titanic were 78 stokers, greasers and firemen, and 41 members of crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the more than 2,200 passengers and crew aboard the Titanic , just over 700 survived, including 316 of the 425 women and 56 of 109 children.
  • titanic – Neatorama 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ Replica of the caps worn by crew members aboard White Star Ships.

.No domestic staff appear to have been aboard.^ No domestic staff appear to have been aboard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Representatives of various companies travelled on Titanic's sea trials, including Harold A. Sanderson of I.M.M and Thomas Andrews and Edward Wilding of Harland and Wolff.^ There was also no rest for Thomas Andrews and the 9-member guarantee group' from Harland and Wolff's yards who continued to assist Titanic's engineering staff with all of the infra structural systems needing attention.
  • Phil Ottewell's Titanic Pages, Earl Chapman's Titanic Chronology 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC titanic.pottsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Pictured examples include two ships then under construction in the Harland and Wolff Shipyard: the Olympic and the Titanic.
  • r.m.s. titanic reading room: bibliography & bookstore 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www2.lv.psu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Want to buy a model built from the original Titanic plans from Harland & Wolff?
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Bruce Ismay and Lord Pirrie were too ill to attend.^ Bruce Ismay and Lord Pirrie were too ill to attend.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord Pirrie and J. Bruce Ismay came up with the idea to make the ship.
  • Titanic discussion. | Titanic Exhibition Blog 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.vystava-titanic.cz [Source type: General]

^ Who: Lord Pirrie, chairman of the Harland & Wolff shipbuilders and J. Bruce Ismay, director of the White Star Line c.
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

.Jack Phillips and Harold Bride served as radio operators, and performed fine-tuning of the Marconi equipment.^ Operator is probably Harold Bride.
  • THE TITANIC RADIO PAGE 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.hf.ro [Source type: General]

^ Jack Phillips and Harold Bride served as radio operators, and performed fine-tuning of the Marconi equipment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That Sunday at 13:45, [a] a message from the steamer Amerika warned that large icebergs lay in the Titanic ' s path, but as Jack Phillips and Harold Bride , the Marconi wireless radio operators, were employed by Marconi [ 32 ] and paid to relay messages to and from the passengers, [ 33 ] they were not focused on relaying such "non-essential" ice messages to the bridge .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mr Carruthers, a surveyor from the Board of Trade, was also present to see that everything worked, and that the ship was fit to carry passengers.^ Mr Carruthers, a surveyor from the Board of Trade, was also present to see that everything worked, and that the ship was fit to carry passengers.
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^ Thus, the Titanic was only legally required to carry enough lifeboats for 962 occupants (the ship had room for 3,547 passengers).
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was anticipated during the design of the ship that the British Board of Trade might require an increase in the number of lifeboats at some future date.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the trial, he signed an 'Agreement and Account of Voyages and Crew', valid for twelve months, which deemed the ship sea-worthy.^ After the trial, he signed an 'Agreement and Account of Voyages and Crew', valid for twelve months, which deemed the ship sea-worthy.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Lord, in the four decades following the sinking there was no worldwide general interest in the ship and no historical accounts of the voyage.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shipping and the change required in seamanship due to the size of the ships had passed him by, and he had only sailed Titanic during her sea trials.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[27]

Maiden voyage

.
Titanic on her way after the near-collision with the SS New York.
^ Titanic on her way after the near-collision with the SS New York .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Near collision between the Titanic and the New York ii.
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

^ Photographs documenting the damage to the Olympic (left) and the Hawke (right) following their collision The Olympic arriving in Manhattan, New York City after her 1911 maiden voyage.

On the left can be seen the Oceanic and the New York.
.The vessel began her maiden voyage from Southampton, England, bound for New York City, New York on 10 April 1912, with Captain Edward J. Smith in command.^ The Titanic left Southampton on its maiden voyage on Wednesday, April 10, 1912 at 12 noon.

^ Under the command of Captain E.J.Smith (who was later to command the Titanic) she sailed on June 14th 1911 on her Maiden voyage to New York.

^ April 10 , 1912 .
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  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Titanic left her berth, her wake caused the liner SS New York, which was docked nearby, to break away from her moorings, whereupon she was drawn dangerously close (about four feet) to the Titanic before a tugboat towed the New York away.^ On the left can be seen the Oceanic and the New York .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York Herald front page about the Titanic disaster.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Titanic left her berth, her wake caused the liner New York , which was docked nearby, to break away from her moorings, whereupon she was drawn dangerously close (about four feet) to the Titanic before a tugboat towed the New York away.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .The incident delayed departure for about half-an-hour.^ The incident delayed departure for one hour [ citation needed ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cape Race says to Virginian "we have not heard Titanic for about half an hour.
  • THE TITANIC RADIO PAGE 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.hf.ro [Source type: General]
  • The Jack Phillips Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.gdrs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 1912 Cape Race says to 'Virginian', "We have not heard Titanic for about half an hour.
  • Is This The Most Famous Radio Transmission Ever Made 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: General]

[29] .After crossing the English Channel, the Titanic stopped at Cherbourg, France, to board additional passengers and stopped again the next day at Queenstown (known today as Cobh), Ireland.^ Were there any black passengers on board the Titanic?
  • Titanic Movie vs. Titanic History - Pictures, Survivors, Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.chasingthefrog.com [Source type: General]

^ During Titanic 's maiden voyage (from Southampton, England ; to Cherbourg , France; Queenstown (Cobh) , Ireland; then New York ), she struck an iceberg at 11:40 PM (ship's time) on Sunday evening April 14 , 1912 , broke into two pieces, and sank two hours and forty minutes later at 2:20 AM Monday morning.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic left Southampton dock midday on Wednesday, April 10, 1912, stopping at Cherbourg, France, where the "unsinkable" Molly Brown and John Jacob Astor, the wealthiest of Titanic's prestigious passengers, boarded and, finally, made her last stop at Queenstown on the south coast of Ireland.
  • Titanic - About The Production 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filmscouts.com [Source type: General]

.As harbour facilities at Queenstown were inadequate for a ship of her size, Titanic had to anchor off-shore, with small boats, known as tenders, ferrying the embarking passengers out to her.^ The photo to the left is the last known photo of Titanic as she was anchored off Queenstown ( now Cobh).
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Titanic tells Olympic, "We are putting passengers off in small boats."
  • The Jack Phillips Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.gdrs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cherbourg passengers finally board tenders and wait to be ferried out to Titanic.
  • Phil Ottewell's Titanic Pages, Earl Chapman's Titanic Chronology 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC titanic.pottsoft.com [Source type: General]

.When she finally set out for New York, there were 2,240 people aboard.^ His residence in New York was to be the Hotel Astor and he was to return to England aboard the 'Cedric' , also a White Star liner, on May 16th, 1912.
  • TITANIC - A Voyage of Discovery (discover) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.euronet.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a memorial park to some of the survivors on Broadway and 107th in New York.
  • Titanic@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ And WSL repainted the lifeboats with the name of the new ship they were put on so there is no way to know the final disposition of the lifeboats.

[30]
Captain Edward J. Smith, master of the Titanic
.John Coffey, a 23-year-old crewmember, jumped ship by stowing away on a tender and hid amongst mailbags headed for Queenstown.^ The ship is almost 100 years old!!!!
  • Titanic Being Recycled, Turned Into Watches » GroovyGreen.com – Start Today :: Save Tomorrow 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.groovygreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In charge was 25 year old John George Phillips - better known as "Jack" or "Sparks", with 22 year old Harold Bride as the Deputy or Assistant Radio Operator.
  • Is This The Most Famous Radio Transmission Ever Made 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: General]

^ After the half-hour service, the 23- year-old actress, in a white Edwardian-style gown, posed briefly for photographs with her 25-year-old husband.
  • Titanic Pictures, News and Links 19 September 2009 20:59 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

.Coffey stated that the reason for smuggling himself off the liner was that he held a superstition about sailing and specifically about travelling on the Titanic.^ Based on this reasoning, the federal courts have determined that it is appropriate for RMST to ask a federal court in the United States to award it salvor-in-possession status over the Titanic.

^ And don't forget about the tuba smuggled onto the Titanic, disguised and taking up a passenger space.
  • Making Light: Why RMS Titanic Didn't Have Enough Lifeboats 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC nielsenhayden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic sank in Canadian waters, about 400 miles off the coast of Newfoundland.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.He later signed on to join the crew of the Mauretania.^ He later signed on to join the crew of the Mauretania .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.On the maiden voyage of the Titanic some of the most prominent people of the day were travelling in first-class.^ Traveled on Titanic for maiden voyage.

^ Some of the most prominent people in the world were travelling in first class.
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^ The first-class passengers for Titanic's maiden voyage included some of the richest and most prominent people in the world.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among them were millionaire John Jacob Astor IV and his wife Madeleine Force Astor, industrialist Benjamin Guggenheim, Macy's owner Isidor Straus and his wife Ida, Denver millionairess Margaret "Molly" Brown (known afterwards as the 'Unsinkable Molly Brown' due to her efforts in helping other passengers while the ship sank), Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon and his wife couturière Lucy (Lady Duff-Gordon), George Elkins Widener and his wife Eleanor; cricketer and businessman John Borland Thayer with his wife Marian and their seventeen-year-old son Jack, journalist William Thomas Stead, the Countess of Rothes, United States presidential aide Archibald Butt, author and socialite Helen Churchill Candee, author Jacques Futrelle his wife May and their friends, Broadway producers Henry and Rene Harris and silent film actress Dorothy Gibson among others.^ They included millionaire John Jacob Astor IV and his pregnant wife Madeleine; industrialist Benjamin Guggenheim; Macy's department store owner Isidor Straus and his wife Ida; Denver millionaire Margaret "Molly" Brown; Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon and his wife, couturiere Lady Duff-Gordon; streetcar magnate George Dunton Widener, his wife Eleanor and their 27-year-old son, Harry Elkins Widener; Pennsylvania Railroad executive John Borland Thayer, his wife Marion and their 17-year-old son, Jack; journalist William Thomas Stead; Charles Hays, president of Canada's Grand Trunk Railway, with his wife, daughter, her husband, and two employees; the Countess of Rothes; United States presidential aide Major Archibald Butt; author and socialite Helen Churchill Candee; author Jacques Futrelle, and their friends, Broadway producers Henry and Rene Harris; writer and painter Francis Davis Millet; pioneer aviation entrepreneur Pierre Maréchal Sr.; American silent film actress Dorothy Gibson, White Star Line's Managing Director J. Bruce Ismay (who survived the sinking) and, from the ship's builders, Thomas Andrews, who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ship is almost 100 years old!!!!
  • Titanic Being Recycled, Turned Into Watches » GroovyGreen.com – Start Today :: Save Tomorrow 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.groovygreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the movie Titanic , we get a glimpse of the friendship between Margaret Brown and John Jacob Astor.
  • Titanic Movie vs. Titanic History - Pictures, Survivors, Facts 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.chasingthefrog.com [Source type: General]

[32] .J.P. Morgan was scheduled to travel on the maiden voyage, but cancelled at the last minute.^ J.P. Morgan was scheduled to travel on the maiden voyage, but cancelled at the last minute.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic and Halifax Halifax is where the maiden voyage of Titanic really ended, with the most lasting legacy from the sinking located here...

^ He was supposed to join her for her maiden voyage but canceled his passage, sparing him the fate of many of the other millionaires.

[33]. .Travelling in first–class aboard the ship were White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay and the ship's builder Thomas Andrews, who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.^ Travelling in first–class aboard the ship were White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay and the ship's builder Thomas Andrews , who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also travelling in first class were White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay , who survived, and the ship's builder Thomas Andrews , who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.
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  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also in first class were White Star Line's Managing Director J. Bruce Ismay (who survived the sinking) and, from the ship's builders, Thomas Andrews, who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.

[32]

Sinking

Route and location of the RMS Titanic.
.On the night of Sunday, 14 April 1912, the temperature had dropped to near freezing and the ocean was calm.^ On the night of Sunday, April 14, the temperature had dropped to near freezing and the ocean was completely calm.

^ LIZZY April 14, 1912.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 14 , 1912 .
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.The moon was not visible (being two days before new moon),[34] and the sky was clear.^ The moon was not visible and the sky was clear.
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^ There was no moon and the sky was clear.

^ Each day before resurfacing they look over the debris field looking for new artifacts.
  • TITANIC - A Voyage of Discovery (discover) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.euronet.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Captain Smith, in response to iceberg warnings received via wireless over the preceding few days, had drawn up a new course which took the ship slightly further southward.^ Captain Edward Smith , perhaps in response to iceberg warnings received via wireless over the last few days, had altered Titanic 's course around 10 miles (18 km) south of the normal shipping route.
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^ Captain Smith, in response to iceberg warnings received via wireless over the preceding few days, altered the Titanic ' s course slightly to the south.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Edward Smith, perhaps in response to iceberg warnings received by wireless over the previous few days, had altered Titanic 's course around 10 miles (18 km) south of the normal shipping route.

.That Sunday at 13:45,[a] a message from the steamer Amerika warned that large icebergs lay in the Titanic's path, but as Jack Phillips and Harold Bride, the Marconi wireless radio operators, were employed by Marconi[35] and paid to relay messages to and from the passengers,[36] they were not focused on relaying such "non-essential" ice messages to the bridge.^ Titanic carried 2 Radio Officers (or, as they were known in those days, Marconi wireless operators or telegraphists ).
  • THE TITANIC RADIO PAGE 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.hf.ro [Source type: General]

^ Later that evening at 9:30pm, another report of numerous, large icebergs in Titanic 's path was received by Jack Phillips and Harold Bride in the radio room, this time from the Mesaba , but this report also did not reach the bridge.

^ Wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending out distress signals.

[37] .Later that evening, another report of numerous large icebergs, this time from the Mesaba, also failed to reach the bridge.^ Later that evening, another report of numerous, large icebergs in Titanic 's path, this time from the Mesaba , also failed to reach the bridge.
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^ Californian reports 3 large icebergs.
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

^ Later that evening at 9:30pm, another report of numerous, large icebergs in Titanic 's path was received by Jack Phillips and Harold Bride in the radio room, this time from the Mesaba , but this report also did not reach the bridge.

.At 23:40, while sailing about 400 miles south of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, lookouts Fredrick Fleet and Reginald Lee spotted a large iceberg directly ahead of the ship.^ Lookouts spot the iceberg 1/4 mile ahead.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grand Banks of Newfoundland, lookouts Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee spotted a large iceberg directly ahead of the ship.

^ FLEET Iceberg right ahead!
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fleet sounded the ship's bell three times and telephoned the bridge exclaiming, "Iceberg, right ahead!". First Officer Murdoch gave the order "hard-a-starboard", using the traditional tiller order for an abrupt turn to port (left), and adjusted the engines (he either ordered through the telegraph for "full reverse" or "stop" on the engines; survivor testimony on this conflicts).^ This is followed by "Full Astern".: Quartermaster Robert Hitchins is urgently ordered to turn the ship "Hard-a-starboard."
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ First Officer Murdoch gave the order "hard-a-starboard", using the traditional tiller order for an abrupt turn to port (left), and adjusted the engines (he either ordered through the telegraph for "full reverse" or "stop" on the engines, survivor testimony on this conflicts [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] ).
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^ When Murdoch gave the order to reverse engines to avoid the iceberg, he inadvertently handicapped the turning ability of the ship.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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[38][39][40] .The iceberg brushed the ship's starboard side (right side), buckling the hull in several places and popping out rivets below the waterline over a length of 299 feet (90 m).^ The ship's starboard (right) side brushed the iceberg, buckling the hull in several places and popping out rivets below the waterline, creating a total of six leaks in the first five watertight compartments.

^ The iceberg brushed the ship's starboard side (right side), buckling the hull in several places and popping out rivets below the waterline over a length of 299 feet (90 m).
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^ A collision turned out to be inevitable, and the ship's starboard (right) side brushed the iceberg, buckling the hull in several places and popping out rivet s below the waterline, creating a total of six leaks in the first five watertight compartments.
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.As seawater filled the forward compartments, the watertight doors shut.^ As seawater filled the forward compartments, the watertight doors shut.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Watertight compartments are filling; water begins to spill over the tops of the transverse bulkheads.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weight of the compartments filling with water weighed the ship down past the top of the watertight bulkheads, allowing water to flow into the other compartments.
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.However, while the ship could stay afloat with four flooded compartments, five were filling with water.^ The water has flooded the bottom five steps.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The watertight doors were shut as water started filling the five compartments - one more than Titanic could stay afloat with.

^ She can stay afloat with the first four compartments breached.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The five water-filled compartments weighed down the ship so that the tops of the forward watertight bulkheads fell below the ship's waterline, allowing water to pour into additional compartments.^ He climbs down into the water next to her.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Back) bulkheads: the upright partitions dividing a ship into compartments.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Watertight compartments are filling; water begins to spill over the tops of the transverse bulkheads.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Captain Smith, alerted by the jolt of the impact, arrived on the bridge and ordered a full stop.^ Captain Smith, alerted by the jolt of the impact, arrived on the bridge and ordered a full stop.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Smith, alerted by the jolt of the impact, arrived on the bridge and began to assess Titanic 's situation.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Smith, alerted by the jolt of the impact, ordered "all-stop" once he arrived on the bridge.

.Shortly after midnight on 15 April, following an inspection by the ship's officers and Thomas Andrews, the lifeboats were ordered to be readied and a distress call was sent out.^ Shortly after midnight on 15 April, following an inspection by the ship's officers and Thomas Andrews, the lifeboats were ordered to be readied and a distress call was sent out.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Andrews, the ship’s builder, arrives c.
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

^ Following an inspection by the ship's officers and Thomas Andrews, it was apparent that the Titanic would sink, and shortly after midnight on April 15 , lifeboat s were ordered to be readied and a distress signal sent out.
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Photograph of an iceberg in the vicinity of the RMS Titanic's sinking taken on 15 April 1912 by the chief steward of the liner Prinz Adelbert who stated the berg had red anti-fouling paint of the kind found on the hull from below Titanic's waterline.
.Wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending out CQD, the international distress signal.^ Wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending out CQD , the international distress signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending out distress signals .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending out distress signals.

.Several ships responded, including Mount Temple, Frankfurt and Titanic's sister ship, Olympic, but none was close enough to make it in time.^ Several ships responded, including Mount Temple , Frankfurt and Titanic ' s sister ship, Olympic , but none was close enough to make it in time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 1912 'Mount Temple' hears 'Frankfurt' calling Titanic .
  • Is This The Most Famous Radio Transmission Ever Made 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.qsl.net [Source type: General]

^ Mount Temple hears Frankfurt calling Titanic.
  • The Jack Phillips Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.gdrs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .The closest ship to respond was Cunard Line's Carpathia 58 miles (93 km) away, which could arrive in an estimated four hours—too late to rescue all of Titanic's passengers.^ The closest ship to respond was Cunard Line 's RMS Carpathia , and at 58 nautical miles (107 km) away it would arrive in about four hours, still too late to get to Titanic in time.
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  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: Titanic was not a Cunard ship.

^ The Carpathia (Closest at 58 miles (93km) .
  • Titanic Facts - Titanicgifts.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanicgifts.com [Source type: General]

.The only land–based location that received the distress call from Titanic was a wireless station at Cape Race, Newfoundland.^ The only land–based location that received the distress call from Titanic was a wireless station at Cape Race , Newfoundland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two land–based locations received the distress call from Titanic .

^ Two land"based locations received the distress call from Titanic .
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41][42]
.From the bridge, the lights of a nearby ship could be seen off the port side.^ From the bridge, the lights of a ship could be seen off the starboard side approximately 10-15 miles away.

