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Race
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Race and genetics
Human genetic variation
Health
Population groups in biomedicine
Ancestry and health
Ethnicity and health
Race and intelligence
Social
Historical definitions
The Race Question (1950)
Social interpretations of race
Race in the United States
Race in Brazil
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Ethnic group
Human evolution
Genetics
Racism topics
Category: Race
.The term race or racial group usually refers to the categorization of humans into populations or ancestral groups on the basis of various sets of heritable characteristics.^ The term race refers to the concept of dividing people into populations or groups on the basis of various sets of characteristics and beliefs about common ancestry.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The term is often used colloquially to refer to a range of human groupings.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The term race or racial group usually refers to the categorization of humans into populations or groups on the basis of various sets of heritable characteristics.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1] .The physical features commonly seen as indicating race are salient visual traits such as skin color, cranial or facial features and hair texture.^ First, he links physical attributes such as skin color, hair texture and facial features to personality, mental ability, and behavior.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Races were distinguished by skin color , facial type , cranial profile and size, texture and color of hair.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most widely used human racial categories are based on salient visual traits (especially skin color , cranial or facial features and hair texture ), and self-identification.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1][2] .The concept of race may vary from country to country, changing according to specific cultures.^ In both texts, it is apparent that race is central to cultural studies and according to Sardar and Van Loon, "is a socially constructed concept" and Munns and Rajan state "race pervades every aspect of culture" (Munns & Rajan 385).
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_evolution This gives us an insight into cultural evolution and how we may be affected by the changes and not have noticed it.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knows the function and meaning of specific art objects within varied cultures, times, and places .

.For example, in the United States the term race is used in the description of individuals (e.g.^ For example, with respect to treatment response, "An individual's response to a drug depends on a host of factors, including overall health, lifestyle, support system, education and socioeconomic status - all of which are difficult to control for and likely to be affected, at least in the United States, by a person's 'race'" [ 3 ].
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time that forced individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, both texts addressed the issue of using/creating the term “others” as causing a lack of individualism and creating a negative bias.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

white, black, etc.), whereas in .Italy it applies only to a few domesticated species, and therefore does not apply to wild animals or to humans.^ They do not say what standard is applied to determine what percentage of genetic difference is required to constitute a race, only that the difference between human populations is too small.

^ Some argue that although "race" is a valid taxonomic concept in other species, it cannot be applied to humans.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By the actual standards applied by biologists to non-human species, that of 75% or more sorting accuracy, there are literally hundreds of separate human races.

.Conceptions of race, as well as specific ways of grouping races, vary by culture and over time, and are often controversial for scientific as well as social and political reasons.^ Conceptions of race, as well as specific ways of grouping races , vary by culture and over time, and are often controversial for scientific as well as social and political reasons.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He says quote.."Race is a social concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Social Science Research Council , includes a March 2005 op-ed article by A.M. Leroi from the New York Times advocating biological conceptions of race and responses from scholars in a variety of fields.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The controversy ultimately revolves around whether or not the socially constructed and perpetuated beliefs regarding race are biologically warranted, and the degree to which differences in ability and achievement are a product of inherited "racial" (i.e., genetic) traits.^ Races as a social construction .
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Races as social constructions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary of different biological definitions of "race" .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[3][4]
.The term race is often used in taxonomy as a synonym for subspecies.^ The terms race, ethnicity and ancestry are often used interchangeably, but some have also drawn distinctions.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are countless genetic studies that show racial differences in the frequencies of different gene sequences and genetic traits, although the term population is commonly used as a euphemism for race.

^ Varied and possibly inconsistent definitional criteria, such as geographic origin, cultural origin, cultural identification and affiliation, community recognition, and race itself, are used to describe the terms.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this sense human races are said not to exist, as taxonomically all humans are classified as the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.^ Human subspecies don't exist.

^ Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens and sub-species Homo sapiens sapiens.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Our subspecies being homo-sapien (homo-sapien sapien).
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Many scientists have pointed out that traditional definitions of race are imprecise, arbitrary, have many exceptions, and have many gradations, and that the numbers of races delineated vary according to the culture making the racial distinctions.^ Many scientists have argued that race definitions are imprecise, arbitrary, derived from custom , have many exceptions, have many gradations, and that the numbers of races delineated vary according to the culture making the racial distinctions; thus they reject the notion that any definition of race pertaining to humans can have taxonomic rigour and validity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In many other cases, however, variables such as cultural influences cannot even be quantified, much less have their effects tested statistically....
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it also shows that part of that reality is that race is a continuum, marked by many subdivisions with subtle gradations of racial change that correlate with spatial and temporal distance.

.Thus, those rejecting the notion of race typically do so on the grounds that such definitions and the categorizations that follow from them are contradicted by the results of genetic research.^ The immediate result of this was the UNESCO Declaration on Race in 1950, fronted by Ashley Montagu and backed up by geneticists such as Theodosius Dobzhansky which affirmed the equality of races.
  • Edge: THE NATURE OF NORMAL HUMAN VARIETY A Talk with Armand Leroi 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many scientists have argued that race definitions are imprecise, arbitrary, derived from custom , have many exceptions, have many gradations, and that the numbers of races delineated vary according to the culture making the racial distinctions; thus they reject the notion that any definition of race pertaining to humans can have taxonomic rigour and validity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If biological is defined as genetic then a decade or more of population genetics research has documented genetic, and therefore biological, differentiation among the races.

[6]
.Today many scientists study human genotypic and phenotypic variation using concepts such as "population" and "clinal gradation". Large parts of the academic community take the position that, while racial categories may be marked by sets of common phenotypic or genotypic traits, the popular idea of "race" is a social construct without base in scientific fact.^ Races as social constructions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He says quote.."Race is a social concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the concept of race may be useful in forensic anthropology .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] .Nonetheless, when divorced from its popular connotations, the concept of race may be useful.^ However, the concept of race may be useful in forensic anthropology .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ IIRC, if you believe the wikipedia, it seems the majority of anthropologists up until 1995 thought race was a real and useful concept.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cognitive research indicated that some people use race and ethnic origin interchangeably; they see little difference between the two concepts.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to forensic anthropologist George W. Gill, blanket "race denial" not only contradicts biological evidence, but may stem from "politically motivated censorship" in the belief that "race promotes racism".[4]

Contents

History

.According to biologists and anthropology, The genus Homo were differentiated only by about 1%-2% from their nearest cousins Pan (chimpanzee) about 4 million years ago.^ Coon (1962) postulated a separate but parallel evolution for several subspecies of Homo erectus occurring simultaneously in various regions of the world over about I million years.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All these mitochondrial DNAs stem from one woman who is postulated to have lived about 200,000 years ago, probably in Africa.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mitochondrial most recent common ancestor of modern humans lived roughly 200,000 years ago, latest common ancestors of humans and chimpanzees between four and seven million years ago.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The genus homo had several species: Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and the lone survivor, Homo sapiens.^ Coon (1962) postulated a separate but parallel evolution for several subspecies of Homo erectus occurring simultaneously in various regions of the world over about I million years.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, this is not the first species of hominids: the first species of genus Homo , Homo habilis , evolved in East Africa at least 2 million years ago, and members of this species populated different parts of Africa in a relatively short time.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ American anthropologists how many disagree with the following proposition: "There are biological races in the species Homo sapiens."
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.African people and Asian people became very slightly differentiated some 200,000 years ago, and the various Ethnic groups in Europe became differentiated from those in Asia only about 100,000 years ago.^ So the 160,000-year-old Herto cranium shows us that the skeletal features allowing contemporary forensic scientists to differentiate today's Africans from Europeans or Asians had not yet evolved, even at this late date in human evolution.
  • Edge: THE NATURE OF NORMAL HUMAN VARIETY A Talk with Armand Leroi 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But in in the end it is about recognizing those that are left behind under the concept that all men (people) are created equal under the the law...
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the estimated poverty rate for the total U.S. population is about 14 to 15 percent (a 90-percent confidence interval), then for a population group of 1 million persons, the poverty rate would be about 8 to 21 percent; for a population group of 500,000 persons, the poverty rate would be about 6 to 23 percent; and for a population group of 200,000 persons, the poverty rate would be about 1 to 28 percent.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since Africans, Asians, and Europeans became recognizably different very recently in evolutionary terms, they all have only very minor local adaptations and very little genetic diversity; contrasting markedly with many other creatures that range over such vast and diverse areas.^ They are two very different things.

^ In many other cases, however, variables such as cultural influences cannot even be quantified, much less have their effects tested statistically....
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In evolutionary terms, changes of skin and hair color are relatively minor events and can take place in a population over a period as short as 20,000 years.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All homo sapiens are equally capable of cognition, communication and interbreeding regardless of appearance or location.^ Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens and sub-species Homo sapiens sapiens.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Homo-sapien.We all belong to the species Homo Sapiens Sapiens - as opposed to Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis.
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Africa, as Darwin surmised, is "the cradle of mankind," with Australopithecus, Homo habilis, and Homo erectus all making their first appearance there.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

In ancient civilizations

.
Blue-eyed, brown haired Central Asian (Tocharian?
^ See also: Ancient Egypt and race Blue-eyed Central Asian ( Tocharian ?
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hair yellow, brown flowing; eyes blue, gentle, acute; inventive.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) and .East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century.^ East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezeklik , Eastern Tarim Basin , 9th-10th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[15][16]
.Given visually complex social relationships, humans presumably have always observed and speculated about the physical differences among individuals and groups.^ As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world , they speculated about the physical, social, and cultural differences among various human groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Given visually complex social relationships, humans presumably have always observed and speculated about the physical differences among individuals and groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The point is that there will always be people who wish to construct socially unjust theories about racial differences.
  • Edge: THE NATURE OF NORMAL HUMAN VARIETY A Talk with Armand Leroi 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.But different societies have attributed markedly different meanings to these distinctions.^ But different societies have attributed markedly different meanings to these distinctions.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Surely )you don't mean that violent confrontations are a preferable approach to )sorting out these differences over religious stances.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In any case, these versions of karma are markedly different from the conception prevalent in much of contemporary Hinduism, for example.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the Ancient Egyptian sacred text called Book of Gates identifies four categories that are now conventionally labeled "Egyptians", "Asiatics", "Libyans", and "Nubians", but such distinctions tended to conflate differences as defined by physical features such as skin tone, with tribal and national identity.^ In the U.S., the FBI identifies fugitives to categories they define as sex, physical features, occupation, nationality, and race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the Ancient Egyptian sacred text called Book of Gates identifies four categories that are now conventionally labeled "Egyptians", "Asiatics", "Libyans", and "Nubians", but such distinctions tended to conflate differences as defined by physical features such as skin tone, with tribal and national identity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Two arguments against racial categorization as defined above are firstly that race has no biological basis [ 1 , 3 ], and secondly that there are racial differences but they are merely cosmetic, reflecting superficial characteristics such as skin color and facial features that involve a very small number of genetic loci that were selected historically; these superficial differences do not reflect any additional genetic distinctiveness [ 2 ].
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

.Classical civilizations from Rome to China tended to invest much more importance in familial or tribal affiliation than with one's physical appearance (Dikötter 1992; Goldenberg 2003).^ Classical civilizations from Rome to China tended to invest much more importance in familial or tribal affiliation than with one's physical appearance (Dikötter 1992; Goldenberg 2003).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ancient Athens, the celebrated birthplace of democracy and the ideals of freedom and equality, had an economy based much more on slavery than antebellum America.

^ No one would be more ready than I to admit the force of this argument, if such fundamental differences of development really exist.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ancient Greek and Roman authors also attempted to explain and categorize visible biological differences among peoples known to them.^ Ancient Greek and Roman authors also attempted to explain and categorize visible biological differences among peoples known to them.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How does each author frame the differences between people?

^ The Greek exposure to different races was essentially limited to the different Caucasian peoples of the Mediterranean world.

.Such categories often also included fantastical human-like beings that were supposed to exist in far-away lands.^ Such categories often also included fantastical human-like beings that were supposed to exist in far-away lands.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemoglobin is a protein in the blood (red blood cells) of many animals, including human beings, that carries oxygen to cellular tissue.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caring work such as calming and educating patients, usually done by nurses, often cuts across specific medical diagnostic categories.
  • [RRE]Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC eugen.leitl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Roman writers adhered to an environmental determinism in which climate could affect the appearance and character of groups (Isaac 2004).^ Some Roman writers adhered to an environmental determinism in which climate could affect the appearance and character of groups (Isaac 2004).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How the single member is )constituted, and how he will behave, are determined by the character of )the racial group."
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How the single member is ))constituted, and how he will behave, are determined by the character of ))the racial group."
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.In many ancient civilizations, individuals with widely varying physical appearances became full members of a society by growing up within that society or by adopting that society's cultural norms (Snowden 1983; Lewis 1990).^ In many ancient civilizations, individuals with widely varying physical appearances became full members of a society by growing up within that society or by adopting that society's cultural norms (Snowden 1983; Lewis 1990).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Physical anthropologists can explain many racial variations as climatic adaptations (Baker, 1974; Coon, 1965, 1982; Krantz, 1980; Roberts, 1978).
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With these changes it could begin to investigate the marginalized individuals within British society, and understand more fully different cultural identities across Britain's history.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Julian the Apostate was an early observer of the differences in humans, based on ethnic, cultural, and geographic traits, but as the idea of race had not yet been conceptualized,[citation needed] he believed that they were proof of randomness and the inexistence of "Providence":
.Come, tell me why it is that the Celts and the Germans are fierce, while the Hellenes and Romans are, generally speaking, inclined to political life and humane, though at the same time unyielding and warlike?^ Come, tell me why it is that the Celts and the Germans are fierce, while the Hellenes and Romans are, generally speaking, inclined to political life and humane, though at the same time unyielding and warlike?
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Why the Egyptians are more intelligent and more given to crafts, and the Syrians unwarlike and effeminate, but at the same time intelligent, hot-tempered, vain and quick to learn?
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Why the Egyptians are more intelligent and more given to crafts, and the Syrians unwarlike and effeminate, but at the same time intelligent, hot-tempered, vain and quick to learn?^ Why the Egyptians are more intelligent and more given to crafts, and the Syrians unwarlike and effeminate, but at the same time intelligent, hot-tempered, vain and quick to learn?
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Given their size and speed, the shifts in time necessarily have been due more to changes in the environment than to changes in the genes.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beyond that simple matter, it isn't clear to me why you think that ) something ) cannot be both spiritual and deluded (or deluding) at the same time.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.For if there is anyone who does not discern a reason for these differences among the nations, but rather declaims that all this so befell spontaneously, how, I ask, can he still believe that the universe is administered by a providence?—Julian, the Apostate.^ For if there is anyone who does not discern a reason for these differences among the nations, but rather declaims that all this so befell spontaneously, how, I ask, can he still believe that the universe is administered by a providence?
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "When we try to apply science to try to sort out these social differences, it all falls apart."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The point is that there will always be people who wish to construct socially unjust theories about racial differences.
  • Edge: THE NATURE OF NORMAL HUMAN VARIETY A Talk with Armand Leroi 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.Medieval models of race mixed Classical ideas with the notion that humanity as a whole was descended from Shem, Ham and Japheth, the three sons of Noah, producing distinct Semitic (Asiatic), Hamitic (African), and Japhetic (Indo-European) peoples.^ Medieval models of race mixed Classical ideas with the notion that humanity as a whole was descended from Shem , Ham and Japheth , the three sons of Noah , producing distinct Semitic ( Asiatic ), Hamitic ( African ), and Japhetic ( Indo-European ) peoples.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How could all human races come from Noah, his three sons and their wives?
  • NBC BROADCASTS "NOAH'S ARK" MINISERIES 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.rae.org [Source type: General]

^ By extension of biblical thinking and in honour of Shem, son of Noah, a Semitic race was conceived in an effort to describe peoples who spoke Semitic tongues, some of whom may differ considerably in their racial origins .
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 14th century, the Islamic sociologist Ibn Khaldun, an adherent of environmental determinism, wrote that black skin was due to the hot climate of sub-Saharan Africa and not due to the descendants of Ham being cursed.^ He wrote that black skin was due to the hot climate of sub-Saharan Africa and not due to the descendants of Ham being cursed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 14th century, the Islamic sociologist Ibn Khaldun , an adherent of environmental determinism, dispelled this theory as a myth.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest was 39% for sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.In the 9th century, Al-Jahiz, an Afro-Arab biologist and Islamic philosopher, the grandson of a Zanj (Bantu) slave,[19][20][21] was an early adherent of environmental determinism and explained how the environment can determine the physical characteristics of the inhabitants of a certain community.^ In the 9th century, Al-Jahiz , an Afro-Arab biologist and Islamic philosopher , the grandson of a Zanj ( Bantu ) slave, [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] was an early adherent of environmental determinism and explained how the environment can determine the physical characteristics of the inhabitants of a certain community.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 14th century, the Islamic sociologist Ibn Khaldun , an adherent of environmental determinism, dispelled this theory as a myth.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They think they know more about your ) family than you do, and they know why your child has certain physical ) characteristics, abilities, strengths and weaknesses.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.He used his theories on the struggle for existence and environmental determinism to explain the origins of different human skin colors, particularly black skin, which he believed to be the result of the environment.^ He used his theories on the struggle for existence and environmental determinism to explain the origins of different human skin colors , particularly black skin , which he believed to be the result of the environment.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Classifying people using anti-malaria genes, lactose tolerance, fingerprint whorls, or skin color resulted in the Swedes of Europe being placed in the same groupings as the Xhosa and Fulani of Africa, the Ainu of Japan, or the Italians of Europe.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The normal or original state for modern humans is probably black because melanin protects against the harmful effects of the sun in the tropics.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He cited a stony region of black basalt in the northern Najd as evidence for his theory:[22]
.
"[It] is so unusual that its gazelles and ostriches, its insects and flies, its foxes, sheep and asses, its horses and its birds are all black.^ "[It] is so unusual that its gazelles and ostriches, its insects and flies, its foxes, sheep and asses, its horses and its birds are all black.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Blackness and whiteness are in fact caused by the properties of the region, as well as by the God-given nature of water and soil and by the proximity or remoteness of the sun and the intensity or mildness of its heat."

Age of Discovery

.The word "race", along with many of the ideas now associated with the term, were first coined during the age of exploration, a time of European imperialism, exploration, technological superiority and colonization.^ Race can be associated with many things.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word "race", along with many of the ideas now associated with the term, were first coined during the age of exploration , a time of European imperialism , exploration, technological superiority and colonization .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, the European races did not change biologically, genetically or racially in the 16th or 17th century Americas when and where they began to exist in close contact with other races for the first time.

