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Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Lubavitcher Rebbe

Lubavitcher Rebbe
Began 17 January 1951
Ended 12 June 1994
Predecessor Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn
Personal details
Born April 5, 1902 OS (11 Nisan 5662)
Mykolaiv, Ukraine
Died June 12, 1994 NS (3 Tammuz 5754) (aged 92)
Brooklyn, New York, USA
Buried Queens, New York, USA
Dynasty Chabad Lubavitch
Parents Levi Yitzchak Schneerson
Chanah, née Yanovski
Spouse Chaya Mushka Schneerson

Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 5, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 NS), known as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or just the Rebbe amongst his hasidim,[1] was a prominent hasidic rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch movement. He was fifth in a direct paternal line to the third Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneersohn.

In 1950, a year after the death of his father-in-law, Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, he assumed the leadership of Lubavitch. He led the movement until his death in 1994, greatly expanding its worldwide activities and founding a network of institutions to spread Orthodox Judaism among the Jewish people.[2]

His focus on messianism was controversial and his legacy is deeply polarising within Orthodox Judaism. During his lifetime and even after his death part of his followers have considered him to be the Jewish Messiah, and Chabad Messianists await his return as the Messiah.

Contents

Early life

Born in Mykolaiv, Ukraine, Schneerson was the eldest of three sons of Levi Yitzchak Schneerson, an authority on Kabbalah and Jewish law[3] who served as the Rabbi of Yekaterinoslav from 1907 to 1939.

He had two younger brothers, Dovber and Yisroel Aryeh Leib, both of whom were reported to be of unusual character.[4] Schneerson’s younger brother, DovBer, was mentally disturbed from childhood and spent his years in an institution for the mentally disabled near Nikolaiev. He died in 1944 at the hands of Nazi collaborators.[5]

His youngest brother Yisrael Aryeh Leib Schneerson was close to his brother, often traveling with him. He was widely viewed as a genius and studied science. In the late 1920s he became a Communist, later becoming a Trotskyite. After he left the Soviet union he stopped being an observant Jew.[6] He changed his name to Mark Gourary and moved to Israel where he became a businessman, but later moved to England where he began doctoral studies at Liverpool University but died in 1951 before he completed them. His wife died in 1996 and his children—Schneerson's closest living relatives—currently reside in Israel.[4]

During his youth, Schneerson received mostly private Jewish education. He studied for a short while with Zalman Vilenkin. When Schneerson was 4 1/2 years old, Vilenkin informed the boy's father that he had nothing more to teach his son.[7]

Schneerson later studied independently under his father, who was his primary teacher. He studied Talmud and rabbinic literature, as well as the Hasidic view of Kabbalah. He received his rabbinical ordination from the Rogatchover Gaon, Yosef Rosen.[8]

Part of a series on
770
Chabad

Rebbes of Lubavitch
1. Shneur Zalman of Liadi
2. Dovber Schneuri
3. Menachem Mendel Schneersohn
4. Shmuel Schneersohn
5. Sholom Dovber Schneersohn
6. Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn
7. Menachem Mendel Schneerson
History
770 Eastern Parkway · 19 Kislev · Ohel
Chabad library · Crown Heights Riot · 11 Nissan
Brooklyn Bridge Shooting · 3 Tammuz
Organisations
Agudas Chasidei Chabad · Chabad on Campus
Tzivos Hashem · Chabad.org · Kehos · Library
Gan Israel · Sheloh · Jewish Relief Agency
Children's Museum · JLI · Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch
Ohr Avner · Colel Chabad · Kol Menachem
Notable figures
Hillel Paritcher · S. Z. Fradkin · Itche Der Masmid
C. M. A. Hodakov · L. Y. Schneerson · Nissan Neminov
Leib Groner · C. M. Schneerson· Shemaryahu Gurary
Manis Friedman · Yehuda Chitrik · Berel Lazar
Yehuda Krinsky · Z. M. HaYitzchaki · Yoel Kahn
Herman Branover · Yitzchak Ginsburgh
Communities
Crown Heights · Kfar Chabad
Texts
Hayom Yom · Igrot Kodesh · Tanya · Likkutei Sichos
Tehillat HaShem · Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Schools
Bais Rivka · Hadar Hatorah · Yeshivah College
Oholei Torah · Tomchei Temimim · Ohel Chana
Yeshivah Gedolah · Beth Rivkah · Machon Chana
Rabbinical College · Ohr Avner · Mayanot
Outreach
Mitzvah Campaigns · Chabad house · Mitzvah tank
Tefillin · Noahide laws · Shliach · Public menorah
Terminology
Chitas · Mashpia · Meiniach · Farbrengen
Nusach Ari · Choizer · Chabadnitze
Other Chabad dynasties
Strashelye · Kapust
Controversies
Messianism · Library controversy
S. S. Deutsch · Moshe Schneuri · Malachim