^ From the bridge, the lights of a nearby ship could be seen off the port side.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 02:15, Lord was notified that the ship could no longer be seen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The identity of this ship remains a mystery but there have been theories suggesting that it was probably either the Californian or a sealer called the Sampson.^ The identity of this ship remains a mystery but there have been theories suggesting that it was probably either the Californian or a sealer called the Sampson .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mystery Ship If there was indeed a "mystery" ship, what could it be?

^ It is simply one of many liners from the period- the plans are still available, more is probably known about her than any ship of the period and there is no great mystery about how she went down.
  • How Long Before the RMS TITANIC is just a pile of rust? - Straight Dope Message Board 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .As it was not responding to wireless, Fourth Officer Boxhall and Quartermaster Rowe attempted signalling the ship with a Morse lamp and later with distress rockets, but the ship never appeared to respond.^ Since it was not responding to wireless, Fourth Officer Boxhall and Quartermaster Rowe attempted signalling the ship with a Morse lamp and later with distress rockets , but the ship never appeared to respond.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As it was not responding to wireless, Fourth Officer Boxhall and Quartermaster Rowe attempted signalling the ship with a Morse lamp and later with distress rockets, but the ship never appeared to respond.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it was not responding to wireless, nor to the distress rockets being launched every 15 minutes or so, Fourth Officer Boxhall and Quartermaster Rowe attempted signaling the ship with a Morse lamp, but the ship never appeared to respond.

[44] .The Californian, which was nearby and stopped for the night because of ice, also saw lights in the distance.^ The Californian , which was nearby and stopped for the night because of ice, also saw lights in the distance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Californian warned the ship by radio of pack ice, and that Californian had stopped for the night.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To this day, there is considerable controversy as to whether the Californian’s deck officers were negligent in not making a more aggressive investigation into rockets and lights seen in the distance.

.The Californian's wireless was turned off, and the wireless operator had gone to bed for the night.^ Although fitted with wireless, the Californian’s operator had turned in for the night and missed the distress call.

^ The SS Californian was nearby but had stopped for the night because of ice, and its wireless was turned off because the wireless operator had gone to bed for the night .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Californian ' s wireless was turned off, and the wireless operator had gone to bed for the night.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just before he went to bed at around 23:00 the Californian's radio operator attempted to warn the Titanic that there was ice ahead, but he was cut off by an exhausted Jack Phillips, who had fired back an angry response, "Shut up, shut up, I am busy; I am working Cape Race", referring to the Newfoundland wireless station.^ Seriously, this has just got me so worked up.
  • Titanic Being Recycled, Turned Into Watches » GroovyGreen.com – Start Today :: Save Tomorrow 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.groovygreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jack, Rose : Shut up!

^ On the back, there is a profile of a Titanic passenger.
  • WET & HOT NEWS ! : Shipwrecks and Lost Treasures of the Seven Seas 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.oceantreasures.org [Source type: News]

[45] .When the Californian's officers first saw the ship, they tried signalling her with their Morse lamp, but also never appeared to receive a response.^ When Californian 's officers first saw the ship, they tried signalling it with their Morse lamp, but also never appeared to receive a response.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The surviving officers of the Titanic claimed that they had never seen the signal.
  • THE TITANIC RADIO PAGE 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.hf.ro [Source type: General]

^ When the Californian ' s officers first saw the ship, they tried signalling her with their Morse lamp, but also never appeared to receive a response.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later, they noticed the Titanic's distress signals over the lights and informed Captain Stanley Lord.^ Lord asked again if the lights had had any colors in them, and he was informed that they were all white.

^ Lord asked again if the lights had had any colours in them, and he was informed that they were all white.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, they noticed the Titanic ' s distress signals over the lights and informed Captain Stanley Lord .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though there was much discussion about the mysterious ship, which to the officers on duty appeared to be moving away, the master of the Californian did not wake her wireless operator until morning.^ Even though there was much discussion about the mysterious ship, which the officers on duty thought to be moving away before disappearing, the crew of Californian did not wake its wireless operator until morning.

^ Even though there was much discussion about the mysterious ship, which to the officers on duty appeared to be moving away before disappearing, Californian did not wake its wireless operator until morning.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though there was much discussion about the mysterious ship, which to the officers on duty appeared to be moving away, the master of the Californian did not wake her wireless operator until morning.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Lifeboats launched

Sinking of the Titanic by Henry Reuterdahl, drawn based on radio descriptions.
.The first lifeboat launched was Lifeboat 7 on the starboard side with 28 people on board out of a capacity of 65. It was lowered at around 00:40 as believed by the British Inquiry.^ The British Inquiry questioned why it It took 1 hour after impact to launch the first lifeboat.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The first lifeboat launched, boat 7, was lowered shortly after 12:45 a.m.

^ The first lifeboat launched was Lifeboat 7 on the starboard side with 28 people on board out of a capacity of 65.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47] Lifeboat 6 and Lifeboat 5 were launched ten minutes later. .Lifeboat 1 was the fifth lifeboat to be launched with 12 people.^ Lifeboat 1 was the fifth lifeboat to be launched with 12 people.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thirty-four people died when one of the ship's lifeboats was launched before the ship had come to a total stop and the boat was sucked into a still revolving propeller.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only two of the 18 launched lifeboats rescued people after the ship sank.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lifeboat 11 was overloaded with 70 people.^ Lifeboat 11 was overloaded with 70 people.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Collapsible D was the last lifeboat to be launched.^ Collapsible D was the last lifeboat to be launched.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last two lifeboats floated right off the deck as the ocean reached them: collapsible lifeboat B upside down, and collapsible lifeboat A half-filled with water.

^ Bride climbs to the roof of the officer's quarters and assists with launching collapsible lifeboat B - Phillips disappears aft.
  • THE TITANIC RADIO PAGE 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.hf.ro [Source type: General]
  • The Jack Phillips Story 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.gdrs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic carried 20 lifeboats with a total capacity of 1,178 people.^ If the lifeboats had been filled to capacity, 1,178 people could have been saved.

^ The Titanic carried 20 lifeboats with a total capacity of 1,178 persons for the ship's total complement of passengers and crew of 2,223.

^ If the lifeboats were filled to capacity 1,178 people could have been saved.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While not enough to hold all of the passengers and crew, the Titanic carried more boats than was required by the British Board of Trade Regulations.^ While only enough space for a little more than half the passengers and crew, Titanic carried more boats than required by the British Board of Trade .
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic did not carry sufficient lifeboats for all of her passengers and crew.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With only enough space for a little more than half the passengers and crew, Titanic carried more boats than required by the British Board of Trade.

.At the time, the number of lifeboats required was determined by a ship's gross register tonnage, rather than her human capacity.^ The number of compartments is also determined by the size of the ship.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, the number of lifeboats required was determined by a ship's gross tonnage, rather than its human capacity.

^ At the time, the number of lifeboats required was determined by a ship's gross register tonnage, rather than her human capacity.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Titanic was given ample stability and sank with only a few degrees list, the design being such that there was very little risk of unequal flooding and possible capsize.
^ Very few people can say they have gone there.” After they arrived on the wreck site, it took some time to get to their ultimate destination.
  • WET & HOT NEWS ! : Shipwrecks and Lost Treasures of the Seven Seas 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.oceantreasures.org [Source type: News]

^ The lake was only filled with water in 1918 when a power company built a dam on the Chippewa River, six years after the Titanic sank.
  • Titanic movie mistakes, goofs and bloopers 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.moviemistakes.com [Source type: General]

^ Only 12 survivors were recovered from the water; As the ship sank into the depths, the two sections ended their final plunges very differently.

[11] .Furthermore the electric power plant was operated by the ship's engineers until the end.^ She had an extensive electrical subsystem with steam-powered generators and ship-wide electrical wiring feeding electric lights.
  • Buy Titanic 20 Model Ship Assembled - RMS Titanic Models Replica - Cruise Ships Models 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.handcraftedmodelships.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of particular note, the entire complement of the Engineering Department, remaining at their posts to keep the ship's electrical systems running, drowned.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hence Titanic showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and passengers were reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship to board small lifeboats.^ At first, passengers were reluctant to leave the ostensibly safe Titanic , which showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and board small lifeboats.
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  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first, passengers were reluctant to leave the warm, well lit and ostensibly safe Titanic , which showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and board small, unlit, open lifeboats.

^ The Titanic showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and passengers were reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship to board small lifeboats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, most of the boats were launched partially empty; one boat meant to hold 40 people left the Titanic with only 12 people on board.^ As a result, most of the boats were launched partially empty.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I saw one boat with only twelve.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most notable being Lifeboat #1 with a capacity of 40, launched at 00:40 with only 12 people aboard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With "Women and children first" the imperative for loading lifeboats, Second Officer Lightoller, who was loading boats on the port side, allowed men to board only if oarsmen were needed, even if there was room.^ "Women and children first" remained the imperative (see origin of phrase) for loading the boats.

^ Officer Lightoller remained adamant: women and children only.
  • http://www.yourdiscovery.com/titanic/tragedy/sinking/index.shtml 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.yourdiscovery.com [Source type: News]

^ They told me of the navigation laws restricting men from the boats when women and children were on board.

.First Officer Murdoch, who was loading boats on the starboard side, let men on board if women were absent.^ FIRST OFFICER MURDOCH Lower away!
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the port side, Second Officer Lightoller supervised the boarding of the lifeboats; on the starboard side it was First Officer Murdoch.
  • http://www.yourdiscovery.com/titanic/tragedy/sinking/index.shtml 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.yourdiscovery.com [Source type: News]

^ First Officer Murdoch, who was loading boats on the starboard side, let men on board if women were absent.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the ship's list increased people started to become nervous, and some lifeboats began leaving fully loaded.^ As the ship's tilt became more apparent, people started to become nervous, and some lifeboats began leaving fully loaded with "Women and children first" the imperative (see origin of phrase ) for loading lifeboats.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lifeboats now begin to leave fully loaded.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ As the ship's list increased people started to become nervous, and some lifeboats began leaving fully loaded.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 02:05, the entire bow was under water, and all the lifeboats, save for two, had been launched.^ The last two lifeboats floated right off the deck as the ocean reached them: collapsible lifeboat B upside down, and collapsible lifeboat A half-filled with water.

^ Captain Smith ordered the lifeboats be lowered half empty in the hope the boats would come back to save people in the water, and some boats were given orders to do just that.

^ As the ship pitched forward under the weight of the water in the bow compartments, water began to spill over the tops of the bulkheads into adjacent, undamaged compartments.
  • Causes and Effects of the Rapid Sinking of the Titanic 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.eng.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Final minutes

.Around 02:10, the stern rose out of the water exposing the propellers, and by 02:17 the waterline had reached the boat deck.^ AM - Stern rises out of water .

^ Around 02:10, the stern rose out of the water exposing the propellers , and by 02:17 the waterline had reached the boat deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM - Waterline reaches forward boat deck .

.The last two lifeboats floated off the deck, collapsible B upside down, collapsible A half-filled with water after the supports for its canvas sides were broken in the fall from the roof of the officers quarters.^ The last two lifeboats floated right off the deck as the ocean reached them: collapsible lifeboat B upside down, and collapsible lifeboat A half-filled with water.

^ During this procedure, collapsible B capsized and subsequently floated off the ship upside down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last two lifeboats floated off the deck, collapsible B upside down, collapsible A half-filled with water after the supports for its canvas sides were broken in the fall from the roof of the officers quarters.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Shortly afterwards, the forward funnel collapsed, crushing part of the bridge and people in the water.^ Shortly afterwards the first funnel fell forward, crushing part of the bridge and many of those struggling in the water.

^ Shortly afterwards the forwardmost funnel collapsed, crushing part of the bridge and many of those struggling in the water.
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  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A funnel collapses, crushing several people.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.On deck, people were scrambling towards the stern or jumping overboard in hopes of reaching a lifeboat.^ On deck, people scrambled towards the stern or jumped overboard in hopes of reaching a lifeboat.

^ On deck, people were scrambling towards the stern or jumping overboard in hopes of reaching a lifeboat.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Period Cutaway Illustration This period illustration shows the water level rising over the watertight bulkheads and spilling backwards, as people flee towards higher decks.
  • Elias P. Kline Memorial Lecture for the 69th Shock and Vibration Symposium, 1998 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.cuug.ab.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ship's stern slowly rose into the air, and everything unsecured crashed towards the water.^ The ship's stern slowly rose into the air, and everything unsecured crashed towards the water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ship's stern slowly rose into the air, and everything not secured crashed towards the bow.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the ship's stern continued to slowly rise into the air, everything not secured crashed towards the bow.

.While the stern rose, the electrical system finally failed and the lights went out.^ While the stern rose, the electrical system finally failed and the lights went out.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lighting on board flickered and finally went out.
  • http://www.yourdiscovery.com/titanic/tragedy/sinking/index.shtml 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.yourdiscovery.com [Source type: News]

^ The electrical system finally failed and the lights, which had until now burned brightly, went out.

.Shortly afterwards, the stress on the hull caused Titanic to break apart between the last two funnels, and the bow went completely under.^ Stress on the hull caused Titanic to break apart into two large pieces, between the third and fourth funnels, and the bow section went completely under.

^ USAToday's report on the hull fragments , between the third and fourth funnels, and the bow section went completely under.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly afterwards, the stress on the hull caused Titanic to break apart between the last two funnels, and the bow went completely under.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stern righted itself slightly and then rose vertically.^ The stern righted itself slightly and then rose vertically.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JACK AND ROSE make it to the stern rail, right at the base of the flagpole.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The stern section briefly righted itself on the water before rising back up vertically.

.After a few moments, at 02:20, this too sank into the ocean.^ After a few moments, the stern section also sank into the ocean.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a few moments, at 02:20, this too sank into the ocean.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic's broken off stern settles back into the water, becoming more level for a few moments.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Only two of the 18 launched lifeboats rescued people after the ship sank.^ Only two of the 18 launched lifeboats rescued people after the ship sank.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lifeboat 1 was the fifth lifeboat to be launched with 12 people.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only was it found in two pieces (there had been eyewitness accounts of the ship breaking in two, with sketches drawn and everything, but the American and British inquiries decided that the ship had sunk intact.
  • How Long Before the RMS TITANIC is just a pile of rust? - Straight Dope Message Board 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lifeboat 4 was close by and picked up five people, two of whom later died.^ The first lifeboat is picked up by the ' Carpathia '.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Lifeboat 4 was close by and picked up five people, two of whom later died.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lifeboat 4 was close by and picked up eight crewmen, two of whom later died.

.Close to an hour later, lifeboat 14 went back and rescued four people, one of whom died afterwards.^ Lifeboat 4 was close by and picked up five people, two of whom later died.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close to an hour later, Lifeboat 14, under the command of Fifth Officer Harold Lowe , went back and rescued four people, one of whom died afterwards.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Close to an hour later, lifeboat 14 went back and rescued four people, one of whom died afterwards.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other people managed to climb onto the lifeboats that floated off the deck.^ Other people managed to climb onto the two collapsible lifeboats that floated off the deck.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other people managed to climb onto the lifeboats that floated off the deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last two lifeboats floated right off the deck as the ocean reached them: collapsible lifeboat B upside down, and collapsible lifeboat A half-filled with water.

.There were some arguments in some of the other lifeboats about going back, but many survivors were afraid of being swamped by people trying to climb into the lifeboat or being pulled down by the suction from the sinking Titanic, though it turned out that there had been very little suction.^ He climbs down into the water next to her.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They wrench other people loose and pull them down as well.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Common misconceptions about the sinking of the Titanic .
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the ship fell into the depths, the two sections behaved very differently.^ As the ship sank into the depths, the two sections ended their final plunges very differently.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the ship fell into the depths, the two sections behaved very differently.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After visiting the forward section of the ship, Andrews informed Captain Smith that the damage was fatal and that the ship would probably sink within two hours.
  • Classic Liners and Cruise Ships - RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.cruiseserver.net [Source type: General]

.The streamlined bow planed off approximately 2,000 feet (609 m) below the surface and slowed somewhat, landing relatively gently.^ The streamlined bow planed off approximately 2,000 feet (600 m) below the surface and slowed somewhat, landing relatively gently.

^ The streamlined bow planed off approximately 2,000 feet (609 m) below the surface and slowed somewhat, landing relatively gently.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1985, the wreck of the Titanic was discovered at the bottom of the North Atlantic in international waters, approximately 400 miles off the coast of Newfoundland in 12,500 feet of water.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.The stern plunged violently to the ocean floor, the hull being torn apart along the way from massive implosions caused by compression of the air still trapped inside.^ The stern fell fairly straight down towards the ocean floor, possibly rotating as it sank, with the air trapped inside causing implosions.

^ The stern plunged violently to the ocean floor, the hull being torn apart along the way from massive implosions caused by compression of the air still trapped inside.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collision with the ocean floor forced water out of Titanic through the hull below the well deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stern smashed into the bottom at considerable speed, grinding the hull deep into the silt.^ The stern smashed into the bottom at considerable speed, grinding the hull deep into the silt.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KABOOM! The bow impacts, digging deeply into the bottom, the animation now follows the stern.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.After steaming at 17.5 knots for just under four hours, the RMS Carpathia arrived in the area and at 04:10 began rescuing survivors.^ After steaming at 17.5 knots for just under four hours, the RMS Carpathia arrived in the area and at 04:10 began rescuing survivors.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the next hours, the remainder of the survivors were rescued.

^ The closest ship to respond was Cunard Line 's RMS Carpathia , and at 58 nautical miles (107 km) away it would arrive in about four hours, still too late to get to Titanic in time.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 08:30 she picked up the last lifeboat with survivors and left the area at 08:50 bound for New York.^ The ' Carpathia ' leaves the area bound for New York.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ On the left can be seen the Oceanic and the New York .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first lifeboat is picked up by the ' Carpathia '.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[48]

Aftermath

Arrival of Carpathia in New York

Carpathia docked at Pier 54 in New York following the rescue.
.On 18 April, the Carpathia docked at Pier 54 at Little West 12th Street in New York with the survivors.^ The Carpathia docked at Pier 54 at Little 12th Street in New York with the survivors.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Carpathia docked at Pier 54 at Little West 12th Street in New York with the survivors.

^ Carpathia left for New York, arriving on April 18.

.It arrived at night and was greeted by thousands of people.^ It arrived at night and was greeted by thousands of people.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic had been headed for 20th Street.^ The Titanic had been headed for Pier 59 at 20th Street.

^ The Titanic had been headed for 20th Street.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expedition Directory * * * The RMS TITANIC Expedition 2000 "The RMS TITANIC Expedition 2000", scheduled from July 20th through August 30th, 2000, is headed by G. Michael Harris, COO of RMS TITANIC Inc.
  • TITANIC - A Voyage of Discovery (discover) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.euronet.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Carpathia dropped off the empty Titanic lifeboats at Pier 59, as property of the White Star Line, before unloading the survivors at Pier 54. Both piers were part of the Chelsea Piers built to handle luxury liners of the day.^ Both piers were part of the Chelsea Piers built to handle luxury liners of the day.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, Titanic was not christened on launching, as it was White Star Line's custom not to do so.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Carpathia dropped off the empty Titanic lifeboats at Pier 59, as property of the White Star Line, before unloading the survivors at Pier 54.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As news of the disaster spread, many people were shocked that the Titanic could sink with such great loss of life despite all of her technological advances.^ It was a great shock that, despite the advanced technology and experienced crew, Titanic sank with a great loss of life.

^ It was a great shock to many that, despite the extensive safety features, the Titanic sank.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As news of the disaster spread, many people were shocked that the Titanic could sink with such great loss of life despite all of her technological advances.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Newspapers were filled with stories and descriptions of the disaster and were eager to get the latest information.^ Newspapers were filled with stories and descriptions of the disaster and were eager to get the latest information.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic by nsonline: a collection of links, information, Nova Scotian newspaper stories, photos and other interesting facts about one of the world's most compelling marine disasters, and the parts that Nova Scotia played in its aftermath...