[23] .As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world, they speculated about the physical, social, and cultural differences among various human groups.^ They have a distinct culture and social environment.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world , they speculated about the physical, social, and cultural differences among various human groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Given visually complex social relationships, humans presumably have always observed and speculated about the physical differences among individuals and groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The rise of the Atlantic slave trade, which gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups to justify the subordination of African slaves.^ The rise of the Atlantic slave trade , which gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups to justify the subordination of African slaves .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these slaves were traded to the West African Cape Verde ports of embarkation through Portuguese and Arab middlemen and came from as far south as Angola.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ World History photo set : Loaded slave ship from Thomas Clarkson, Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species .

[24]
.Drawing on Classical sources and on their own internal interactions—for example, the hostility between the English and Irish—was a powerful influence on early thinking about the differences between people[25]— Europeans began to sort themselves and others into groups associated with physical appearance and with deeply ingrained behaviors and capacities.^ Drawing on Classical sources and on their own internal interactions — for example, the hostility between the English and Irish — was a powerful influence on early thinking about the differences between people [ 25 ] — Europeans began to sort themselves and others into groups associated with physical appearance and with deeply ingrained behaviors and capacities.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ People have always been aware of differences in physical appearance, religion, and language.

^ In other words, there are genetic differences between the Irish and the Scots.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectual, behavioral, and moral qualities.^ A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectual , behavioral , and moral qualities.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Does this requirement weaken or strengthen the link between race and physical appearance?

^ Does this enrollment weaken or strengthen the link between race and inheritance?

[26] .Although similar ideas can be found in other cultures (Lewis 1990; Dikötter 1992), they appear not to have had as much influence on their social structures as was found in Europe and the parts of the world colonized by Europeans, although conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world.^ Although similar ideas can be found in other cultures (Lewis 1990; Dikötter 1992), they appear not to have had as much influence on their social structures as was found in Europe and the parts of the world colonized by Europeans, although conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world , they speculated about the physical, social, and cultural differences among various human groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa , a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Scientific concepts

.The first scientific attempts to classify humans by categories of race date from the 17th century.^ Further information: Race (historical definitions) , Scientific racism , Craniofacial anthropometry The first scientific attempts to classify humans by categories of race date from the 17th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, the European races did not change biologically, genetically or racially in the 16th or 17th century Americas when and where they began to exist in close contact with other races for the first time.

^ Second, he classifies large segments of humanity into categories according to a few visible traits.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] The first post-Classical published classification of humans into distinct races seems to be François Bernier's Nouvelle division de la terre par les différents espèces ou races qui l'habitent ("New division of Earth by the different species or races which inhabit it"), published in 1684.

17th and 18th century

.According to philosopher Michel Foucault, theories of both racial and class conflict can be traced to 17th century political debates about innate differences among ethnicities.^ According to philosopher Michel Foucault , theories of both racial and class conflict can be traced to 17th century political debates about innate differences among ethnicities.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not about science, but about politics, racial politics.

^ The point is that there will always be people who wish to construct socially unjust theories about racial differences.
  • Edge: THE NATURE OF NORMAL HUMAN VARIETY A Talk with Armand Leroi 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.In England, radicals such as John Lilburne emphasised conflicts between Saxon and Norman peoples.^ In England, radicals such as John Lilburne emphasised conflicts between Saxon and Norman peoples.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How does each author present the conflict between different people?

^ As savage tribes came in conflict with civilized nations, such as England, the less advanced people were destroyed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In France, Henri de Boulainvilliers argued that the Germanic Franks possessed a natural right to leadership, in contrast to descendants of the Gauls.^ In France, Henri de Boulainvilliers argued that the Germanic Franks possessed a natural right to leadership, in contrast to descendants of the Gauls .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the 18th century, the differences among human groups became a focus of scientific investigation (Todorov 1993).^ In the 18th century, the differences among human groups became a focus of scientific investigation (Todorov 1993).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:505–512 Thorne and Wolpoff 1992 "The Multiregional Evolution of Humans" in Scientific American (April) 76-83 Todorov T (1993) On human diversity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world , they speculated about the physical, social, and cultural differences among various human groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Initially, scholars focused on cataloguing and describing "The Natural Varieties of Mankind," as Johann Friedrich Blumenbach titled his 1775 text (which established the five major divisions of humans still reflected in some racial classifications, i.e., the Caucasoid race, Mongoloid race, Ethiopian race (later termed the Negroid race), American Indian race, and Malayan race).^ Each of the major races of mankind, Negroid, Caucasoid, and Mongoloid, is itself composed of numerous separate populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, scholars focused on cataloguing and describing " The Natural Varieties of Mankind ," as Johann Friedrich Blumenbach entitled his 1775 text (which established the five major divisions of humans still reflected in some racial classifications, i.e., the Caucasoid race , Mongoloid race , Ethiopian race (later termed the Negroid race), American Indian race , and Malayan race ).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The various races were ranked in a scala naturae, a scale of nature, in which the most intelligent races represented the pinnacle of evolution...His revised system consisted of Caucasoid [White], Mongoloid [Yellow], American [Red], Ethiopian [Black], and Malayan [Brown].
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the 17th through the 19th centuries, the merging of folk beliefs about group differences with scientific explanations of those differences produced what one scholar has called an "ideology of race".[27] According to this ideology, races are primordial, natural, enduring and distinct.^ According to this ideology, races are primordial, natural, enduring and distinct.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From the 17th through the 19th centuries, the merging of folk beliefs about group differences with scientific explanations of those differences produced what one scholar has called an " ideology of race".
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Meets demand of some multiracial respondents, especially those whose parents are of different races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups.^ He further argued that one could use the term race if one distinguished between "race differences" and "the race concept."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (Introducing Culture Studies page 39) Keyword: ELITE ..."implies a process of selection- which may be natural, social, or cultural.....When the term is applied to the relations between social groups, there is the further connotation that the few are not just distinguished from, but exercise some form of power over, the many" I chose this word because I have seen in many of our readings and wanted to see its specific link to culture studies.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

19th century

Huxley's map of racial categories from On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870).      1: Bushmen      2: Negroes      3: Negritoes      4: Melanochroi      5: Australoids      6: Xanthochroi      7: Polynesians      8: Mongoloids A      8: Mongoloids B      8: Mongoloids C      9: Esquimaux Huxley states: 'It is to the Xanthochroi and Melanochroi, taken together, that the absurd denomination of "Caucasian" is usually applied'.[28]
.The 19th century saw attempts to change race from a taxonomic to a biological concept.^ The 19th century saw attempts to change race from a taxonomic to a biological concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, the European races did not change biologically, genetically or racially in the 16th or 17th century Americas when and where they began to exist in close contact with other races for the first time.

^ But, to deny or obfuscate the reality of a genetic basis for racial differences, as so many critics of the race concept have done, does not change reality.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the 19th century, several natural scientists wrote on race: Georges Cuvier, Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace, Francis Galton, James Cowles Pritchard, Louis Agassiz, Charles Pickering, and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.^ In the 19th century, several natural scientists wrote on race: Georges Cuvier , Charles Darwin , Alfred Wallace , Francis Galton , James Cowles Pritchard , Louis Agassiz , Charles Pickering , and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Forensic science supports the reality of the human races, and can racially identify race from skeletal remains with great accuracy, as described by forensic scientist George Gill: [Note #3] .

^ One prime example is the work of Arthur de Gobineau, author of the seminal work of 19th century racism, Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.As the science of anthropology took shape in the 19th century, European and American scientists increasingly sought explanations for the behavioral and cultural differences they attributed to groups (Stanton 1960).^ As the science of anthropology took shape in the 19th century, European and American scientists increasingly sought explanations for the behavioral and cultural differences they attributed to groups (Stanton 1960).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, using anthropometrics , invented by Francis Galton and Alphonse Bertillon , they measured the shapes and sizes of skulls and related the results to group differences in intelligence or other attributes (Lieberman 2001).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, a number of 19th century race scientists held a polygenist theory of human origins, that is, they thought different racial groups were essentially different species that had evolved independently from different origins in different places; monogenists, on the other hand, were more or less the precursors of the view that holds sway today, although it took a while to get there.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, using anthropometrics, invented by Francis Galton and Alphonse Bertillon, they measured the shapes and sizes of skulls and related the results to group differences in intelligence or other attributes (Lieberman 2001).^ For example, using anthropometrics , invented by Francis Galton and Alphonse Bertillon , they measured the shapes and sizes of skulls and related the results to group differences in intelligence or other attributes (Lieberman 2001).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They measured skull size & nose length, & recorded the color of their pupils' hair & eyes to determine whether students belonged to the true "Aryan race."

^ As the size of the Hispanic population increases, a larger number and proportion of that population group may mark "Other" or not respond.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These scientists made three claims about race: first, races are objective, naturally occurring divisions of humanity; second, there is a strong relationship between biological races and other human phenomena (such as forms of activity and interpersonal relations and culture, and by extension the relative material success of cultures), thus biologizing the notion of race, as Foucault demonstrated in his historical analysis; third, race is therefore a valid scientific category that can be used to explain and predict individual and group behavior.^ These scientists made three claims about race: first, races are objective, naturally occurring divisions of humanity; second, there is a strong relationship between biological races and other human phenomena (such as forms of activity and interpersonal relations and culture, and by extension the relative material success of cultures), thus biologizing the notion of race, as Foucault demonstrated in his historical analysis; third, race is therefore a valid scientific category that can be used to explain and predict individual and group behavior.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Culture even creates the notions of "race."
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is only one race, the human race.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Races were distinguished by skin color, facial type, cranial profile and size, texture and color of hair.^ Races were distinguished by skin color , facial type , cranial profile and size, texture and color of hair.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They measured skull size & nose length, & recorded the color of their pupils' hair & eyes to determine whether students belonged to the true "Aryan race."

^ It does not require a trained anthropologist to classify an array of Englishmen, West Africans, and Chinese with 100% accuracy by features, skin color, and type of hair despite so much variability within each of these groups that every individual can easily be distinguished from every other.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Moreover, races were almost universally considered to reflect group differences in moral character and intelligence.^ Moreover, races were almost universally considered to reflect group differences in moral character and intelligence .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Every race and even ethnic group within the races has its own collection of clinical priorities based on differing prevalence of diseases.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, groups differed in what they considered the most desirable standard.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eugenics movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, inspired by Arthur Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853–1855) and Vacher de Lapouge's "anthroposociology", asserted as self-evident the biological inferiority of particular groups (Kevles 1985).^ One prime example is the work of Arthur de Gobineau, author of the seminal work of 19th century racism, Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ De Gobineau"s work was not well received at first in France, where the values of the Revolution, such as human equality, were still influential, but in Germany it became all the rage.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How scientific is the attempt to racially classify people by cluster of genes or a certain frequency of a particular gene" This was the next method embraced by western scientists interested in "race" and the racial classification of groups of human beings.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many parts of the world, the idea of race became a way of rigidly dividing groups by culture as well as by physical appearances (Hannaford 1996).^ In many parts of the world, the idea of race became a way of rigidly dividing groups by culture as well as by physical appearances (Hannaford 1996).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Divide the class into six groups and give each the artwork and associated reading assignment in Race .

^ Does this requirement weaken or strengthen the link between race and physical appearance?

.Campaigns of oppression and genocide were often motivated by supposed racial differences (Horowitz 2001).^ Campaigns of oppression and genocide were often motivated by supposed racial differences (Horowitz 2001).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Race deniers beg their argument with the claim that belief in race leads to racial oppression and genocide, so the purpose of race denial is to end racial oppression and prevent genocide.

^ Epidemiologists often perform analyses of racial differences stratified on numerous environmental variables, such as socio-economic status, access to health care, education, and so on.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Charles Darwin's most controversial[citation needed] book, The Descent of Man, he made strong suggestions[citation needed] of racial differences and European superiority.^ In Charles Darwin 's most controversial book, The Descent of Man , he made strong suggestions of racial differences and European superiority.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ European-Americans of the 17th and 18th centuries were not biologically, genetically or racially different from their pre-16th century European ancestors, or from their European contemporaries.

^ Man the Hunter book emphasized that most calories eaten among typical (tropical) hunter-gatherers come from gathering, leaving the impression that gathering was the primary subsistence mode for the ancestors of most peoples.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Darwin's view, stronger tribes of humans always replaced weaker tribes.^ In Darwin's view, stronger tribes of humans always replaced weaker tribes.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As savage tribes came in conflict with civilized nations, such as England, the less advanced people were destroyed.^ As savage tribes came in conflict with civilized nations, such as England, the less advanced people were destroyed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But sterility and ill-health would probably follow, if savages were compelled by any cause, such as the inroad of a conquering tribe, to desert their homes and to change their habits.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In England, radicals such as John Lilburne emphasised conflicts between Saxon and Norman peoples.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[29] Nevertheless, he also noted the great difficulty naturalists had in trying to decide how many "races" there actually were (Darwin was himself a monogenist on the question of race, believing that all humans were of the same species and finding race to be a somewhat arbitrary distinction among some groups):
Man has been studied more carefully than any other animal, and yet there is the greatest possible diversity amongst capable judges whether he should be classed as a single species or race, or as two (Virey), as three (Jacquinot), as four (Kant), five (Blumenbach), six (Buffon), seven (Hunter), eight (Agassiz), eleven (Pickering), fifteen (Bory St. Vincent), sixteen (Desmoulins), twenty-two (Morton), sixty (Crawfurd), or as sixty-three, according to Burke. .This diversity of judgment does not prove that the races ought not to be ranked as species, but it shows that they graduate into each other, and that it is hardly possible to discover clear distinctive characters between them.^ This diversity of judgment does not prove that the races ought not to be ranked as species, but it shows that they graduate into each other, and that it is hardly possible to discover clear distinctive characters between them.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Man has been studied more carefully than any other animal, and yet there is the greatest possible diversity amongst capable judges whether he should be classed as a single species or race, or as two (Virey), as three (Jacquinot), as four (Kant), five (Blumenbach), six (Buffon), seven (Hunter), eight (Agassiz), eleven (Pickering), fifteen (Bory de St-Vincent), sixteen (Desmoulins), twenty-two (Morton), sixty (Crawfurd), or as sixty-three, according to Burke.* This diversity of judgment does not prove that the races ought not to be ranked as species, but it shews that they graduate into each other, and that it is hardly possible to discover clear distinctive characters between them.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During an early stage in the divergence of the races of man from a common stock, the differences between the races and their number must have been small; consequently as far as their distinguishing characters are concerned, they then had less claim to rank as distinct species than the existing so-called races.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

[30]

20th century

.A UNESCO statement called The Race Question issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II included both a scientific debunking of race theories and a moral condemnation of racism.^ Alongside empirical and conceptual problems with "race," following the Second World War , evolutionary and social scientists were acutely aware of how beliefs about race had been used to justify discrimination, apartheid, slavery, and genocide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the two readings had similar theories on the origin of race studies, they both approached it from different angles.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interesting question behind Saletan's work is this: How do we differentiate hostile racism from boneheaded thinking about race?
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It suggested in particular to "drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of "ethnic groups."
The 20th century racial classification by American anthropologist Carleton S. Coon, divided humanity into five races:

.In his landmark book The Races of Europe, Coon defined the Caucasian Race as encompassing the regions of Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Northeast Africa.^ However, it is believed that farming started in the Middle East and then spread with the farmers' migration into Europe.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distinction was made by designating countries in the "global south" the title of third world, the middle region of development to be second world, and the super powers to be the first and best.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lewis B (1990) Race and slavery in the Middle East.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.Coon and his work drew some charges of obsolete thinking or outright racism from a few critics, but some of the terminology he employed continues to be used even today, although the "-oid" suffixes now have in part taken on negative connotations.^ Coon and his work drew some charges of obsolete thinking or outright racism from a few critics, but some of the terminology he employed continues to be used even today, although the "-oid" suffixes now have in part taken on negative connotations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The interesting question behind Saletan's work is this: How do we differentiate hostile racism from boneheaded thinking about race?
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Racist thinking takes many forms, historically as well as today, and only some of those forms come across as "intolerably offensive" in many modern contexts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[32]
In the 21st-Century, Coon's role came under further critical scrutiny when Prof. John P Jackon Jr, noted that the American Coon, "actively aided the segregationist cause in violation of his own standards for scientific objectivity."[33]

Modern debates

Models of human evolution

.In a 1995 article, Leonard Lieberman and Fatimah Jackson suggested that any new support for a biological concept of race will likely come from another source, namely, the study of human evolution.^ See also: Multiregional hypothesis See also: Recent single origin hypothesis In a 1995 article, Leonard Lieberman and Fatimah Jackson suggested that any new support for a biological concept of race will likely come from another source, namely, the study of human evolution.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chicago Press ^ Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield, "Perishing Paradigm: Race—1931-99," American Anthropologist 105, no.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For anthropologists Lieberman and Jackson (1995), however, there are more profound methodological and conceptual problems with using cladistics to support concepts of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They therefore ask what, if any, implications current models of human evolution may have for any biological conception of race.^ Models of human evolution .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They therefore ask what, if any, implications current models of human evolution may have for any biological conception of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, Livingston and Dobzhansky agree that there are genetic differences among human beings; they also agree that the use of the race concept to classify people, and how the race concept is used, is a matter of social convention.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens and sub-species Homo sapiens sapiens. However, this is not the first species of hominids: the first species of genus Homo, Homo habilis, evolved in East Africa at least 2 million years ago, and members of this species populated different parts of Africa in a relatively short time.^ However, this is not the first species of hominids: the first species of genus Homo , Homo habilis , evolved in East Africa at least 2 million years ago, and members of this species populated different parts of Africa in a relatively short time.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens and sub-species Homo sapiens sapiens.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Homo erectus evolved more than 1.8 million years ago, and by 1.5 million years ago had spread throughout Europe and Asia.^ Homo erectus evolved more than 1.8 million years ago, and by 1.5 million years ago had spread throughout Europe and Asia.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One should also keep in mind that, following colonial settlements in the 1600's, the United States has reached a population of over 250 million in less than 400 years.
  • NBC BROADCASTS "NOAH'S ARK" MINISERIES 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.rae.org [Source type: General]

^ The multiregion-origin theory holds that, over a 1-million-year period, modem races evolved in parallel in Africa, Europe, and Asia through intermediate stages from Homo erectus.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

Virtually all physical anthropologists agree that Homo sapiens evolved out of Homo erectus.
.Anthropologists have been divided as to whether Homo sapiens evolved as one interconnected species from H. erectus (called the Multiregional Model, or the Regional Continuity Model), or evolved only in East Africa, and then migrated out of Africa and replaced H. erectus populations throughout Europe and Asia (called the Out of Africa Model or the Complete Replacement Model).^ Anthropologists have been divided as to whether Homo sapiens evolved as one interconnected species from H. erectus (called the Multiregional Model, or the Regional Continuity Model), or evolved only in East Africa, and then migrated out of Africa and replaced H. erectus populations throughout Europe and Asia (called the Out of Africa Model or the Complete Replacement Model).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Homo erectus evolved more than 1.8 million years ago, and by 1.5 million years ago had spread throughout Europe and Asia.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Virtually all physical anthropologists agree that Homo sapiens evolved out of Homo erectus.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Anthropologists continue to debate both possibilities, and the evidence is technically ambiguous as to which model is correct, although most anthropologists currently favor the Out of Africa model.^ Anthropologists continue to debate both possibilities, and the evidence is technically ambiguous as to which model is correct, although most anthropologists currently favor the Out of Africa model.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Saying that the debate will only continue and will constantly be used to discuss the current issues in that particular society.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens if the BBFC DOES step out of line with the desires of the politicians and thus fall out of favor with the current sitting government?
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

.Lieberman and Jackson argued that while advocates of both the Multiregional Model and the Out of Africa Model use the word race and make racial assumptions, none define the term.^ Lieberman and Jackson argued that while advocates of both the Multiregional Model and the Out of Africa Model use the word race and make racial assumptions, none define the term.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The word race is used in a variety of ways.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But modern scientists do not study racial phenotypes, the traits that identify and define race, that are race, and therefore should not be regarded as experts or authorities on racial typology or identification.