Schneerson's mother related that her son never attended any Soviet school, however he had taken the exams as an external student and he had done well on them[9] According to Avrum Ehrlich, at the same time that he studied extensively Jewish studies, he completed his Russian secondary school matriculation.[4]

Throughout his upbringing, Schneerson was involved in the communal affairs of his father's office, where his secular education and knowledge of the Russian language made him a useful aid in assisting his father's public administrative work. He was also said to be an interpreter between the Jewish community and the Russian authorities on a number of occasions.[4]

In 1923, Schneerson visited his second cousin twice removed, Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, for the first time. It was presumably at that time that he met Schneersohn's daughter, Chaya Mushka.[4] He became engaged to her in Riga in 1923 and married her five years later in 1928, after being away in Berlin. He returned to Warsaw for his wedding, and in the announcement of his marriage in a Warsaw newspaper, "a number of academic degrees" were attributed to him. Following the marriage, the newlyweds went to live in Berlin.

Berlin

Schneerson reputedly "was known to have received several advanced degrees in Berlin, and then later in Paris," but Professor Menachem Friedman was only able to uncover records for one and a half semesters in Berlin and Schneerson's attendance was in a "record of the students who audited courses at the university without receiving academic credit."

In 1931, Schneerson's younger brother, Yisroel Aryeh Leib (known as Liova), joined him in Berlin, traveling with false papers under the name Mark Gurary to escape the Soviets. He arrived and was cared for by the family as he was seriously ill with typhoid fever. He attended classes at the University of Berlin from 1931 to 1933. In 1933, after Adolf Hitler took over Germany and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, Schneerson helped Gurary escape from Berlin together with his wife. Gurary escaped to Mandate Palestine in 1939 with his fiancee Regina Milgram, where they later married.[10] Despite Gurary's secularism, the two brothers maintained a relationship.[4]

Some students of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, have asserted that Schneerson met Soloveittchik while they were studying in Berlin.[11][12][13] Soloveitchik's daughter Dr. Atarah Twersky recalls Soloveitchik saying that Schneerson visited her father in his apartment and the former asked the latter why he was studying in Berlin if his father-in-law was opposed to it. Other sources deny this. According to Soloveitchik's son Rabbi Dr. Haym Soloveitchik, Rabbi Soloveitchik only saw Schneerson pass by in Berlin and they did not meet while there.[14]

France

In 1933, Schneerson moved to Paris, France. He studied mechanics and electrical engineering at the École spéciale des travaux publics, du bâtiment et de l'industrie (ESTP), a Technical College in the Montparnasse district. He graduated in July 1937 and received a license to practice as an electrical engineer. In November 1937, he enrolled at the Sorbonne, where he studied mathematics until World War II broke out in 1939.[15]

Schneerson lived most of the time in Paris at 9 Rue Boulard in the 14th arrondissement, in the same building as his wife's sister, Shaina, and her husband, Mendel Hornstein, who was also studying at ESTP. Mendel Hornstein failed the final exams and he and his wife returned to Poland; they were killed at Treblinka in late 1942. In June 1940, after Paris fell, the Schneersons fled to Vichy, and later to Nice, where they stayed until their final escape from Europe.

Schneerson learned to speak French, which he put to use in establishing his movement there after the war. The Chabad movement in France was later to attract many Jewish immigrants from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.