.Many charities were set up to help the victims and their families, many of whom lost their sole breadwinner, or, in the case of third class survivors, lost everything they owned.^ Many charities were set up to help the victims and their families, many of whom lost their sole breadwinner, or, in the case of third-class survivors, lost everything they owned.

^ Many charities were set up to help the victims and their families, many of whom lost their sole breadwinner, or, in the case of third class survivors, lost everything they owned.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once victims were returned to Halifax, a temporary morgue was set up in the Mayflower Curling Rink near the northwest corner of Agricola and McCully Streets.

[49] .The people of Southampton were deeply affected by the sinking.^ The people of Southampton were deeply affected by the sinking.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the Hampshire Chronicle on 20 April 1912, almost 1,000 local families were directly affected.^ According to the Hampshire Chronicle on April 20 1912 , almost 1,000 local families were directly affected.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Hampshire Chronicle on 20 April 1912, almost 1,000 local families were directly affected.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Hampshire Chronicle on April 20, 1912, almost 1,000 local families were directly affected.

.Almost every street in the Chapel district of the town lost more than one resident and over 500 households lost a member.^ Almost every street in the Chapel district of the town lost more than one resident and over 500 households lost a member.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fleet was in the last half hour of his watch from the crows nest when he saw a massive iceberg no more than 500 yards away.

^ The most expensive one-way trans-Atlantic passage was US$4,350 (which is more than US$95,860 in 2008 dollars).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Survivors, victims and statistics

Category Number aboard Number of survivors Percentage survived Number lost Percentage lost
First class 329 199 60.5 % 130 39.5 %
Second class 285 119 41.7 % 166 58.3 %
Third class 710 174 24.5 % 536 75.5 %
Crew 899 214 23.8 % 685 76.2 %
Total 2,223 706 31.8 % 1,517 68.2 %
New York Herald front page about the Titanic disaster.
.Of a total of 2,223 people aboard the Titanic only 706 survived the disaster and 1,517 perished.^ Of a total of 2,223 people, only 706 survived; 1,517 perished..

^ Of a total of 2,223 people aboard the Titanic only 706 survived the disaster and 1,517 perished.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of a total of 2,223 people, only 706 survived; 1,517 perished.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .The majority of deaths were caused by hypothermia in the 28 °F (−2 °C) water.^ The majority of deaths were caused by hypothermia in the 28 °F (−2 °C) water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of deaths were caused by victims succumbing to hypothermia in the 28 °F (−2 °C) water.

[52] .At this water temperature, death could be expected in less than 15 minutes.^ At this water temperature, death could be expected in less than 15 minutes [ 49 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet this "ship of dreams" ultimately carried over 1,500 people to their death in the ice-cold waters of the North Atlantic in the early hours of April 15, 1912.
  • Titanic - About The Production 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filmscouts.com [Source type: General]

^ They froze to death within minutes in the Freezing cold waters of the North Atlantic.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[53]
.Men and members of the 2nd and 3rd class were less likely to survive.^ Men and members of the 2nd and 3rd class were less likely to survive.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (According to the report published by Lloyd's, a higher proportion of First-Class men survived than of Third-Class women or children.

^ First-class men were four times as likely to survive as second-class men, and twice as likely to survive as third class men.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the male passengers in second class, 92 percent perished.^ Of male passengers in second class, 92 percent perished.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They all worked for Messers C W and F N Black of Liverpool, England and were ticketed on Titanic as second class passengers.

^ Third Class passengers were use to doing what they were told by their "betters" it was almost second nature, even if it did grate on their collective nerves.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Less than half of third-class passengers survived.^ Less than a quarter of third-class passengers survived.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because there were more Third Class passengers, more should have been saved.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Assuming Third Class passengers were not being withheld from the boat deck, would it be necessary to pass (another word for allow) the women and children?
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.6 of the 7 children in first class survived.^ (Despite this slogan, in reality a higher proportion of First-Class men survived than Third-class women and children., according to the Lloyd's of London report.

^ (According to the report published by Lloyd's, a higher proportion of First-Class men survived than of Third-Class women or children.

^ If you were a first-class male, you stood about a 50/50 chance of surviving.
  • Titanic - About The Production 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filmscouts.com [Source type: General]

.All of the children in second class survived, whereas less than half were saved in third class.^ While the majority of first and second-class women and children survived the sinking, more third-class women and children were lost than saved.

^ Less than a quarter of third-class passengers survived.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All this proves is that more Third Class men were saved than Second Class men...
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.4 first class women died, 86 percent of the women survived in second class and less than half survived in third class.^ Less than a quarter of third-class passengers survived.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First-class men were four times as likely to survive as second-class men, and twice as likely to survive as third class men.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the majority of first and second-class women and children survived the sinking, more third-class women and children were lost than saved.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Overall, only 20 percent of the men survived, compared to nearly 75 percent of the women.^ Overall, only 20 percent of the men survived, compared to nearly 75 percent of the women.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Despite this slogan, in reality a higher proportion of First-Class men survived than Third-class women and children., according to the Lloyd's of London report.

^ (According to the report published by Lloyd's, a higher proportion of First-Class men survived than of Third-Class women or children.

.Men in first class were four times as likely to survive as men in second class, and twice as likely to survive as those in third.^ First-class men were four times as likely to survive as second-class men, and twice as likely to survive as third class men.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men and members of the 2nd and 3rd class were less likely to survive.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third Class passengers were use to doing what they were told by their "betters" it was almost second nature, even if it did grate on their collective nerves.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[54]
.Another disparity is that a greater percentage of British passengers died than American passengers; some sources claim this could be because many Britons of the time were polite and queued, rather than forcing their way onto the lifeboats.^ 'Polite' Britons died on Titanic TITANIC .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Another disparity is that a greater percentage of British passengers died than American passengers; some sources claim this could be because many Britons of the time were polite and queued, rather than to force their way onto the lifeboats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While she carried more than the required number of lifeboats for the time, the regulations in effect in 1912 had not been updated to deal with ships of Titanic's size and as a result, her 20 lifeboats only had space for approximately 1,200 of the 2,600 passengers she was expected to carry.
  • Classic Liners and Cruise Ships - RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.cruiseserver.net [Source type: General]

.The captain, Edward John Smith, shouted out: "Be British, boys, be British!"^ Captain Edward J. Smith , master of the Titanic John Coffey, a 23-year-old crewmember, jumped ship by stowing away on a tender and hid amongst mailbags headed for Queenstown.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Smith asks designer Thomas Andrews and the ship's carpenter John Hall Hutchinson to conduct a visual inspection of the damage.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Captain Edward John Smith enjoyed the respect and love of his crew and passengers alike, and rightly so.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

as the ocean liner went down, according to witnesses.[55][56]
.
  • In one case in the third class, a Swedish man lost his wife, Alma Pålsson, and his four children, all aged under 10. The father was waiting for them to arrive at the destination.^ The father was waiting for them to arrive at the destination.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In one case in the third class, a Swedish family lost the mother, Alma Pålsson, and her four children, all aged under 10.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Assuming Third Class passengers were not being withheld from the boat deck, would it be necessary to pass (another word for allow) the women and children?
    • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ."Paulson's grief was the most acute of any who visited the offices of the White Star, but his loss was the greatest.^ "Paulson's grief was the most acute of any who visited the offices of the White Star, but his loss was the greatest.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Titanic was not the only White Star Line ship to sink with loss of life.
    • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Once the loss of life was verified, White Star Line chartered the ship MacKay-Bennett to retrieve bodies.

    .His whole family had been wiped out."^ His whole family had been wiped out."
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [57]
  • .
  • The sailors aboard the ship CS Mackay-Bennett which recovered bodies from Titanic, who were very upset by the discovery of the unknown boy's body, paid for a monument and he was buried on 4 May 1912 with a copper pendant placed in his coffin by the sailors that read "Our Babe". The unknown child was later positively identified as Sidney Leslie Goodwin.
  • One survivor, stewardess Violet Jessop, who had been on board the RMS Olympic when she collided with HMS Hawke in 1911, went on to survive the sinking of HMHS Britannic in 1916.
  • There are no living survivors of the Titanic disaster.^ The unknown child was later positively identified as Sidney Leslie Goodwin .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Investigations into the RMS Titanic disaster .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There was no mummy on board.
    • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The last living survivor was Millvina Dean, who was only nine weeks old at the time of the sinking.^ Millvina Dean; 95 years old and lives in Southampton, England.
    • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The last living survivor was Millvina Dean , who was only nine weeks old at the time of the sinking.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the time of Lillian Asplund's death, survivors Barbara West Dainton of Truro, England, ten months old at the time of the sinking, and Millvina Dean of Southampton, England, who was two months old, were still living, but were too young to have memories of the catastrophe.

    .She died on 31 May 2009, the 98th anniversary of the launching of the ship's hull.^ She died on 31 May 2009, the 98th anniversary of the launching of the ship's hull.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Olympic was launched on October 20, 1910, and the Titanic on May 31, 1911.
    • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thirty-four people died when one of the ship's lifeboats was launched before the ship had come to a total stop and the boat was sucked into a still revolving propeller.
    • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .She lived in Southampton, England.^ Milvina never married and now lives in Southampton, England.

    ^ Millvina Dean; 95 years old and lives in Southampton, England.
    • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [58]
  • .
  • There are many stories relating to dogs on the Titanic.^ There are many stories relating to dogs on the Titanic .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Anna Bliss Titanic Victims Memorial in Woodlawn Cemetery The memorial to the Titanic ' s engineers in Southampton In many locations there are memorials to the dead of the Titanic .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Give the cigarettes to Max Seidelmann and listen to him relate a story about Willi hiding something in a Titanic smokestack.

    .Apparently, a passenger released the dogs just before the ship went down; they were seen running up and down the decks.^ Apparently, a passenger released the dogs just before the ship went down; they were seen running up and down the decks.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Last seen on Titanic's bridge, went down with his ship.

    ^ "As for the painting, it went down with the ship.

    .At least two dogs survived.^ At least two dogs survived.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [59]

Retrieval and burial of the dead

Marker of the unknown child who was later positively identified as Sidney Leslie Goodwin.
.Once the massive loss of life became clear, White Star Line chartered the cable ship CS Mackay-Bennett from Halifax, Nova Scotia to retrieve bodies.^ Once the massive loss of life became clear, White Star Line chartered the cable ship CS Mackay-Bennett from Halifax, Nova Scotia to retrieve bodies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic was not the only White Star Line ship to sink with loss of life.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mackay-Bennett returned to Halifax with 190 bodies.

.Three other ships followed in the search, the cable ship Minia, the lighthouse supply ship Montmagny and the sealing vessel Algerine.^ Three other ships followed in the search, the cable ship Minia , the lighthouse supply ship Montmagny and the sealing vessel Algerine .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Halifax: City of Sorrow Shortly after the Titanic sank the White Star Line chartered four Canadian vessels; two Halifax-based cable ships, the MacKay-Bennett and the Minia, a Canadian government vessel Montmagny and a St. John's-based Bowring vessel, Algerine.

^ To all Commanders, Masters, Officers, mariners, and other Persons found on board any Ships and Vessels, which may have been, or shall be seized or taken as Prize by any of His Majesty's Ships or Vessels...

.Each ship left with embalming supplies, undertakers, and clergy.^ Each ship left with embalming supplies, undertakers, and clergy.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later ships such as Minia found fewer bodies, requiring fewer embalming supplies, and were able to limit burials at sea to bodies which were too damaged to preserve.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the ship sailed, tons of ice had been placed in the holds, and a hundred wooden coffins and embalming supplies taken on board.

.Of the 333 victims that were eventually recovered, 328 were retrieved by the Canadian ships and five more by passing North Atlantic steamships.^ A total of 328 bodies were eventually recovered.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 333 victims that were eventually recovered, 328 were retrieved by the Canadian ships and five more by passing North Atlantic steamships.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's where we find out if the time, the sweat, the money spent to charter this ship and these subs, to come out here to the middle of the North Atlantic...
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.For some unknown reason, numbers 324 and 325 were unused, and the six passengers buried at sea by the Carpathia also went unnumbered.^ For some unknown reason, numbers 324 and 325 were unused, and the six passengers buried at sea by the Carpathia also went unnumbered.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For November and December 1960 only, sea departure cards are available to view, as well as the regular passenger lists, in some cases.
  • Findmypast UK outbound passenger lists now cover 1890 to 1960 a list 18.4 million passengers 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.findmypast.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result the burials at sea were third class passengers and crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] .In mid-May 1912, over 200 miles (320 km) from the site of the sinking, the Oceanic recovered three bodies, numbers 331, 332 and 333, who were occupants of Collapsible A, which was swamped in the last moments of the sinking.^ In mid-May 1912, over 200 miles (320 km) from the site of the sinking, the Oceanic recovered three bodies, numbers 331, 332 and 333, who were occupants of Collapsible A, which was swamped in the last moments of the sinking.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sailors aboard the ship CS Mackay-Bennett which recovered bodies from Titanic , who were very upset by the discovery of the unknown boy's body, paid for a monument and he was buried on 4 May 1912 with a copper pendant placed in his coffin by the sailors that read "Our Babe".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lillian Gertrud Asplund (21 October 1906 - 6 May 2006), died aged 99 (last survivor who could remember the sinking) .
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several people managed to reach this lifeboat, although some died during the night.^ Several people managed to reach this lifeboat, although some died during the night.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captain Smith ordered the lifeboats be lowered half empty in the hope the boats would come back to save people in the water, and some boats were given orders to do just that.

^ Lifeboat 4 was close by and picked up five people, two of whom later died.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Fifth Officer Harold Lowe rescued the survivors of Collapsible A, he left the three dead bodies in the boat: Thomas Beattie, a first-class passenger, and two crew members, a fireman and a seaman.^ When Fifth Officer Harold Lowe rescued the survivors of Collapsible A, he left the three dead bodies in the boat: Thomas Beattie, a first-class passenger, and two crew members, a fireman and a seaman.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the actual menu for First class passengers .
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Fifth Officer Lowe standing in the boat, yells to the crew.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The bodies were buried at sea from Oceanic.^ Mackay-Bennett recovered 306 bodies but ran out of supplies and 116 bodies were buried at sea, weighted with iron which had been brought for that purpose.

^ There were 328 bodies recovered, with 209 being returned to Halifax; the badly damaged, or deteriorated bodies were buried at sea.

^ Another 119 bodies of Titanic victims were recovered but buried at sea and 59 more were shipped home to relatives...

[61]
.The first body recovery ship to reach the site of the sinking, the cable ship CS Mackay-Bennett found so many bodies that the embalming supplies aboard were quickly exhausted.^ The first body recovery ship to reach the site of the sinking, the cable ship CS Mackay-Bennett found so many bodies that the embalming supplies aboard were quickly exhausted.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sailors aboard the ship CS Mackay-Bennett which recovered bodies from Titanic , who were very upset by the discovery of the unknown boy's body, paid for a monument and he was buried on 4 May 1912 with a copper pendant placed in his coffin by the sailors that read "Our Babe".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the bodies were taken to Halifax , Nova Scotia where the majority of the unclaimed were buried in Fairview Cemetery .Among the survivors were several dogs brought aboard in the hands of the first class passengers.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Health regulations permitted that only embalmed bodies could be returned to port.^ Health regulations permitted that only embalmed bodies could be returned to port.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you select this option, you will be returned only entries where New Zealand (rather than a more specific port) has been given on the passenger list.
  • Findmypast UK outbound passenger lists now cover 1890 to 1960 a list 18.4 million passengers 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.findmypast.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .Captain Larnder of the Mackay-Bennett and undertakers aboard decided to preserve all bodies of First Class passengers, justifying their decision by the need to visually identify wealthy men to resolve any disputes over large estates.^ This is the actual menu for First class passengers .
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Captain Larnder of the Mackay-Bennett and undertakers aboard decided to preserve all bodies of First Class passengers, justifying their decision by the need to visually identify wealthy men to resolve any disputes over large estates.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 April , Titanic 's eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley , had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result the burials at sea were third class passengers and crew.^ As a result the burials at sea were third class passengers and crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some unknown reason, numbers 324 and 325 were unused, and the six passengers buried at sea by the Carpathia also went unnumbered.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because there were more Third Class passengers, more should have been saved.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Larnder himself claimed that as a mariner, he would expect to be buried at sea.^ Larnder himself claimed that as a mariner, he would expect to be buried at sea.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] .However complaints about the burials at sea were made by families and undertakers.^ However complaints about the burials at sea were made by families and undertakers.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later ships such as Minia found fewer bodies, requiring fewer embalming supplies, and were able to limit burials at sea to bodies which were too damaged to preserve.^ A few days later Minia found another 17 bodies.

^ Later ships such as Minia found fewer bodies, requiring fewer embalming supplies, and were able to limit burials at sea to bodies which were too damaged to preserve.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bodies were buried at sea from Oceanic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bodies recovered were preserved to be taken to Halifax, the closest city to the sinking with direct rail and steamship connections.^ Bodies recovered were preserved to be taken to Halifax, the closest city to the sinking with direct rail and steamship connections.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lost on the RMS Titanic Williams' body was never recovered after the sinking of the Titanic .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Another ship recovered several hundred bodies and took them to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Halifax coroner, John Henry Barnstead, developed a detailed system to identify bodies and safeguard personal possessions.^ The Halifax coroner, John Henry Barnstead, developed a detailed system to identify bodies and safeguard personal possessions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His identification system would later be used to identify victims of the Halifax Explosion in 1917.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 23 April, John's body was identified by the crew of the cable ship, Mackay-Bennet, arrangements were made for his body to be returned to the family.
  • Titanic Passengers | Information regarding Titanic's passengers and Crew. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanic-passengers.com [Source type: News]

.His identification system would later be used to identify victims of the Halifax Explosion in 1917. Relatives from across North America came to identify and claim bodies.^ Relatives from across North America came to identify and claim bodies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His identification system would later be used to identify victims of the Halifax Explosion in 1917.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On this day, the cable ship Mackay-Bennett steamed into Halifax Harbour with the bodies of 190 Titanic victims.

.A large temporary morgue was set up in a curling rink and undertakers were called in from all across Eastern Canada to assist.^ A large temporary morgue was set up in a curling rink and undertakers were called in from all across Eastern Canada to assist.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To get your hair to stay up in this contraption, I recommend setting damp hair with a bit of gel in loose rag curls all day (or at least eight hours).

[61] .Some bodies were shipped to be buried in their hometowns across North America and Europe.^ Relatives from across North America came to identify and claim bodies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some bodies were shipped to be buried in their hometowns across North America and Europe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early part of this century, the only means of transportation for travelers and mail between Europe and North America was by passenger steamship.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About two-thirds of the bodies were identified.^ About two-thirds of the bodies were identified.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Davies 7 has shown that at the time the Titanic was constructed about two-thirds of the open-hearth steel produced in the United Kingdom was done in furnaces having acid linings.
  • JOM Article on The Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unidentified victims were buried with simple numbers based on the order in which their bodies were discovered.^ Unidentified victims were buried with simple numbers based on the order in which their bodies were discovered.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This list includes all victims buried in Halifax, arranged by name, with unknown victims listed at the end by number.

^ There are 150 Titanic victims buried in Halifax, the largest number anywhere in the world.

.The majority of recovered victims, 150 bodies, were buried in three Halifax cemeteries, the largest being Fairview Lawn Cemetery followed by the nearby Mount Olivet and Baron de Hirsch cemeteries.^ The rest, unclaimed or unidentified, were buried in local cemeteries — 19 in Mount Olivet, 10 in Baron de Hirsch, and 121 in Fairview.