[35] .They conclude that "Each model has implications that both magnify and minimize the differences between races.^ They conclude that "Each model has implications that both magnify and minimize the differences between races.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The great variability of all the external differences between the races of man, likewise indicates that they cannot be of much importance; for if important, they would long ago have been either fixed and preserved, or eliminated.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When any factor differs as much from Al to A2 as it does from A2 to B2, why should one conclude that this factor is due to the difference between A in general and B in general?...
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet each model seems to take race and races as a conceptual reality.^ Yet each model seems to take race and races as a conceptual reality.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ IIRC, if you believe the wikipedia, it seems the majority of anthropologists up until 1995 thought race was a real and useful concept.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reports were available to Czech, and basically to everybody, and yet nobody seems to have realized their significance until Nick, which is rather baffling.

.The net result is that those anthropologists who prefer to view races as a reality are encouraged to do so" and conclude that students of human evolution would be better off avoiding the word race, and instead describe genetic differences in terms of populations and clinal gradations.^ Race is genetically real.

^ The net result is that those anthropologists who prefer to view races as a reality are encouraged to do so" and conclude that students of human evolution would be better off avoiding the word race, and instead describe genetic differences in terms of populations and clinal gradations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the percentages of genetic differences between the human races?

[36]

Race as subspecies

.With the advent of the modern synthesis in the early 20th century, many biologists sought to use evolutionary models and populations genetics in an attempt to formalise taxonomy.^ With the advent of the modern synthesis in the early 20th century, many biologists sought to use evolutionary models and populations genetics in an attempt to formalise taxonomy.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Plate tectonics were still decades away from acceptance (not that this made much difference, as Steiner's claims were incompatible with virtually any geological theory), and the modern evolutionary synthesis (where Mendelian genetics was combined with Darwinian evolution) wasn't consolidated until the middle of the twentieth century.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Plate tectonics were still ))decades away from acceptance (not that this made much difference, as ))Steiner's claims were incompatible with virtually any geological theory), ))and the modern evolutionary synthesis (where Mendelian genetics was ))combined with Darwinian evolution) wasn't consolidated until the middle of ))the twentieth century.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Biological Species Concept (BSC) is the most widely used system for describing species, this concept defines a species as a group of organisms that interbreed in their natural environment and produce viable offspring.^ The Biological Species Concept (BSC) is the most widely used system for describing species, this concept defines a species as a group of organisms that interbreed in their natural environment and produce viable offspring.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa , a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In each species, males evolve to use the strategy that most promotes their fitness.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, species are not classified according to the BSC but according to typology by the use of a holotype, due to the difficulty of determining whether all members of a group of organisms do or can in practice potentially interbreed.^ How the single member is )constituted, and how he will behave, are determined by the character of )the racial group."
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They should decide on two group members to practice the roles of the inquisitor and artist (complete with a copy of the painting they can point to during the exchange.

^ It is a question of the validity of the conclusion that differences between genetically different groups are due to those genetic differences, whether in whole or in part.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .BSC species are routinely classified on a subspecific level, though this classification is conducted differently for different taxons, for mammals the normal taxonomic unit below the species level is usually the subspecies.^ BSC species are routinely classified on a subspecific level, though this classification is conducted differently for different taxons, for mammals the normal taxonomic unit below the species level is usually the subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result it is necessary to impose a threshold on the level of difference that is required for a population to be designated a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, species are not classified according to the BSC but according to typology by the use of a holotype , due to the difficulty of determining whether all members of a group of organisms do or can in practice potentially interbreed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.More recently the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) has gained a substantial following.^ More recently the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) has gained a substantial following.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The PSC is based on the idea of a least-inclusive taxonomic unit (LITU), in phylogenetic classification no subspecies can exist because they would automatically constitute a LITU (any monophyletic group).^ From some, NO, they would not.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The PSC is based on the idea of a least-inclusive taxonomic unit (LITU), in phylogenetic classification no subspecies can exist because they would automatically constitute a LITU (any monophyletic group).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa , a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa, a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This similarity, or rather identity, is striking, when contrasted with the different expressions and cries made by distinct species of monkeys.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "More than that - a high proportion of the alleles that vary a lot in frequency between racial groups have been subject to strong selection.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .In biology the term "race" is used with caution because it can be ambiguous, "'Race' is not being defined or used consistently; its referents are varied and shift depending on context.^ In biology the term "race" is used with caution because it can be ambiguous, "'Race' is not being defined or used consistently; its referents are varied and shift depending on context.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In a response to Livingston, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingston that if races have to be 'discrete units,' then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In February, 2001, the editors of the medical journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine asked authors to no longer use "race" as an explanatory variable and not to use obsolescent terms.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term is often used colloquially to refer to a range of human groupings.^ The term is often used colloquially to refer to a range of human groupings.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For the most part, the public comment used the term, "multiracial" to refer to persons of two or more races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Religious, cultural, social, national, ethnic, linguistic, genetic, geographical and anatomical groups have been and sometimes still are called 'races'".[39] Generally when it is used it is synonymous with subspecies.^ Religious, cultural, social, national, ethnic, linguistic, genetic, geographical and anatomical groups have been and sometimes still are called 'races'".
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally when it is used it is synonymous with subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Science 298:2381–2385 [6] Rotimi CN (2004) Are medical and nonmedical uses of large-scale genomic markers conflating genetics and "race"?
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[39][40][41] .One main obstacle to identifying subspecies is that, while it is a recognised taxonomic term, it has no precise definition.^ One main obstacle to identifying subspecies is that, while it is a recognised taxonomic term, it has no precise definition.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Federal laws are written based on the assumption that people identify with one Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since humanity is one species, with no different human species, it is then argued by false definition that there are no different human races, defining race out of existence.

[40]
Species of organisms that are monotypic (i.e., form a single subspecies) display at least one of these properties:
.
  • All members of the species are very similar and cannot be sensibly divided into biologically significant subcategories.
  • The individuals vary considerably but the variation is essentially random and largely meaningless so far as genetic transmission of these variations is concerned (many plant species fit into this category, which is why horticulturists interested in preserving, say, a particular flower color avoid propagation from seed, and instead use vegetative methods like propagation from cuttings).
  • The variation among individuals is noticeable and follows a pattern, but there are no clear dividing lines among separate groups: they fade imperceptibly into one another.^ Seen in this context, these are very significant genetic differences.

    ^ The individuals vary considerably but the variation is essentially random and largely meaningless so far as genetic transmission of these variations is concerned (many plant species fit into this category, which is why horticulturists interested in preserving, say, a particular flower color avoid propagation from seed, and instead use vegetative methods like propagation from cuttings).
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The variation among individuals is noticeable and follows a pattern, but there are no clear dividing lines among separate groups: they fade imperceptibly into one another.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Such clinal variation displays a lack of allopatric partition between groups (i.e., a clearly defined boundary demarcating the subspecies), which is usually required before they are recognised as subspecies.^ "More than that - a high proportion of the alleles that vary a lot in frequency between racial groups have been subject to strong selection.
    • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They do not say what standard is applied to determine what percentage of genetic difference is required to constitute a race, only that the difference between human populations is too small.

    ^ Race is a biological reality that existed before people were aware of its existence, before they had an idea or concept of its existence, and independent of such an awareness, idea or concept.

    [42]
.A polytypic species has two or more subspecies.^ A polytypic species has two or more subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These are separate populations that are more genetically different from one another and that are more reproductively isolated, gene flow between these populations is much reduced leading to genetic differentiation.^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

^ But this represents far more than the genetic difference between races.

^ There are also many genetic differences between the races in genes that are not determinative of race.

Morphological subspecies

.Traditionally subspecies are seen as geographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations.^ If biological is defined as genetic then a decade or more of population genetics research has documented genetic, and therefore biological, differentiation among the races.

^ It is reasonable to argue that geographical isolation and genetic drift along with selection produced systematic genetic differences between biological populations.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their divergent evolution and ancestry began only with their geographic dispersal and separation into isolated populations spread around the world.

[40] .Or to put it another way "the designation 'subspecies' is used to indicate an objective degree of microevolutionary divergence"[39] One objection to this idea is that it does not identify any degree of differentiation.^ One of their cheif themes is the genuine Germanness of Steiner and Goethe, which they relate in various ways to the "redeeming features" of Hitler, as the site editor puts it.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, where does one put the Polynesians" Polynesia is a triangle of South Pacific islands formed by Hawaii to the north, Easter Island to the east, and New Zealand to the southwest.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If she does get one, he may be unwilling to support another man's child.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, any population that is somewhat biologically different could be considered a subspecies, even to the level of a local population.^ Therefore, any population that is somewhat biologically different could be considered a subspecies, even to the level of a local population.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally taxonomists prefer to use phylogenetic analysis to determine whether a population can be considered a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If biological is defined as genetic then a decade or more of population genetics research has documented genetic, and therefore biological, differentiation among the races.

.As a result it is necessary to impose a threshold on the level of difference that is required for a population to be designated a subspecies.^ As a result it is necessary to impose a threshold on the level of difference that is required for a population to be designated a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They do not say what standard is applied to determine what percentage of genetic difference is required to constitute a race, only that the difference between human populations is too small.

^ BSC species are routinely classified on a subspecific level, though this classification is conducted differently for different taxons, for mammals the normal taxonomic unit below the species level is usually the subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[40]
.This effectively means that populations of organisms must have reached a certain measurable level of difference to be recognised as subspecies.^ This effectively means that populations of organisms must have reached a certain measurable level of difference to be recognised as subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This statistic is used to compare differences between any two given populations and can be used to measure genetic differences between populations for individual genes, or for many genes simultaneously.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Every race has a certain range of different phenotypes or racial elements within its population.

.Dean Amadon proposed in 1949 that subspecies would be defined according to the seventy-five percent rule which means that 75% of a population must lie outside 99% of the range of other populations for a given defining morphological character or a set of characters.^ The seventy-five percent rule for subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dean Amadon proposed in 1949 that subspecies would be defined according to the seventy-five percent rule which means that 75% of a population must lie outside 99% of the range of other populations for a given defining morphological character or a set of characters.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The other 85 percent will then split half and half (42.5 percent) between the intra- and interindividual within-population comparisons.

.The seventy-five percent rule still has defenders but other scholars argue that it should be replaced with ninety or ninety-five percent rule.^ Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but "the leaders" of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

[43][44][45]
.In 1978, Sewall Wright suggested that human populations that have long inhabited separated parts of the world should, in general, be considered different subspecies by the usual criterion that most individuals of such populations can be allocated correctly by inspection.^ In 1978, Sewall Wright suggested that human populations that have long inhabited separated parts of the world should, in general, be considered different subspecies by the usual criterion that most individuals of such populations can be allocated correctly by inspection.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When any factor differs as much from Al to A2 as it does from A2 to B2, why should one conclude that this factor is due to the difference between A in general and B in general?...
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Wolfe and Gray did not notice this, this is the first clear evidence that sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of differences in gene frequencies among human populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It does not require a trained anthropologist to classify an array of Englishmen, West Africans, and Chinese with 100% accuracy by features, skin color, and type of hair despite so much variability within each of these groups that every individual can easily be distinguished from every other.^ It does not require a trained anthropologist to classify an array of Englishmen, West Africans, and Chinese with 100% accuracy by features, skin color, and type of hair despite so much variability within each of these groups that every individual can easily be distinguished from every other.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most widely used human racial categories are based on visible traits (especially skin color, cranial or facial features and hair texture), and self-identification."
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of these slaves were traded to the West African Cape Verde ports of embarkation through Portuguese and Arab middlemen and came from as far south as Angola.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, it is customary to use the term race rather than subspecies for the major subdivisions of the human species as well as for minor ones.^ However, it is customary to use the term race rather than subspecies for the major subdivisions of the human species as well as for minor ones.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In a response to Livingston, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingston that if races have to be 'discrete units,' then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ IIRC, if you believe the wikipedia, it seems the majority of anthropologists up until 1995 thought race was a real and useful concept.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.On the other hand in practice subspecies are often defined by easily observable physical appearance, but there is not necessarily any evolutionary significance to these observed differences, so this form of classification has become less acceptable to evolutionary biologists.^ But the traditional methods of racial classification by racial typology or physical appearance are not arbitrary for the simple reason that they are based on, reflect and are consistent with the real geographic populations of humanity, as they really exist, and therefore with objectively observable and verifiable reality.

^ Seen in this context, these are very significant genetic differences.

^ In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

[39][40] .Likewise this typological approach to race is generally regarded as discredited by biologists and anthropologists.^ Likewise this typological approach to race is generally regarded as discredited by biologists and anthropologists.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A consensus consequently developed among anthropologists and geneticists that race as the previous generation had known it - as largely discrete, geographically distinct, gene pools - did not exist.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Because of the difficulty in classifying subspecies morphologically, many biologists reject the concept altogether, citing problems such as:[39]
.
  • Visible physical differences do not correlate with one another, leading to the possibility of different classifications for the same individual organisms.^ "Much of New World polygyny appears to be of a different pattern, in which wives tend to be related to one another and to live in the same house."
    • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Multicollinearity refers to the fact that many variables are highly correlated with one another, so that it is very easy to believe that a certain result comes from variable A, when in fact it is due to variable Z, with which A happens to be correlated.
    • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts."
    • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

    [39]
  • .
  • Parallel evolution can lead to the existence of the appearance of similarities between groups of organisms that are not part of the same species.^ Parallel evolution can lead to the existence of the appearance of similarities between groups of organisms that are not part of the same species.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa , a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
    • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [39]
  • .
  • The existence of isolated populations within previously designated subspecies.^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
    • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [39]
  • That the criteria for classification are arbitrary.[39]

Subspecies genetically differentiated populations

.Another way to look at differences between populations is to measure genetic differences rather than physical differences.^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

^ Another way to look at differences between populations is to measure genetic differences rather than physical differences.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But this represents far more than the genetic difference between races.

.The Human Genome Project found only gradations in genetic variation, not sharp lines which would naturally define notions of race or ethnicity.^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Human Genome Project found only gradations in genetic variation, not sharp lines which would naturally define notions of race or ethnicity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For empirical reasons we prefer to place emphasis on clinal variation, which recognizes the existence of adaptive human hereditary variation and simultaneously stresses that such variation is not found in packages that can be labeled races .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

."People who have lived in the same geographic region for many generations may have some alleles in common, but no allele will be found in all members of one population and in no members of any other."^ Many people of more than one race, who under Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "People who have lived in the same geographic region for many generations may have some alleles in common, but no allele will be found in all members of one population and in no members of any other."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This genocide was/is against the indigenous pre-1492 populations of North and South America by European conquerors and was one of the most wholly effective genocides in all of history.

[47]
.Genetic differences between populations of organisms can be measured using the fixation index of Sewall Wright, which is often abbreviated to FST.^ Genetic differences between populations of organisms can be measured using the fixation index of Sewall Wright , which is often abbreviated to F ST .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the claim, based on a standard measure of variation known as "Wright's fixation index" or F ST, that only 15% of human genetic variability is racial, or between different populations and unique to each race, while 85% is non-racial or race neutral, between individuals and common to every race, presumably from the beginning of the modern human species.

^ Some researchers report the variation between racial groups (measured by Sewall Wright's population structure statistic F ST ) accounts for as little as 5% of human genetic variation².
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This statistic is used to compare differences between any two given populations and can be used to measure genetic differences between populations for individual genes, or for many genes simultaneously.^ This statistic is used to compare differences between any two given populations and can be used to measure genetic differences between populations for individual genes, or for many genes simultaneously.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic differences between races has no relevance to the liberal position of equality, as it is an equality of rights, and equality before the law, that is at issue here.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideally, analysis would use data expressed as behavioral clines drawn from data on many different populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .For example it is often stated that the fixation index for humans is about 0.15. This means that about 85% of the variation measured in the human population is within any population, and about 15% of the variation occurs between populations, or that any two individuals from different populations are almost as likely to be more similar to each other than either is to a member of their own group.^ This means that there is greater variation within 'racial' groups than between them."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that about 85% of the variation measured in the human population is within any population, and about 15% of the variation occurs between populations, or that any two individuals from different populations are almost as likely to be more similar to each other than either is to a member of their own group.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

[39][40]
.It is often stated that human genetic variation is low compared to other mammalian species, and it has been claimed that this should be taken as evidence that there is no natural subdivision of the human population.^ It is often stated that human genetic variation is low compared to other mammalian species, and it has been claimed that this should be taken as evidence that there is no natural subdivision of the human population.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This standard allows the authors to state: "if we employ a straightforward definition of race -- for example, a population within a species that can be readily distinguished from other such populations on genetic grounds alone (that is, using only heritable features) -- then there can be no doubt of the existence of a substantial number of human races."

[49][50][51][52][53] .Wright himself believed that a value of 0.25 represented great genetic variation and that an FST of 0.15-0.25 represented moderate variation.^ Wright himself believed that a value of 0.25 represented great genetic variation and that an F ST of 0.15-0.25 represented moderate variation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the claim, based on a standard measure of variation known as "Wright's fixation index" or F ST, that only 15% of human genetic variability is racial, or between different populations and unique to each race, while 85% is non-racial or race neutral, between individuals and common to every race, presumably from the beginning of the modern human species.

^ Extensive surveys show that a plurality of experts believe that Jensen was correct in attributing a portion of the racial variation to genetic differences (Snyderman & Rothman, 1987).
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

.It should, however, be noted that about 5% of human variation occurs between populations within continents, and therefore the FST between continental groups of humans (or races) is as low as 0.1 (or possibly lower).^ About 94% can be found within any continent.