America and leadership

In 1941, Schneerson escaped from France on the Serpa Pinto, one of the last boats to cross the Atlantic before the U-boat blockade began,[16] and joined his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. Seeking to contribute to the war effort, he went to work in the Brooklyn Navy Yard, inspecting the electrical wiring of ships being built or repaired,[17][18] and other classified military work.[19]

In 1942, his father-in-law appointed him director of the Chabad movement's central organizations, placing him at the helm of building a Jewish educational network across the United States. However, Schneerson kept a low public profile within the movement, emerging only once a month to deliver public talks to his father-in-law's followers.[4]

Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn died in 1950. The two main candidates for leadership were Schneerson and Rabbi Shemaryahu Gurary, Schneersohn's elder son-in-law. Some people wanted Bere Gurary, Schneersohn's only male descendant, to become Rebbe but Bere did not want the position and supported his father's candidancy.[citation needed] Schneerson actively refused to accept leadership of the movement for the entire year after Schneersohn's passing but was eventually cajoled into accepting the post by his wife and followers.[20]

On the anniversary of his father-in-law's passing, 10 Shevat 1951, he delivered a Chassidic discourse, (Ma'amar), and formally became the Rebbe.[21]

Activities as Rebbe

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Jewish outreach

Schneerson believed that the American public was seeking to learn more about their Jewish heritage. He stated, "America is not lost, you are not different from. You Americans sincerely crave to know, to learn. Americans are inquisitive. It is the Chabad's point of view that the American mind is simple, honest, direct-good, tillable soil for Hassidism, or just plain Judaism".[22] Schneerson believed that Jews need not be on the defensive, but need to be on the ground building Jewish institutions, day schools and synagogues. Schneerson said that we need "to discharge ourselves of our duty and we must take the initiative".[23]

Schneerson placed a tremendous emphasis on outreach. He made great efforts to intensify this program of the Chabad movement, bringing Jews from all walks of life to adopt Orthodox Judaism, and aggressively sought the expansion of the baal teshuva movement.

His work included organising the training of thousands of young Chabad rabbis and their wives, who were sent all over the world by him as shluchim (emissaries) to spread the Chabad message. He oversaw the building of schools, community centers, youth camps, and "Chabad Houses", and established contacts with wealthy Jews and government officials around the world.

Schneerson also instituted a system of "mitzvah campaigns" called mivtzoim to encourage Jews to follow Orthodox Jewish practices. They commonly centered on practices such as keeping kosher, lighting Shabbat candles, studying Torah, laying tefillin, helping to write sifrei Torah, and teaching women to observe the laws of Jewish family purity. He also launched a global Noahide campaign [1] to promote observance of the Noahide Laws [2] among gentiles, and argued that involvement in this campaign is an obligation for every Jew.[24]

Political activities

Israel

Schneerson never visited the State of Israel, where he had many admirers. He held a view that according to Jewish law, it was uncertain if a Jewish person who was in the land of Israel was allowed to leave.[citation needed] One of Israel's presidents, Zalman Shazar, who was of Lubavitch ancestry, would visit Schneerson and corresponded extensively with him. Menachem Begin, Ariel Sharon, Moshe Katzav, and later, Benjamin Netanyahu, also paid visits and sought advice, along with numerous other less famous politicians, diplomats, military officials, and media producers. In the elections that brought Yitzhak Shamir to power, Schneerson publicly lobbied his followers and the Orthodox members in the Knesset to vote against the Labor alignment. It attracted the media's attention and led to articles in Time, Newsweek, and many newspapers and TV programs, and led to considerable controversy within Israeli politics.

He lobbied Israeli politicians to pass legislation in accordance with Jewish religious law on the question "Who is a Jew" and declare that "only one who is born of a Jewish mother or converted according to Halakha is Jewish." This caused a furor in the United States. Some American Jewish philanthropies stopped financially supporting Chabad-Lubavitch since most of their members were connected to Reform and Conservative Judaism. These unpopular ideas were toned down by his aides, according to Avrum Erlich. "The issue was eventually quietened so as to protect Chabad fundraising interests. Controversial issues such as territorial compromise in Israel that might have estranged benefactors from giving much-needed funds to Chabad, were often moderated, particularly by...Krinsky."[25] Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits argued that Chabad moderated its presentation of anti-Zionist ideology and right-wing politics in England and downplayed its messianic fervor so as not to antagonize large parts of the English Jewish community.[25]

