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Rabat
الرباط ar-Rabāṭ
NASA image of Rabat
Rabat is located in Morocco
Rabat
Political map showing Rabat, Morocco
Coordinates: 34°02′N 6°50′W / 34.033°N 6.833°W / 34.033; -6.833
Country  Morocco
Region Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer
First settled 3rd century BC
Government
 - Type monarchy
 - ruler Mohammed VI
 - mayor Omar El Bahraoui
Area
 - Total 1,088,77 km2 (142.778 sq mi)
 - Land 634,5 km2 (245 sq mi)
Elevation [1] 75 m (246 ft)
Population (2009)
 - Total 1,787,307
 - Density 5,321/km2 (13,781.3/sq mi)
Website http://www.rabat.ma/

Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 2 million (2007 estimate), is the capital of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is also the capital of the Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer region.

The city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the facing shore of the river lies Salé, Rabat's bedroom community. Together the two cities with Témara account for a population of 2 million. Silting problems have diminished the city's role as a port; however, Rabat and Salé still maintain relatively important textile, food processing and construction industries; some are from sweatshop labor by major multinational corporations (see Salé).

In addition, tourism and the presence of all foreign embassies in Morocco serve to make Rabat the second most important city in the country after the larger and more economically significant Casablanca.

Contents

History

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BC to 17th century

Rabat's history began with a settlement, known as Chellah on the banks of the Oued Bou Regreg[2] in the third century BC. In 40 AD, Romans took over Chellah and converted it to the Roman settlement of Sala Colonia. Rome held the colony until 250 AD when they abandoned it to rulers. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min turned Rabat's ribat into a full scale fortress to use as a launching point for attacks on Spain. In 1170, due to its military importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning "stronghold of victory," from which it derives its current name.

Yaqub al-Mansur (known as Moulay Yacoub in Morocco), another Almohad Caliph, moved the capital of his empire to Rabat.[3] He built Rabat's city walls, the Kasbah of the Udayas and began construction on what would have been the world's largest mosque. However, Yaqub died and construction stopped. The ruins of the unfinished mosque, along with the Hassan Tower, still stand today.

Yaqub's death initiated a period of decline. The Almohad empire lost control of its possessions in Spain and much of its African territory, eventually leading to its total collapse. In the 13th century, much of Rabat's economic power shifted to Fez. In 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reported that Rabat had declined so much that only 100 inhabited houses remained. An influx of Moriscos, who had been expelled from Spain, in the early 17th century helped boost Rabat's growth (principal families: Mouline [Molina], Bargach [Vargas], Balafrej [Palafresa], Moreno, Baena, Olivares [Loubaris],...).

Corsair republics

Rabat and neighboring Salé united to form the Republic of Bou Regreg in 1627. The republic was run by Barbary pirates who used the two cities as base ports for launching attacks on shipping. The pirates did not have to contend with any central authority until the Alaouite Dynasty united Morocco in 1666. They attempted to establish control over the pirates, but failed. European and Muslims authorities continued to attempt to control the pirates over many years, but the Republic of Bou Regreg did not collapse until 1818. Even after the republic's collapse, pirates continued to use the port of Rabat, which led to the shelling of the city by Austria in 1829 after an Austrian ship had been lost to a pirate attack.

20th century

French invasion

The French invaded Morocco in 1912 and established a protectorate. The French administrator of Morocco, General Hubert Lyautey,[4] decided to relocate the country's capital from Fez to Rabat. Among other factors, rebellious citizens had made Fez an unstable place. Sultan Moulay Youssef followed the decision of the French and moved his residence to Rabat. In 1913, Gen. Lyautey hired Henri Prost who designed the Ville Nouvelle (Rabat's modern quarter) as an administrative sector. When Morocco achieved independence in 1956, Mohammed V, the then King of Morocco, chose to have the capital remain at Rabat.

Post World War II

Royal Moroccan military helicopter stationed at Rabat-Salé

Following World War II, the United States established a military presence in Rabat at the former French air base. By the early 1950s, Rabat Salé Air Base was a U.S. Air Force installation hosting the 17th Air Force and the 5th Air Division, which oversaw forward basing for Strategic Air Command (SAC) B-47 Stratojet aircraft in the country. With the destabilization of French government in Morocco, and Moroccan independence in 1956, the government of Mohammed V wanted the U.S. Air Force to pull out of the SAC bases in Morocco, insisting on such action after American intervention in Lebanon in 1958. The United States agreed to leave as of December 1959, and was fully out of Morocco by 1963. SAC felt the Moroccan bases were much less critical with the long range capability of the B-52 Stratofortresses that were replacing the B-47s and with the completion of the USAF installations in Spain in 1959.[5]

With the USAF withdrawal from Rabat-Salé in the 1960s, the facility became a primary facility for the Royal Moroccan Air Force known as Air Base Nº 1, a status it continues to hold.