^ It should, however, be noted that about 5% of human variation occurs between populations within continents, and therefore the F ST between continental groups of humans (or races) is as low as 0.1 (or possibly lower).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.In their 2003 paper "Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races"[54] Jeffrey Long and Rick Kittles give a long critique of the application of FST to human populations.^ In their 2003 paper "Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races" [ 54 ] Jeffrey Long and Rick Kittles give a long critique of the application of F ST to human populations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biological definitions of race (Long & Kittles, 2003) et al.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genetic diversity and the nonexistence of biological races.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They find that the figure of 85% is misleading because it implies that all human populations contain on average 85% of all genetic diversity.^ They find that the figure of 85% is misleading because it implies that all human populations contain on average 85% of all genetic diversity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In one island of the Pacific he would find a small population of mingled Polynesian and English blood; and in the Fiji Archipelago a population of Polynesians and Negritos crossed in all degrees.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is that 5 people might write in because they find something offensive, but who writes in to say 'This program/game/song/film didn't bother me in the slightest'?
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

.They claim that this does not correctly reflect human population history, because it treats all human groups as independent.^ They claim that this does not correctly reflect human population history, because it treats all human groups as independent.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This genocide was/is against the indigenous pre-1492 populations of North and South America by European conquerors and was one of the most wholly effective genocides in all of history.

^ But the traditional methods of racial classification by racial typology or physical appearance are not arbitrary for the simple reason that they are based on, reflect and are consistent with the real geographic populations of humanity, as they really exist, and therefore with objectively observable and verifiable reality.

.A more realistic portrayal of the way human groups are related is to understand that some human groups are parental to other groups and that these groups represent paraphyletic groups to their descent groups.^ A more realistic portrayal of the way human groups are related is to understand that some human groups are parental to other groups and that these groups represent paraphyletic groups to their descent groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is probably all of these, some more than others.

^ The idea of the indigo children *seems* to correlate with anthroposophy but in fact the way these parents handle their children is often extremely at odds with Waldorf principles.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, under the recent African origin theory the human population in Africa is paraphyletic to all other human groups because it represents the ancestral group from which all non-African populations derive, but more than that, non-African groups only derive from a small non-representative sample of this African population.^ Other populations appear to be mixtures of original populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is probably all of these, some more than others.

^ For example, under the recent African origin theory the human population in Africa is paraphyletic to all other human groups because it represents the ancestral group from which all non-African populations derive, but more than that, non-African groups only derive from a small non-representative sample of this African population.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This means that all non-African groups are more closely related to each other and to some African groups (probably east Africans) than they are to others, and further that the migration out of Africa represented a genetic bottleneck, with much of the diversity that existed in Africa not being carried out of Africa by the emigrating groups.^ It is probably all of these, some more than others.

^ But this represents far more than the genetic difference between races.

^ In an ongoing debate, some geneticists argue that race is neither a meaningful concept nor a useful heuristic device,[12] and even that genetic differences among groups are biologically meaningless,[13] on the grounds that more genetic variation exists within such races than among them, and that racial traits overlap without discrete boundaries.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This view produces a version of human population movements that do not result in all human populations being independent; but rather, produces a series of dilutions of diversity the further from Africa any population lives, each founding event representing a genetic subset of its parental population.^ This view produces a version of human population movements that do not result in all human populations being independent; but rather, produces a series of dilutions of diversity the further from Africa any population lives, each founding event representing a genetic subset of its parental population.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Phylogenetic tree (above) for 26 representative human populations from Nei and Roychoudhury (1993).

^ Your life, your existential situation, the ones )you love, your health are all a result of how )you led your previous lives.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Long and Kittles find that rather than 85% of human genetic diversity existing in all human populations, about 100% of human diversity exists in a single African population, whereas only about 70% of human genetic diversity exists in a population derived from New Guinea.^ These findings aided by advances in computer technology and the Human Genome Project validate the scholarship of African, Afro-Carribean, African American and European scholars who have long asserted an African presence and influence in most if not all the classical civilizations of mankind.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one island of the Pacific he would find a small population of mingled Polynesian and English blood; and in the Fiji Archipelago a population of Polynesians and Negritos crossed in all degrees.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As stated in the study cited above, "The existence of such intermediate groups should not overshadow the fact that the greatest genetic structure that exists in the human population occurs at the racial level."

.Long and Kittles make the observation that this still produces a global human population that is genetically homogeneous compared to other mammalian populations.^ Long and Kittles make the observation that this still produces a global human population that is genetically homogeneous compared to other mammalian populations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This statistic is used to compare differences between any two given populations and can be used to measure genetic differences between populations for individual genes, or for many genes simultaneously.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They do not say what standard is applied to determine what percentage of genetic difference is required to constitute a race, only that the difference between human populations is too small.

.Wright's F statistics are not used to determine whether a group can be described as a subspecies or not, though the statistic is used to measure the degree of differentiation between populations, the degree of genetic differentiation is not a marker of subspecies status.^ Addressing this issue, the degree of variation between different human populations, the inventor of the F ST measure, the late Sewell Wright, stated emphatically that "if racial differences this large were seen in another species, they would be called subspecies."

^ If biological is defined as genetic then a decade or more of population genetics research has documented genetic, and therefore biological, differentiation among the races.

^ Differential use of reproductive strategies by human groups?
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

[48] .Generally taxonomists prefer to use phylogenetic analysis to determine whether a population can be considered a subspecies.^ Generally taxonomists prefer to use phylogenetic analysis to determine whether a population can be considered a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally when it is used it is synonymous with subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ideally, analysis would use data expressed as behavioral clines drawn from data on many different populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phylogenetic analysis relies on the concept of derived characteristics that are not shared between groups, usually applying to populations that are allopatric (geographically separated) and therefore discretely bounded.^ Phylogenetic analysis relies on the concept of derived characteristics that are not shared between groups, usually applying to populations that are allopatric (geographically separated) and therefore discretely bounded.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally taxonomists prefer to use phylogenetic analysis to determine whether a population can be considered a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This would make a subspecies, evolutionarily speaking, a clade - a group with a common evolutionary ancestor population.^ This would make a subspecies, evolutionarily speaking, a clade - a group with a common evolutionary ancestory population.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the African tribal groups, all Bantu-speaking, in which L2 is common are: Hausa, Kanuri, Fulfe, Songhai, Malunjin (Angola), Yoruba, Senegalese, Serer and Wolof.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The introduced protestant population was largely Scottish - which would make them more Celtic, like the Irish" .
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .The smooth gradation of human genetic variation in general rules out any idea that human population groups can be considered monophyletic (cleanly divided) as there appears to always have been considerable gene flow between human populations.^ Rushton extends the idea to human populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are also many genetic differences between the races in genes that are not determinative of race.

[40]

Subspecies as clade

By the 1970s many evolutionary scientists were avoiding the concept of "subspecies" as a taxonomic category for four reasons:
  • very few data indicate that contiguous subspecies ever become species[citation needed]
  • geographically disjunct groups regarded as subspecies usually can be demonstrated to actually be distinct species[citation needed]
  • subspecies had been recognized on the basis of only 2-5 phenotypic characters, which often were adaptations to local environments but which did not reflect the evolutionary differentiation of populations as a whole[citation needed]
  • with the advent of molecular techniques used to get a better handle on genetic introgression (gene flow), the picture afforded by looking at genetic variation was often at odds with the phenotypic variation (as is the case with looking at genes versus percentage of epidermal melanin in human populations)[citation needed]
These criticisms have coincided with the rise of cladistics
.A clade is a taxonomic group of organisms consisting of a single common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor.^ A clade is a taxonomic group of organisms consisting of a single common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the African tribal groups, all Bantu-speaking, in which L2 is common are: Hausa, Kanuri, Fulfe, Songhai, Malunjin (Angola), Yoruba, Senegalese, Serer and Wolof.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, species are not classified according to the BSC but according to typology by the use of a holotype , due to the difficulty of determining whether all members of a group of organisms do or can in practice potentially interbreed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Every creature produced by sexual reproduction has two immediate lineages, one maternal and one paternal.^ Every creature produced by sexual reproduction has two immediate lineages, one maternal and one paternal.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For many customers of lineage-based tests, there is a lack of understanding that their maternal and paternal lineages do not necessarily represent their entire genetic make-up.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Two mechanisms could produce greater sexual restraint.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .Whereas Carolus Linnaeus established a taxonomy of living organisms based on anatomical similarities and differences, cladistics seeks to establish a taxonomy—the phylogenetic tree—based on genetic similarities and differences and tracing the process of acquisition of multiple characteristics by single organisms.^ Their descent trees and those of others (Zhao and Lee, 1989; Nei & Roychoudhury 1993) agree that the largest genetic difference is between Africans and all other populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phylogenetic tree below graphically illustrates the genetic relationships of the different populations.

^ Blumenbach was a disciple of Linnaeus, and inherited his method of classifying living things, but differed from him in a number of important respects.
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some researchers have tried to clarify the idea of race by equating it to the biological idea of the clade:
Human evolutionary tree[citation needed]
.
A phylogenetic tree like the one shown above is usually derived from DNA or protein sequences from populations.
^ Biology photo set : Phylogenetic tree based on DNA or protein sequences of populations .

^ Phylogenetic tree (above) for 26 representative human populations from Nei and Roychoudhury (1993).

^ The phylogenetic tree below graphically illustrates the genetic relationships of the different populations.

.Often mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome sequences are used to study ancient human migration paths.^ Often mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome sequences are used to study ancient human migration paths.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human evolutionary tree A phylogenetic tree like the one shown above is usually derived from DNA or protein sequences from populations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are countless genetic studies that show racial differences in the frequencies of different gene sequences and genetic traits, although the term population is commonly used as a euphemism for race.

.These single-locus sources of DNA do not recombine and are inherited from a single parent.^ These single-locus sources of DNA do not recombine and are inherited from a single parent.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He puts together this remarkable story from scraps of evidence we each inherit from our parents and pass on to our children; evidence is encoded in our DNA .
  • Race 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Individuals from the various continental groups tend to be more similar to one another than to people from other continents, and tracing either mitochondrial DNA or non-recombinant Y-chromosome DNA explains how people in one place may be largely derived from people in some remote location.^ It is probably all of these, some more than others.

^ May be used in more than one subject area .

^ In the stereotyping sense, some general statements about Jews may be true and thus constitute rational anti-Jewish attitudes among groups that have very different interests…[There] are also virtues in defining anti-Semitism along the lines of disliking Jews more than is rationally warranted.

.The tree is rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, which is believed to have originated in Africa.^ The tree is rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, which is believed to have originated in Africa .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He used his theories on the struggle for existence and environmental determinism to explain the origins of different human skin colors , particularly black skin , which he believed to be the result of the environment.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Peter: )The most plausible evolutionary accounts agree on placing the origins of )modern humans in equatorial Africa and spreading from there.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

Horizontal distance corresponds to two things:
  1. Genetic distance. .Given below the diagram, the genetic difference between humans and chimpanzees is roughly 2%, or 20 times larger than the variation among modern humans.
  2. Temporal remoteness of the most recent common ancestor.^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

    ^ The mitochondrial most recent common ancestor of modern humans lived roughly 200,000 years ago, latest common ancestors of humans and chimpanzees between four and seven million years ago.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Given below the diagram, the genetic difference between humans and chimpanzees is roughly 2%, or 20 times larger than the variation among modern humans.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Rough estimates are given above the diagram, in millions of years.^ Rough estimates are given above the diagram, in millions of years.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The mitochondrial most recent common ancestor of modern humans lived roughly 200,000 years ago, latest common ancestors of humans and chimpanzees between four and seven million years ago.
.Chimpanzees and humans belong to different genera, indicated in Blue.^ Chimpanzees and humans belong to different genera , indicated in Blue.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, as respects the question of absolute size, it is established that the difference between the largest and the smallest healthy human brain is greater than the difference between the smallest healthy human brain and the largest chimpanzee's or orang's brain.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), such as that of Jody Hey and Eugene Harris (1999) show a difference between the human races that is about 4% of the difference between humans and chimpanzees.

.Formation of species and subspecies is also indicated, and the formation of "races" is indicated in the green rectangle to the right (note that only a very rough representation of human phylogeny is given, and the points made in the preceding section, insofar as they apply to an "African race", are understood here).^ Formation of species and subspecies is also indicated, and the formation of "races" is indicated in the green rectangle to the right (note that only a very rough representation of human phylogeny is given, and the points made in the preceding section, insofar as they apply to an "African race", are understood here).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They know the only way they can deny race is to create a false definition under which race does not exist, and by which they can pretend to refute the reality of race.

^ Genetic differences between races has no relevance to the liberal position of equality, as it is an equality of rights, and equality before the law, that is at issue here.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Note that vertical distances are not meaningful in this representation.
.
This genetic distance map made in 2002 is an estimate of 18 world human groups by a neighbour-joining method based on 23 kinds of genetic information.
^ This genetic distance map made in 2002 is an estimate of 18 world human groups by a neighbour-joining method based on 23 kinds of genetic information.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The rise of the Atlantic slave trade , which gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups to justify the subordination of African slaves .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Craig Venter and scientist Francis Collins of the National Institute of Health jointly made the announcement of the mapping of the human genome in 2000.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[56]
.Most evolutionary scientists have rejected the identification of races with clades for two reasons.^ Most evolutionary scientists have rejected the identification of races with clades for two reasons.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But modern scientists do not study racial phenotypes, the traits that identify and define race, that are race, and therefore should not be regarded as experts or authorities on racial typology or identification.

^ In the face of these issues, some evolutionary scientists have simply abandoned the concept of race in favor of "population."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.First, as Rachel Caspari (2003) argued, clades are by definition monophyletic groups (a taxon that includes all descendants of a given ancestor) since no groups currently regarded as races are monophyletic, none of those groups can be clades.^ All six groups should read the assigned passage from Race , examine associated pieces of artwork and answer the following question which will be presented to the whole group: .

^ Since humanity is one species, with no different human species, it is then argued by false definition that there are no different human races, defining race out of existence.

^ Thus the definition of the word race is, quite simply, those populations and phenotypes to which it refers.

.For anthropologists Lieberman and Jackson (1995), however, there are more profound methodological and conceptual problems with using cladistics to support concepts of race.^ IIRC, if you believe the wikipedia, it seems the majority of anthropologists up until 1995 thought race was a real and useful concept.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Note #2] More recently my involvement in these arguments has tended to be indirect, as visitors to my site who have used the material they found there in their own exchanges with race deniers have sought my advice and assistance.

^ There seems no middle ground upon which to agree on )definitions of "race" and some other concepts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.They emphasize that "the molecular and biochemical proponents of this model explicitly use racial categories in their initial grouping of samples". For example, the large and highly diverse macroethnic groups of East Indians, North Africans, and Europeans are presumptively grouped as Caucasians prior to the analysis of their DNA variation.^ For example, the large and highly diverse macroethnic groups of East Indians, North Africans, and Europeans are presumptively grouped as Caucasians prior to the analysis of their DNA variation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They emphasize that "the molecular and biochemical proponents of this model explicitly use racial categories in their initial grouping of samples ".
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, using anthropometrics , invented by Francis Galton and Alphonse Bertillon , they measured the shapes and sizes of skulls and related the results to group differences in intelligence or other attributes (Lieberman 2001).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This limits and skews interpretations, obscures other lineage relationships, deemphasizes the impact of more immediate clinal environmental factors on genomic diversity, and can cloud our understanding of the true patterns of affinity.^ This limits and skews interpretations, obscures other lineage relationships, deemphasizes the impact of more immediate clinal environmental factors on genomic diversity, and can cloud our understanding of the true patterns of affinity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One possibility is that females are more resistant to bad environmental conditions, as some other studies suggest.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, our aim is to put texts into conversation with each other, both to enrich our understanding of each one, but also to reveal the fissures that exist within and between them.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They argue that however significant the empirical research, these studies use the term race in conceptually imprecise and careless ways.^ They argue that however significant the empirical research, these studies use the term race in conceptually imprecise and careless ways.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alongside empirical and conceptual problems with "race," following the Second World War , evolutionary and social scientists were acutely aware of how beliefs about race had been used to justify discrimination, apartheid, slavery, and genocide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the context in which they use the term, "white" refers only to the European peoples, and especially the Northern European peoples.

.They suggest that the authors of these studies find support for racial distinctions only because they began by assuming the validity of race.^ They suggest that the authors of these studies find support for racial distinctions only because they began by assuming the validity of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many scientists have argued that race definitions are imprecise, arbitrary, derived from custom , have many exceptions, have many gradations, and that the numbers of races delineated vary according to the culture making the racial distinctions; thus they reject the notion that any definition of race pertaining to humans can have taxonomic rigour and validity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, the European races did not change biologically, genetically or racially in the 16th or 17th century Americas when and where they began to exist in close contact with other races for the first time.

.For empirical reasons we prefer to place emphasis on clinal variation, which recognizes the existence of adaptive human hereditary variation and simultaneously stresses that such variation is not found in packages that can be labeled races.^ An example of the effort to define race out of existence can be found on the website of Palomar College.

^ Since humanity is one species, with no different human species, it is then argued by false definition that there are no different human races, defining race out of existence.

^ The proportion (67.5%) of human genetic variation that is possessed in common by all human races already existed in the common ancestral population from which all human lines or races are descended, and continues to exist in all the descendant human populations.

[57]
.Indeed, recent research reports evidence for smooth, clinal genetic variation even in regions previously considered racially homogeneous, with the apparent gaps turning out to be artifacts of sampling techniques (Serre & Pääbo 2004).^ Indeed, recent research reports evidence for smooth, clinal genetic variation even in regions previously considered racially homogeneous, with the apparent gaps turning out to be artifacts of sampling techniques (Serre & Pääbo 2004).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In a recent Public Service Broadcasting (PBS) programme on the subject of genetic ancestry testing the academic Henry Louis Gates : "wasn’t thrilled with the results (it turns out that 50 percent of his ancestors are likely European)".
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Very strong evidence indeed that it is genetic, and most definitely not a lifestyle choice for the vast majority.
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

.These scientists do not dispute the importance of cladistic research, only its retention of the word race, when reference to populations and clinal gradations are more than adequate to describe the results.^ These scientists do not dispute the importance of cladistic research, only its retention of the word race, when reference to populations and clinal gradations are more than adequate to describe the results.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Race denial is more than a fallacy.

^ The net result is that those anthropologists who prefer to view races as a reality are encouraged to do so" and conclude that students of human evolution would be better off avoiding the word race, and instead describe genetic differences in terms of populations and clinal gradations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Population genetics: population and cline

.At the beginning of the 20th century, anthropologists questioned, and eventually abandoned, the claim that biologically distinct races are isomorphic with distinct linguistic, cultural, and social groups.^ Both of these texts state that raced is a socially constructed concept, created by Western culture.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two statements that race is not genetically inherited from parents, and is not the product of genes, are central to the contention that race is socially or politically constructed, not biologically constructed, and thus not biologically, genetically or scientifically real.

^ Graves' claim that race is not real is explicitly motivated by his opinion that the belief in race is an obstacle to "social justice" and the elimination of racism.