Scholarship

In biblical scholarship, Schneerson is known mainly for his scholarly analysis and Hasidic thoughts on Rashi's Torah commentary, which were annotated by his aides. In halakhic matters, he normally deferred to members of the Crown Heights Beth Din headed by Rabbi Zalman Shimon Dvorkin, and advised the movement to do likewise in the event of his death.[26]

Schneerson was known for delivering regular lengthy addresses to his followers at public gatherings, without using any notes. These talks usually centered around the weekly Torah portion, and were then transcribed by followers known as choizerim, and distributed widely. Many of them were later edited by him and distributed worldwide in small booklets, later to be compiled in the Likkutei Sichot set. He also penned tens of thousands of replies to requests and questions. The majority of his correspondence is printed in Igrot Kodesh, partly translated as "Letters from the Rebbe". His correspondence fills more than two hundred published volumes.[17]

While Schneerson rarely chose to involve himself with questions of halakha (Jewish law), some notable exceptions were with regard to the use of electrical appliances on Shabbat, sailing on Israeli boats staffed by Jews, and halakhic dilemmas created when crossing the International Date Line.

According to Erlich, towards the end of his life, particularly after his heart attack in 1977 his scholarship began to fade - one of Schneerson's editors, David Olidort, told how "most of Schneerson’s aides and editors adored him and saw him as virtually infallible, despite their numerous corrections of his failing scholarship."[27]

"770"

770 Eastern Parkway.

Schneerson rarely left Crown Heights in Brooklyn except for frequent lengthy visits to his father-in-law's gravesite in Queens, New York. A year after the passing of his wife, Chaya Mushka, in 1988, when the traditional year of Jewish mourning had passed, he moved into his study above the central Lubavitch synagogue at 770 Eastern Parkway.

It was from this location that Schneerson directed his emissaries' work and involved himself in details of his movement's developments. His public roles included celebrations called farbrengens (gatherings) on Shabbats, Jewish holy days, and special days on the Chabad calendar, when he would give lengthy sermons to crowds. In later years, these would often be broadcast via satellite and cable television to Lubavitch branches around the world.

Later life

In 1977, Schneerson suffered a massive heart attack while celebrating the hakafot ceremony on Simchat Torah. Despite the best efforts of his doctors to convince him to change his mind, he refused to be hospitalized.[28] This necessitated building a mini-hospital in his headquarters at "770." Although he did not appear again in public for many weeks, Schneerson continued to deliver talks and discourses from his study via intercom. On Rosh Chodesh Kislev, he left his study for the first time in more than a month to go home. His followers celebrate this day as a holiday each year.

In 1983, on the occasion of his 80th birthday, the United States Congress proclaimed Rabbi Schneerson's birthday as "Education Day, USA," and awarded him the National Scroll of Honor.

As the Chabad movement grew and more demands were placed on Schneerson's time, he limited his practice of meeting followers individually in his office. In 1986, Schneerson replaced those personal meetings, known as yechidut, with a weekly receiving line in "770". Almost every Sunday, thousands of people would line up to meet briefly with Schneerson and receive a one-dollar bill, which was to be donated to charity. People filing past Schneerson would often take this opportunity to ask him for advice or to request a blessing. This event is usually referred to as "Sunday Dollars."[29]

Following the death of his wife in 1988, Schneerson withdrew from some public functions. For example, he stopped delivering addresses during weekdays, instead holding gatherings every Shabbat.[30] He later edited these addresses, which have since been released in the Sefer HaSichos set.

Final years

"Moshiach" fervor

In 1991, he declared to his followers: "I have done everything I can [to bring Moshiach], now I am handing over to you [the mission]; do everything you can to bring Moshiach!" A campaign was then started to usher in the Messianic age through "acts of goodness and kindness," and some of his followers placed advertisements in the mass media, including many full-page ads in the New York Times, declaring in Rabbi Schneerson's name that the Moshiach's arrival was imminent, and urging everyone to prepare for and hasten it by increasing their good deeds.