Culture

Rabat Downtown

The biggest place for theatre is the Theatre Mohamed V in the centre of the town. The city also has a few official galleries and an archeological museum. Many organisations are active in cultural and social issues. Orient-Occident Foundation and ONA Foundation are the biggest of these. An independent art scene is active in the city. L'appartement 22, which is the first independent space for visual arts created by Abdellah Karroum, opened in 2002.

Rabat was selected as a filming location for the war film Black Hawk Down (2001).

Main sights

Gallery

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Rabat is twinned with:

Climate

Located along the Atlantic Ocean, Rabat has a mild, temperate climate, shifting from cool in winter to warm days in the summer months. The nights are always cool (or colder in winter), with daytime temperatures generally always rising about +9/10 C° (+15/18 F°) every day. The winter highs typically reach only 17.5°C (64°F) in December-January (see weather-table below).

Weather data for Rabat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27
(81)
31
(88)
35
(95)
38
(100)
41
(106)
41
(106)
48
(118)
45
(113)
44
(111)
39
(102)
37
(99)
28
(82)
48
(118)
Average high °C (°F) 17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
25
(77)
21
(70)
18
(64)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
13
(55)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
17
(63)
14
(57)
12
(54)
9
(48)
13
(55)
Record low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
1
(34)
4
(39)
6
(43)
7
(45)
12
(54)
10
(50)
8
(46)
7
(45)
3
(37)
0
(32)
0
(32)
Precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
64
(2.52)
66
(2.6)
43
(1.69)
28
(1.1)
8
(0.31)
0
(0)
0
(0)
10
(0.39)
48
(1.89)
84
(3.31)
86
(3.39)
477
(18.78)
Source: BBC Weather [9] 2009-08-17

See also

References

External links

Coordinates: 34°02′N 6°50′W / 34.033°N 6.833°W / 34.033; -6.833


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Rabat (الرباط) is the capital city of Morocco. It is an easy going city by Moroccan standards.

Get in

By Train

Rabat is well served by train and you can get frequent connections to most places. Marrakesh is a pleasant 4 hour journey, Fez 2.5 hours (if you take one of the new express trains, and 3.5 hours on other trains) and Casablanca 1 hour. There are two stations in Rabat - Centre Ville (Medina) and Agdal.

By Bus

It's possible to get a bus from almost any town in the country to Rabat. Note, however, that the buses often do not stop at the central bus station, but instead go through the city. It may be a good idea to ask someone which is the correct stop, or use a decent street map to work out where you are. It is easy to miss the main stop and find yourself heading out into the suburbs again, which is not too bad - about a 20-25 MAD ride in to downtown.

By Plane

The Rabat International Airport is located in the nearby town of Salé. The city has limited international connections, with most tourist flying into nearby Casablanca and then coming into Rabat by train or coach. The airport itself is very tiny, possessing limited facilities (only one runway, one conveyor belt, etc.) so it's definately not the best way to get into the city. However, the airport is undergoing some major renovations, with the hope of relieving all the flights from Fez, Marrakesh and Casablanca, so it should improve in the not too distant future.

  • Petit Taxi: All blue in color, mostly Fiat UNO. This inexpensive way to get around town usually won't exceed 25 MAD. Avoid the white, mercedes, Grand Taxis when traveling around Rabat, they are much more expensive. Be sure to check the meter is running to avoid being over charged at the end of the trip.
  • Buses: Not highly recommended as there are no official listings of bus routes, but at only 4 MAD (50 US cents) a cheap way to get to know the several layers of Rabat. The buses can be of variable quality, but it could be worth taking the chance given the cost-saving and experience of what many locals experience. Bus # 3 goes from Centre Ville (including stops at the Cathedral and the train station) to Avenue Fal Oueld Omair (one of the major streets in the Agdal neighborhood) all the way to its terminus in the upscale and calm new development of Hay Riad.
  • Car: Driving around yourself is not recommended. Insurance rates are high and most drivers will avoid hitting you at all costs; however Morocco does have the second highest rate of car accidents in the world, and most drivers do not abide by the traffic laws.
  • Walking: If you aren't in a hurry, walking around the area of Centre Ville, Agdal, The University, the Medina, the Ocean/River and the monuments is easy and pleasant. The new Corniche on the river, leading to the Oudaias, has recently been re-done, and there are expected openings of cafes soon. The route cotiere, or coastal road, past the cemetery and the Oudaias has dramatic ocean-side views, especially charming at sunset.
  • Kasbah of the Oudaias
  • Hassan Tower and the Royal Mausoleum
  • Old Medina
  • Chellah
  • National Archaeological Museum

Do

There are many things to do here, as with most Moroccan cities it is enough just to wander around and adventure where something takes your fancy.