.Shortly thereafter, the rise of population genetics provided scientists with a new understanding of the sources of phenotypic variation.^ Shortly thereafter, the rise of population genetics provided scientists with a new understanding of the sources of phenotypic variation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The proportion (67.5%) of human genetic variation that is possessed in common by all human races already existed in the common ancestral population from which all human lines or races are descended, and continues to exist in all the descendant human populations.

^ Population geneticists have debated as to whether the concept of population can provide a basis for a new conception of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This new science has led many mainstream evolutionary scientists in anthropology and biology to question the very validity of race as a scientific concept describing an objectively real phenomenon.^ This has reignited the scientific debate over the validity of human classification and concepts of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This new science has led many mainstream evolutionary scientists in anthropology and biology to question the very validity of race as a scientific concept describing an objectively real phenomenon.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This work has led to a debate amongst geneticists, molecular anthropologists and medical doctors as to the validity of concepts such as race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Those who came to reject the validity of the concept of race did so for four reasons: empirical, definitional, the availability of alternative concepts, and ethical (Lieberman and Byrne 1993).^ Those who came to reject the validity of the concept of race did so for four reasons: empirical, definitional, the availability of alternative concepts, and ethical (Lieberman and Byrne 1993).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Those who believe that the concept of race is valid do not discredit the notion of clines.

^ The concept of 'race' has no validity .
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first to challenge the concept of race on empirical grounds were anthropologists Franz Boas, who demonstrated phenotypic plasticity due to environmental factors (Boas 1912), and Ashley Montagu (1941, 1942), who relied on evidence from genetics.^ The first to challenge the concept of race on empirical grounds were anthropologists Franz Boas , who demonstrated phenotypic plasticity due to environmental factors (Boas 1912), and Ashley Montagu (1941, 1942), who relied on evidence from genetics.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The controversy ultimately revolves around whether or not the concept of race is biologically warranted; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] the ways in which political correctness might fuel either the affirmation or the denial of race; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and the degree to which perceived differences in ability and achievement, categorized on the basis of race, are a product of inherited (i.e., genetic) traits or environmental, social and cultural factors.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ IIRC, if you believe the wikipedia, it seems the majority of anthropologists up until 1995 thought race was a real and useful concept.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Zoologists Edward O. Wilson and W. Brown then challenged the concept from the perspective of general animal systematics, and further rejected the claim that "races" were equivalent to "subspecies" (Wilson and Brown 1953).^ Zoologists Edward O. Wilson and W. Brown then challenged the concept from the perspective of general animal systematics, and further rejected the claim that "races" were equivalent to "subspecies" (Wilson and Brown 1953).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He further argued that one could use the term race if one distinguished between "race differences" and "the race concept."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike many animals, modern humans simply haven't been around long enough or isolated enough to evolve into separate subspecies or races.

Clines

.One crucial innovation in reconceptualizing genotypic and phenotypic variation was anthropologist C. Loring Brace's observation that such variations, insofar as it is affected by natural selection, migration, or genetic drift, are distributed along geographic gradations or clines (Brace 1964).^ One crucial innovation in reconceptualizing genotypic and phenotypic variation was anthropologist C. Loring Brace's observation that such variations, insofar as it is affected by natural selection , migration, or genetic drift , are distributed along geographic gradations or clines (Brace 1964).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The scores may vary as much as 15 points from one test to another, while emotional tension, anxiety, and unfamiliarity with the testing process can greatly affect test performance.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In part this is due to isolation by distance. .This point called attention to a problem common to phenotype-based descriptions of races (for example, those based on hair texture and skin color): they ignore a host of other similarities and differences (for example, blood type) that do not correlate highly with the markers for race.^ This point called attention to a problem common to phenotype-based descriptions of races (for example, those based on hair texture and skin color): they ignore a host of other similarities and differences (for example, blood type) that do not correlate highly with the markers for race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Did they weaken the link between race and skin color?

^ Based on this list was race linked to skin color or ethnic groups?

.Thus, anthropologist Frank Livingstone's conclusion, that since clines cross racial boundaries, "there are no races, only clines" (Livingstone 1962: 279).^ There were no racial differences to be aware of.

^ Thus, anthropologist Frank Livingstone's conclusion, that since clines cross racial boundaries, "there are no races, only clines" (Livingstone 1962: 279).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chicago Press ^ Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield, "Perishing Paradigm: Race—1931-99," American Anthropologist 105, no.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

In a response to Livingston, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingston that if races have to be 'discrete units,' then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid." .He further argued that one could use the term race if one distinguished between "race differences" and "the race concept."^ He further argued that one could use the term race if one distinguished between "race differences" and "the race concept."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In a response to Livingston, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingston that if races have to be 'discrete units,' then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The former refers to any distinction in gene frequencies between populations; the latter is "a matter of judgment."^ Although Wolfe and Gray did not notice this, this is the first clear evidence that sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of differences in gene frequencies among human populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consolidation of questions of "race," "ethnicity," and "ancestry" into a single question of "ethnicity" (or "race/ethnicity") or of "identified population groups" would eliminate the distinction between race and ethnicity indicated in Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are countless genetic studies that show racial differences in the frequencies of different gene sequences and genetic traits, although the term population is commonly used as a euphemism for race.

.He further observed that even when there is clinal variation, "Race differences are objectively ascertainable biological phenomena ...^ Summary of different biological definitions of "race" .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Race is biological variation.

^ He further observed that even when there is clinal variation, "Race differences are objectively ascertainable biological phenomena ...
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

but it does not follow that racially distinct populations must be given racial (or subspecific) labels."[58] .In short, Livingston and Dobzhansky agree that there are genetic differences among human beings; they also agree that the use of the race concept to classify people, and how the race concept is used, is a matter of social convention.^ In short, Livingston and Dobzhansky agree that there are genetic differences among human beings; they also agree that the use of the race concept to classify people, and how the race concept is used, is a matter of social convention.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the percentages of genetic differences between the human races?

^ There are also differences among data sets with respect to how race and ethnicity are classified.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They differ on whether the race concept remains a meaningful and useful social convention.^ They differ on whether the race concept remains a meaningful and useful social convention.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He says quote.."Race is a social concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The controversy ultimately revolves around whether or not the concept of race is biologically warranted; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] the ways in which political correctness might fuel either the affirmation or the denial of race; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and the degree to which perceived differences in ability and achievement, categorized on the basis of race, are a product of inherited (i.e., genetic) traits or environmental, social and cultural factors.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1964, biologists Paul Ehrlich and Holm pointed out cases where two or more clines are distributed discordantly—for example, melanin is distributed in a decreasing pattern from the equator north and south; frequencies for the haplotype for beta-S hemoglobin, on the other hand, radiate out of specific geographical points in Africa (Ehrlich and Holm 1964).^ In 1964, biologists Paul Ehrlich and Holm pointed out cases where two or more clines are distributed discordantly—for example, melanin is distributed in a decreasing pattern from the equator north and south; frequencies for the haplotype for beta-S hemoglobin, on the other hand, radiate out of specific geographical points in Africa (Ehrlich and Holm 1964).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One crucial innovation in reconceptualizing genotypic and phenotypic variation was anthropologist C. Loring Brace's observation that such variations, insofar as it is affected by natural selection , migration, or genetic drift , are distributed along geographic gradations or clines (Brace 1964).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Are there examples of unjustified universalization that you would like to point out?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

As anthropologists Leonard Lieberman and Fatimah Linda Jackson observed, "Discordant patterns of heterogeneity falsify any description of a population as if it were genotypically or even phenotypically homogeneous" (Lieverman and Jackson 1995).
.Patterns such as those seen in human physical and genetic variation as described above, have led to the consequence that the number and geographic location of any described races is highly dependent on the importance attributed to, and quantity of, the traits considered.^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies .
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patterns such as those seen in human physical and genetic variation as described above, have led to the consequence that the number and geographic location of any described races is highly dependent on the importance attributed to, and quantity of, the traits considered.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For example, if only skin color and a "two race" system of classification were used, then one might classify Indigenous Australians in the same race as Black people, and Caucasians in the same race as East Asian people, but biologists and anthropologists would dispute that these classifications have any scientific validity.^ For example, if only skin color and a "two race" system of classification were used, then one might classify Indigenous Australians in the same race as Black people , and Caucasians in the same race as East Asian people, but biologists and anthropologists would dispute that these classifications have any scientific validity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This has reignited the scientific debate over the validity of human classification and concepts of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On each of these measures, East Asians lag whites and blacks.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scientists discovered a skin-lighting mutation that partially accounts for the appearance of Light skin in humans (people who migrated out of Africa northward into what is now Europe) which they estimate occurred 20,000 to 50,000 years ago.^ Scientists discovered a skin-whitening mutation that partially accounts for the appearance of white skin in humans (people who migrated out of Africa northward into what is now Europe) which they estimate occurred 20,000 to 50,000 years ago.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it is believed that farming started in the Middle East and then spread with the farmers' migration into Europe.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And a growing number of parents who can't afford private schools are so desperate to get their children out of the public schools that they try to "home school" their children on the kitchen table.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The East Asians owe their relatively light skin to different mutations.^ The East Asians owe their relatively light skin to different mutations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There may be convergence: the genetic basis of light skin in Asians and Europeans turns out to be completely different.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .On the other hand, the greater the number of traits (or alleles) considered, the more subdivisions of humanity are detected, since traits and gene frequencies do not always correspond to the same geographical location.^ On the other hand, the greater the number of traits (or alleles ) considered, the more subdivisions of humanity are detected, since traits and gene frequencies do not always correspond to the same geographical location.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1964, biologists Paul Ehrlich and Holm pointed out cases where two or more clines are distributed discordantly—for example, melanin is distributed in a decreasing pattern from the equator north and south; frequencies for the haplotype for beta-S hemoglobin, on the other hand, radiate out of specific geographical points in Africa (Ehrlich and Holm 1964).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Or as Ossario and Duster (2005) put it:
.Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.^ Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the variation of physical traits is clinal and nonconcordant, anthropologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries discovered that the more traits and the more human groups they measured, the fewer discrete differences they observed among races and the more categories they had to create to classify human beings.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I have never even been close ) to a Waldorf school, and there are plenty of ) Anthros who know far, far more about Waldorf ) education than I do.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.This pattern of variation, known as clinal variation, is also observed for many alleles that vary from one human group to another.^ Another observation is that traits or alleles that vary from one group to another do not vary at the same rate.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This pattern of variation, known as clinal variation, is also observed for many alleles that vary from one human group to another.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "More than that - a high proportion of the alleles that vary a lot in frequency between racial groups have been subject to strong selection.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another observation is that traits or alleles that vary from one group to another do not vary at the same rate.^ Another observation is that traits or alleles that vary from one group to another do not vary at the same rate.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Twentieth and 21st century biomedical researchers have discovered this same feature when evaluating human variation at the level of alleles and allele frequencies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This pattern is referred to as nonconcordant variation.^ This pattern is referred to as nonconcordant variation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Because the variation of physical traits is clinal and nonconcordant, anthropologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries discovered that the more traits and the more human groups they measured, the fewer discrete differences they observed among races and the more categories they had to create to classify human beings.^ Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But the criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sauer observed that the use of 19th century racial categories is widespread among forensic anthropologists: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The number of races observed expanded to the 30s and 50s, and eventually anthropologists concluded that there were no discrete races (Marks, 2002).^ The number of races observed expanded to the 30s and 50s, and eventually anthropologists concluded that there were no discrete races (Marks, 2002).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chicago Press ^ Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield, "Perishing Paradigm: Race—1931-99," American Anthropologist 105, no.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since humanity is one species, with no different human species, it is then argued by false definition that there are no different human races, defining race out of existence.

.Twentieth and 21st century biomedical researchers have discovered this same feature when evaluating human variation at the level of alleles and allele frequencies.^ Twentieth and 21st century biomedical researchers have discovered this same feature when evaluating human variation at the level of alleles and allele frequencies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "More than that - a high proportion of the alleles that vary a lot in frequency between racial groups have been subject to strong selection.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anthropologists long ago discovered that humans' physical traits vary gradually, with groups that are close geographic neighbors being more similar than groups that are geographically separated.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Nature has not created four or five distinct, nonoverlapping genetic groups of people.^ Nature has not created four or five distinct, nonoverlapping genetic groups of people.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there are other groups which are often considered distinct from the major races, Australian aborigines, the "brown" people of Southeast Asia, Polynesians, Micronesians, etc.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Race is biological, a creation of genetics, biology, nature and life.

[60]
.More recent genetic studies indicate that skin color may change radically over as few as 100 generations, or about 2,500 years, given the influence of the environment.^ More recent genetic studies indicate that skin color may change radically over as few as 25 generations, or about 2,500 years, given the influence of the environment.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Or, lightening of skin color over successive generations?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, lightening of skin color over )successive generations?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[61]

Populations

.Population geneticists have debated as to whether the concept of population can provide a basis for a new conception of race.^ It's a new discussion )elist I have created, which will serve to provide a "neutral" ground for )discussion among the debaters on anthroposophy, as well as a general )discussion list for anyone.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But, to deny or obfuscate the reality of a genetic basis for racial differences, as so many critics of the race concept have done, does not change reality.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The May 1995 CPS Supplement will provide needed research on whether a combined race/Hispanic ethnicity question should be used instead of separate questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In order to do this, a working definition of population must be found.^ In order to do this, a working definition of population must be found.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To which I must add that in all the years in which I have worked in Western Archives I have never personally found any forgeries.

.Surprisingly, there is no generally accepted concept of population that biologists use.^ Surprisingly, there is no generally accepted concept of population that biologists use.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Generally taxonomists prefer to use phylogenetic analysis to determine whether a population can be considered a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There seems no middle ground upon which to agree on )definitions of "race" and some other concepts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.It has been pointed out that the concept of population is central to ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology, but also that most definitions of population rely on qualitative descriptions such as "a group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular space at a particular time"[62] Waples and Gaggiotti identify two broad types of definitions for populations; those that fall into an ecological paradigm, and those that fall into an evolutionary paradigm.^ Each time we have pointed the facts out to you.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Ecological paradigm : A group of individuals of the same species that co-occur in space and time and have an opportunity to interact with each other.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been pointed out that the concept of population is central to ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology, but also that most definitions of population rely on qualitative descriptions such as "a group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular space at a particular time" [ 62 ] Waples and Gaggiotti identify two broad types of definitions for populations; those that fall into an ecological paradigm , and those that fall into an evolutionary paradigm .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Examples of such definitions are:
.
  • Ecological paradigm: A group of individuals of the same species that co-occur in space and time and have an opportunity to interact with each other.
  • Evolutionary paradigm: A group of individuals of the same species living in close-enough proximity that any member of the group can potentially mate with any other member.^ Related individual presentations and interactive group presentations are .

    ^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
    • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is merely different .
    • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

    [62]
.Richard Lewontin, claiming that 85 percent of human variation occurs within populations and not among populations, argued that neither "race" nor "subspecies" were appropriate or useful ways to describe populations (Lewontin 1973).^ Richard Lewontin , claiming that 85 percent of human variation occurs within populations and not among populations, argued that neither "race" nor "subspecies" were appropriate or useful ways to describe populations (Lewontin 1973).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In an ongoing debate, some geneticists argue that race is neither a meaningful concept nor a useful heuristic device,[12] and even that genetic differences among groups are biologically meaningless,[13] on the grounds that more genetic variation exists within such races than among them, and that racial traits overlap without discrete boundaries.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a response to Livingston, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingston that if races have to be 'discrete units,' then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Nevertheless, barriers—which may be cultural or physical— between populations can limit gene flow and increase genetic differences.^ Nevertheless, barriers—which may be cultural or physical— between populations can limit gene flow and increase genetic differences.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although Wolfe and Gray did not notice this, this is the first clear evidence that sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of differences in gene frequencies among human populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very likely, in a few generations the culture's sexual mores would be quite different from those of a heterosexual population.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent work by population geneticists conducting research in Europe suggests that ethnic identity can be a barrier to gene flow.^ Recent work by population geneticists conducting research in Europe suggests that ethnic identity can be a barrier to gene flow.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These changes in our basic population structure suggest an increasingly diverse society and unforeseen future needs for racial and ethnic data.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are separate populations that are more genetically different from one another and that are more reproductively isolated, gene flow between these populations is much reduced leading to genetic differentiation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[63][64][65][66] .Others, such as Ernst Mayr, have argued for a notion of "geographic race" [2].^ This meant that other races had to be excluded from its geographic range, that its possession of its native homeland had to be racially exclusive.

^ Others, such as Ernst Mayr , have argued for a notion of "geographic race" [3] .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Varied and possibly inconsistent definitional criteria, such as geographic origin, cultural origin, cultural identification and affiliation, community recognition, and race itself, are used to describe the terms.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some researchers report the variation between racial groups (measured by Sewall Wright's population structure statistic FST) accounts for as little as 5% of human genetic variation².^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic differences between populations of organisms can be measured using the fixation index of Sewall Wright , which is often abbreviated to F ST .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some researchers report the variation between racial groups (measured by Sewall Wright's population structure statistic F ST ) accounts for as little as 5% of human genetic variation².
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Sewall Wright himself commented that if differences this large were seen in another species, they would be called subspecies.^ Sewall Wright himself commented that if differences this large were seen in another species, they would be called subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Addressing this issue, the degree of variation between different human populations, the inventor of the F ST measure, the late Sewell Wright, stated emphatically that "if racial differences this large were seen in another species, they would be called subspecies."

^ A change by OMB to a "multiracial" category would reduce costs for these few States because they would not have to maintain data in two different ways.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .In 2003 A. W. F. Edwards argued that cluster analysis supersedes Lewontin's arguments (see below).^ In 2003 A. W. F. Edwards argued that cluster analysis supersedes Lewontin's arguments (see below).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ More recent work in racial taxonomy based on DNA cluster analysis (see Lewontin's Fallacy ) has led law enforcement to narrow their search for individuals based on a range of phenotypical characteristics found consistent with DNA evidence.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These empirical challenges to the concept of race forced evolutionary sciences to reconsider their definition of race.^ There seems no middle ground upon which to agree on )definitions of "race" and some other concepts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There seems no middle ground upon which to agree on definitions of "race" and some other concepts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This argument claims that the idea of race is based on a false, outdated and obsolete concept of science from a previous era, e.g., the "colonial era," the 17th century, etc.