Crown Heights Riot

In 1991, Schneerson was indirectly involved in the start of a riot in his neighborhood of Crown Heights. The riot began when a car accompanying his motorcade — returning from one of his regular cemetery visits to his father-in-law's grave — accidentally struck two seven-year-old African American children, killing one boy, and left the scene. In the rioting, Australian Jewish graduate student Yankel Rosenbaum was murdered, many Lubavitchers were badly beaten, and much property was destroyed; also, rioters hurled rocks and bottles at the Jews over police lines.[31]

Last illness

In 1992, Schneerson suffered a serious stroke while praying at the grave of his father-in-law. The stroke left him unable to speak and paralyzed on the right side of his body. Nonetheless, he continued to respond daily to thousands of queries and requests for blessings from around the world. His secretaries would read the letters to him and he would indicate his response with head and hand motions. During this time, the belief in Schneerson as the Messiah became more widespread.[32]

Despite his deteriorating health, Schneerson once again refused to leave "770". Several months into his illness, a small room with tinted glass windows and an attached balcony was built overlooking the main synagogue. This allowed Schneerson to pray with his followers, beginning with the Rosh Hashana services, and to appear before them after services either by having the window opened or by being carried out onto the balcony.

His final illness led to a split between two groups of aides who differed in their recommendations as to how Schneerson should be treated, with the two camps led by Leib Groner and Yehuda Krinsky.[33][34] Aides argued over whether Schneerson had the same physical makeup as other humans, and if the illness should be allowed to run its course without interference. Krinsky argued that the latest and most suitable medical treatment available should be used in treating Schneerson, while Groner thought that "outside interference in the Rebbe’s medical situation might be just as dangerous as inaction. They saw his illness as an element in the messianic revelation; interference with Schneerson’s physical state might therefore affect the redemptive process, which should instead be permitted to run its natural course."[34]

Death and burial

Schneerson died at the Beth Israel Medical Center on June 12, 1994 (3 Tammuz 5754) and was buried next to his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, at Montefiore Cemetery in Queens, New York,[35] in 1994.[36][37] The Ohel had been built over the Previous Rebbe's grave in 1950. Established by philanthropist Joseph Gutnick of Melbourne, Australia, the Ohel Chabad-Lubavitch Center on Francis Lewis Boulevard, Queens, New York, is located adjacent to the Rebbe's Ohel.

The U.S. Congress and President issue annual proclamations declaring that Schneerson's birthday — usually a day in March or April that coincides with his Hebrew calendar birthdate of 11 Nisan — be observed as Education and Sharing Day in the United States.[38]

Congressional Gold Medal

After Schneerson's death, a bill was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives — sponsored by Congressmen Chuck Schumer and co-sponsored by John Lewis, Newt Gingrich, and Jerry Lewis, as well as 220 other Congressmen — to posthumously bestow on Schneerson the Congressional Gold Medal. On November 2, 1994 the bill passed both Houses by unanimous consent, honoring Schneerson for his "outstanding and enduring contributions toward world education, morality, and acts of charity".[39] President Bill Clinton spoke these words at the Congressional Gold Medal ceremony:

The late Rebbe's eminence as a moral leader for our country was recognized by every president since Richard Nixon. For over two decades, the Rabbi's movement now has some 2000 institutions; educational, social, medical, all across the globe. We (the United States Government) recognize the profound role that Rabbi Schneerson had in the expansion of those institutions.

Controversy

Wills

There is considerable controversy within Chabad about Schneerson's will. It is widely accepted that two wills exist, the first will was signed by Schneerson and transferred stewardship of all the major Chabad institutions to Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky.[40] This will is indisputable as it was officially filed and a record of its signing exists in the archives of New York State. The second will gave the bulk of control to three senior Chabad rabbis, Rabbis Mindel, Pikarski and Hodakov (contemporary of Schneerson) and gave Krinsky only a minor role. The only copy of this will, that was drafted by others, is unsigned. Supporters of Krinsky argue that the will was merely presented to Schneerson, who chose not to sign it.[40] Supporters of the messianist camp, led by Leib Groner argue that the will was signed but interested parties destroyed of hid the signed copy to gain power.[40]