In the Kasbah (Oudaia) there is an amazing cafe that looks over the sea, where you can drink mint tea and eat sugary treats. The staff are very friendly and you can stay as long as you like soaking up the atmosphere.

There is also a large and tranquil park next to the Hotel Hilton, where people run and play football etc. You can also use the pool at the Hilton for a charge. The park is a 10-15 Dirham taxi ride (10 minutes) from la gare central.

Buy

Although the medina here is not as extensive as that of Fez or Marrakesh there are still some bargains to be had. You will find the normal array of baboshka shoes, baggy pants, ornate mirrors and plates etc!

Interestingly all the Moroccans can be found in the section of the market that sells imported western style clothing from Asia and all the tourists can be found in the 'traditional' section. The lovely woolen paunchos are well worth a look and the carpet shops near the end of the medina are also very nice.

  • Patisserie La Comedie on Mohammad V. Fancy pastries. Croissants, 4 dh. Ice cream, 6 dh per scoop.
  • Cafe 7eme Art next to the movie theater. Has fake movie posters with meals as the stars. Light lunches, popular with business people and the more well-off. Miniature models of local scenes surround the outdoor patio. Pizzas, 35 to 40 dh, bland and tough. Friendly staff, stray cats beg for food.
  • Le Majestic
  • Ty Potes
  • Cafe Weimar
  • Le Petit Beur/Dar Tagine Delicious bstilla. Intimate setting.
  • El Rancho Tex-Mex restaurant. Good food and one of the few places where you can get a decent beer.
  • Mega Mall Food Court
  • Pizza de Gourmet
  • Paul's Tradional French bakery that serves as a restaurant. Can be quite pricy, but the food is magnificent. Worth a visit for their Olive bread.
  • La Mamma
  • Syrian restaurant
  • Matsuri
  • Le Grand Comptoir

If you find yourself in Agdal, try the brochettes at 'Sucre et Sale'.

  • Old Medina: In the centre there are often inexpensive food stalls around the medina, serving delicious fish and salad sandwiches. Especially found right around the perimeter of the Marche Centrale, these places also serve fresh and simple salads, hot bowls of lubia (beans) or lentils, rotisserie chicken, and home-made tagines. There are also lots of stalls selling pancakes and pain au chocolat.
  • Hotel Balima, Ave Mohd V.
  • Le Bistrot Pietri, Place Pietri.
  • 'El Rancho, Agdal.
  • El Palatino.
  • Ty Potes.
  • Las Tapas.
  • Le Deux Palais, (Between Sofitel and Interior Ministry). 31 dh drafts and 17 dh small beers. Good food and the perfect place to watch a football match, both inside or on the patio. Food is pretty good as well, 10 dh for a plate for fries.  edit
  • Hotel Splendide in the Ville Nouvelle, an easy 10 minute walk from the train station. Large rooms and big windows, lots of light, around a central courtyard. Quiet and clean. They offer meals which are just food from the place across the street brought across on a tray. The shared bathrooms are generally clean. 100dh / night. Showers 10dh, hot water only after 9PM. Warning: count your change they may try to cheat you.
  • Hotel de la Paix in the Ville Nouvelle. Dingy and dank. 150 dh. Warning: If you don't get a room with an in suite shower, you don't get to take one at all. There are no shared showers. Management gets very angry.
  • Hotel Central, 2 Rue Al Basra (Ville Nouvelle). checkin: July 2009. Bright room with shower and sink, toilet outside. 10 minutes walk to Medina. 5 minutes walk from Rabat Ville Train Station. Next to main street Ave. Mohammed V. Dh 120 single.  edit
  • Golden Tulip Farah Rabat, Place Sidi Makhlouf 10, 10.000 Rabat (Take along the Mohammed V Avenue and then turn right on the Hassan II Avenue.), +212 5 37 73 47 47, [1]. 192 rooms located on the banks of the Bourgreg river. Practically within the city centre, next to two of the most recognized monuments within Morocco: the Hassan Tower, and the mausoleum of the late King Mohamed V. From 1796dh / night.  edit
  • Canadian Embassy in Morocco, 13, bis rue Jaâfa-as-Sadik, Agdal Rabat/ Postal Address: C.P. 709 Rabat-Agdal, Morocco, +011 (212) 537 68 74 00 (, fax: +011 (212) 537 68 74 30), [2]. M-Th 8AM–noon and 1:30PM-5:30PM, F 8AM-1:30PM. The Canadian Embassy also provides services to Australian citizens in Morocco. Call collect from any country at (613) 996 8885 to reach the Emergency Operations Centre.  edit
  • Embassy of the United States of America, 2 Avenue Mohamed Al Fassi (formerly Avenue de Marrakech), Rabat/ Postal Address: PSC 74 Box 021, APO AE 09718, +212 (37) 76 22 65 (fax: +212 (37) 76 56 61), [3]. M-F 8AM-5PM. For emergency services after-hours, call the Duty Officer cell phone at +212 (661) 13 19 39.  edit
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