Mid-century, anthropologist William Boyd defined race as:
A population which differs significantly from other populations in regard to the frequency of one or more of the genes it possesses. It is an arbitrary matter which, and how many, gene loci we choose to consider as a significant "constellation" (Boyd 1950).
.Lieberman and Jackson (1994) have pointed out that "the weakness of this statement is that if one gene can distinguish races then the number of races is as numerous as the number of human couples reproducing."^ Lieberman and Jackson (1994) have pointed out that "the weakness of this statement is that if one gene can distinguish races then the number of races is as numerous as the number of human couples reproducing."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ That's number one in our mission statement.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yeah - okay - in other words, you would not be able to point to any such ) statement, because no one has made such a statement.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, anthropologist Stephen Molnar has suggested that the discordance of clines inevitably results in a multiplication of races that renders the concept itself useless (Molnar 1992).^ Moreover, anthropologist Stephen Molnar has suggested that the discordance of clines inevitably results in a multiplication of races that renders the concept itself useless (Molnar 1992).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggestions included: Multiple races; Mixed race; Multiracial; Tan American; TIRAH (Tan InterRacial American Humankind); Mixed origins; Mestee; More than one race; and Mulatto.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who believe that the concept of race is valid do not discredit the notion of clines.

.The distribution of many physical traits resembles the distribution of genetic variation within and between human populations (American Association of Physical Anthropologists 1996; Keita and Kittles 1997).^ American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1996) AAPA statement on biological aspects of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The distribution of many physical traits resembles the distribution of genetic variation within and between human populations (American Association of Physical Anthropologists 1996; Keita and Kittles 1997).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For example, ~90% of the variation in human head shapes occurs within every human group, and ~10% separates groups, with a greater variability of head shape among individuals with recent African ancestors (Relethford 2002).^ For example, ~90% of the variation in human head shapes occurs within every human group, and ~10% separates groups, with a greater variability of head shape among individuals with recent African ancestors (Relethford 2002).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It does not require a trained anthropologist to classify an array of Englishmen, West Africans, and Chinese with 100% accuracy by features, skin color, and type of hair despite so much variability within each of these groups that every individual can easily be distinguished from every other.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, in the paper "Genetic similarities within and between human populations" Witherspoon et al. (2007) show that even when individuals can be reliably assigned to specific population groups, it is still possible for two randomly chosen individuals from different populations/clusters to be more similar to each other than to a randomly chosen member of their own cluster.^ This means that about 85% of the variation measured in the human population is within any population, and about 15% of the variation occurs between populations, or that any two individuals from different populations are almost as likely to be more similar to each other than either is to a member of their own group.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

^ The methodology that shows a human-chimp genetic difference of about 1.6% shows a genetic difference of less than .2% between the human races.

.This is because multi locus clustering relies on population level similarities, rather than individual similarities, so that each individual is classified according to their similarity to the typical genotype for any given population.^ Because average differences between races are typically only between 4% and 34%, it is problematic to generalize from a group average to a particular individual.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When an agency is given control and power over what happens then they are an agency of the government rather than a government agency.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Race deniers wrongly use the existence of hybrid or racially-mixed individuals and populations, which prove that the different human populations interbreed and are therefore races rather than species, as proof that all humans are of one race, not different races, confusing race with species and defining race out of existence.

.The paper claims that this masks a great deal of genetic similarity between individuals belonging to different clusters.^ But this represents far more than the genetic difference between races.

^ When they make this argument, race deniers do not mention that the genetic difference between humans and chimpanzees is also much smaller than the layman would tend to expect.

^ Others claim that individuals from different groups share far too much of their genetic material for group membership to have any medical implications.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Or in other words, two individuals from different clusters can be more similar to each other than to a member of their own cluster, while still both being more similar to the typical genotype of their own cluster than to the typical genotype of a different cluster.^ "For a Hadza to die of hunger, or even to fail to satisfy his hunger for more than a day or two, is almost inconceivable."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this represents far more than the genetic difference between races.

^ The r-K theory of racial group differences may help to explain other individual and group differences, including those of social class, law-abidingness, health, and longevity.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.When differences between individual pairs of people are tested, Witherspoon et al. found that the answer to the question "How often is a pair of individuals from one population genetically more dissimilar than two individuals chosen from two different populations?"^ How does each author frame the differences between people?

^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

^ How does each author present the conflict between different people?

is not adequately addressed by multi locus clustering analyses. .They found that even for just three population groups separated by large geographic ranges (European, African and East Asian) the inclusion of many thousands of loci is required before the answer can become "never". On the other hand, the accurate classification of the global population must include more closely related and admixed populations, which will increase this above zero, so they state "In a similar vein, Romualdi et al.^ They are geographical populations, with a geographic distribution.

^ They are, or were until recent times, geographically separated from other races.

^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(2002) and Serre and Paabo (2004) have suggested that highly accurate classification of individuals from continuously sampled (and therefore closely related) populations may be impossible". Witherspoon et al. conclude "The fact that, given enough genetic data, individuals can be correctly assigned to their populations of origin is compatible with the observation that most human genetic variation is found within populations, not between them.^ Instead, it is now argued that because genetic by environment interactions are so ubiquitous, it is impossible to disentangle causality and apportion variance (e.g., Lerner, 1992).
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The argument that the individual variation within populations is greater than the variation between the averages of the different populations or, put another way, that most human variation occurs between individuals rather than races.

^ But the traditional methods of racial classification by racial typology or physical appearance are not arbitrary for the simple reason that they are based on, reflect and are consistent with the real geographic populations of humanity, as they really exist, and therefore with objectively observable and verifiable reality.

It is also compatible with our finding that, even when the most distinct populations are considered and hundreds of loci are used, individuals are frequently more similar to members of other populations than to members of their own population"[68]

Molecular genetics: lineages and clusters

.With the recent availability of large amounts of human genetic data from many geographically distant human groups, scientists have again started to investigate the relationships between people from various parts of the world.^ Main articles: Human genetic variation and Human genetic clustering With the recent availability of large amounts of human genetic data from many geographically distant human groups, scientists have again started to investigate the relationships between people from various parts of the world.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genetic variation .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other geneticists, in contrast, argue that categories of self-identified race/ethnicity or biogeographic ancestry are both valid and useful, [ 72 ] that these categories correspond to clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data , [ 73 ] and that this correspondence implies that genetic factors might contribute to unexplained phenotypic variation between groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

One method is to investigate DNA molecules that are passed down from mother to child (mtDNA) or from father to son (Y chromosomes). .These form molecular lineages and can be informative regarding prehistoric population migrations.^ These form molecular lineages and can be informative regarding prehistoric population migrations.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, there are tests that do not rely on molecular lineages, but rather on correlations between allele frequencies, often when allele frequencies correlate these are called clusters.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Alternatively, autosomal alleles are investigated in an attempt to understand how much genetic material groups of people share.^ This is not the experience of what I believe )to be a much larger group of people.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not sure how much of this she ) understands, but her point is interesting that the schools (for ) instance) ) may not change until or unless they don't feel they must.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Poll students to see how many included the meaning related a grouping of people by physical characteristics, ethnic group, or religion.

.This work has led to a debate amongst geneticists, molecular anthropologists and medical doctors as to the validity of concepts such as race.^ This work has led to a debate amongst geneticists, molecular anthropologists and medical doctors as to the validity of concepts such as race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This has reignited the scientific debate over the validity of human classification and concepts of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, he agrees with other anthropologists that race is not a valid biological taxonomic category, and that races are socially constructed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some researchers insist that classifying people into groups based on ancestry may be important from medical and social policy points of view, and claim to be able to do so accurately.^ Some researchers insist that classifying people into groups based on ancestry may be important from medical and social policy points of view, and claim to be able to do so accurately.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In other countries in the Americas where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid, with people moving into or out of categories on the basis of a combination of socioeconomic status, social class, ancestry, and appearance (Mörner 1967).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But there is propoganda, social engineering, and coercion of society stemming from government policies/actions, religious organisations, and certain lobby groups on a number of social and/or economic issues.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Others claim that individuals from different groups share far too much of their genetic material for group membership to have any medical implications.^ Others claim that individuals from different groups share far too much of their genetic material for group membership to have any medical implications.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The existence of between-group differences far older than within-group differences implies that the late Pleistocene expansion of our species occurred separately in populations that had been isolated from each other for several tens of thousands of years."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this represents far more than the genetic difference between races.

.This has reignited the scientific debate over the validity of human classification and concepts of race.^ This has reignited the scientific debate over the validity of human classification and concepts of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Race (classification of human beings) .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Population geneticists have debated as to whether the concept of population can provide a basis for a new conception of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Summary of different biological definitions of race

Biological definitions of race (Long & Kittles, 2003) et al.
Concept Reference Definition
Essentialist Hooton (1926) "A great division of mankind, characterized as a group by the sharing of a certain combination of features, which have been derived from their common descent, and constitute a vague physical background, usually more or less obscured by individual variations, and realized best in a composite picture."
Taxonomic Mayr (1969) "An aggregate of phenotypically similar populations of a species, inhabiting a geographic subdivision of the range of a species, and differing taxonomically from other populations of the species."
Population Dobzhansky (1970) "Races are genetically distinct Mendelian populations. They are neither individuals nor particular genotypes, they consist of individuals who differ genetically among themselves."
Lineage Templeton (1998) "A subspecies (race) is a distinct evolutionary lineage within a species. This definition requires that a subspecies be genetically differentiated due to barriers to genetic exchange that have persisted for long periods of time; that is, the subspecies must have historical continuity in addition to current genetic differentiation."

Current views across disciplines

.One result of debates over the meaning and validity of the concept of race is that the current literature across different disciplines regarding human variation lacks consensus, though within some fields, such as biology, there is strong consensus.^ The main empirical reasons given for negating the race concept are (a) the degree of variance within any one race, (b) the disagreement as to exactly how many races there are, and (c) the blurring of distinctions at category edges because of admixture.
  • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with the literature on conceptions of race, a lot of work has been done to try to untangle and make sense out of the various strands of racist thinking that have developed over the last several centuries, and some familiarity with this history is extremely helpful in assessing Steiner's racial doctrines.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No one has trouble distinguishing a Czech from a Chinese, but what do those differences mean?

.Some studies use the word race in its early essentialist taxonomic sense.^ Some studies use the word race in its early essentialist taxonomic sense.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There are countless genetic studies that show racial differences in the frequencies of different gene sequences and genetic traits, although the term population is commonly used as a euphemism for race.

^ If this were simply a matter of semantics, with Racial Marxists using the term "white" for class rather than race, and using other terms for racial classification, their argument would have some credibility.

.Many others still use the term race, but use it to mean a population, clade, or haplogroup.^ Many others still use the term race, but use it to mean a population, clade , or haplogroup .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ideally, analysis would use data expressed as behavioral clines drawn from data on many different populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He further argued that one could use the term race if one distinguished between "race differences" and "the race concept."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Others eschew the concept of race altogether, and use the concept of population as a less problematical unit of analysis.^ Others eschew the concept of race altogether, and use the concept of population as a less problematical unit of analysis.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For other uses, see Race .
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the concept of race has been confused so thoroughly with our terrible history of racism, many avoid the term altogether.
  • Race 18 September 2009 16:36 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 1932, an increasing number of college textbooks introducing physical anthropology have rejected race as a valid concept: from 1932 to 1976, only seven out of thirty-two rejected race; from 1975 to 1984, thirteen out of thirty-three rejected race; from 1985 to 1993, thirteen out of nineteen rejected race.^ Since 1932, some college textbooks introducing physical anthropology have increasingly come to reject race as a valid concept: from 1932 to 1976, only seven out of thirty-two rejected race; from 1975 to 1984, thirteen out of thirty-three rejected race; from 1985 to 1993, thirteen out of nineteen rejected race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An example of the effort to define race out of existence can be found on the website of Palomar College.

^ Most evolutionary scientists have rejected the identification of races with clades for two reasons.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

According to one academic journal entry, where 78 percent of the articles in the 1931 Journal of Physical Anthropology employed these or nearly synonymous terms reflecting a bio-race paradigm, only 36 percent did so in 1965, and just 28 percent did in 1996.[69] The Statement on "Race" (1998) composed by a select committee of anthropologists and issued by the executive board of the American Anthropological Association as a statement they "believe [...] represents generally the contemporary thinking and scholarly positions of a majority of anthropologists", declares:
With the vast expansion of scientific knowledge in this century, ... it has become clear that human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups. [...] .Given what we know about the capacity of normal humans to achieve and function within any culture, we conclude that present-day inequalities between so-called "racial" groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances.^ The controversy ultimately revolves around whether or not the concept of race is biologically warranted; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] the ways in which political correctness might fuel either the affirmation or the denial of race; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and the degree to which perceived differences in ability and achievement, categorized on the basis of race, are a product of inherited (i.e., genetic) traits or environmental, social and cultural factors.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stephan Palmie has responded to Abu el-Haj's claim that genetic lineages make possible a new, politically, economically, and socially benign notion of race and racial difference by suggesting that efforts to link genetic history and personal identity will inevitably "ground present social arrangements in a time-hallowed past," that is, use biology to explain cultural differences and social inequalities.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abu el-Haj concluded that this new "race science" calls attention to the importance of "ancestry" (narrowly defined, as it does not include all ancestors) in some religions and in popular culture, and people's desire to use science to confirm their claims about ancestry; this "race science," she argues, is fundamentally different from older notions of race that were used to explain differences in human behaviour or social status: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.In an ongoing debate, some geneticists argue that race is neither a meaningful concept nor a useful heuristic device,[70] and even that genetic differences among groups are biologically meaningless,[71] because more genetic variation exists within such races than among them, and that racial traits overlap without discrete boundaries.^ This means that there is greater variation within 'racial' groups than between them."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is more than the genetic difference between species, and even more than the genetic difference between genera.

^ Summary of different biological definitions of "race" .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[72] .Other geneticists, in contrast, argue that categories of self-identified race/ethnicity or biogeographic ancestry are both valid and useful,[73] that these categories correspond to clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data,[74] and that this correspondence implies that genetic factors might contribute to unexplained phenotypic variation between groups.^ Other geneticists, in contrast, argue that categories of self-identified race/ethnicity or biogeographic ancestry are both valid and useful, [ 72 ] that these categories correspond to clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data , [ 73 ] and that this correspondence implies that genetic factors might contribute to unexplained phenotypic variation between groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hispanics who identify with a race category could mark both categories.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The history of misuse of racial categories to impact adversely one or more groups and/or to offer protection and advantage to another has a clear impact on debate of the legitimate use of known phenotypical or genotypical characteristics tied to the presumed race of both victims and perpetrators by the government.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[75]
.In February, 2001, the editors of the medical journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine asked authors to no longer use race as an explanatory variable and not to use obsolescent terms.^ In February, 2001, the editors of the medical journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine asked authors to no longer use race as an explanatory variable and not to use obsolescent terms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What happened to them, that caused them to no longer be races?

^ In a response to Livingston, Theodore Dobzhansky argued that when talking about race one must be attentive to how the term is being used: "I agree with Dr. Livingston that if races have to be 'discrete units,' then there are no races, and if 'race' is used as an 'explanation' of the human variability, rather than vice versa, then the explanation is invalid."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some other peer-reviewed journals, such as the New England Journal of Medicine and the American Journal of Public Health, have made similar endeavours.^ Some other peer-reviewed journals, such as the New England Journal of Medicine and the American Journal of Public Health, have made similar endeavours.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some other peer-reviewed journals, such as the New England Journal of Medicine and the American Journal of Public Health , have made similar endeavours.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ American Journal of Public Health , 88 (1998), 1303-1307.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[76] .Furthermore, the National Institutes of Health recently issued a program announcement for grant applications through February 1, 2006, specifically seeking researchers who can investigate and publicize among primary care physicians the detrimental effects on the nation's health of the practice of medical racial profiling using such terms.^ Schwartz RS: Racial profiling in medical research.
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Not as useful in health research as identification of the specific mixtures.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who use such terms are misusing language.
  • The Aryan-Dravidian Controversy 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.hindunet.org [Source type: Original source]

.The program announcement quoted the editors of one journal as saying that, "analysis by race and ethnicity has become an analytical knee-jerk reflex."^ The program announcement quoted the editors of one journal as saying that, "analysis by race and ethnicity has become an analytical knee-jerk reflex."
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He says quote.."Race is a social concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The editors of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine were particularly critical of past uses of race and ethnicity in medical research, stating that "[a]nalysis by race and ethnicity has become an analytical knee-jerk reflex."
  • PA-03-057: SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF RACE AND ETHNICITY IN THE UNITED STATES 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC grants1.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[77]
A survey, taken in 1985 (Lieberman et al. 1992), asked 1,200 American anthropologists how many disagree with the following proposition: "There are biological races in the species Homo sapiens." The responses were:
.The figure for physical anthropologists at PhD granting departments was slightly higher, rising from 41% to 42%, with 50% agreeing.^ The figure for physical anthropologists at PhD granting departments was slightly higher, rising from 41% to 42%, with 50% agreeing.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Virtually all physical anthropologists agree that Homo sapiens evolved out of Homo erectus.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Most physical anthropologists would agree that this human variation is not now sufficient to warrant defining separate biological races, varieties, or sub-species.

.This survey, however, did not specify any particular definition of race (although it did clearly specify biological race within the species Homo sapiens); it is difficult to say whether those who supported the statement thought of race in taxonomic or population terms.^ Summary of different biological definitions of "race" .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This survey, however, did not specify any particular definition of race (although it did clearly specify biological race within the species Homo sapiens ); it is difficult to say whether those who supported the statement thought of race in taxonomic or population terms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although Wolfe and Gray did not notice this, this is the first clear evidence that sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of differences in gene frequencies among human populations.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The same survey, taken in 1999,[78] showed the following changing results for anthropologists:
In Poland the race concept was rejected by only 25 percent of anthropologists in 2001, although: "Unlike the U.S. anthropologists, Polish anthropologists tend to regard race as a term without taxonomic value, often as a substitute for population."[79]
.In the face of these issues, some evolutionary scientists have simply abandoned the concept of race in favor of "population."^ In the face of these issues, some evolutionary scientists have simply abandoned the concept of race in favor of "population."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other evolutionary scientists have abandoned the concept of race in favor of cline (meaning, how the frequency of a trait changes along a geographic gradient).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most evolutionary scientists have rejected the identification of races with clades for two reasons.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.What distinguishes population from previous groupings of humans by race is that it refers to a breeding population (essential to genetic calculations) and not to a biological taxon.^ What distinguishes population from previous groupings of humans by race is that it refers to a breeding population (essential to genetic calculations) and not to a biological taxon .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genetic diversity and the nonexistence of biological races.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that race is genetically real, determined by the genes, that it is in the genes and from the genes, which means that race is a biological phenomenon, and biologically real.