The first will, signed and dated February 14, 1988, transferred power over all Schneerson’s property and personal affects to Agudas Chasidei Chabad (AGUCH) (directed by Krinsky), naming Krinsky as sole executor.[40] Avrum Erlich, a Chabad chronicler and scholar summarises the dispute:

After the [second] will was prepared, Schneerson said he would look it over before signing it, and that is apparently the last that was seen of it. Some Habad members believe that Schneerson never signed this will. . . others believe that even if the will was not signed, it is nevertheless indicative of his general view. There are still others who believe that a signed copy of the will exists, but was stolen from Schneerson’s drawer and hidden by an interested party who hopes to gain by its destruction.[40]

Krinsky was called to testify before the Chabad Beit Din on the authenticity or otherwise of the disputed second will, but he refused to do so.[40] Krinsky's stewardship of the movement has been a bone of contention amongst Chabad followers and emissaries who see him as trying to control the movement by subsuming it under the umbrella of the AGUCH.[40]

Schneerson as the Jewish Messiah

The Chabad messianist flag. The Hebrew word is "Moshiach", meaning "Messiah".

Before Schneerson's death in 1994 a significant body of Chabad Hasidim believed that he was soon to become manifest as the Messiah - an event that would herald the Messianic Age and the construction of the Third Temple. Books and pamphlets were written containing proofs for the Rabbi's status as Messiah.

In Schneersohn's later years a movement arose believing that it was their mission to convince the world of his messiahship, and that general acceptance of this claim would lead to his revelation. Adherents to this belief were termed Meshichist. After his stroke, followers routinely sang the song "Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu v'Rabbeinu Melech haMoshiach l'olom vo'ed!" (In English: "Long Live our Master, our Teacher, and our Rabbi, King Messiah, for ever and ever!") in his presence, with his encouragement.

A spectrum of beliefs exists today within the Chabad movement regarding Schneerson and his purported position as the Messiah.[41] While some believe that he died but will return as the messiah, others believe that he is merely "hidden." Other groups believe that he has God-like powers, while a few negate the idea that he is the messiah entirely. The prevalence of these views within the movement is disputed,[42][43][44] though very few will openly say that Schneerson cannot be the Messiah.[42]

The belief that Schneerson is the messiah can be traced to the 1950s; it picked up momentum during the decade preceding Schneerson's death in 1994,[45] and has continued to develop since his death.[46] The response of the wider Haredi and Modern Orthodox communities to this belief has been antagonistic; the issue remains controversial within the Jewish world.[47][48][49]

Some followers believe that he is able to answer their questions from beyond the grave, through a process of bibliomancy using his collected letters. This practice is known as "Igrot Kodesh", by which answers to questions are derived through consultating the published collections of Schneerson’s letters known as the Igrot Kodesh.[50][51]