^ There are 150 Titanic victims buried in Halifax, the largest number anywhere in the world.

^ It is because 121 of Titanic's victims are buried in the cemetery called Fairview Lawn.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[64] .Much floating wreckage was also recovered with the bodies, many pieces of which can be seen today in the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax.^ Much floating wreckage was also recovered with the bodies, many pieces of which can be seen today in the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bodies recovered were preserved to be taken to Halifax, the closest city to the sinking with direct rail and steamship connections.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another ship recovered several hundred bodies and took them to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

Memorials

The Anna Bliss Titanic Victims Memorial in Woodlawn Cemetery
The memorial to the Titanic's engineers in Southampton
.In many locations there are memorials to the dead of the Titanic.^ There are many stories relating to dogs on the Titanic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RMS Titanic Memorial is located in Queens, New...
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A memorial in Southampton to the Titanic' s musicians None of the band members survived the sinking, and there has been much speculation about what their last song was.

.In Southampton, England a memorial to the engineers of the Titanic may be found in Andrews Park on Above Bar Street.^ The memorial to the Titanic 's engineers in Southampton .

^ In Southampton, England a memorial to the engineers of the Titanic may be found in Andrews Park on Above Bar Street.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The source of the story may have been from reports by dockworkers in Queenstown of anti-Catholic graffiti that they found on Titanic ' s coalbunkers when they were loading coal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Opposite the main memorial is a memorial to Wallace Hartley and the other musicians who played on the Titanic.^ ON WALLACE HARTLEY raising his violin to play.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Opposite the main memorial is a memorial to Wallace Hartley and the other musicians who played on the Titanic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 April , Titanic 's eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley , had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A memorial to the ship's five postal workers, which says "Steadfast in Peril" is held by Southampton Heritage Services.^ Titanic's Sister Ships The Titanic was the second of three large liners intended to work the Southampton-New York "shuttle" service.

^ On board Carpathia , a short prayer service for the rescued and a memorial for the people who lost their lives was held, and at 8:50 a.m.

[65]
.A memorial to the liner is also located on the grounds of City Hall in Belfast, Northern Ireland.^ A memorial to the liner is also located on the grounds of City Hall in Belfast , Northern Ireland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The area will be regenerated and a signature memorial project unveiled to celebrate the Titanic and its links with Belfast, the city that built the great ship.

^ Harland and Wolff yards in Belfast , Northern Ireland .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United States there are memorials to the Titanic disaster as well.^ In the United States there are memorials to the Titanic disaster as well.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men from the United States as well as from Napoleon's Armies were held there.

^ The United States Senate initiated an inquiry into the Titanic disaster on April 19 , a day after The chairman of the inquiry, Senator William Alden Smith , wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while the events were still fresh in their minds.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic Memorial in Washington, D.C. and a memorial to Ida Straus at Straus Park in Manhattan, New York are two examples.^ The United States Senate initiated an inquiry into the Titanic disaster on April 19, a day after Carpathia arrived in New York.

^ In Southampton, England a memorial to the engineers of the Titanic may be found in Andrews Park on Above Bar Street.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic's Sister Ships The Titanic was the second of three large liners intended to work the Southampton-New York "shuttle" service.

.On 15 April 2012, the 100th anniversary of the sinking of Titanic is planned to be commemorated around the world.^ On 15 April 2012, the 100th anniversary of the sinking of Titanic is planned to be commemorated around the world.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the 15th April 2012 the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic will be commemorated around the world.

^ On 15 April , Titanic 's eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley , had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By that date, the Titanic Quarter in Belfast is planned to have been completed.^ By that date, the Titanic Quarter in Belfast is planned to have been completed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By that date the Titanic Quarter in Belfast is planned to have been completed, the area will be regenerated and a signature memorial project unveiled to celebrate Titanic and her links with Belfast, the city that built the ship.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The area will be regenerated and a signature memorial project unveiled to celebrate Titanic and her links with Belfast, the city that had built the ship.^ The area will be regenerated and a signature memorial project unveiled to celebrate the Titanic and its links with Belfast, the city that built the great ship.

^ Belfast built ships .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Belfast-built ships .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
The Balmoral, operated by Fred Olsen Cruise Lines has been chartered by Miles Morgan Travel to follow the original route of the Titanic, intending to stop over the point on the sea bed where she rests on 15 April 2012.[67]

Investigations into the RMS Titanic disaster

Political cartoon from 1912 which shows the public demanding answers from the shipping companies about the Titanic disaster
.Before the survivors even arrived in New York, investigations were being planned to discover what had happened, and what could be done to prevent a recurrence.^ Before the survivors even arrived in New York, investigations were being planned to discover what had happened to Titanic , and what could be done to prevent a recurrence.

^ See also: Changes in safety practices following the RMS Titanic disaster and International Maritime Organization Political cartoon from 1912 which shows the public demanding answers from the shipping companies about the Titanic disaster Before the survivors even arrived in New York, investigations were being planned to discover what had happened, and what could be done to prevent a recurrence.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ismay had met Hearst years before, when he was White Star's agent in New York.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The United States Senate initiated an inquiry into the disaster on 19 April, a day after Carpathia arrived in New York.^ Carpathia left for New York, arriving on April 18.

^ The United States Senate initiated an inquiry into the disaster on 19 April, a day after Carpathia arrived in New York.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States Senate initiated an inquiry into the Titanic disaster on April 19, a day after Carpathia arrived in New York.

.The chairman of the inquiry, Senator William Alden Smith, wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while the events were still fresh in their minds.^ Carpathia docked at Pier 54 in New York following the rescue The chairman of the inquiry, Senator William Alden Smith, wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while the events were still fresh in their minds.

^ The United States Senate initiated an inquiry into the Titanic disaster on April 19 , a day after The chairman of the inquiry, Senator William Alden Smith , wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while the events were still fresh in their minds.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chairman of the inquiry, Senator William Alden Smith , wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while the events were still fresh in their minds.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smith also needed to subpoena the British citizens while they were still on American soil.^ Smith also needed to subpoena the British citizens while they were still on American soil.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British were preparing to advance inland on the 13th of September when they recieved a letter of capitulation from the senior American militia officers of the county...

^ They believed the British held a widely different view of slavery than the majority of Americans...

.This prevented all surviving passengers and crew from returning to the UK before the American inquiry, which lasted until 25 May, was completed.^ The American inquiry lasted until May 25 .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American inquiry lasted until May 25.

^ Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , crewmembers of Leyland Line's The Californian , Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia and other experts.

.Lord Mersey was appointed to head the British Board of Trade's inquiry into the disaster.^ Lord Mersey was appointed to head the British Board of Trade's inquiry into the disaster.

^ A history of the disaster which includes a critical look at the British Inquiry by the Board of Trade.
  • r.m.s. titanic reading room: bibliography & bookstore 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www2.lv.psu.edu [Source type: General]

^ It was anticipated during the design of the ship that the British Board of Trade might require an increase in the number of lifeboats at some future date.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British inquiry took place between 2 May and 3 July.^ The British inquiry took place between May 2 and July 3.

^ The British inquiry took place between May 2 and July 3 .
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British inquiry took place between 2 May and 3 July.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of the Titanic, crew members of Leyland Line's Californian, Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia and other experts.^ Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , crewmembers of Leyland Line's The Californian , Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia and other experts.

^ Information regarding Titanic's passengers and Crew.
  • Titanic Passengers | Information regarding Titanic's passengers and Crew. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.titanic-passengers.com [Source type: News]

^ Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , members of Californian 's crew, and other experts.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The investigations found that many safety rules were simply out of date, and new laws were recommended.^ The investigations found that many safety rules were out of date and as a result numerous safety measures were not enacted.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The investigations found that many safety rules were simply out of date, and new laws were recommended.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The investigations found that many safety rules were simply out of date and new laws were recommended.

.Numerous safety improvements for ocean-going vessels were implemented, including improved hull and bulkhead design, access throughout the ship for egress of passengers, lifeboat requirements, improved life-vest design, the holding of safety drills, better passenger notification, radio communications laws, etc.^ Numerous safety improvements for ocean-going vessels were implemented, including improved hull and bulkhead design, access throughout the ship for egress of passengers, lifeboat requirements, life-vest design, safety drills, better passenger notification, radio communications laws, etc.

^ Numerous safety improvements for ocean-going vessels were implemented, including improved hull and bulkhead design, access throughout the ship for egress of passengers, lifeboat requirements, improved life-vest design, the holding of safety drills, better passenger notification, radio communications laws, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the busy North Atlantic sea lanes it was expected that in the event of a serious accident to a ship, help from other vessels would be quickly obtained, and that the lifeboats would be used to ferry passengers and crew from the stricken vessel to its rescuers.
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.The investigators also learned that the Titanic had sufficient lifeboat space for all first-class passengers, but not for the lower classes.^ The investigators also learned that the Titanic had sufficient lifeboat space for all first-class passengers, but not for the lower classes.
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^ The investigators also learned that the Titanic had sufficient lifeboat space for all First-Class passengers, but not for the lower classes.

^ This is the actual menu for First class passengers .
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.In fact, most third class passengers had no idea where the lifeboats were, much less any way of getting up to the higher decks where the lifeboats were stowed.^ In fact, most third-class , or steerage, passengers had no idea where the lifeboats were, much less any way of getting up to the higher decks where the lifeboats were stowed.
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^ In fact, most Third-Class, or Steerage, passengers had no idea where the lifeboats were, much less any way of getting up to the higher decks where the lifeboats were kept.

^ Less than a quarter of third-class passengers survived.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

SS Californian inquiry

The SS Californian.
.Both inquiries into the disaster found that the SS Californian and her captain, Stanley Lord, failed to give proper assistance to the Titanic.^ Investigations into the RMS Titanic disaster .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SS Californian inquiry .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They informed Captain Stanley Lord.

.Testimony before the inquiry revealed that at 22:10, the Californian observed the lights of a ship to the south; it was later agreed between Captain Lord and Third Officer C.V. Groves (who had relieved Lord of duty at 22:10) that this was a passenger liner.^ Testimony before the inquiry revealed that, at 10:10 pm, the Californian observed lights of a ship to the south; it was later agreed between Captain Lord and the third officer (who had relieved Lord of duty at 10:10) that this was a passenger liner.

^ Testimony before the inquiry revealed that at 22:10, the Californian observed the lights of a ship to the south; it was later agreed between Captain Lord and Third Officer C.V. Groves (who had relieved Lord of duty at 22:10) that this was a passenger liner.
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^ Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , crewmembers of Leyland Line's The Californian , Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia and other experts.

.The Californian warned the ship by radio of the pack ice because of which the Californian had stopped for the night, but was violently rebuked by Titanic senior wireless operator, Jack Phillips.^ The Californian warned the ship by radio of the pack ice because of which the Californian had stopped for the night, but was violently rebuked by Titanic senior wireless operator, Jack Phillips .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Californian ' s wireless was turned off, and the wireless operator had gone to bed for the night.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Californian , which was nearby and stopped for the night because of ice, also saw lights in the distance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 23:50, the officer had watched this ship's lights flash out, as if the ship had shut down or turned sharply, and that the port light was now observed.^ At 11:50pm, the officer had watched this ship's lights flash out, as if the ship had shut down or turned sharply, and that the port light was now observed.

^ At 23:50, the officer had watched this ship's lights flash out, as if the ship had shut down or turned sharply, and that the port light was now observed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ship's lights blink once then go out.
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Morse light signals to the ship, upon Lord's order, occurred five times between 23:30 and 01:00, but were not acknowledged.^ Morse signals to the ship, upon Lord's order, occurred five times between 11:30pm and 1:00am, but were not acknowledged.

^ Morse light signals to the ship, upon Lord's order, occurred five times between 23:30 and 01:00, but were not acknowledged.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite popular belief, the sinking of Titanic was not the first time the internationally recognised Morse code distress signal " SOS " was used.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(In testimony, it was stated that the Californian's Morse lamp had a range of about four miles (6 km), so could not have been seen from Titanic.^ (In testimony, it was stated that the Californian ' s Morse lamp had a range of about four miles (6 km), so could not have been seen from Titanic .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In testimony, it was stated that Californian's Morse lamp had a range of about four miles.

^ Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , crewmembers of Leyland Line's The Californian , Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia and other experts.

)[44]
.Captain Lord had retired at 23:30; however, Second Officer Herbert Stone, now on duty, notified Lord at 01:15 that the ship had fired a rocket, followed by four more.^ Captain Lord had retired at 11:30; however, the second officer, now on duty, notified Lord at 1:15 am that the ship had fired a rocket, followed by four more.

^ At 2:15 am, Lord was notified that the ship could no longer be seen.

^ Captain Lord had retired at 23:30; however, Second Officer Herbert Stone, now on duty, notified Lord at 01:15 that the ship had fired a rocket, followed by four more.
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.Lord wanted to know if they were company signals, that is, coloured flares used for identification.^ Lord wanted to know if they were "company signals," that is, colored flares used for identification.

^ Lord wanted to know if they were company signals, that is, coloured flares used for identification.
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^ Later, they noticed the Titanic ' s distress signals over the lights and informed Captain Stanley Lord .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stone said that he did not know that the rockets were all white.^ The second officer said that he "didn't know," that the rockets were all white.

^ Stone said that he did not know that the rockets were all white.
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^ The rockets Titanic sent up had the colour of distress rockets for White Star Line, but because of a lack of uniformity in Naval regulations at that time, Captain Lord was confused, he did not know they were distress rockets.He said "Keep watching it" and he went back to sleep.

.Captain Lord instructed the crew to continue to signal the other vessel with the Morse lamp, and went back to sleep.^ Captain Lord instructed the crew to continue Morseing and went back to sleep.

^ Captain Lord instructed the crew to continue to signal the other vessel with the Morse lamp, and went back to sleep.
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^ Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , crewmembers of Leyland Line's The Californian , Captain Arthur Rostron of the Carpathia and other experts.

.Three more rockets were observed at 01:50 and Stone noted that the ship looked strange in the water, as if she were listing.^ Three more rockets were observed at 1:50 and the second officer noted that the ship looked strange in the water, as if it were listing.

^ Only three of the four 63 foot (19 m) tall funnels were functional; the fourth, which served only as a vent, was added to make the ship look more impressive.

^ Captain Lord had retired at 11:30; however, the second officer, now on duty, notified Lord at 1:15 am that the ship had fired a rocket, followed by four more.

.At 02:15, Lord was notified that the ship could no longer be seen.^ At 02:15, Lord was notified that the ship could no longer be seen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 2:15 am, Lord was notified that the ship could no longer be seen.

^ Captain Lord had retired at 11:30; however, the second officer, now on duty, notified Lord at 1:15 am that the ship had fired a rocket, followed by four more.

.Lord asked again if the lights had had any colours in them, and he was informed that they were all white.^ They informed Captain Stanley Lord.

^ Lord asked again if the lights had had any colors in them, and he was informed that they were all white.

^ Lord asked again if the lights had had any colours in them, and he was informed that they were all white.
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.The Californian eventually responded.^ The Californian eventually responded.
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.At 05:30, Chief Officer George Stewart awakened wireless operator Cyril Evans, informed him that rockets had been seen during the night, and asked that he try to communicate with any ships.^ At 05:30, Chief Officer George Stewart awakened wireless operator Cyril Evans , informed him that rockets had been seen during the night, and asked that he try to communicate with any ships.
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^ At 5:30 am, the first officer awakened the radio operator, informed him that rockets had been seen during the night, and asked that he try to communicate with any ships.

^ But Walter Lord 's book A Night to Remember popularised wireless operator Harold Bride 's 1912 account ( New York Times ) that he heard the song "Autumn" before the ship sank.
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.The Frankfurt notified the operator of the Titanic's loss, Captain Lord was notified, and the ship set out for assistance.^ The Frankfurt notified the operator of Titanic's loss, Captain Lord was notified, and the ship set out for assistance.
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^ The ‘‘Frankfurt’’ notified the operator of Titanic's loss, Captain Lord was notified, and the ship set out for assistance.

^ The Frankfurt notified the operator of the Titanic ' s loss, Captain Lord was notified, and the ship set out for assistance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inquiries found that the Californian was much closer to the Titanic than the 19.5 miles (31.4 km) that Captain Lord had believed and that Lord should have awakened the wireless operator after the rockets were first reported to him, and thus could have acted to prevent loss of life.^ The inquiries found that Californian was much closer to Titanic than the 19½ miles (36 km) that Captain Lord had believed and that Lord should have awakened the wireless operator after the rockets were first reported to him, and thus could have acted to prevent a loss of life.

^ The inquiries found that Californian was closer to Titanic than the 19½ miles (36 km) that Captain Lord had believed and that Lord should have awakened the wireless operator after the rockets were first reported to him.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inquiries found that the Californian was much closer to the Titanic than the 19.5 miles (31.4 km) that Captain Lord had believed and that Lord should have awakened the wireless operator after the rockets were first reported to him, and thus could have acted to prevent loss of life.
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[44]
.In 1990, following the discovery of the wreck, the Marine Accident Investigation Branch of the British Department of Transport re-opened the inquiry to review the evidence relating to the Californian.^ In 1990, following the discovery of the wreck, the Marine Accident Investigation Branch of the British Department of Transport re-opened the inquiry to review the evidence relating to the Californian .
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^ The United States Senate investigation reported that 1,517[10] people perished in the accident, while the British investigation has the number at 1,490.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the first wrecks on record is the loss of the British Transport Sovereign in 1814.