.Other evolutionary scientists have abandoned the concept of race in favor of cline (meaning, how the frequency of a trait changes along a geographic gradient).^ Other evolutionary scientists have abandoned the concept of race in favor of cline (meaning, how the frequency of a trait changes along a geographic gradient).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the face of these issues, some evolutionary scientists have simply abandoned the concept of race in favor of "population."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alongside empirical and conceptual problems with "race," following the Second World War , evolutionary and social scientists were acutely aware of how beliefs about race had been used to justify discrimination, apartheid, slavery, and genocide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.(The concepts of population and cline are not, however, mutually exclusive and both are used by many evolutionary scientists.^ (The concepts of population and cline are not, however, mutually exclusive and both are used by many evolutionary scientists.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This statistic is used to compare differences between any two given populations and can be used to measure genetic differences between populations for individual genes, or for many genes simultaneously.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By the 1970s many evolutionary scientists were avoiding the concept of "subspecies" as a taxonomic category for four reasons: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

)
According to Jonathan Marks,
By the 1970s, it had become clear that (1) most human differences were cultural; (2) what was not cultural was principally polymorphic - that is to say, found in diverse groups of people at different frequencies; (3) what was not cultural or polymorphic was principally clinal - that is to say, gradually variable over geography; and (4) what was left - the component of human diversity that was not cultural, polymorphic, or clinal - was very small.
A consensus consequently developed among anthropologists and geneticists that race as the previous generation had known it - as largely discrete, geographically distinct, gene pools - did not exist.[80]
.In the face of this rejection of race by evolutionary scientists, many social scientists have replaced the word race with the word "ethnicity" to refer to self-identifying groups based on beliefs concerning shared culture, ancestry and history.^ Race and ethnicity may be thought of in terms of social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the face of this rejection of race by evolutionary scientists, many social scientists have replaced the word race with the word " ethnicity " to refer to self-identifying groups based on beliefs concerning shared culture, ancestry and history.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other geneticists, in contrast, argue that categories of self-identified race/ethnicity or biogeographic ancestry are both valid and useful, [ 72 ] that these categories correspond to clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data , [ 73 ] and that this correspondence implies that genetic factors might contribute to unexplained phenotypic variation between groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Alongside empirical and conceptual problems with "race," following the Second World War, evolutionary and social scientists were acutely aware of how beliefs about race had been used to justify discrimination, apartheid, slavery, and genocide.^ Alongside empirical and conceptual problems with "race," following the Second World War , evolutionary and social scientists were acutely aware of how beliefs about race had been used to justify discrimination, apartheid, slavery, and genocide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Race justified social inequalities as natural.

.This questioning gained momentum in the 1960s during the U.S. civil rights movement and the emergence of numerous anti-colonial movements worldwide.^ This questioning gained momentum in the 1960s during the U.S. civil rights movement and the emergence of numerous anti-colonial movements worldwide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They thus came to believe that race itself is a social construct, a concept that was believed to correspond to an objective reality but which was believed in because of its social functions.^ The categories do not represent objective "truth" but rather, are ambiguous social constructs and involve subjective and attitudinal issues.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus what makes some of Steiner's teachings racist is not that they posit race as a biological reality; indeed it is his insistence on race as a spiritual reality that is more germane here.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm making hopefully) Just because they take into account social conventions doesn't necessarily make them 'better' or 'worse'.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

[9]

Races as social constructions

.Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, some observers criticized the concept.^ Main articles: Social interpretations of race and Racialism Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, some observers criticized the concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There seems no middle ground upon which to agree on )definitions of "race" and some other concepts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some researchers have tried to clarify the idea of race by equating it to the biological idea of the clade : .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In Europe, the gradual transition in appearances from one group to adjacent groups suggested to Blumenbach that "one variety of mankind does so sensibly pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between them" (Marks 1995, p. 54).^ In Europe, the gradual transition in appearances from one group to adjacent groups suggested to Blumenbach that "one variety of mankind does so sensibly pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between them" (Marks 1995, p.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Or do you prefer one sex over the other?
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other countries in the Americas where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid, with people moving into or out of categories on the basis of a combination of socioeconomic status, social class, ancestry, and appearance (Mörner 1967).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As anthropologists and other evolutionary scientists have shifted away from the language of race to the term population to talk about genetic differences, Historians, anthropologists and social scientists have re-conceptualized the term "race" as a cultural category or social construct, in other words, as a particular way that some people have of talking about themselves and others.^ As anthropologists and other evolutionary scientists have shifted away from the language of race to the term population to talk about genetic differences, Historians , anthropologists and social scientists have re-conceptualized the term "race" as a cultural category or social construct , in other words, as a particular way that some people have of talking about themselves and others.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, he agrees with other anthropologists that race is not a valid biological taxonomic category, and that races are socially constructed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Races as social constructions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Dr. Craig Venter and scientist Francis Collins of the National Institute of Health jointly made the announcement of the mapping of the human genome in 2000. Upon examining the data from the genome mapping, he realized that although we are indeed further apart genetically from each other, (1-3% instead of the assumed 1%), the types of variations don't warrant calling each other different races. .Venter says quote.."Race is a social concept.^ He says quote.."Race is a social concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The program announcement quoted the editors of one journal as saying that, "analysis by race and ethnicity has become an analytical knee-jerk reflex."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Conceptions of race, as well as specific ways of grouping races , vary by culture and over time, and are often controversial for scientific as well as social and political reasons.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

It's not a scientific one. .There are no bright lines (that would stand out), if we could compare all the sequenced genomes of everyone on the planet."^ There are no bright lines (that would stand out), if we could compare all the sequenced genomes of everyone on the planet."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there examples of unjustified universalization that you would like to point out?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

."When we try to apply science to try to sort out these social differences, it all falls apart."^ "When we try to apply science to try to sort out these social differences, it all falls apart."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Differences in either sex drive or in social restraint could explain these differences.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

[81]
Stephan Palmie has recently summarized, race "is not a thing but a social relation";[11] or, in the words of Katya Gibel Mevorach, "a metonym," "a human invention whose criteria for differentiation are neither universal nor fixed but have always been used to manage difference."[12] As such it cannot be a useful analytical concept; rather, the use of the term "race" itself must be analyzed. .Moreover, they argue that biology will not explain why or how people use the idea of race: history and social relationships will.^ Moreover, they argue that biology will not explain why or how people use the idea of race: history and social relationships will.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The billion or so of the world's people of largely European descent have a set of genetic variants in common that are collectively rare in everyone else; they are a race.

^ Instead of trying to classify human diversity into discrete races, scientists focus on why variation occurs and on explaining specific biological traits.
  • Race - MSN Encarta 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Academic]

In the United States

.The immigrants to the Americas came ultimately from every region of Europe, Africa, and Asia.^ Main article: Race in the United States See also: Admixture in the United States The immigrants to the Americas came ultimately from every region of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Standard 1 : Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450 .

^ Some suggested subcategories for identifying the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia (Middle East).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Throughout America the immigrants mixed among themselves and with the indigenous inhabitants of the continent.^ Throughout America the immigrants mixed among themselves and with the indigenous inhabitants of the continent .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, for example, most people who self-identify as African American have some European ancestors—in one analysis of genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated 7% for a sample of Jamaicans to ∼23% for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans (Parra et al. 1998).^ For example, self-described African Americans tend to have a mix of West African and European ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some Blacks who have been in the United States for generations have no record of where in Africa their ancestors were born and do not wish to be called "African-Americans."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people do understand the concept of ancestry.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, many people who identify as European American have some African or Native American ancestors, either through openly interracial marriages or through the gradual inclusion of people with mixed ancestry into the majority population.^ For example, self-described African Americans tend to have a mix of West African and European ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ African Americans have ~80% African ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, many people who identify as European American have some African or Native American ancestors, either through openly interracial marriages or through the gradual inclusion of people with mixed ancestry into the majority population.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In a survey of college students who self-identified as white in a northeastern U.S. university, ∼30% were estimated to have less than 90% European ancestry.^ In a survey of college students who self-identified as white in a northeastern U.S. university, ∼30% were estimated to have less than 90% European ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, in a survey of college students who self-identified as “white” in a northeastern U.S. university, ~30% of whites had less than 90% European ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States , for example, most people who self-identify as African American have some European ancestors — in one analysis of genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated 7% for a sample of Jamaicans to ∼23% for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans (Parra et al.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[82]
.Since the early history of the United States, Native Americans, African Americans, and European Americans have been classified as belonging to different races.^ United States History photo set : United States v.

^ Since the early history of the United States, Native Americans, African Americans, and European Americans have been classified as belonging to different races.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States , for example, most people who self-identify as African American have some European ancestors — in one analysis of genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated 7% for a sample of Jamaicans to ∼23% for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans (Parra et al.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For nearly three centuries, the criteria for membership in these groups were similar, comprising a person’s appearance, his fraction of known non-White ancestry, and his social circle.^ For nearly three centuries, the criteria for membership in these groups were similar, comprising a person’s appearance, his fraction of known non-White ancestry, and his social circle.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But the criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Among persons who indicated in the 1990 census that they were of Hispanic origin, 52 percent marked the "White" circle and 43 percent marked the "Other race" circle.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2 .But the criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century.^ But the criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One prime example is the work of Arthur de Gobineau, author of the seminal work of 19th century racism, Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 19th century saw attempts to change race from a taxonomic to a biological concept.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During Reconstruction, increasing numbers of Americans began to consider anyone with "one drop" of known "Black blood" to be Black, regardless of appearance.^ During Reconstruction , increasing numbers of Americans began to consider anyone with " one drop " of known "Black blood" to be Black, regardless of appearance.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An example is the aforementioned one-drop rule implemented in some state laws that treated anyone with a single known African American ancestor as black (Davis 2001).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the only option that meets the needs of the Indian Health Service which is responsible for health care of anyone who is a Federally-recognized American Indian or Alaskan Native, regardless of the proportion of Indian blood or which parent has Indian blood.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3 .By the early 20th century, this notion of invisible blackness was made statutory in many states and widely adopted nationwide.^ By the early 20th century, this notion of invisible blackness was made statutory in many states and widely adopted nationwide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With the advent of the modern synthesis in the early 20th century, many biologists sought to use evolutionary models and populations genetics in an attempt to formalise taxonomy.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

4 .In contrast, Amerindians continue to be defined by a certain percentage of "Indian blood" (called blood quantum), due in large part to American slavery ethics.^ In contrast, Amerindians continue to be defined by a certain percentage of "Indian blood" (called blood quantum ), due in large part to American slavery ethics .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The difference between how Native American and Black identities are defined today (blood quantum versus one-drop rule) has demanded explanation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The theory suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands, while the one-drop rule of Black identity enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, to be White one had to have perceived "pure" White ancestry.^ Finally, to be White one had to have perceived "pure" White ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The one-drop rule, on the other hand, made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White during the 20th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Efforts to sort the increasingly mixed population of the United States into discrete categories generated many difficulties (Spickard 1992).^ The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ United States History photo set : Lincoln’s revocation of General Order 11, January 5, 1863.

^ United States History photo set : B’nai Brith petition to revoke General Order 11, January 3, 1863.

.Efforts to track mixing between groups led to a proliferation of categories, such as mulatto and octoroon, and blood quantum distinctions that became increasingly untethered from self-reported ancestry.^ The consolidation of questions of "race," "ethnicity," and "ancestry" into a single question of "ethnicity" (or "race/ethnicity") or of "identified population groups" would eliminate the distinction between race and ethnicity indicated in Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students must make one or more individual and/or small group oral presentations to the class during the course, and complete a self-evaluation report.

^ Count of specific nationality groups could be affected if respondent is confused between reporting ancestry (e.g., Haitian) versus country of birth (e.g., Virgin Islands); some respondents do not know their ancestry.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A person's racial identity can change over time, and self-ascribed race can differ from assigned race (Kressin et al. 2003).^ A person's racial identity can change over time, and self-ascribed race can differ from assigned race (Kressin et al.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biological definitions of race (Long & Kittles, 2003) et al.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stephan Palmie has responded to Abu el-Haj's claim that genetic lineages make possible a new, politically, economically, and socially benign notion of race and racial difference by suggesting that efforts to link genetic history and personal identity will inevitably "ground present social arrangements in a time-hallowed past," that is, use biology to explain cultural differences and social inequalities.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The difference between how Native American and Black identities are defined today (blood quantum versus one-drop rule) has demanded explanation.^ The difference between how Native American and Black identities are defined today (blood quantum versus one-drop rule) has demanded explanation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The theory suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands, while the one-drop rule of Black identity enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bulcroft & Bulcroft (1993) found a relatively minor difference between white males and white females in the desire to marry, but a much larger differences between black males and black females.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to anthropologists such as Gerald Sider, the goal of such racial designations was to concentrate power, wealth, privilege and land in the hands of Whites in a society of White hegemony and privilege (Sider 1996; see also Fields 1990).^ According to anthropologists such as Gerald Sider , the goal of such racial designations was to concentrate power, wealth, privilege and land in the hands of Whites in a society of White hegemony and privilege (Sider 1996; see also Fields 1990).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Thus the forensic anthropologist uses the term race in the very broad sense to differentiate what are commonly known as white, black and yellow racial stocks."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The designation of a particular minority race or races, and the inclusion of "Whites" with "All Other Races," if such a collective description is appropriate.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The differences have little to do with biology and far more to do with the history of racism and specific forms of White supremacy (the social, geopolitical and economic agendas of dominant Whites vis-à-vis subordinate Blacks and Native Americans), especially the different roles Blacks and Amerindians occupied in White-dominated 19th century America.^ The differences have little to do with biology and far more to do with the history of racism and specific forms of White supremacy (the social, geopolitical and economic agendas of dominant Whites vis-à-vis subordinate Blacks and Native Americans), especially the different roles Blacks and Amerindians occupied in White-dominated 19th century America.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover, they argue that biology will not explain why or how people use the idea of race: history and social relationships will.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bulcroft & Bulcroft (1993) found a relatively minor difference between white males and white females in the desire to marry, but a much larger differences between black males and black females.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The theory suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands, while the one-drop rule of Black identity enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force.^ According to the theory, this enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The difference between how Native American and Black identities are defined today (blood quantum versus one-drop rule) has demanded explanation.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The theory suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands, while the one-drop rule of Black identity enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The contrast presumably emerged because, as peoples transported far from their land and kinship ties on another continent, Black labor was relatively easy to control, thus reducing Blacks to valuable commodities as agricultural laborers.^ The contrast presumably emerged because, as peoples transported far from their land and kinship ties on another continent, Black labor was relatively easy to control, thus reducing Blacks to valuable commodities as agricultural laborers.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, Amerindian labor was more difficult to control; moreover, Amerindians occupied large territories that became valuable as agricultural lands, especially with the invention of new technologies such as railroads; thus, the blood quantum definition enhanced White acquisition of Amerindian lands in a doctrine of Manifest Destiny that subjected them to marginalization and multiple episodic localized campaigns of extermination.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, to perpetuate his genes in a polygynous society, a man must be ranked relatively highly by those who control sexual access.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, Amerindian labor was more difficult to control; moreover, Amerindians occupied large territories that became valuable as agricultural lands, especially with the invention of new technologies such as railroads; thus, the blood quantum definition enhanced White acquisition of Amerindian lands in a doctrine of Manifest Destiny that subjected them to marginalization and multiple episodic localized campaigns of extermination.^ In contrast, Amerindian labor was more difficult to control; moreover, Amerindians occupied large territories that became valuable as agricultural lands, especially with the invention of new technologies such as railroads; thus, the blood quantum definition enhanced White acquisition of Amerindian lands in a doctrine of Manifest Destiny that subjected them to marginalization and multiple episodic localized campaigns of extermination.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The theory suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands, while the one-drop rule of Black identity enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The contrast presumably emerged because, as peoples transported far from their land and kinship ties on another continent, Black labor was relatively easy to control, thus reducing Blacks to valuable commodities as agricultural laborers.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The political economy of race had different consequences for the descendants of aboriginal Americans and African slaves.^ The political economy of race had different consequences for the descendants of aboriginal Americans and African slaves.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In a 1993 survey in the Chicago area, a majority of Blacks preferred "African American" for their ethnicity and "Black" for their race but the proportion had declined since 1991.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the early history of the United States, Native Americans, African Americans, and European Americans have been classified as belonging to different races.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The 19th century blood quantum rule meant that it was relatively easier for a person of mixed Euro-Amerindian ancestry to be accepted as White.^ The 19th century blood quantum rule meant that it was relatively easier for a person of mixed Euro-Amerindian ancestry to be accepted as White.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, Amerindians continue to be defined by a certain percentage of "Indian blood" (called blood quantum ), due in large part to American slavery ethics .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Efforts to track mixing between groups led to a proliferation of categories, such as mulatto and octoroon , and blood quantum distinctions that became increasingly untethered from self-reported ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The offspring of only a few generations of intermarriage between Amerindians and Whites likely would not have been considered Amerindian at all (at least not in a legal sense).^ The offspring of only a few generations of intermarriage between Amerindians and Whites likely would not have been considered Amerindian at all (at least not in a legal sense).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I would be interested in more of your own thoughts on how critics can present their case in a way that might make it more likely to be considered by anthroposophists.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is very valuable stuff and would help parents have at a least an inkling of what it's all about.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Amerindians could have treaty rights to land, but because an individual with one Amerindian great-grandparent no longer was classified as Amerindian, they lost any legal claim to Amerindian land.^ Amerindians could have treaty rights to land, but because an individual with one Amerindian great-grandparent no longer was classified as Amerindian, they lost any legal claim to Amerindian land.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When this happens, they are no longer scientific.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Conversely, in a 19th century nation bent on westward expansion, it was advantageous to diminish the numbers of those who could claim title to Amerindian lands by simply defining them out of existence.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.According to the theory, this enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands.^ According to the theory, this enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The theory suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled Whites to acquire Amerindian lands, while the one-drop rule of Black identity enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The irony is that the same individuals who could be denied legal standing because they were "too White" to claim property rights, might still be Amerindian enough to be considered "breeds", stigmatized for their Native American ancestry.^ The irony is that the same individuals who could be denied legal standing because they were "too White" to claim property rights, might still be Amerindian enough to be considered " breeds ", stigmatized for their Native American ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This poll also can't be generalized, so I might still be right.
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Amerindians could have treaty rights to land, but because an individual with one Amerindian great-grandparent no longer was classified as Amerindian, they lost any legal claim to Amerindian land.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The one-drop rule, on the other hand, made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White during the 20th century.^ The one-drop rule, on the other hand, made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White during the 20th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It must be mentioned, however, that although some scholars of the Jim Crow period agree that the 20th century notion of invisible Blackness shifted the color line in the direction of paleness, thereby swelling the labor force in response to Southern Blacks' Great Migration northwards, others (Joel Williamson, C. Vann Woodward, George M. Fredrickson, Stetson Kennedy) see the one-drop rule as a simple consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure, thus justifying White-on-Black oppression.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is this a song that has characteristics which would have made it a meaningful song during the Civil Rights era in the 20 th century?