References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Second Edition, Volume 18 page 149
  2. ^ National Geographic Magazine February 2006
  3. ^ Introduction to Likkutei Levi Yitzchak, Kehot Publications 1970
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 4
  5. ^ Larger Than Life, Deutsch, S. S., vol. 2, pp. 125–145.
  6. ^ Larger Than Life, Deutsch, S. S., vol. 1, pp. 101–103, and vol. 2, p. 118
  7. ^ Chana Vilenkin, Zalman's daughter on "The Early Years Vol I". Jewish Educational Media 2006, segment Nikolaev, Russia 1902. (UPC 874780 000525)
  8. ^ Selegson, Michoel A. Introduction to From Day to Day, English translation of the Hayom Yom (ISBN 08266-06695), p. A20.
  9. ^ Schneerson, Chana, A Mother in Israel Kehot Publications 1983 (ISBN 08266-00999)page 13.
  10. ^ (ISBN 0-9647243-0-8) Vol. II, p.134)
  11. ^ Kowalsky, Sholem B.. "The Rebbe and the Rav". Chabad.org. http://www.chabad.org/therebbe/article.htm/aid/529444/jewish/The-Rebbe-and-the-Rav.html. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  12. ^ (Windows Media Video) A Relationship from Berlin to New York. [Documentary]. Brooklyn, NY: Chabad.org. http://www.chabad.org/therebbe/article.htm/aid/527750/jewish/A-Relationship-from-Berlin-to-New-York.html. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  13. ^ (Windows Media Video) The Rebbe in Berlin, Germany. [Documentary]. Brooklyn, NY: Chabad.org. http://www.chabad.org/therebbe/article.htm/aid/527752/jewish/The-Rebbe-in-Berlin-Germany.html. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  14. ^ "Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik and Abraham Joshua Heschel on Jewish-Christian Relations" by Rabbi Reuven Kimelman
  15. ^ My Encounter with the Rebbe: The Early Years III (1938-1940), Jewish Educational Media, 2007
  16. ^ Last Sea Route From Lisbon to U.S. Stops Ticket Sale to Refugees, New York Times, March 15, 1941
  17. ^ a b Fishkoff, Sue. The Rebbe's Army, Schoken, 2003 (08052 11381). Page 73. Milton Fechtor, Wiring the Missouri, Jewish Educational Media.
  18. ^ Living Torah Vol 53 Episode 210, "Rabbi Engineer, Part 1: The Brooklyn Navy Yard", Jewish Educational Media
  19. ^ No One There, but This Place Is Far From Empty NY Times January 14, 2009 By ALAN FEUER
  20. ^ Leadership in the HaBaD Movement, Avrum M. Ehrlich, Jason Aronson, January 6, 2000, ISBN 076576055X
  21. ^ Shevat 10: A Day of Two Rebbes
  22. ^ Raddock, Charles, The Jewish Forum, April, 1951
  23. ^ Kranzler, Gershon, Jewish Life, Sept.-Oct. 1951.
  24. ^ Essays: Educating Mankind
  25. ^ a b Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 14 notes
  26. ^ The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, Chapter 15, (also see note 10 Ibid.) KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0881258369
  27. ^ The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, Chapter 8, notes. KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0881258369
  28. ^ Hoffman 1991, p. 46
  29. ^ Hoffman 1991, p. 47
  30. ^ Lipkin, p. 79
  31. ^ Hasid Dies in Stabbing; Black Protests Flare 2d Night in a Row By JOHN KIFNER New York Times (1857-Current file); August 21, 1991; ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2003)pg. B1
  32. ^ The Washington Post, June 20, 1999. 5 Years After Death, Messiah Question Divides Lubavitchers. Leyden, Liz.
  33. ^ Lubavitchers Learn to Sustain Themselves Without the Rebbe, David Gonselez, New York Times, November 8, 1994
  34. ^ a b The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, Chapter 14, KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0881258369
  35. ^ The Encyclopedia of Hasidism, by Tzvi Rabinowicz page 432 ISBN 1568211236
  36. ^ The New York Times, June 13, 1994, p. A1
  37. ^ Find A Grave - Montefiore Cemetery
  38. ^ "Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2003" by George W. Bush.
  39. ^ Public Law 103-457
  40. ^ a b c d e f g The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, Chapter 20, KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0881258369
  41. ^ Another 'Second Coming'? The Jewish Community at Odds Over a New Form of Lubavitch Messianism, George Wilkes (2002). Reviews in Religion & Theology 9 (4), 285–289.
  42. ^ a b Messianic Excess, David Berger, The Jewish Week, June 25, 2004
  43. ^ The Rebbe's Army: Inside the World of Chabad-Lubavitch by Sue Fishkoff, p. 274.
  44. ^ http://www.thejewishweek.com/news/newscontent.php3?artid=7839
  45. ^ See section "Before Schneerson's Death".
  46. ^ See: "After Schneerson's Death".
  47. ^ Lawsuit Over Chabad Building Puts Rebbe’s Living Legacy on Trial, The Forward, Nathaniel Popper, Mar 16, 2007
  48. ^ After Rebbe’s Death, Lubavitchers Continue to Spread His Word, Matthew Hirshberg, The Columbia Journalist, February 21, 2006
  49. ^ Toward the Millennium: Messianic Expectations from the Bible to Waco, Peter Schäfer, Mark R. Cohen
  50. ^ The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, ch.18, note 14, KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0881258369
  51. ^ Chabad's critic from within Tom Segev, Haaretz, January 17, 2008

Bibliography

Rabbi Schneerson himself wrote and published only three books:

  • Hayom Yom - An anthology of Chabad aphorisms and customs arranged according to the days of the year.
  • Haggadah Im Likkutei Ta'amim U'minhagim - The Haggadah with a commentary written by Schneerson.
  • Sefer HaToldot - Admor Moharash - Biography of the fourth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Shmuel Schneersohn.