.Its report of 1992 concluded that the Californian was farther from the Titanic than the earlier British inquiry had found, and that the distress rockets, but not the Titanic herself, would have been visible from the Californian.^ Its report of 1992 concluded that the Californian was farther from the Titanic than the earlier British inquiry had found, and that the distress rockets, but not the Titanic herself, would have been visible from the Californian .
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^ Not only was it found in two pieces (there had been eyewitness accounts of the ship breaking in two, with sketches drawn and everything, but the American and British inquiries decided that the ship had sunk intact.
  • How Long Before the RMS TITANIC is just a pile of rust? - Straight Dope Message Board 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the British inquiry had determined mathematically that the damage to the ship could not have comprised more than twelve square feet, the popular notion was that the iceberg had cut a 300 feet (90 m) long gash into Titanic's hull.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]

Rediscovery of the Titanic

Titanic's bow, with the forestay shackle fallen forwards, as seen from the Russian MIR I submersible.
.The idea of finding the wreck of Titanic, and even raising the ship from the ocean floor, had been around since shortly after the ship sank.^ The idea of finding the wreck of Titanic , and even raising the ship from the ocean floor, had been perpetuated since shortly after the ship sank.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea of finding the wreck of Titanic and even raising the ship from the ocean floor had been perpetuated since shortly after the ship sank.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea of finding the wreck of Titanic , and even raising the ship from the ocean floor, had been around since shortly after the ship sank.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

No attempts were successful until 1 September 1985, when a joint American-French expedition, led by Jean-Louis Michel (Ifremer) and Dr. Robert Ballard (WHOI), located the wreck using the side-scan sonar from the research vessels Knorr and Le Suroit. .In June 1985, the French ship Le Suroit began systematically crossing the 150-square-mile target zone with her deep-search sonar.^ In June of 1985, the French ship Le Suroit began systematically crossing the 150-square-mile target zone with her deep-search sonar.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No attempts were successful until 1 September 1985, when a joint American-French expedition, led by Jean-Louis Michel ( Ifremer ) and Dr. Robert Ballard ( WHOI ), located the wreck using the side-scan sonar from the research vessels Knorr and Le Suroit .
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^ Surrounding the wreck is a large debris field with pieces of the ship, furniture, dinnerware and personal items scattered over one square mile (2.6 km²).
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.Le Suroit covered 80 percent of the zone, leaving only 20 percent for the American ship Knorr.^ Le Suroit covered 80 percent of the zone, leaving only 20 percent for the American ship Knorr .
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^ Overall, only 20 percent of the men survived, compared to nearly 75 percent of the women.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June of 1985, the French ship Le Suroit began systematically crossing the 150-square-mile target zone with her deep-search sonar.
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[69] .It was found at a depth of 2.5 miles (4 km), slightly more than 370 miles (600 km) south-east of Mistaken Point, Newfoundland at 41°43′55″N 49°56′45″W / 41.73194°N 49.94583°W / 41.73194; -49.94583Coordinates: 41°43′55″N 49°56′45″W / 41.73194°N 49.94583°W / 41.73194; -49.94583, 13 miles (21 km) from fourth officer Joseph Boxhall's last position reading where Titanic was originally thought to rest.^ Captain Edward Smith , perhaps in response to iceberg warnings received via wireless over the last few days, had altered Titanic 's course around 10 miles (18 km) south of the normal shipping route.
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^ I said that, and I believed it, and even if I hardly surmised that Titanic would earn the $500m it needed to have a chance at profit, still I thought it might do better than expected.
  • Titanic achievement at the box office | Film | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Since it was not responding to wireless, Fourth Officer Boxhall and Quartermaster Rowe attempted signalling the ship with a Morse lamp and later with distress rockets , but the ship never appeared to respond.
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.Ballard noted that his crew had paid out 12,500 feet (3,810 m) of the sonar's tow cable at the time of the discovery of the wreck,[70] giving an approximate depth of the seabed of 12,450 feet (3,795 m).^ Ballard noted that his crew had paid out 12,500 feet (3,810 m) of the sonar's tow cable at the time of the discovery of the wreck, [ 66 ] giving an approximate depth of the seabed of 12,450 feet (3,795 m).
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^ Newfoundland in 12,500 feet of water.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1985, the wreck of the Titanic was discovered at the bottom of the North Atlantic in international waters, approximately 400 miles off the coast of Newfoundland in 12,500 feet of water.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] .Ifremer, the French partner in the search, records a depth of 3,800 m (12,467 ft), an almost exact equivalent.^ Ifremer, the French partner in the search, records a depth of 3,800 m (12,467 ft), an almost exact equivalent.
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[72] .These are approximately 2.33 miles, and they are often rounded upwards to 2.5 miles or 4 km.^ These are approximately 2.33 miles, and they are often rounded upwards to 2.5 miles or 4 km.
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.Video cameras aboard the unmanned submersible Argo were the first to document the Titanic's visual state on the bottom of the ocean.^ Video cameras aboard the unmanned submersible Argo were the first to document the Titanic's visual state on the bottom of the ocean.
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^ In 1986, Ballard returned to the wreck site aboard the Atlantis II to conduct the first manned dives to the wreck in the submersible Alvin .
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^ "We had a little pre-visualization bay set up where we would take a little video camera," Cameron explains, "and mount it on a miniature submersible with fiber-optic lights that corresponded to the actual light we'd be using.
  • Titanic - About The Production 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.filmscouts.com [Source type: General]

.The submersible was based on the Knorr and the images retrieved were featured in National Geographic by December 1985.[73] In 1986, Ballard returned to the wreck site aboard the Atlantis II to conduct the first manned dives to the wreck in the submersible Alvin.^ The submersible was based on the Knorr and the images retrieved were featured in National Geographic by December of 1985.
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^ In 1986, Ballard returned to the wreck site aboard the Atlantis II to conduct the first manned dives to the wreck in the submersible Alvin .
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^ Ballard's book Return to Titanic , published by the National Geographic Society , includes photographs showing the deterioration of the promenade deck and alleged damage caused by submersibles landing on the ship; however, Ballard was the first person to crash a camera sled into the wreck, and also the first person to repeatedly land on its deck in a submersible.
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.Ballard had in 1982 requested funding for the project from the US Navy, but this was provided only on the then secret condition that the first priority was to examine the wreckage of the sunken US nuclear submarines Thresher and Scorpion.^ Ballard had in 1982 requested funding for the project from the US Navy , but this was provided only on the then secret condition that the first priority was to examine the wreckage of the sunken US nuclear submarines Thresher and Scorpion .
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^ To get us started, consider this; 53% of first and Second Class passengers were saved, but only 25% of Third Class.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Only when these had been photographed did the search for Titanic begin.^ Only when these had been photographed did the search for Titanic begin.
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^ These are actual labels on the wine served at the last meal on the Titanic (From the Belfast printing shop that did the printing for White Star) .
  • RMS Titanic, Ship of Dreams 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Ballard presents a detailed account, replete with color photographs, of the search, discovery, and exploration activities of his 1985 Titanic expedition.
  • r.m.s. titanic reading room: bibliography & bookstore 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www2.lv.psu.edu [Source type: General]

[74]
.The most notable discovery the team made was that the ship had split apart, the stern section lying 1,970 feet (600 m) from the bow section and facing opposite directions.^ The most notable discovery the team made was that the ship had broken in two, the stern section lying 1,970 feet (600 m) from the bow section and both facing opposite directions.
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^ The most notable discovery the team made was that the ship had split apart, the stern section lying 1,970 feet (600 m) from the bow section and facing opposite directions.
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^ The streamlined bow planed off approximately 2,000 feet (600 m) below the surface and slowed somewhat, landing relatively gently.

.There had been conflicting witness accounts of whether the ship broke apart or not, and both the American and British inquiries found that the ship sank intact.^ There had been conflicting witness accounts of whether the ship broke apart or not, and both the American and British inquiries found that the ship sank intact.
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^ Titanic' s sister ship Britannic sank in the Mediterranean sea while serving as a British hospital ship during World War I. Conflicting accounts say it was either a torpedo attack or an unlucky encounter with an ocean mine (the sinking was proved to have been caused by a mine).

^ Bruce Ismay, managing director of the White Star Line, left on Collapsible Boat C and was criticised by both the American and British Inquiries for not going down with the ship.

.Up until the discovery of the wreck, it was generally assumed that the ship did not break apart.^ Up until the discovery of the wreck, it was generally assumed the ship did not break apart.
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^ Up until the discovery of the wreck, it was generally assumed that the ship did not break apart.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Titanic had a double bottom it did not have a double hull; after her sinking new ships were designed with double hulls and the double bottoms of other ships (including Olympic's ) were extended up the sides of their hulls above their waterlines to give them double hulls.

.The bow section had struck the ocean floor at a position just under the forepeak, and embedded itself 60 feet (18 m) into the silt on the ocean floor.^ The bow section had struck the ocean floor at a position just under the forepeak, and embedded itself 60 feet (18 m) into the silt on the ocean floor.
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^ The bow section had embedded itself more than 60 feet (18 m) into the silt on the ocean floor.
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^ The bow section had embedded itself 60 feet (18 m) into the silt on the ocean floor.

.Although parts of the hull had buckled, the bow was mostly intact.^ Although parts of the hull had buckled, the bow was mostly intact.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though parts of the hull had buckled the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalized with the increasing water pressure.
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^ Besides parts of the hull having buckled, the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalised with the increasing water pressure.
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.The collision with the ocean floor forced water out of Titanic through the hull below the well deck.^ The collision with the ocean floor forced water out of Titanic through the hull below the well deck.
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^ Decks - 9 total, A through G with the boilers below.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ THE DOOR to the well deck is open a few inches as Lovejoy watches through the gap.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of the steel covers (reportedly weighing approximately ten tonnes) was blown off the side of the hull.^ One of the steel covers (reportedly weighing approximately ten tonnes) was blown off the side of the hull.
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^ From the bridge, the lights of a ship could be seen off the starboard side approximately 10-15 miles away.

^ The pressure from behind pushes them forward, and one guy falls off the edge of the deck into the water less than ten feet below.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The bow is still under tension, in particular the heavily damaged and partially collapsed decks.^ The bow is still under tension, in particular the heavily damaged and partially collapsed decks.
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^ Further damage was caused by the sudden impact of hitting the seabed; with little structural integrity left, the decks collapsed as the stern hit.
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^ Even if the compartments themselves had remained completely watertight, the weight of water would still have pulled the bow of the ship down to the point where decks above the watertight deck would have been below the waterline.

[75]
.The stern section was in much worse condition, and appeared to have been torn apart during its descent.^ The stern section was in much worse condition.
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^ The stern section was in much worse condition, and appeared to have been torn apart during its descent.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the stern section sank, water pushed out the air inside tearing apart the hull and decks.
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.Unlike the bow section, which was flooded with water before it sank, it is likely that the stern section sank with a significant volume of air trapped inside it.^ Unlike the bow section, which was flooded with water before it sank, it is likely that the stern section sank with a significant volume of air trapped inside it.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the stern section sank, water pushed out the air inside tearing apart the hull and decks.
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^ Besides parts of the hull having buckled, the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalized with the increasing water pressure.

.As it sank, the external water pressure increased but the pressure of the trapped air could not follow suit due to the many air pockets in relatively sealed sections.^ As it sank, the external water pressure increased but the pressure of the trapped air could not follow suit due to the many air pockets in relatively sealed sections.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides parts of the hull having buckled, the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalized with the increasing water pressure.

^ The bow section however, having been opened up by the iceberg and having sunk slowly, had little air left in it as it sank and therefore remained relatively intact during its descent.

.Therefore, some areas of the stern section's hull experienced a large pressure differential between outside and inside which possibly caused an implosion.^ Therefore, some areas of the stern section's hull experienced a large pressure differential between outside and inside which possibly caused an implosion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides parts of the hull having buckled, the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalized with the increasing water pressure.

^ Besides parts of the hull having buckled, the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalised with the increasing water pressure.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further damage was caused by the sudden impact of hitting the seabed; with little structural integrity left, the decks collapsed as the stern hit.^ Further damage was caused by the sudden impact of hitting the seabed; with little structural integrity left, the decks collapsed as the stern hit.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The speed at which the stern hit the ocean floor caused even more damage.
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  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bow is still under tension, in particular the heavily damaged and partially collapsed decks.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76]
.Surrounding the wreck is a large debris field with pieces of the ship, furniture, dinnerware and personal items scattered over one square mile (2.6 km²).^ Surrounding the wreck is a large debris field with pieces of the ship (including a large amount of coal), furniture, dinnerware and personal items scattered over one square mile (2.6 km²).
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^ Surrounding the wreck is a large debris field with pieces of the ship, furniture, dinnerware and personal items scattered over one square mile (2.6 km²).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cartoon series Animaniacs also depicts the Titanic sinking, and in one Pinky and the Brain cartoon, the sunken ship is all in one piece, and was somehow brought back to the surface of the ocean.
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.Softer materials, like wood, carpet and human remains were devoured by undersea organisms.^ Softer materials like wood and carpet were devoured by undersea organisms, as were human remains.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Softer materials, like wood and carpet, were devoured by undersea organisms.

^ A new theory has been put forth that much of the wood from the upper decks was not devoured by undersea organisms but rather broke free of its moorings and floated away.
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Dr. Ballard and his team did not bring up any artefacts from the site, considering this to be tantamount to grave robbing.[77] .Under international maritime law, however, the recovery of artefacts is necessary to establish salvage rights to a shipwreck.^ Under international maritime law, however, the recovery of artefacts is necessary to establish salvage rights to a shipwreck.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under international maritime law, however, the recovery of artifacts is necessary to establish salvage rights to a shipwreck.

^ Any analysis regarding the authority of a United States court to adjudicate salvage rights in shipwrecks in international waters requires inquiry first into several fundamental principles of admiralty: (1) the nature and scope of admiralty jurisdiction, (2) the applicability of salvage law as part of the common law of maritime nations, i.e., the jus gentium , and (3) the reach of an admiralty court's in rem juris- diction.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the years after the find, Titanic has been the object of a number of court cases concerning ownership of artefacts and the wreck site itself.^ In the years after the find, Titanic has been the object of a number of court cases concerning ownership of artifacts and the wreck site itself.

^ In the years after the find, the Titanic has been the object of a number of court cases concerning ownership of artefacts and the wreck site itself.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the years after the find, Titanic has been the object of a number of court cases concerning ownership of artefacts and the wreck site itself.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1994, .RMS Titanic Inc.^ RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals .
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1994, RMS Titanic Inc.
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^ On June 7 , 1994 , RMS Titanic Inc.
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" class="mw-redirect">RMS .Titanic Inc. was awarded ownership and salvaging rights of the wreck, even though RMS Titanic Inc.^ Titanic , awarded exclusive salvage .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Titanic to award it exclusive salvage .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Titanic wreck and interfering with the salvage .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

and other salvaging expeditions have been criticised for taking items from the wreck. .Among the items recovered by RMS Titanic Inc.^ Among the items recovered by RMS Titanic Inc.
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^ In 1993, a French administrator in the Office of Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Equipment, Transportation, and Tourism awarded RMS Titanic Inc.'s predecessor title to the relics recovered in 1987.
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^ In 1993, a French administrator in the Office of Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Equipment, Transportation, and Tourism awarded RMS Titanic Inc's predecessor title to the artifacts recovered in 1987.
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was the ship's whistle, which was brought to the surface in 1992 and placed in the company's travelling exhibition. .It has been operated only twice since, using compressed air rather than steam, because of its fragility.^ It has been operated only twice since, using compressed air rather than steam, because of its fragility.
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^ Consider the opposite by this standard, since 387 Third Class passengers perished, as opposed to 154 for Second, that means twice the amount died from Third Class than Second.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ [One side note here: since seeing the new photos, I realized that the overskirt is actually netting rather than chiffon, but, since I've already bought and cut the chiffon (and like it better), I am going to use it.

[78]
.Approximately 6,000 artefacts have been removed from the wreck.^ Approximately 6,000 artefacts have been removed from the wreck.
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.Many of these were put on display at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England, and later as part of a travelling museum exhibit.^ Many of these artifacts are part of travelling museum exhibitions.
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^ Many of these items are part of travelling museum exhibitions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of these were put on display at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich , England, and later as part of a travelling museum exhibit.
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Current condition of the wreck

.Many scientists, including Robert Ballard, are concerned that visits by tourists in submersibles and the recovery of artefacts are hastening the decay of the wreck.^ Many scientists, including Robert Ballard, are concerned that visits by tourists in submersibles and the recovery of artifacts are hastening the decay of the wreck.
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^ Many scientists, including Robert Ballard, are concerned that visits by tourists in submersibles and the recovery of artefacts are hastening the decay of the wreck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many scientists, including Robert Ballard, are concerned that visits by tourists in submersible s and the recovery of artifacts are hastening the decay of the wreck.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Underwater microbes have been eating away at Titanic's steel since the ship sank, but because of the extra damage visitors have caused the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimates that "the hull and structure of the ship may collapse to the ocean floor within the next 50 years."[79][80]
.Ballard's book Return to Titanic, published by the National Geographic Society, includes photographs depicting the deterioration of the promenade deck and damage caused by submersibles landing on the ship.^ Ballard's book Return to Titanic , published by the National Geographic Society , includes photographs depicting the deterioration of the promenade deck and damage caused by submersibles landing on the ship.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballard's book Return to Titanic , published by the National Geographic Society , includes photographs showing the deterioration of the promenade deck and alleged damage caused by submersibles landing on the ship; however, Ballard was the first person to crash a camera sled into the wreck, and also the first person to repeatedly land on its deck in a submersible.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballard's book, Return to Titanic, published by the National Geographic Society, includes photographs showing the deterioration of the promenade deck and damage caused by submersibles landing on the ship; however, Ballard was the first person to crash a camera sled into the wreck, and also the first person to repeatedly land on its deck in a submersible.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mast has almost completely deteriorated and has been stripped of its bell and brass light.^ The mast has almost completely deteriorated and has been stripped of its bell and brass light.
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^ The mast has almost completely deteriorated and repeated accusations were made in print by Ballard that it had been stripped of its bell and brass light by salvagers, despite his own original discovery images clearly showing that the bell was never actually on the mast- it was recovered from the sea floor.
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^ The mast has almost completely deteriorated, and repeated accusations were made in print by Ballard that it had been stripped of its bell and brass light by salvagers, despite his own original discovery images clearly showing that the bell was never actually on the mast - it was recovered from the sea floor.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other damage includes a gash on the bow section where block letters once spelled Titanic, part of the brass telemotor which once held the ship's wooden wheel is now twisted and the crow's nest is completely deteriorated.^ Other damage includes a gash on the bow section where block letters once spelled Titanic , part of the brass telemotor which once held the ship's wooden wheel is now twisted and the crow's nest is completely deteriorated.
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^ Other media include Titanic: Adventure Out of Time which was a 1996 computer game that took place on Titanic .
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CUT TO: 194 EXT. BOAT 6 AND TITANIC TIGHT ON THE LETTERS TITANIC painted two feet high on the bow of the doomed steamer.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[81]

Ownership and litigation

.Titanic's rediscovery in 1985 launched a debate over ownership of the wreck and the valuable items inside.^ Upon discovery in 1985, a legal debate began over ownership of the wreck and the valuable artifacts inside.
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^ In 1985, the wreck of the Titanic was discovered at the bottom of .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Titanic ' s rediscovery in 1985 launched a debate over ownership of the wreck and the valuable items inside.
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.On 7 June 1994 RMS Titanic Inc., a subsidiary of Premier Exhibitions Inc., was awarded ownership and salvaging rights by the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.^ In 1994, the district court in the Eastern District .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Titanic , awarded exclusive salvage .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States court sitting in admiralty.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[82] .(See Admiralty law)[83] Since 1987, RMS Titanic Inc.^ Among the items recovered by RMS Titanic Inc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See Admiralty law ) [ 79 ] Since 1987, RMS Titanic Inc.
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^ In 1993, a French administrator in the Office of Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Equipment, Transportation, and Tourism awarded RMS Titanic Inc's predecessor title to the artifacts recovered in 1987.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and her successors have conducted seven expeditions and salvaged over 5,500 historic objects. .The biggest single recovered object was a 17-ton section of the hull, recovered in 1998.[84] Many of these items are part of travelling museum exhibitions.^ The biggest single recovered object was a 17-ton section of the hull, recovered in 1998.
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^ The biggest single recovered artefact was a 17-ton section of the hull, recovered in 1998.
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^ The biggest single recovered artifact was a 17-ton section of the hull, recovered in 1998.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1993, a French administrator in the Office of Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Equipment, Transportation, and Tourism awarded .RMS Titanic Inc.^ RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals .
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1994, RMS Titanic Inc.
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^ On June 7 , 1994 , RMS Titanic Inc.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

's predecessor title to the relics recovered in 1987.
.In a motion filed on 12 February 2004, RMS Titanic Inc. requested that the district court enter an order awarding it "title to all the artifacts (including portions of the hull) which are the subject of this action pursuant to the Law of Finds" or, in the alternative, a salvage award in the amount of $225 million.^ Titanic , awarded exclusive salvage .

^ In a motion filed on 12 February 2004, RMS Titanic Inc.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic , the district court observed .