RABAT (Ribat), a city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, in 34° 3' N., 6° 46' W., 130 m. S. of Cape Spartel, on the southern side and at the mouth of the Bu Ragrag, which separates it from Salli on the northern bank. It is a commercial town of about 26,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, occupying a rocky plateau and surrounded by massive but dilapidated walls, strengthened by three forts on the seaward side. To the south of the town stands a modern palace, defended by earthworks and Krupp guns. The conspicuous feature in the view from the ocean is the Borj el Hasan, an unfinished square-built tower, 145 ft. high, built on an elevation about 65 ft. above the sea to the west of the walled town. At one time the Bu Ragrag afforded a much better harbour than it does now; the roadstead is quite unprotected, and there is a dangerous bar at the mouth of the river, which hampers the shipping, and makes the growth of trade slow. The depth of water over the bar varies from 7 to 12 ft. Rabat trades with Fez and the interior of Morocco, with the neighbouring coast towns and Gibraltar, and with Marseilles, Manchester and London, and is the greatest industrial centre in Morocco.

Rabat was founded by Yak'ub el Mansur in 1184, but Salli was then already an ancient city, and on the scarped hills to the west of Rabat stand the ruins of Sala, a Roman colony, known as Shelia. It contains a mausoleum of the Beni Malin dynasty.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also rabat

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Rabat

  1. The capital of Morocco.

Translations


Simple English

Rabat
الرباط ar-Rabāṭ
Coordinates: 34°02′N 6°50′W / 34.033°N 6.833°W / 34.033; -6.833
Country  Morocco
Region Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer
First settled 3rd century BC
Government
 - Type monarchy
 - ruler Mohammed VI
 - mayor Fathallah Wala'alou[1]
Area
 - City 1,088,77 km2 (142.778 sq mi)
 - Land 634,5 km2 (245 sq mi)
Elevation [2] 75 m (246 ft)
Population (2009)
 - City 627 000
 Density 5,321/km2 (13,781.3/sq mi)
 Urban 1,787,307
Website http://www.rabat.ma/
Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ, literally "Fortified Place"), population 627 000 hab. (2005 estimate), is the capital of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is also the capital of the Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer region. The city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the other side of the river is Rabat's bedroom community. Together the two cities with Temara have a population of 1.8 million. Silting problems have lowered the city's role as a port. However, Rabat and Salé still maintain somewhat important textile, food processing and construction industries. Some are from sweatshop labor by major businesses. In addition, tourism and being home to all foreign embassies in Morocco help to make Rabat the second most important city in the country after the larger and economically more significant Casablanca.

Contents

History

BC to 17th century

Rabat's history began with a settlement, known as Chellah on the banks of the Oued Bou Regreg[3] in the third century BC. In 40 AD, Romans took over Chellah and changed it to the Roman settlement of Sala Colonia. Rome held the colony until 250 AD. They gave it up to local rulers. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min turned Rabat's ribat into a full scale fortress. It was used as a starting point for attacks on Spain. In 1170, due to its military importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning "stronghold of victory," from which it gets its current name.

Yaqub al-Mansur (known as Moulay Yacoub in Morocco), another Almohad Caliph, moved the capital of his empire to Rabat.[4] He built Rabat's city walls, the Kasbah of the Udayas and began construction on what would have been the world's largest mosque. However, Yaqub died and construction stopped. The ruins of the unfinished mosque, along with the Hassan Tower, still stand today.