His personal notes and writings:

  • Reshimot - 10 volume set of Schneerson's personal journal discovered after his passing. Includes notes for his public talks before 1950, letters to Jewish scholars, notes on the Tanya, and thoughts on a wide range of Jewish subjects.(2,190pp)

His talks and letters, transcribed by others and then edited by him:

  • Likkutei Sichot - 39 volume set of Schneerson's discourses on the weekly Torah portions, Jewish Holidays, and other issues. (16,867pp)
  • Igrot Kodesh - 28 volume set of Schneerson's Hebrew and Yiddish letters. (11,948pp)
  • Hadran al HaRambam - Commentary on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah.
  • Sefer HaSichot - 10 volume set of the Schneerson's talks from 1987-1992. (4,136pp)
  • Sefer HaMa'amarim Melukot - 6 volumes of edited chassidic discourses.
  • Letters from the Rebbe - 5 volume set of Schneerson's English letters.
  • Chidushim UBiurim B'Shas - 3 volumes of novellae on the Talmud.

Unedited compilations of his talks and writings:

  • Sefer HaShlichut - 2 volume set of Schneerson's advice and guidelines to the shluchim he sent.
  • Torat Menachem - 34 volume Hebrew set of unedited Maamarim and Sichos currently spanning 1950-1962 (Approximately 4 new volumes a year). Planned to encompass 1950-1981.
  • Sichot Kodesh - 60 some volume Yiddish set of unedited Sichos from 1950-1981.
  • Torat Menachem Hitva'aduyot - 43 volume set of Sichot and Ma'amarim from 1982-1992. (Based on participants' recollections and notes, not proofread by Rabbi Schneerson.)
  • Karati Ve'ein Oneh - Compilation of Sichos discussing the Halachic prohibition of surrendering land in the Land of Israel to non-Jews
  • Sefer HaMa'amarim (unedited) Hasidic discourses - Approx. 24 vols. including 1951-1962, 1969-1977 with plans to complete the rest.
  • Biurim LePeirush Rashi - 5 volume set summarizing talks on the commentary of Rashi to Torah.
  • Heichal Menachem - Shaarei - 34 volumes of talks arranged by topic and holiday.
  • Torat Menachem - Tiferet Levi Yitzchok - 3 volumes of elucidations drawn from his talks on cryptic notes of his father.
  • Biurim LePirkei Avot - 2 volumes summarizing talks on the Mishnaic tractate of "Ethics of the Fathers".
  • Yein Malchut - 2 volumes of talks on the Mishneh Torah.
  • Kol Ba'ei Olam - Addresses and letters concerning the Noahide Campaign.
  • Hilchot Beit Habechira LeHaRambam Im Chiddushim U'Beurim - Talks on the Laws of the Chosen House (the Holy Temple) of the Mishneh Torah.
  • HaMelech BeMesibo - 2 volumes of discussions at the semi-public holiday meals.
  • Torat Menachem - Menachem Tzion - 2 volumes of talks on mourning.

Collections and esoterica:

  • Heichal Menachem - 3 volumes.
  • Mikdash Melech - 4 volumes.
  • Nelcha B'Orchosov
  • Mekadesh Yisrael - Talks and pictures from his officiating at weddings.
  • Yemei Bereshit - Diary of the first year of his leadership, 1950-1951.
  • Bine'ot Deshe - Diary of his visit and talks to Camp Gan Israel in upstate New York.
  • Tzaddik LaMelech - 7 volumes of letters, handwritten notes, anecdotes, and other.

Esoterica continues to be released by individual families for family occasions such as weddings, known as Teshurot.

External links

Works available online
Biography
Historical sites
Preceded by
Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn
Rebbe of Lubavitch
1951—1994
Succeeded by
N/A


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