.RMS Titanic Inc.^ RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals .
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1994, RMS Titanic Inc.
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^ On June 7 , 1994 , RMS Titanic Inc.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

excluded from its motion any claim for an award of title to the objects recovered in .1987, but it did request that the district court declare that, based on the French administrative action, "the artifacts raised during the 1987 expedition are independently owned by RMST." Following a hearing, the district court entered an order dated 2 July 2004, in which it refused to grant comity and recognise the 1993 decision of the French administrator, and rejected RMS Titanic Inc.'s claim that it should be awarded title to the items recovered since 1993 under the Maritime Law of Finds.^ The district court also rejected Haver's claims that the court did not .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 1993, RMST filed this action in the Eastern District of .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a motion filed on 12 February 2004, RMS Titanic Inc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.RMS Titanic Inc.^ RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals .
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1994, RMS Titanic Inc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On June 7 , 1994 , RMS Titanic Inc.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

appealed to the .United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.^ United States courts is not limited by the nationality of ships, sail- .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States court sitting in admiralty.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States, the court .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.In its decision of 31 January 2006[85] the court recognised "explicitly the appropriateness of applying maritime salvage law to historic wrecks such as that of Titanic" and denied the application of the Maritime Law of Finds.^ In its decision of 31 January 2006 [ 81 ] the court recognised "explicitly the appropriateness of applying maritime salvage law to historic wrecks such as that of Titanic " and denied the application of the Maritime Law of Finds.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic wreck and interfering with the salvage .

^ In its decision of January 31 , 2006 United States court of appeals for the fourth circuit, R.M.S. TITANIC, INCORPORATED vs. THE WRECKED AND ABANDONED VESSEL - January 31, 2006 the court recognized "explicitly the appropriateness of applying maritime salvage law to historic wrecks such as that of Titanic " and denied the application the maritime law of finds.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The court also ruled that the district court lacked jurisdiction over the "1987 artifacts", and therefore vacated that part of the court's 2 July 2004 order.^ But this limitation on the jurisdiction exercised by the district court .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The court also ruled that the district court lacked jurisdiction over the "1987 artifacts", and therefore vacated that part of the court's 2 July 2004 order.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With in rem jurisdiction, therefore, a court has the power, .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In other words, according to this decision, RMS Titanic Inc.^ Among the items recovered by RMS Titanic Inc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, according to this decision, RMS Titanic Inc.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, U.S. 4th Circuit Court of Appeals .
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

has ownership title to the objects awarded in the .French decision (valued $16.5 million earlier) and continues to be salver-in-possession of the Titanic wreck.^ French decision (valued $16.5 million earlier) and continues to be salver-in-possession of the Titanic wreck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French decision (valued $16.5 million earlier) and continues to be salvor-in-possession of the Titanic wreck.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And with its lien, RMST obtained the right to exclusive possession, not only of the arti- facts removed from the wreck of the Titanic , but also of the wreck itself, so that no other person is entitled lawfully to intrude as long as salvage operations continue.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Court of Appeals remanded the case to the District Court to determine the salvage award ($225 million requested by RMS Titanic Inc.^ Titanic , awarded exclusive salvage .

^ Titanic , the district court observed .

^ Law of Finds" or, in the alternative, a salvage award in the amount of $225 million.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

).[86]
.On 24 March 2009, it was revealed that the fate of 5,900 artefacts retrieved from the wreck will rest with a US District Judge's decision.^ March 24, 2009.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 24 March 2009, it was revealed that the fate of 5,900 artefacts retrieved from the wreck will rest with a US District Judge's decision.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, the district court recognized this limitation and rested its authority over the wreck of the Titanic on what it called "construc- tive in rem " jurisdiction.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .The ruling will decide whether the artefacts should be placed in a public exhibit or in the hands of private collectors.^ The ruling will decide whether the artefacts should be placed in a public exhibit or in the hands of private collectors.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The judge will also rule on the RMS Titanic Inc.'s degree of ownership of the wreck as well as establishing a monitoring system to check future activity upon the wreck site.^ Among the items recovered by RMS Titanic Inc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic 's wreck site in 1993.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The judge will also rule on the RMS Titanic Inc.'s degree of ownership of the wreck as well as establishing a monitoring system to check future activity upon the wreck site.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88]

Possible factors in the sinking

The iceberg buckled Titanic's hull allowing water to flow into the ship
.It is well established that the sinking of the Titanic was the result of an iceberg collision which fatally punctured the ship's front five watertight compartments.^ The iceberg buckled Titanic ' s hull allowing water to flow into the ship It is well established that the sinking of the Titanic was the result of an iceberg collision which fatally punctured the ship's front five watertight compartments.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collision turned out to be inevitable, and the ship's starboard (right) side brushed the iceberg, buckling the hull in several places and popping out rivet s below the waterline, creating a total of six leaks in the first five watertight compartments.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cartoon series Animaniacs also depicts the Titanic sinking, and in one Pinky and the Brain cartoon, the sunken ship is all in one piece, and was somehow brought back to the surface of the ocean.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Less obvious however are the reasons for the collision itself (which occurred on a clear night, and after the ship had received numerous ice warnings), the factors underlying the sheer extent of the damage sustained by the ship, and the reasons for the extreme loss of life.^ The Californian warned the ship by radio of pack ice, and that Californian had stopped for the night.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, new evidence suggested that in addition to the expected side damage, the ship also had sustained damage to the bottom of the hull (keel).
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic was not the only White Star Line ship to sink with loss of life.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Construction and metallurgy

.Originally, historians thought the iceberg had cut a gash into Titanic's hull.^ Originally, historians thought the iceberg had cut a gash into Titanic ' s hull.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the British inquiry had determined mathematically that the damage to the ship could not have comprised more than twelve inches square (30 cm × 30 cm), the popular notion was that the iceberg had cut a 300 foot (90 m) long gash into Titanic 's hull.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CUT TO: 39 OMITTED 40 EXT. TITANIC AND DOCK - DAY The mooring lines, as big around as a man's arm, are dropped into the water.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the part of the ship that the iceberg damaged is now buried, scientists used sonar to examine the area and discovered the iceberg had caused the hull to buckle, allowing water to enter Titanic between her steel plates.^ Since the part of the ship that the iceberg damaged is now buried, scientists used sonar to examine the area and discovered the iceberg had caused the hull to buckle, allowing water to enter Titanic between her steel plates.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the part of the ship that the iceberg had damaged was buried, scientists used sonar to examine the area and discovered the iceberg had caused the hull to buckle, allowing water to enter Titanic between its steel plates.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steel plate used for Titanic hull was of 1 to 1½ inch (2.5 to 3.8 cm) thickness.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The steel plate used for Titanic hull was of 1 to 1½ inch (2.5 to 3.8 cm) thickness.^ The steel plate used for Titanic hull was of 1 to 1½ inch (2.5 to 3.8 cm) thickness.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A detailed analysis of small pieces of the steel plating from the Titanic ' s wreck hull found that it was of a metallurgy that loses its elasticity and becomes brittle in cold or icy water, leaving it vulnerable to dent-induced ruptures.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar legend states that the Titanic was given hull number 390904 (which, when seen in a mirror or written using mirror writing, looks like "NO POPE").
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .A detailed analysis of small pieces of the steel plating from the Titanic's wreck hull found that it was of a metallurgy that loses its elasticity and becomes brittle in cold or icy water, leaving it vulnerable to dent-induced ruptures.^ A detailed analysis of small pieces of the steel plating from the Titanic ' s wreck hull found that it was of a metallurgy that loses its elasticity and becomes brittle in cold or icy water, leaving it vulnerable to dent-induced ruptures.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1985, the wreck of the Titanic was discovered at the bottom of the North Atlantic in international waters, approximately 400 miles off the coast of Newfoundland in 12,500 feet of water.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pieces of steel were found to have very high content of phosphorus and sulphur (4× and 2× respectively, compared with modern steel), with manganese -sulphur ratio of 6.8:1 (compared with over 200:1 ratio for modern steels).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pieces of steel were found to have very high content of phosphorus and sulphur (4× and 2× respectively, compared with modern steel), with manganese-sulphur ratio of 6.8:1 (compared with over 200:1 ratio for modern steels).^ The samples of steel rescued from the wrecked hull were found to have very high content of phosphorus and sulfur (four times and two times as high as common for modern steels), with a manganese-sulfur ratio of 6.8:1 (compare with over 200:1 ratio for modern steels).
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High content of phosphorus initiates fractures, sulfur forms grains of iron sulphide that facilitate propagation of cracks, and lack of manganese makes the steel less ductile.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steel was probably produced in the acid-lined, open-hearth furnaces in Glasgow, which would explain the high content of phosphorus and sulfur, even for the times.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.High content of phosphorus initiates fractures, sulphur forms grains of iron sulphide that facilitate propagation of cracks, and lack of manganese makes the steel less ductile.^ High content of phosphorus initiates fractures, sulphur forms grains of iron sulphide that facilitate propagation of cracks, and lack of manganese makes the steel less ductile.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pieces of steel were found to have very high content of phosphorus and sulphur (4× and 2× respectively, compared with modern steel), with manganese -sulphur ratio of 6.8:1 (compared with over 200:1 ratio for modern steels).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steel was probably produced in the acid-lined, open-hearth furnaces in Glasgow , which would explain the high content of phosphorus and sulphur, even for the time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recovered samples were found to be undergoing ductile-brittle transition in temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) for longitudinal samples and 133 °F (56 °C) for transversal samples, compared with transition temperature of −17 °F (−27 °C) common for modern steels: modern steel would only become so brittle in between −76 °F and −94 °F (−60 °C and −70 °C).^ The recovered samples were found to be undergoing ductile-brittle transition in temperatures of 32 °C (for longitudinal samples) and 56 °C (for transversal samples—compare with transition temperature of −27 °C common for modern steels—modern steel would become as brittle between −60 and −70 °C).
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recovered samples were found to be undergoing ductile-brittle transition in temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) for longitudinal samples and 133 °F (56 °C) for transversal samples, compared with transition temperature of −17 °F (−27 °C) common for modern steels: modern steel would only become so brittle in between −76 °F and −94 °F (−60 °C and −70 °C).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A detailed analysis of small pieces of the steel plating from the Titanic ' s wreck hull found that it was of a metallurgy that loses its elasticity and becomes brittle in cold or icy water, leaving it vulnerable to dent-induced ruptures.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Titanic's steel, although "probably the best plain carbon ship plate available at the time", was thus unsuitable for use at low temperatures.^ The Titanic ' s steel, although "probably the best plain carbon ship plate available at the time", was thus unsuitable for use at low temperatures.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steel was probably produced in the acid-lined, open-hearth furnaces in Glasgow , which would explain the high content of phosphorus and sulphur, even for the times.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several ships responded, including Mount Temple , Frankfurt and Titanic ' s sister ship, Olympic , but none was close enough to make it in time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90] .The anisotropy was probably caused by hot rolling influencing the orientation of the sulphide stringer inclusions.^ The anisotropy was likely caused by hot rolling influencing the orientation of the sulphide stringer inclusions.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anisotropy was likely caused by hot rolling influencing the orientation of the sulfide stringer inclusions.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anisotropy was probably caused by hot rolling influencing the orientation of the sulphide stringer inclusions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The steel was probably produced in the acid-lined, open-hearth furnaces in Glasgow, which would explain the high content of phosphorus and sulphur, even for the time.^ The steel was probably produced in the acid-lined, open-hearth furnaces in Glasgow , which would explain the high content of phosphorus and sulphur, even for the times.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steel was probably produced in the acid-lined, open-hearth furnaces in Glasgow , which would explain the high content of phosphorus and sulphur, even for the time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High content of phosphorus initiates fractures, sulphur forms grains of iron sulphide that facilitate propagation of cracks, and lack of manganese makes the steel less ductile.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90][91]
.Another factor was the rivets holding the hull together, which were much more fragile than once thought.^ Another factor was the rivets holding the hull together, which were much more fragile than once thought.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the rivets holding the hull together were much more fragile than once thought.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Displacement- 66,000 tons Hull Construction - 1 inch thick plate steel held together with over 3 million steel rivets.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[91][92] .From 48 rivets recovered from the hull of the Titanic, scientists found many to be riddled with high concentrations of slag.^ From 48 rivets recovered from the hull of the Titanic , scientists found many to be riddled with high concentrations of slag .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During subsequent dives, scientists retrieved small pieces of Titanic's hull.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During subsequent dives, scientists retrieved small pieces of Titanic 's hull.
  • RMS Titanic at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A glassy residue of smelting, slag can make rivets brittle and prone to fracture.^ A glassy residue of smelting, slag can make rivets brittle and prone to fracture.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a claim that the rivets of the Titanic had not been properly tempered, leaving them brittle and sensitive to fracture in the infamous collision.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Records from the archive of the builder show that the ship's builder ordered No.^ Records from the archive of the builder show that the ship's builder ordered No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and passengers were reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship to board small lifeboats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3 iron bar, known as "best"—not No. 4, known as "best-best", for its rivets, although shipbuilders at that time typically used No. 4 iron for rivets. .The company also had shortages of skilled riveters, particularly important for hand riveting, which took great skill: the iron had to be heated to a precise colour and shaped by the right combination of hammer blows.^ The company also had shortages of skilled riveters, particularly important for hand riveting, which took great skill: the iron had to be heated to a precise colour and shaped by the right combination of hammer blows.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company used steel rivets, which were stronger and could be installed by machine, on the central hull, where stresses were expected to be greatest, using iron rivets for the stern and bow.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The company used steel rivets, which were stronger and could be installed by machine, on the central hull, where stresses were expected to be greatest, using iron rivets for the stern and bow.^ It is unknown if stronger steel or rivets could have saved the ship.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company used steel rivets, which were stronger and could be installed by machine, on the central hull, where stresses were expected to be greatest, using iron rivets for the stern and bow.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company also had shortages of skilled riveters, particularly important for hand riveting, which took great skill: the iron had to be heated to a precise colour and shaped by the right combination of hammer blows.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] .Rivets of "best best" iron had a tensile strength approximately 80% of that of steel, "best" iron some 73%.^ Rivets of "best best" iron had a tensile strength approximately 80% of that of steel, "best" iron some 73%.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company used steel rivets, which were stronger and could be installed by machine, on the central hull, where stresses were expected to be greatest, using iron rivets for the stern and bow.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .Despite this, the most extensive and finally fatal damage Titanic sustained at boiler rooms No.^ THE ROV turns and goes through a black doorway, entering room B-52, the sitting room of a "promenade suite", one of the most luxurious staterooms on Titanic.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although sealing off the watertight bulkheads with watertight decks would have increased the survivability of a vessel such as Titanic, it would have by no means ensured the survival of a ship with as much underwater damage as Titanic sustained in her collision with the iceberg; it was a big iceberg.
  • RMS TITANIC 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

5 and 6 was done in an area where steel rivets were used.

Rudder construction and turning ability

View of the stern and rudder of RMS Olympic in dry-dock.[94]
.Although Titanic's rudder met the mandated dimensional requirements for a ship her size, the rudder's design was hardly state-of-the-art.^ Compared with the rudder design of the Cunarders, Titanic ' s was a fraction of the size.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Titanic ' s rudder met the mandated dimensional requirements for a ship her size, the rudder's design was hardly state-of-the-art.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As harbour facilities at Queenstown were inadequate for a ship of her size, Titanic had to anchor off-shore, with small boats, known as tenders , ferrying the embarking passengers out to her.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to research by BBC History: "Her stern, with its high graceful counter and long thin rudder, was an exact copy of an 18th-century sailing ship...a perfect example of the lack of technical development. .Compared with the rudder design of the Cunarders, Titanic's was a fraction of the size.^ Compared with the rudder design of the Cunarders, Titanic ' s was a fraction of the size.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner, built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast , and designed to compete with the rival Cunard Line's Lusitania and Mauretania .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more objective assessment of the rudder provision compares it with the legal requirement of the time: the area had to be within a range of 1.5% and 5% of the hull's underwater profile and, at 1.9%, the Titanic was at the low end of the range.
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.No account was made for advances in scale and little thought was given to how a ship, 852 feet in length, [sic] might turn in an emergency or avoid collision with an iceberg.^ No account was made for advances in scale and little thought was given to how a ship, 852 feet in length, [ sic ] might turn in an emergency or avoid collision with an iceberg.
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^ Since the centre propeller was positioned forward of the ship's rudder, the effectiveness of that rudder would have been greatly reduced: had Murdoch simply turned the ship while maintaining her forward speed, the Titanic might have missed the iceberg with metres to spare.
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^ It was thought that any iceberg large enough to damage the ship would be seen in sufficient time to be avoided.
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.This was Titanic's Achilles heel."^ This was Titanic ' s Achilles heel."
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[95] .A more objective assessment of the rudder provision compares it with the legal requirement of the time: the area had to be within a range of 1.5% and 5% of the hull's underwater profile and, at 1.9%, the Titanic was at the low end of the range.^ Even during his time, he must have known that compared the ocean, the Adriatic or Titanic, or any ship man could devise would prove inconsequential compared to the awesome power of the ocean.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.However, the tall rudder design was more effective at the vessel's designed cruising speed; short, square rudders were more suitable for low-speed manoeuvring.^ However, the tall rudder design was more effective at the vessel's designed cruising speed; short, square rudders were more suitable for low-speed manoeuvring.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more objective assessment of the rudder provision compares it with the legal requirement of the time: the area had to be within a range of 1.5% and 5% of the hull's underwater profile and, at 1.9%, the Titanic was at the low end of the range.
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[96]
.Perhaps more fatal to the design of the Titanic was her triple screw engine configuration, which had reciprocating steam engines driving her wing propellers, and a steam turbine driving her centre propeller.^ The reciprocating engines were reversible, while the turbine was not.
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^ Perhaps more fatal to the design of the Titanic was her triple screw engine configuration, which had reciprocating steam engines driving her wing propellers, and a steam turbine driving her centre propeller.
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^ Scotch marine boilers Two four-cylinder reciprocating triple-expansion steam engines each producing 15,000 hp for the two outboard wing propellers at 75 revolutions per minute [ 4 ] One low-pressure turbine producing 16,000 hp [ 4 ] 46,000 HP (design) – 59,000 HP (maximum) [ 5 ] .
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The reciprocating engines were reversible, while the turbine was not. .According to subsequent evidence from Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall, who entered the bridge just after the collision, First Officer Murdoch had set the engine room telegraph to reverse the engines to avoid the iceberg,[39] thus handicapping the turning ability of the ship.^ FIRST OFFICER MURDOCH Lower away!
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Murdoch sees it and rushes to the engine room telegraph.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bow finally starts to come left (since the ship turns the reverse of the helm setting).
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because the centre turbine could not reverse during the "full speed astern" manoeuvre, it was simply stopped.^ Because the centre turbine could not reverse during the "full speed astern" manoeuvre, it was simply stopped.
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^ FULL SPEED ASTERN. He and the other ENGINEERS just stare at it a second, unbelieving.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While signaling "FULL SPEED ASTERN" he yells to Quartermaster Hitchins, who is at the wheel.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the centre propeller was positioned forward of the ship's rudder, the effectiveness of that rudder would have been greatly reduced: had Murdoch simply turned the ship while maintaining her forward speed, the Titanic might have missed the iceberg with metres to spare.^ The bow finally starts to come left (since the ship turns the reverse of the helm setting).
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the worlds most advanced, the biggest, and most luxurious ship hit the iceberg; everything that went into the design and construction, and even the sailing of Titanic was against it.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ She does, and he turns her to face forward, the way the ship is going.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[97] .Another survivor, Frederick Scott, an engine room worker, gave contrary evidence: he recalled that at his station in the engine room all four sets of telegraphs had changed to "Stop", but not until after the collision.^ Another survivor, Frederick Scott, an engine room worker, gave contrary evidence: he recalled that at his station in the engine room all four sets of telegraphs had changed to "Stop", but not until after the collision.
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^ First Officer Murdoch gave the order "hard-a-starboard", using the traditional tiller order for an abrupt turn to port (left), and adjusted the engines (he either ordered through the telegraph for "full reverse" or "stop" on the engines, survivor testimony on this conflicts [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] ).
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^ ISBN 0-446-51385-7 ^ titanic.marconigraph.com - STOP Command Greaser Frederick Scott, who stated that the engine-room telegraphs showed "Stop", and by Leading Stoker Frederick Barrett who stated that the stoking indicators went from “Full” to “Stop” ^ a b " Testimony of Joseph G. Boxhall ".
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[40]

Orientation of impact

.It has been speculated that the ship could have been saved if she had rammed the iceberg head on.^ It has been speculated that the ship could have been saved if she had rammed the iceberg head on.
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^ The sharks could then vomit the unfortunate Leo across the surface of the offending iceberg, the corrosive properties of which would dissolve the great hulk of floating ice, thus saving the ship, hurrah!
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98][99] .It is hypothesised that if Titanic had not altered her course at all and instead collided head first with the iceberg, the impact would have been taken by the naturally stronger bow and damage would have affected only one or two forward compartments.^ Titanic collided with an iceberg in the North .