Yaqub's death a period of decline at first. The Almohad empire lost control of its land in Spain and much of its African territory. Eventually this led to its total collapse. In the 13th century, much of Rabat's economic power shifted to Fez. In 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reported that Rabat had declined so much that only 100 houses remained with people living in them. An increase of Moriscos, who had been removed from Spain, in the early 17th century helped boost Rabat's growth.

Corsair republics

Rabat and neighboring Salé united to form the Republic of Bou Regreg in 1627. The republic was run by Barbary pirates who used the two cities as base ports for starting attacks on shipping. The pirates did not have to fight with any central authority until the Alaouite Dynasty united Morocco in 1666. They attempted to establish control over the pirates, but failed. European and Muslims authorities continued to attempt to control the pirates over many years. The Republic of Bou Regreg did not collapse until 1818. Even after the republic's collapse, pirates continued to use the port of Rabat. This led to the attack of the city by Austria in 1829 after an Austrian ship had been lost to a pirate attack.

20th century

French invasion

The French invaded Morocco in 1912 and established a protectorate. The French administrator of Morocco, General Hubert Lyautey,[5] decided to move the country's capital from Fez to Rabat. Among other factors, citizens had made Fez an unstable place because of their desire to rebel. Sultan Moulay Youssef followed the decision of the French and moved his home to Rabat. In 1913, Gen. Lyautey hired Henri Prost who designed the Ville Nouvelle (Rabat's modern quarter) as an administrative sector. When Morocco became independent in 1956, Mohammed V, the then King of Morocco, chose to have the capital remain at Rabat.

Post World War II

After World War II, the United States created a military presence in Rabat at the former French air base. By the early 1950s, Rabat Salé Air Base was a U.S. Air Force based hosting the 17th Air Force and the 5th Air Division. These divisions oversaw forward basing for Strategic Air Command (SAC) B-47 Stratojet aircraft in the country. With the destabilization of French government in Morocco, and Moroccan independence in 1956, the government of Mohammed V wanted the U.S. Air Force to pull out of the SAC bases in Morocco. He insisted on such action after Americans became involved in Lebanon in 1958. The United States agreed to leave as of December 1959. They were fully out of Morocco by 1963. SAC felt the Moroccan bases were much less critical with the long range capability of the B-52 Stratofortresses that were replacing the B-47s. It also had completed USAF bases in Spain in 1959.[6]

With the USAF leaving Rabat-Salé in the 1960s, the facility became a primary facility for the Royal Moroccan Air Force known as Air Base Nº 1, a status it continues to hold.

Culture

File:Rabat
Rabat Downtown

The biggest place for theatre is the Theatre Mohamed V in the centre of the town. The city also has a few official galleries and an archeological museum. Many organisations are active in cultural and social issues. Orient-Occident Foundation and ONA Foundation are the biggest of these. An independent art scene is active in the city. L'appartement 22, which is the first independent space for visual arts created by Abdellah Karroum, opened in 2002.

Rabat was selected as a filming location for the war film Black Hawk Down (2001).

International relations

2020 Summer Olympics

Rabat will bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

Twin towns - Sister cities

Rabat is twinned with:

Climate

Rabat features a Mediterranean climate. Located along the Atlantic Ocean, Rabat has a mild, temperate climate. It moves from cool in winter to warm days in the summer months. The nights are always cool (or colder in winter) Daytime temperatures generally always rise about +9/10 C° (+15/18 F°) every day. The winter highs usually reach only Template:Convert/°C in December-January (see weather-table below).

Weather data for Rabat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27
(81)
31
(88)
35
(95)
38
(100)
41
(106)
41
(106)
48
(118)
45
(113)
44
(111)
39
(102)
37
(99)
28
(82)
48
(118)
Average high °C (°F) 17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
25
(77)
21
(70)
18
(64)
23
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
13
(55)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
17
(63)
14
(57)
12
(54)
9
(48)
13
(55)
Record low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
1
(34)
4
(39)
6
(43)
7
(45)
12
(54)
10
(50)
8
(46)
7
(45)
3
(37)
0
(32)
0
(32)
Precipitation mm (inches) style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|66
(2.6)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|64
(2.52)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|66
(2.6)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|43
(1.69)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|28
(1.1)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|8
(0.31)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|0
(0)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|0
(0)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|10
(0.39)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|48
(1.89)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|84
(3.31)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp"|86
(3.39)
style="Template:Infobox Weather/colp border-left-width:medium"|477
(18.78)
Source: BBC Weather [10] 2009-08-17

Gallery

Other pages

References

Notes

Other website

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 34°02′N 6°50′W / 34.033°N 6.833°W / 34.033; -6.833


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