^ There's a reason this movie is the number one grossing movie of all time ($1,835,400,000) not adjusted for inflation - IT WAS THE BEST! The entire work took well over two years (starting from Cameron and his crew's first expediton to Titanic in August 1995).
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But that would not be otherwise, because the in rem action only addressed rights to the res of the Titanic wreck.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.This would have disabled her, and possibly caused casualties among the passengers near the bow, but probably would not have resulted in sinking since Titanic was designed to float with the first four compartments flooded.^ This would have disabled her, and possibly caused casualties among the passengers near the bow, but probably would not have resulted in sinking since Titanic was designed to float with the first four compartments flooded.
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^ Main article: Titanic alternative theories A number of alternative theories diverging from the standard explanation for the Titanic ' s demise have been brought forth since shortly after the sinking.
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^ On 15 April Titanic ' s eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley , had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.
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.Instead, the glancing blow to the starboard side caused buckling in the hull plates along the first five compartments, more than the ship's designers had allowed for.^ Instead, the glancing blow to the starboard side caused buckling in the hull plates along the first five compartments, more than the ship's designers had allowed for.
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^ BODINE She hits the berg on the starboard side and it sort of bumps along...
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Titanic , along with her Olympic -class sisters, the Olympic and the soon-to-be-built Britannic (which was to be called Gigantic at first), were intended to be the largest, most luxurious ships ever to operate.
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Adverse weather conditions

.The weather conditions for the Atlantic at the time of the collision were unusual because there was a flat calm sea, without wind or swell.^ The weather conditions for the Atlantic at the time of the collision were unusual because there was a flat calm sea, without wind or swell.
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^ Under normal sea conditions in the area of the collision, waves would have broken over the base of an iceberg, assisting in the location of icebergs even on a moonless night.
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.In addition, it was a moonless night.^ In addition, it was a moonless night.
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.Under normal sea conditions in the area of the collision, waves would have broken over the base of an iceberg, assisting in the location of icebergs even on a moonless night.^ Under normal sea conditions in the area of the collision, waves would have broken over the base of an iceberg, assisting in the location of icebergs even on a moonless night.
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^ Exclusive viewing and photographing of property is usually achieved by exercising exclusive possession and removing the property to a private or controllable location where it cannot be viewed or photographed except under conditions controlled by the owner.
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (4th Cir. 1999) 20 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Castine was an ideal location from which to control the Penobscot River area with its valuable naval timber resources, and it was a good base for controlling Yankee privateers.

Excessive speed

.The conclusion of the British Inquiry into the sinking was “that the loss of the said ship was due to collision with an iceberg, brought about by the excessive speed at which the ship was being navigated”.^ The conclusion of the British Inquiry into the sinking was “that the loss of the said ship was due to collision with an iceberg, brought about by the excessive speed at which the ship was being navigated”.
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^ Lord Mersey was appointed to head the British Board of Trade's inquiry into the disaster.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the sinking the British Board of Trade introduced regulations instructing vessels to moderate their speed if they were expecting to encounter icebergs.
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.At the time of the collision it is thought that the Titanic was at her normal cruising speed of about 22 knots, which was less than her top speed of around 24 knots.^ At the time of the collision it is thought that the Titanic was at her normal cruising speed of about 22 knots, which was less than her top speed of around 24 knots.
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^ There were 29 boilers fired by 159 coal burning furnaces that made possible a top speed of 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph).
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^ Since then the size of ships had increased rapidly, meaning that Titanic was legally required to carry only enough lifeboats for less than half of its capacity.
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At the time it was common (but not universal) practice to maintain normal speed in areas where icebergs were expected. .It was thought that any iceberg large enough to damage the ship would be seen in sufficient time to be avoided.^ It was thought that any iceberg large enough to damage the ship would be seen in sufficient time to be avoided.
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^ Several ships responded, including Mount Temple , Frankfurt and Titanic ' s sister ship, Olympic , but none was close enough to make it in time.
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^ The high casualty rate was due in part to the fact that, although complying with the regulations of the time, the ship did not carry enough lifeboats for everyone aboard.
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.After the sinking the British Board of Trade introduced regulations instructing vessels to moderate their speed if they were expecting to encounter icebergs.^ After the sinking the British Board of Trade introduced regulations instructing vessels to moderate their speed if they were expecting to encounter icebergs.
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^ Lord Mersey was appointed to head the British Board of Trade's inquiry into the disaster.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was anticipated during the design of the ship that the British Board of Trade might require an increase in the number of lifeboats at some future date.
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.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay instructed or encouraged Captain Smith to increase speed in order to make an early landfall, and it is a common feature in popular representations of the disaster, such as the 1997 film, Titanic.^ It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay instructed or encouraged Captain Smith to increase speed in order to make an early landfall, and it is a common feature in popular representations of the disaster, such as the 1997 film, Titanic [ 95 ] There is little evidence for this having happened, and it is disputed by many.
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^ It features a compilation of survivors' accounts, a chronology of marine disasters from 1866 to 1911, a list of Titanic passengers, and excerpts from the U.S. Senate Inquiry.
  • r.m.s. titanic reading room: bibliography & bookstore 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www2.lv.psu.edu [Source type: General]

^ As news of the disaster spread, many people were shocked that the Titanic could sink with such great loss of life despite all of her technological advances.
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[100] .There is little evidence for this having happened, and it is disputed by many.^ It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay instructed or encouraged Captain Smith to increase speed in order to make an early landfall, and it is a common feature in popular representations of the disaster, such as the 1997 film, Titanic [ 95 ] There is little evidence for this having happened, and it is disputed by many.
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[101][102]

Insufficient lifeboats

Survivors aboard a collapsible lifeboat, viewed from the Carpathia.
.No single aspect regarding the huge loss of life from the Titanic disaster has provoked more outrage than the fact that the ship did not carry enough lifeboats for all her passengers and crew.^ No single aspect regarding the huge loss of life from the Titanic disaster has provoked more outrage than the fact that the ship did not carry enough lifeboats for all her passengers and crew.
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^ While not enough to hold all of the passengers and crew, the Titanic carried more boats than was required by the British Board of Trade Regulations.
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^ The ship could carry a total of 3,547 passengers and crew.
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This is partially due to the fact that the law, dating from 1894, required a minimum of 16 lifeboats for ships of over 10,000 tons. This law had been established when the largest ship afloat was RMS Lucania. .Since then the size of ships had increased rapidly, meaning that Titanic was legally required to carry only enough lifeboats for less than half of its capacity.^ CUT TO: 174 EXT. STARBOARD SIDE Boat 7 is less than half full, with 28 aboard a boat made for 65.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Enough to see that the ship is angled down into the water, with the bow rail less than ten feet above the surface.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Actually, the White Star Line exceeded the regulations by including four more collapsible lifeboats—this gave a total capacity of 1,178 people (still only around a third of Titanic's total capacity of 3,547).^ People are still screaming, calling to the lifeboats.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ship had a total lifeboat capacity of 1,178 people, although her maximum capacity was 3,547.
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^ Actually, the White Star Line exceeded the regulations by including four more collapsible lifeboats—this gave a total capacity of 1,178 people (still only around a third of Titanic ' s total capacity of 3,547).
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.In the busy North Atlantic sea lanes it was expected that in the event of a serious accident to a ship, help from other vessels would be quickly obtained, and that the lifeboats would be used to ferry passengers and crew from the stricken vessel to its rescuers.^ At Halifax, as one would expect, the US Consul Mortimer M. Jackson, quickly sent off the vital information about the whereabouts of the Confederate ship to Welles, next he tried to stop any coaling assistance...

^ Here's where we find out if the time, the sweat, the money spent to charter this ship and these subs, to come out here to the middle of the North Atlantic...
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While lifeboats were being lowered to the Frigid North Atlantic, Third Class passengers were below decks and had no idea that their only safe way off the ship was rowing away.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Full provision of lifeboats was not considered necessary for this.^ Full provision of lifeboats was not considered necessary for this.
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.It was anticipated during the design of the ship that the British Board of Trade might require an increase in the number of lifeboats at some future date.^ It was anticipated during the design of the ship that the British Board of Trade might require an increase in the number of lifeboats at some future date.
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^ Sir Alfred Chalmers, nautical adviser to the Board of Trade from 1896 to 1911, had considered the matter "from time to time", but because he thought that experienced sailors would have to be carried "uselessly" aboard ship for no other purpose than lowering and manning lifeboats, and the difficulty he anticipated in getting away a greater number than 16 in any emergency, he "did not consider it necessary to increase [our scale]".
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^ Lord Mersey was appointed to head the British Board of Trade's inquiry into the disaster.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore lifeboat davits capable of handling up to four boats per pair of davits were designed and installed, to give a total potential capacity of 64 boats.^ Therefore lifeboat davits capable of handling up to four boats per pair of davits were designed and installed, to give a total potential capacity of 64 boats [ 98 ] .
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^ Sixteen sets of these davits were installed, giving Titanic the ability to carry 64 [ 18 ] wooden lifeboats—a total capacity of over 4,000 people, compared with Titanic ' s total carrying capacity of about 3,600 passengers and crew.
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^ Carlisle's role in this project was the design of the superstructure of these ships, particularly the superstructures' streamlined joining to the hulls [ citation needed ] as well as the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design.
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[103] .The additional boats were never fitted.^ The additional boats were never fitted.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay, the President of White Star, vetoed the installation of these additional boats to maximise the passenger promenade area on the boat deck.^ It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay , the President of White Star, vetoed the installation of these additional boats to maximise the passenger promenade area on the boat deck.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travelling in first–class aboard the ship were White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay and the ship's builder Thomas Andrews , who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CUT TO: 156 INT. CORRIDOR ON B DECK Bruce Ismay, dressed in pajamas under the topcoat, hurries down the corridor, headed for the bridge.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Harold Sanderson, Vice President of International Merchantile Marine, rejected this allegation during the British Inquiry.^ Harold Sanderson, Vice President of International Merchantile Marine refuted this allegation during the British Inquiry.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten days before the maiden voyage Axel Welin , the maker of Titanic ' s lifeboat davits, had announced that his machinery had been installed because the vessel's owners were aware of forthcoming changes in official regulations, but Harold Sanderson, vice-president of the International Mercantile Marine and former general manager of the White Star Line, denied that this had been the intention.
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^ In 1990, following the discovery of the wreck, the Marine Accident Investigation Branch of the British Department of Transport re-opened the inquiry to review the evidence relating to the Californian .
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[104]
.The lack of lifeboats was not the only cause of the tragic loss of lives.^ The lack of lifeboats was not the only cause of the tragic loss of lives.
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.After the collision with the iceberg, one hour was taken to evaluate the damage, recognise what was going to happen, inform first class passengers, and lower the first lifeboat.^ After the collision with the iceberg, one hour was taken to evaluate the damage, recognise what was going to happen, inform first class passengers, and lower the first lifeboat.
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^ One first class woman is barefoot.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the Café Parisien offered cuisine for the first-class passengers, with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.
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Afterward, the crew worked quite efficiently, taking a total of 80 minutes to lower all 16 lifeboats. .Since the crew was divided into two teams, one on each side of the ship, an average of 10 minutes of work was necessary for a team to fill a lifeboat with passengers and lower it.^ Since the crew was divided into two teams, one on each side of the ship, an average of 10 minutes of work was necessary for a team to fill a lifeboat with passengers and lower it.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the busy North Atlantic sea lanes it was expected that in the event of a serious accident to a ship, help from other vessels would be quickly obtained, and that the lifeboats would be used to ferry passengers and crew from the stricken vessel to its rescuers.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the bond and the frightened Americans' promise to deliver the unfinished ships, the British floated the seaworthy ships into the middle of the Penobscot and set ablaze all but two ships, one brig, six schooners, and three sloops.

.Yet another factor in the high death toll that related to the lifeboats was the reluctance of the passengers to board them.^ Yet another factor in the high death toll that related to the lifeboats was the reluctance of the passengers to board them.
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^ The Titanic showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and passengers were reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship to board small lifeboats.
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^ With 2201 souls on board, and lifeboats for only 1178 Captain Edward J. Smith did not even bother with boat drills and/or boat assignments for either crew or passengers.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The most notable being Lifeboat #1 with a capacity of 40, launched at 00:40 with only 12 people aboard.^ The most notable being Lifeboat #1 with a capacity of 40, launched at 00:40 with only 12 people aboard.
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^ Lifeboat 1 was the fifth lifeboat to be launched with 12 people.
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^ Carlisle's role in this project was the design of the superstructure of these ships, particularly the superstructures' streamlined joining to the hulls [ citation needed ] as well as the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design.
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.This was partly due to at the point of launch, Titanic did not appear to be in imminent danger and hence passengers were likely to be reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship.^ The Titanic showed no outward signs of being in imminent danger, and passengers were reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship to board small lifeboats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was partly due to at the point of launch, Titanic did not appear to be in imminent danger and hence passengers were likely to be reluctant to leave the apparent safety of the ship.
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^ Kagome (10 out of 10 ) Like oh my god I did some research on this and this movie has everything the actual Titanic.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea that the ship was unsinkable is unlikely to be the reason of the low utilisation of early life boats.^ As the following section states, the idea that the ship is unsinkable is unlikely to be the reason of the low utilisation of early life boats.
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^ CAL (slapping the side of a boat) Waste of deck space as it is, on an unsinkable ship!
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One can not explain away everything that adds up to one thing; there is a reason, or are reasons, why too many Third Class passengers didn't make it to the life boats.
  • RMS Titanic 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Alternative theories

.A number of alternative theories diverging from the standard explanation for the Titanic's demise have been brought forth since shortly after the sinking.^ Main article: Titanic alternative theories A number of alternative theories diverging from the standard explanation for the Titanic ' s demise have been brought forth since shortly after the sinking.
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^ The idea of finding the wreck of Titanic , and even raising the ship from the ocean floor, had been around since shortly after the ship sank.
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.Some of these include a coal fire aboard ship,[105] or the Titanic hitting pack ice rather than an iceberg.^ Titanic and that these rights include the right .

^ Some of these include a coal fire aboard ship, [ 100 ] or the Titanic hitting pack ice rather than an iceberg.
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^ PAN oFF Him to reveal the ship is stopped fifty yards from the edge of a field of pack ice and icebergs stretching as far as the eye can see.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

[106][107] .In the realm of the supernatural, it has been proposed that the Titanic sank due to a mummy's curse.^ In the realm of the supernatural, it has been proposed that the Titanic sank due to a mummy 's curse.
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^ When Titanic sank, claims were made that a curse existed on the ship.
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[108]

Legends and myths regarding the RMS Titanic

Unsinkable

.Contrary to popular mythology, the Titanic was never described as "unsinkable", without qualification, until after she sank.^ Contrary to popular mythology, the Titanic was never described as "unsinkable", without qualification , until after she sank.
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^ This comment was seized upon by the press and the idea that the White Star Line had previously declared the Titanic to be unsinkable (without qualification) gained immediate and widespread currency.
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^ BBC Archive: Titanic , Hear the survivors describe a night they could never forget.
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[6][109] .There are three trade publications (one of which was probably never published) that describe the Titanic as unsinkable, prior to her sinking, but there is no evidence that the notion of the Titanic's unsinkability had entered public consciousness until after the sinking.^ Further, there is no evidence .
  • R.M.S. Titanic v. Haver (3/24/1999, No. 98-1934) 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are three trade publications (one of which was probably never published) that describe the Titanic as unsinkable, prior to her sinking, but there is no evidence that the notion of the Titanic ' s unsinkability had entered public consciousness until after the sinking.
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^ Futility, or the Wreck of the Titan , a novella written by Morgan Robertson that outlined events similar to that of the Titanic , fourteen years prior to her sinking.
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[6]
General arrangement of the 16 main compartments of the Titanic. .The double bottom was 7 feet high and divided into 44 watertight compartments.^ The five water-filled compartments weighed down the ship so that the tops of the forward watertight bulkheads fell below the ship's waterline, allowing water to pour into additional compartments.
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.There were additional 13 small compartments above the tank top, e.g.^ The five water-filled compartments weighed down the ship so that the tops of the forward watertight bulkheads fell below the ship's waterline, allowing water to pour into additional compartments.
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for the shaft tunnels.[110]
The trade journal The Shipbuilder and Marine Engine Builder described in their June 1911 Special Number devoted to the Olympic and Titanic that "The captain may, by simply moving an electric switch, instantly close the watertight doors throughout, making the vessel virtually unsinkable."[111] In fact the vessel was designed to comply with Grade 1 subdivision proposed by the 1891 Bulkhead Committee, meaning that it could stay afloat with any two adjoining out of its 16 main compartments in free communication with the sea. .The height of the bulkhead deck above the water line in flooded condition was well above the requirements and the vessel indeed would have been able to float with three adjoining compartments flooded in 11 out of 14 possible combinations.^ CUT TO: 69 EXT. LAUNCH AREA/KELDYSH DECK - DAY As the big hydraulic jib swings one of the Mir subs out over the water.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She was 882 feet 9 inches (269.1 m) long and 92 feet 0 inches (28.0 m) wide, [ 3 ] with a gross register tonnage of 46,328 long tons and a height from the water line to the boat deck of 59 feet (18 m).
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^ The collision with the ocean floor forced water out of Titanic through the hull below the well deck.
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[112]
The first unqualified assertion of the Titanic's unsinkability appears the day after the tragedy (on 16 April 1912) in The New York Times, which quotes Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the White Star Line as saying, when informed of the tragedy,
.I thought her unsinkable and I based by [sic] opinion on the best expert advice available.^ I thought her unsinkable and I based by [ sic ] opinion on the best expert advice available.
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I do not understand it.[113]
.This comment was seized upon by the press and the idea that the White Star Line had previously declared the Titanic to be unsinkable (without qualification) gained immediate and widespread currency.^ This comment was seized upon by the press and the idea that the White Star Line had previously declared the Titanic to be unsinkable (without qualification) gained immediate and widespread currency.
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^ The first unqualified assertion of the Titanic ' s unsinkability appears the day after the tragedy (on 16 April 1912) in The New York Times , which quotes Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the White Star Line as saying, when informed of the tragedy, .
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^ Contrary to popular mythology, the Titanic was never described as "unsinkable", without qualification , until after she sank.
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David Sarnoff, wireless reports and the use of SOS

.An often-quoted story that has been blurred between fact and fiction states that the first person to receive news of the sinking was David Sarnoff, who would later lead media giant RCA.^ There were people on the ship who stated that he did in fact kill himself.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This single sentence is found in Berton's description of a minor encounter on the border between Quebec and New York state — someone in Quebec making a jocular passing reference.

.In modified versions of this legend, Sarnoff was not the first to hear the news (though Sarnoff willingly promoted this notion), but he and others did staff the Marconi wireless station (telegraph) atop the Wanamaker Department Store in New York City, and for three days, relayed news of the disaster and names of survivors to people waiting outside.^ In modified versions of this legend, Sarnoff was not the first to hear the news (though Sarnoff willingly promoted this notion), but he and others did staff the Marconi wireless station (telegraph) atop the Wanamaker Department Store in New York City, and for three days, relayed news of the disaster and names of survivors to people waiting outside.
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^ The first unqualified assertion of the Titanic ' s unsinkability appears the day after the tragedy (on 16 April 1912) in The New York Times , which quotes Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the White Star Line as saying, when informed of the tragedy, .
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^ The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company http://www.cwhistory.com/history/html/MarconiWT.html In 1909, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company began operation of his first trans-atlantic radio telegraph service.

.However, even this version lacks support in contemporary accounts.^ However, even this version lacks support in contemporary accounts.
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.No newspapers of the time, for example, mention Sarnoff.^ No newspapers of the time, for example, mention Sarnoff.
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^ For example, a French court could presumably have just as well issued a similar order at the same time with no less effect.
  • RMS TITANIC INC) 984746.U 03/24/99 US v CRUZ, 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.Given the absence of primary evidence, the story of Sarnoff should be properly regarded as a legend.^ Given the absence of primary evidence, the story of Sarnoff should be properly regarded as a legend.
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[114][115][116][117][118]
.Despite popular belief, the sinking of Titanic was not the first time the internationally recognised Morse code distress signal "SOS" was used.^ Despite popular belief, the sinking of Titanic was not the first time the internationally recognised Morse code distress signal " SOS " was used.
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^ As it was not responding to wireless, Fourth Officer Boxhall and Quartermaster Rowe attempted signalling the ship with a Morse lamp and later with distress rockets, but the ship never appeared to respond.
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^ Later, they noticed the Titanic ' s distress signals over the lights and informed Captain Stanley Lord .
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.The SOS signal was first proposed at the International Conference on Wireless Communication at Sea in Berlin in 1906. It was ratified by the international community in 1908 and had been in widespread use since then.^ It was ratified by the international community in 1908 and had been in widespread use since then.
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^ The SOS signal was first proposed at the International Conference on Wireless Communication at Sea in Berlin in 1906.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite popular belief, the sinking of Titanic was not the first time the internationally recognised Morse code distress signal " SOS " was used.
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.The SOS signal was, however, rarely used by British wireless operators, who preferred the older CQD code.^ The SOS signal was, however, rarely used by British wireless operators, who preferred the older CQD code.
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^ David Sarnoff, wireless reports and the use of SOS .
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^ Wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending out CQD , the international distress signal.
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.First Wireless Operator Jack Phillips began transmitting CQD until Second Wireless Operator Harold Bride suggested half jokingly, "Send SOS; it's the new call, and this may be your last chance to send it."^ BRIDE Maybe you ought to try that new distress call...
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CUT TO: 121 INT. WIRELESS ROOM A BRILLIANT ARC OF ELECTRICITY fills frame-- the sparks gap of the Marconi instrument as SENIOR WIRELESS OPERATOR JACK PHILLIPS (24) rapidly keys out a message.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company http://www.cwhistory.com/history/html/MarconiWT.html In 1909, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company began operation of his first trans-atlantic radio telegraph service.

.Phillips, then began to intersperse SOS with the traditional CQD call.^ Phillips, then began to intersperse SOS with the traditional CQD call.
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^ First Wireless Operator Jack Phillips began transmitting CQD until Second Wireless Operator Harold Bride suggested half jokingly, "Send SOS; it's the new call, and this may be your last chance to send it."
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Titanic's band

Members of the Titanic's band.
.One of the most famous stories of Titanic is of the band.^ One of the most famous stories of Titanic is of the band .
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^ THE ROV turns and goes through a black doorway, entering room B-52, the sitting room of a "promenade suite", one of the most luxurious staterooms on Titanic.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Titanic by nsonline: a collection of links, information, Nova Scotian newspaper stories, photos and other interesting facts about one of the world's most compelling marine disasters, and the parts that Nova Scotia played in its aftermath...

.On 15 April Titanic's eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley, had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.^ Members of the Titanic ' s band.
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^ On 15 April Titanic ' s eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley , had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.
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^ In addition, the Café Parisien offered cuisine for the first-class passengers, with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.
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.Later they moved on to the forward half of the boat deck.^ Later they moved on to the forward half of the boat deck.
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^ Two of the most noticeable differences were that half of the Titanics ' s forward promenade A-Deck (below the boat deck) was enclosed against outside weather, and her B-Deck configuration was different from the Olympic ' s.
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^ CUT TO: 220 EXT. BOAT DECK, STARBOARD, FORWARD Water pours like a spillway over the forward railing on B-Deck.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The band continued playing, even when it became apparent the ship was going to sink, and all members perished.^ The band continued playing, even when it became apparent the ship was going to sink, and all members perished.
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^ He figures anything big enough to sink the ship they're going to see in time to turn.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hartley reportedly once said to a friend if he were on a sinking ship, "Nearer, My God, to Thee" would be one of the songs he would play.
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.There has been much speculation about what their last song was.^ There has been much speculation about what their last song was.
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^ I have seen this movie about 30 times at least in the last 8 months and my family and friends think I'm crazy for watching a 3 hour movie so much.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A first-class Canadian passenger, Mrs. Vera Dick, alleged that the final song played was the hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee". Hartley reportedly once said to a friend if he were on a sinking ship, "Nearer, My God, to Thee" would be one of the songs he would play.[119] .But Walter Lord's book A Night to Remember popularised wireless operator Harold Bride's 1912 account (New York Times) that he heard the song "Autumn" before the ship sank.^ But Walter Lord 's book A Night to Remember popularised wireless operator Harold Bride 's 1912 account ( New York Times ) that he heard the song "Autumn" before the ship sank.
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^ The first unqualified assertion of the Titanic ' s unsinkability appears the day after the tragedy (on 16 April 1912) in The New York Times , which quotes Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the White Star Line as saying, when informed of the tragedy, .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titanic's Sea Trials ^ Cableto THE NEW YORK TIMES., Special (1912-04-11).
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.It is considered Bride either meant the hymn called "Autumn" or waltz "Songe d'Automne" but neither were in the White Star Line songbook for the band.^ It is considered Bride either meant the hymn called "Autumn" or waltz "Songe d'Automne" but neither were in the White Star Line songbook for the band.
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^ This comment was seized upon by the press and the idea that the White Star Line had previously declared the Titanic to be unsinkable (without qualification) gained immediate and widespread currency.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The press quickly linked the "Titanic curse" with the White Star Line practice of not christening their ships (notwithstanding the opening scene of the film A Night to Remember ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .Bride is the only witness who was close enough to the band, as he floated off the deck before the ship went down, to be considered reliable—Mrs.^ Bride is the only witness who was close enough to the band, as he floated off the deck before the ship went down, to be considered reliable—Mrs.
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^ Over a thousand people are now floating where the ship went down.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BRIDE The only one close, sir.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dick had left by lifeboat an hour and 20 minutes earlier and could not possibly have heard the band's final moments.^ Dick had left by lifeboat an hour and 20 minutes earlier and could not possibly have heard the band's final moments.
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The notion that the band played "Nearer, My God, to Thee" as a swan song is possibly a myth originating from the wrecking of the SS Valencia, which had received wide press coverage in Canada in 1906 and so may have influenced Mrs. Dick's recollection.[6] .Also, there are two, very different, musical settings for "Nearer, My God, to Thee": one is popular in Britain, and the other is popular in the U.S., and the British melody might sound like the other hymn ("Autumn").^ The other two guys are already there.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, there are two, very different, musical settings for "Nearer, My God, to Thee": one is popular in Britain, and the other is popular in the U.S., and the British melody might sound like the other hymn ("Autumn").
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kagome (10 out of 10 ) Like oh my god I did some research on this and this movie has everything the actual Titanic.
  • Titanic Script at IMSDb. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.imsdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The film A Night to Remember (1958) uses the British setting; while the 1953 film Titanic, with Clifton Webb, uses the American setting.^ The film A Night to Remember (1958) uses the British setting; while the 1953 film Titanic , with Clifton Webb, uses the American setting.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The press quickly linked the "Titanic curse" with the White Star Line practice of not christening their ships (notwithstanding the opening scene of the film A Night to Remember ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For movies about Titanic, A Night To Remember (which cribbed special effects from an earlier German Titanic film) is much better.
  • Titanic achievement at the box office | Film | guardian.co.uk 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

The stories of W.T. Stead

.Another often cited Titanic legend concerns perished first class passenger William Thomas Stead.^ Main article: William Thomas Stead Another often cited Titanic legend concerns perished first class passenger William Thomas Stead.
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^ In addition, the Café Parisien offered cuisine for the first-class passengers, with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 April Titanic ' s eight-member band, led by Wallace Hartley , had assembled in the first-class lounge in an effort to keep passengers calm and upbeat.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this folklore, Stead had, through precognitive insight, foreseen his own death on the Titanic.^ According to this folklore, Stead had, through precognitive insight, foreseen his own death on the Titanic .
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.This is apparently suggested in two fictional sinking stories, which he penned decades earlier.^ This is apparently suggested in two fictional sinking stories, which he penned decades earlier.
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.The first,[120][121] (Pall Mall Gazette, 22 March 1886) tells of a mail steamer's collision with another ship, resulting in high loss of life due to lack of lifeboats.^ The first, "How the Mail Steamer Went Down in Mid-Atlantic, by a Survivor" [ 113 ] ( Pall Mall Gazette , 22 March 1886) tells of a mail steamer's collision with another ship, resulting in high loss of life due to lack of lifeboats.
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^ Less obvious however are the reasons for the collision itself (which occurred on a clear night, and after the ship had received numerous ice warnings), the factors underlying the sheer extent of the damage sustained by the ship, and the reasons for the extreme loss of life.
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^ This is partially due to the fact that the law, dating from 1894, required a minimum of 16 lifeboats for ships of over 10,000 tons.
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.In 1892, Stead published a story called From the Old World to the New,[122] in which a White Star Line vessel, the Majestic, rescues survivors of another ship that collided with an iceberg.^ This comment was seized upon by the press and the idea that the White Star Line had previously declared the Titanic to be unsinkable (without qualification) gained immediate and widespread currency.
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^ The first unqualified assertion of the Titanic ' s unsinkability appears the day after the tragedy (on 16 April 1912) in The New York Times , which quotes Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the White Star Line as saying, when informed of the tragedy, .
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^ The White Star Line paid for gravestones with the victim's number, and name if known.

The Titanic curse

.When Titanic sank, claims were made that a curse existed on the ship.^ The Titanic was launched in 1912 as the"largest and finest steam- ship ever built" and with the claim that she was"unsinkable."
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.The press quickly linked the "Titanic curse" with the White Star Line practice of not christening their ships (notwithstanding the opening scene of the film A Night to Remember).^ The press quickly linked the "Titanic curse" with the White Star Line practice of not christening their ships (notwithstanding the opening scene of the film A Night to Remember ).
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^ This comment was seized upon by the press and the idea that the White Star Line had previously declared the Titanic to be unsinkable (without qualification) gained immediate and widespread currency.
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^ The first unqualified assertion of the Titanic ' s unsinkability appears the day after the tragedy (on 16 April 1912) in The New York Times , which quotes Philip A. S. Franklin, vice president of the White Star Line as saying, when informed of the tragedy, .
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[6]
One of the most widely spread legends linked directly into the sectarianism of the city of Belfast, where the ship was built. .It was suggested that the ship was given the number 390904 which, when read backwards, was claimed to spell "no pope", a sectarian slogan attacking Roman Catholics that was (and is) widely used provocatively by extreme Protestants in Northern Ireland, where the ship was built.^ The Titanic was launched in 1912 as the"largest and finest steam- ship ever built" and with the claim that she was"unsinkable."
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^ He would sign on as ships carpenter during lax periods when no ships were being built.

.In the extreme sectarianism of north-east Ireland (Northern Ireland itself did not exist until 1920), the ship's sinking, though mourned, was alleged to be on account of the sectarian anti-Catholicism of her manufacturers, the Harland and Wolff company, which had an almost exclusively Protestant workforce and an alleged record of hostility towards Catholics.^ In the extreme sectarianism of north-east Ireland (Northern Ireland itself did not exist until 1920), the ship's sinking, though mourned, was alleged to be on account of the sectarian anti-Catholicism of her manufacturers, the Harland and Wolff company, which had an almost exclusively Protestant workforce and an alleged record of hostility towards Catholics.
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^ Harland and Wolff yards in Belfast , Ireland .
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^ (Harland and Wolff did have a record of hiring few Catholics; whether that was through policy or because the company's shipyard in Belfast's bay was located in almost exclusively Protestant East Belfast—through which few Catholics would dare to travel—or a mixture of both, is a matter of dispute.
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.(Harland and Wolff did have a record of hiring few Catholics; whether that was through policy or because the company's shipyard in Belfast's bay was located in almost exclusively Protestant East Belfast—through which few Catholics would dare to travel—or a mixture of both, is a matter of dispute.^ Harland and Wolff yards in Belfast , Ireland .
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^ (Harland and Wolff did have a record of hiring few Catholics; whether that was through policy or because the company's shipyard in Belfast's bay was located in almost exclusively Protestant East Belfast—through which few Catholics would dare to travel—or a mixture of both, is a matter of dispute.
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^ In the extreme sectarianism of north-east Ireland (Northern Ireland itself did not exist until 1920), the ship's sinking, though mourned, was alleged to be on account of the sectarian anti-Catholicism of her manufacturers, the Harland and Wolff company, which had an almost exclusively Protestant workforce and an alleged record of hostility towards Catholics.
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)[123]
.The "no pope" story is in fact an urban legend.^ The "no pope" story is in fact an urban legend .
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.RMS Olympic and Titanic were assigned the yard numbers 400 and 401[124] respectively.^ RMS Olympic and Titanic were assigned the yard numbers 400 and 401 [ 115 ] respectively.
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^ RMS Olympic · RMS Titanic · HMHS Britannic .
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.The source of the story may have been from reports by dockworkers in Queenstown of anti-Catholic graffiti that they found on Titanic's coalbunkers when they were loading coal.^ The source of the story may have been from reports by dockworkers in Queenstown of anti-Catholic graffiti that they found on Titanic ' s coalbunkers when they were loading coal.
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^ In Southampton, England a memorial to the engineers of the Titanic may be found in Andrews Park on Above Bar Street.
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^ Its report of 1992 concluded that the Californian was farther from the Titanic than the earlier British inquiry had found, and that the distress rockets, but not the Titanic herself, would have been visible from the Californian .
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See also

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2005-12-10, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. .(Audio help)
More spoken articles
.
  • List of films about the RMS Titanic
  • MS Hans Hedtoft, a ship sunk by an iceberg on her maiden voyage in 1959.
  • Futility, or the Wreck of the Titan, a novella written by Morgan Robertson that outlined events similar to that of the Titanic, fourteen years prior to her sinking.
  • SS Nomadic, former tender to the Titanic and Olympic.
  • New York Times WHITE STAR PROFITS CUT TO 30 PER CENT.;Effect of Titanic Disaster on the Company's Dividend a Reduction by Half...^ Investigations into the RMS Titanic disaster .
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    ^ Futility, or the Wreck of the Titan , a novella written by Morgan Robertson that outlined events similar to that of the Titanic , fourteen years prior to her sinking.
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    ^ SS Nomadic , former tender to the Titanic and Olympic .
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    (Wednesday May 13, 1913)

References

Explanatory notes

.a. ^  Times given are in ship time, the local time for Titanic's position in the Atlantic.^ Times given are in ship time, the local time for Titanic ' s position in the Atlantic.
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^ Several ships responded, including Mount Temple , Frankfurt and Titanic ' s sister ship, Olympic , but none was close enough to make it in time.
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^ The Titanic ' s steel, although "probably the best plain carbon ship plate available at the time", was thus unsuitable for use at low temperatures.
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On the night of the sinking, this was approximately one and half hours ahead of EST and three and a half hours behind GMT.

Notes

  1. ^ Wilson, Timothy (1986). "Flags of British Ships other than the Royal Navy". Flags at Sea. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p. 34. ISBN 0-11-290389-4. 
  2. ^ Maritimequest: RMS Titanic's data
  3. ^ a b c Staff (27 May 1911). "The Olympic and Titanic". The Times (London) (39596): 4. 
  4. ^ a b Beveridge, Bruce; Hall, Steve (2004). "Ismay's Titans". Olympic & Titanic. West Conshohocken, PA: Infinity. p. 1. ISBN 0741419491. 
  5. ^ Chirnside, Mark (2004). The Olympic-Class Ships. Stroud, England: Tempus. p. 43. ISBN 0752428683. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Richard Howells The Myth of the Titanic, ISBN 0333725972
  7. ^ Moss, Michael S (2004). "William James Pirrie". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 
  8. ^ Bullock, Shan F. (1912). Thomas Andrews, Shipbuilder. Dublin: Maunsel and Co. 
  9. ^ Jenkins, Stanley C. (1926-03-06). "Alexander Carlisle Obituary". The Times. http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/alexander-carlisle-obituary.html. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  10. ^ a b "Testimony of Alexander Carlisle". British Wreck Commissioner's Inquiry. 1912-07-30. http://www.titanicinquiry.org/BOTInq/BOTInq20Carlisle01.php. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  11. ^ a b Hacket C. and Bedford, J.G. (1996). THE SINKING OF THE S.S. TITANIC - INVESTIGATED BY MODERN TECHNIQUES. p. 171.
  12. ^ "Titanic-construction". http://www.titanicinbelfast.com/template.aspx?pid=248&area=1&parent=247. 
  13. ^ "RMS Titanic facts". http://www.titanic-nautical.com/titanic-facts.html. 
  14. ^ "Titanic:A voyage of discovery". http://www.euronet.nl/users/keesree/palace.htm. 
  15. ^ "Wireless and the Titanic". http://jproc.ca/radiostor/titanic.html. 
  16. ^ LaRoe, L. M. n.d. Titanic. National Geographic Society Society.
  17. ^ The Inflation Calculator. 1912 to 2008 dollars.
  18. ^ "Titanic's life saving appliances". British Wreck Commissioner's Inquiry. 1912-07-30. http://www.titanicinquiry.org/BOTInq/BOTReport/BOTRepLSApp.php. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
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  20. ^ Butler, p. 38
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  121. ^ W.T. Stead, "How the Mail Steamer went down in Mid Atlantic" (1886) at www.attackingthedevil.co.uk
  122. ^ W.T. Stead, "From the Old World to the New" (The Review of Reviews Christmas Number, 1892) at www.attackingthedevil.co.uk
  123. ^ "Pope and Circumstance". www.snopes.com. 2005-12-15. http://www.snopes.com/history/titanic/nopope.asp. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  124. ^ Mark Chirnside (2008-05-05). "The mystery of Titanic's central propeller". http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/mystery-titanic-central-propeller.html. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 

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    .Ghosts of the Abyss: A Journey into the Heart of The Titanic.^ Ghosts of the Abyss: A Journey into the Heart of The Titanic .
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    ^ ISBN 0-806-52895-8 ; 13- ISBN 978-0-806-52895-3 (cloth) O'Donnell, E. E. Father Browne's Titanic Album Wolfhound Press, 1997.
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    Fantail, 1997 ISBN 0-9655209-3-5
  • Wade, Wyn Craig, The Titanic: End of a Dream Penguin Books, 1986 ISBN 0-14-016691-2
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    .Page viewed May 2006. http://www.uscg.mil/LANTAREA/IIP/General/history.shtml
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    ^ Page viewed May 2006.
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    Atlantic Liners: A Trio of Trios
  • The W.T. Stead Resource Site
  • Ballard, Robert B. Lost Liners
  • Halpern, Samuel Somewhere About Twelve FeetPDF (170 KB)
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External links

Records
Preceded by
Olympic
World's largest passenger ship
1911–1912
Succeeded by
Olympic