.The child of a Black sharecropper and a White person was considered Black.^ The child of a Black sharecropper and a White person was considered Black.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Tabulation and analysis: Does not meet Federal program needs or provide historical continuity (for example, a person from Africa might be White or Black).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The definitions of both terms are non-race specific, and include people who consider themselves to be of distinct races (Black, White, Amerindian, Asian, and mixed groups).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.And, significantly, in terms of the economics of sharecropping, such a person also would likely be a sharecropper as well, thus adding to the employer's labor force.^ And, significantly, in terms of the economics of sharecropping, such a person also would likely be a sharecropper as well, thus adding to the employer's labor force.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This would be especially likely if technology was such that a female could raise enough food to provision herself and her family, as is frequently the case in tropical horticulture.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The terms, "aboriginal population," "indigenous populations," and "original peoples," are not generally understood and would likely result in misreporting.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible.^ In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He used his theories on the struggle for existence and environmental determinism to explain the origins of different human skin colors , particularly black skin , which he believed to be the result of the environment.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The one-drop rule, on the other hand, made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White during the 20th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Conversely, in a 19th century nation bent on westward expansion, it was advantageous to diminish the numbers of those who could claim title to Amerindian lands by simply defining them out of existence.^ Conversely, in a 19th century nation bent on westward expansion, it was advantageous to diminish the numbers of those who could claim title to Amerindian lands by simply defining them out of existence.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ And a growing number of parents who can't afford private schools are so desperate to get their children out of the public schools that they try to "home school" their children on the kitchen table.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The irony is that the same individuals who could be denied legal standing because they were "too White" to claim property rights, might still be Amerindian enough to be considered " breeds ", stigmatized for their Native American ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It must be mentioned, however, that although some scholars of the Jim Crow period agree that the 20th century notion of invisible Blackness shifted the color line in the direction of paleness, thereby swelling the labor force in response to Southern Blacks' Great Migration northwards, others (Joel Williamson, C. Vann Woodward, George M. Fredrickson, Stetson Kennedy) see the one-drop rule as a simple consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure, thus justifying White-on-Black oppression.^ It must be mentioned, however, that although some scholars of the Jim Crow period agree that the 20th century notion of invisible Blackness shifted the color line in the direction of paleness, thereby swelling the labor force in response to Southern Blacks' Great Migration northwards, others (Joel Williamson, C. Vann Woodward, George M. Fredrickson, Stetson Kennedy) see the one-drop rule as a simple consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure, thus justifying White-on-Black oppression.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The one-drop rule, on the other hand, made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White during the 20th century.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is there some biblical reference in this song that justifies it being used as a hymn?

.In any event, over the centuries when Whites wielded power over both Blacks and Amerindians and widely believed in their inherent superiority over people of color, it is no coincidence that the hardest racial group in which to prove membership was the White one.^ In any event, over the centuries when Whites wielded power over both Blacks and Amerindians and widely believed in their inherent superiority over people of color, it is no coincidence that the hardest racial group in which to prove membership was the White one.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Black racial groups of Africa.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I disagree, no racial slur has power.
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time that forced individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997).^ United States at the time it was written.

^ In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time that forced individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In other countries in the Americas where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid, with people moving into or out of categories on the basis of a combination of socioeconomic status, social class, ancestry, and appearance (Mörner 1967).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An example is the aforementioned one-drop rule implemented in some state laws that treated anyone with a single known African American ancestor as black (Davis 2001).^ An example is the aforementioned one-drop rule implemented in some state laws that treated anyone with a single known African American ancestor as black (Davis 2001).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States , for example, most people who self-identify as African American have some European ancestors — in one analysis of genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated 7% for a sample of Jamaicans to ∼23% for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans (Parra et al.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some Blacks who have been in the United States for generations have no record of where in Africa their ancestors were born and do not wish to be called "African-Americans."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decennial censuses conducted since 1790 in the United States also created an incentive to establish racial categories and fit people into those categories (Nobles 2000).^ The decennial censuses conducted since 1790 in the United States also created an incentive to establish racial categories and fit people into those categories (Nobles 2000).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In decennial censuses, for example, a question on race has been included since 1790.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in in the end it is about recognizing those that are left behind under the concept that all men (people) are created equal under the the law...
  • POLL: What is your sexual orientation? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

.In other countries in the Americas where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid, with people moving into or out of categories on the basis of a combination of socioeconomic status, social class, ancestry, and appearance (Mörner 1967).^ The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an explicit discussion of the change.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And that should read: "Any delineation of people into different spiritual )categories BY RACE" .
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What makes these teachings racist is that they divide different racial groups into "higher" and "lower" categories and invest them with crucial spiritual and cosmic significance.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The term "Hispanic" as an ethnonym emerged in the 20th century with the rise of migration of laborers from American Spanish-speaking countries to the United States.^ The term " Hispanic " as an ethnonym emerged in the 20th century with the rise of migration of laborers from American Spanish-speaking countries to the United States.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ United States History photo set : Slave trade in Zadib, Yemen, 13 th Century.

^ By the early 20th century, this notion of invisible blackness was made statutory in many states and widely adopted nationwide.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Today, the word "Latino" is often used as a synonym for "Hispanic". The definitions of both terms are non-race specific, and include people who consider themselves to be of distinct races (Black, White, Amerindian, Asian, and mixed groups).^ The definitions of both terms are non-race specific, and include people who consider themselves to be of distinct races (Black, White, Amerindian, Asian, and mixed groups).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The term is often used colloquially to refer to a range of human groupings.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Collection: The term, "Latino," includes a diverse group of people from many national origins, races, and backgrounds.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] .In contrast to "Latino" or "Hispanic", "Anglo" refers to non-Hispanic White Americans or non-Hispanic European Americans, most of whom speak the English language but are not necessarily of English descent.^ In contrast to "Latino" or "Hispanic", " Anglo " refers to non-Hispanic White Americans or non-Hispanic European Americans , most of whom speak the English language but are not necessarily of English descent.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In an analysis of the responses of Hispanics to the race question in the 1990 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Cubans were the most likely and Mexican-Americans the least likely to identify themselves as "White."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Charles Darwin 's most controversial book, The Descent of Man , he made strong suggestions of racial differences and European superiority.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

In Brazil

.Compared to 19th century United States, 20th century Brazil was characterized by a perceived relative absence of sharply defined racial groups.^ Compared to 19th century United States, 20th century Brazil was characterized by a perceived relative absence of sharply defined racial groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time that forced individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All told, this stuff struck me at the time as fairly mild compared to Bradford's claims about "primitve" peoples and "etheric racial groups" and so forth.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to anthropologist Marvin Harris (1989), this pattern reflects a different history and different social relations.^ According to anthropologist Marvin Harris (1989), this pattern reflects a different history and different social relations .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Much of New World polygyny appears to be of a different pattern, in which wives tend to be related to one another and to live in the same house."
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 1:361–385 Harris, Marvin (1980) Patterns of Race in the Americas.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Basically, race in Brazil was "biologized," but in a way that recognized the difference between ancestry (which determines genotype) and phenotypic differences.^ Basically, race in Brazil was "biologized," but in a way that recognized the difference between ancestry (which determines genotype ) and phenotypic differences.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary of different biological definitions of "race" .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He further argued that one could use the term race if one distinguished between "race differences" and "the race concept."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There, racial identity was not governed by rigid descent rule, such as the one-drop rule, as it was in the United States.^ There, racial identity was not governed by rigid descent rule, such as the one-drop rule , as it was in the United States.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time that forced individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only a very limited number of categories to choose from.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only a very limited number of categories to choose from.^ A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only a very limited number of categories to choose from.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They say minority groups could gain numbers as some persons are now classified as "White" under the "choose one" rule.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multiracial persons who previously identified principally with one broad category may become unsure of what is being asked.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over a dozen racial categories would be recognized in conformity with all the possible combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color.^ Over a dozen racial categories would be recognized in conformity with all the possible combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most widely used human racial categories are based on visible traits (especially skin color, cranial or facial features and hair texture), and self-identification."
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Hum Mol Genet 11:2417–2423 Rees JL (2003) Genetics of hair and skin color.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest.^ These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only a very limited number of categories to choose from.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.That is, race referred preferentially to appearance, not heredity.^ That is, race referred preferentially to appearance, not heredity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The complexity of racial classifications in Brazil reflects the extent of miscegenation in Brazilian society, a society that remains highly, but not strictly, stratified along color lines.^ In Latin America, a racially mixed society, there is an array of terms to describe gradations of skin color.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These highly visible surface features include the variables usually used for racial classification.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henceforth, the Brazilian narrative of a perfect "post-racist" country, must be met with caution, as sociologist Gilberto Freyre demonstrated in 1933 in Casa Grande e Senzala.^ Henceforth, the Brazilian narrative of a perfect "post-racist" country, must be met with caution, as sociologist Gilberto Freyre demonstrated in 1933 in Casa Grande e Senzala .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Marketing of race: genetic lineages as social lineages

.New research in molecular genetics, and the marketing of genetic identities through the analysis of one's Y chromosome, mtDNA or autosomal DNA, has reignited the debate surrounding race.^ New research in molecular genetics, and the marketing of genetic identities through the analysis of one's Y chromosome , mtDNA or autosomal DNA , has reignited the debate surrounding race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Marketing of race: genetic lineages as social lineages .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the vast majority of researchers endorse the view that continental groups do not constitute different subspecies, and molecular geneticists generally reject the identification of mtDNA and Y chromosomal lineages or allele clusters with "races", some anthropologists have suggested that the marketing of genetic analysis to the general public in the form of "Personalized Genetic Histories" (PGH) is leading to a new social construction of race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Most of the controversy surrounds the question of how to interpret these new data, and whether conclusions based on existing data are sound.^ How would you have the slightest idea whether these factors, and ) not ) others, were at the root of the problems described?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My perception of the material is based on this reading, my own perception/interpretation of occult subjects, and my discussions with those interested in Anthroposophy (whether they are in critique or belief, or both).
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anthroposophical concepts profoundly ) influence the political choices that anthroposophists make in myriad ) contexts, and the political presuppositions of anthroposophists in turn ) influence how these concepts are interpreted.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the vast majority of researchers endorse the view that continental groups do not constitute different subspecies, and molecular geneticists generally reject the identification of mtDNA and Y chromosomal lineages or allele clusters with "races", some anthropologists have suggested that the marketing of genetic analysis to the general public in the form of "Personalized Genetic Histories" (PGH) is leading to a new social construction of race.^ Races as social constructions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Molecular genetics: lineages and clusters .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Groups differ in their preferred identification.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typically, a consumer of a commercial PGH service sends in a sample of DNA which is analyzed by molecular biologists and is sent a report, of which the following is a sample
"African DNA Ancestry Report"
.The subject's likely haplogroup L2 is associated with the so-called Bantu expansion from West and Central sub-Saharan Africa east and south, dated 2,000-4,000 years ago ...^ "African DNA Ancestry Report" The subject's likely haplogroup L2 is associated with the so-called Bantu expansion from West and Central sub-Saharan Africa east and south, dated 2,000-4,000 years ago ...
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Create a geographically oriented category called "Middle Eastern" (based not on race but on region of origin) for persons from the Middle East/North Africa and West Asian region, regardless of their race, religion, or language group.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this is not the first species of hominids: the first species of genus Homo , Homo habilis , evolved in East Africa at least 2 million years ago, and members of this species populated different parts of Africa in a relatively short time.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Between the 15th and 19th centuries C.E, the Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced movement of approximately 13 million people from Africa, mainly to the Americas.^ Between the 15th and 19th centuries C.E, the Atlantic slave trade resulted in the forced movement of approximately 13 million people from Africa, mainly to the Americas.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ United States History photo set : Slave trade in Zadib, Yemen, 13 th Century.

^ B.C. d) Art photo set : Ethiopian Slave breaking horse, between 4 th century and 1 st century B.C. .

.Only approximately 11 million survived the passage and many more died in the early years of captivity.^ Only approximately 11 million survived the passage and many more died in the early years of captivity.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Homo erectus evolved more than 1.8 million years ago, and by 1.5 million years ago had spread throughout Europe and Asia.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is only in later years that technique begins to be emphasized (in the early years, there is blessed little of it).
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of these slaves were traded to the West African Cape Verde ports of embarkation through Portuguese and Arab middlemen and came from as far south as Angola.^ Many of these slaves were traded to the West African Cape Verde ports of embarkation through Portuguese and Arab middlemen and came from as far south as Angola.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Provide a separate category for Cape Verdeans (Portuguese and African ancestry from Cape Verde on the western tip of Africa.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rise of the Atlantic slave trade , which gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups to justify the subordination of African slaves .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Among the African tribal groups, all Bantu-speaking, in which L2 is common are: Hausa, Kanuri, Fulfe, Songhai, Malunjin (Angola), Yoruba, Senegalese, Serer and Wolof.
.Although no single sentence in such a report is technically wrong, through the combination of these sentences, anthropologists and others have argued, the report is telling a story that connects a haplotype with a language and a group of tribes.^ Although no single sentence in such a report is technically wrong, through the combination of these sentences, anthropologists and others have argued, the report is telling a story that connects a haplotype with a language and a group of tribes.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Now rather than you keep repeating yourself and having me and others telling you you are wrong, do some research and then come back.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The consolidation of questions of "race," "ethnicity," and "ancestry" into a single question of "ethnicity" (or "race/ethnicity") or of "identified population groups" would eliminate the distinction between race and ethnicity indicated in Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This story is generally rejected by research scientists because an individual receives his or her Y chromosome or mtDNA from only one ancestor in every generation; consequently, with every generation one goes back in time, the percentage of one's ancestors it represents halves; if one goes back hundreds (let alone thousands) of years, it represents only a tiny fragment of one's ancestry.^ This story is generally rejected by research scientists because an individual receives his or her Y chromosome or mtDNA from only one ancestor in every generation; consequently, with every generation one goes back in time, the percentage of one's ancestors it represents halves; if one goes back hundreds (let alone thousands) of years, it represents only a tiny fragment of one's ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The ) "Scientfic Enlightenment" or "modern period" is only about three hundred ) ) years old, whilst human knowledge seeking is several thousand years in ) duration - not necessarily a solid foundation for rationalist certainty, ) ) but interesting.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One method is to investigate DNA molecules that are passed down from mother to child (mtDNA) or from father to son (Y chromosomes).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

As Mark Shriver and Rick Kittles recently remarked,
.For many customers of lineage-based tests, there is a lack of understanding that their maternal and paternal lineages do not necessarily represent their entire genetic make-up.^ For many customers of lineage-based tests, there is a lack of understanding that their maternal and paternal lineages do not necessarily represent their entire genetic make-up.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Make certain that students understand that each individual is responsible for reading the entire assigned section of Race and also for examining part or all of the documents in one of the units.

^ Perhaps ) a ) good recent example is Dottie's disquisition on defamation, though it ) isn't ) entirely fair to hold her up as a representative anthroposophist.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, an individual might have more than 85% Western European 'genomic' ancestry but still have a West African mtDNA or NRY lineage.^ For example, self-described African Americans tend to have a mix of West African and European ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, an individual might have more than 85% Western European 'genomic' ancestry but still have a West African mtDNA or NRY lineage.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, they acknowledge, such stories are increasingly appealing to the general public.^ Nevertheless, they acknowledge, such stories are increasingly appealing to the general public.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[84] .Thus, in his book Blood of the Isles (published in the US and Canada as Saxons, Vikings and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland), however, Bryan Sykes discusses how people who have been mtDNA tested by his commercial laboratory and been found to belong to the same haplogroup have parties together because they see this as some sort of "bond", even though these people may not actually share very much ancestry.^ Thus, in his book Blood of the Isles (published in the US and Canada as Saxons, Vikings and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland ), however, Bryan Sykes discusses how people who have been mtDNA tested by his commercial laboratory and been found to belong to the same haplogroup have parties together because they see this as some sort of "bond", even though these people may not actually share very much ancestry.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A change by OMB to a "multiracial" category would reduce costs for these few States because they would not have to maintain data in two different ways.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short, Livingston and Dobzhansky agree that there are genetic differences among human beings; they also agree that the use of the race concept to classify people, and how the race concept is used, is a matter of social convention.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Through these kinds of reports, new advances in molecular genetics are being used to create or confirm stories have about social identities.^ Through these kinds of reports, new advances in molecular genetics are being used to create or confirm stories have about social identities .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, Livingston and Dobzhansky agree that there are genetic differences among human beings; they also agree that the use of the race concept to classify people, and how the race concept is used, is a matter of social convention.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although no single sentence in such a report is technically wrong, through the combination of these sentences, anthropologists and others have argued, the report is telling a story that connects a haplotype with a language and a group of tribes.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although these identities are not racial in the biological sense, they are in the cultural sense in that they link biological and cultural identities.^ For these Hispanics, self-identification was based more on cultural and ethnic identity.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What makes these teachings racist is that they divide different racial )groups into "higher" and "lower" categories and invest them with crucial )spiritual and cosmic significance.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Are we developing a practical skills set, or a refining cultural ) )sense, or a deepened intuitive and creative sensibility - or all of ) )these?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nadia Abu el-Haj has argued that the significance of genetic lineages in popular conceptions of race owes to the perception that while genetic lineages, like older notions of race, suggests some idea of biological relatedness, unlike older notions of race they are not directly connected to claims about human behaviour or character.^ Nadia Abu el-Haj has argued that the significance of genetic lineages in popular conceptions of race owes to the perception that while genetic lineages, like older notions of race, suggests some idea of biological relatedness, unlike older notions of race they are not directly connected to claims about human behaviour or character.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, Abu el-Haj argues that to understand what it means to think of race in terms of genetic lineages or clusters, one must understand that .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Human genetic diversity and the nonexistence of biological races.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Abu el-Haj has thus argued that "postgenomics does seem to be giving race a new lease on life."^ Abu el-Haj has thus argued that "postgenomics does seem to be giving race a new lease on life."
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nadia Abu el-Haj (2007) Rethinking Genetic Genealogy" in American Ethnology 34(2): 224-225 ^ " Back with a Vengeance: the Reemergence of a Biological Conceptualization of Race in Research on Race/Ethnic Disparities in Health Reanne Frank " .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abu el-Haj concluded that this new "race science" calls attention to the importance of "ancestry" (narrowly defined, as it does not include all ancestors) in some religions and in popular culture, and people's desire to use science to confirm their claims about ancestry; this "race science," she argues, is fundamentally different from older notions of race that were used to explain differences in human behaviour or social status: .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Nevertheless, Abu el-Haj argues that to understand what it means to think of race in terms of genetic lineages or clusters, one must understand that
.Race science was never just about classification.^ To be fair, medicine is only just starting to get serious about adhering to strict clinical science guidelines.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.It presupposed a distinctive relationship between "nature" and "culture," understanding the differences in the former to ground and to generate the different kinds of persons ("natural kinds") and the distinctive stages of cultures and civilizations that inhabit the world.^ Are they distinct personalities or general impressions?

^ This lesson is intended to help students understand the evolution of the idea of “race,” and the relationship between people of different racial, ethnic, and religious background through the broad sweep of world history.

^ Understands relationships among works of art in terms of history, aesthetics, and culture .

Abu el-Haj argues that genomics and the mapping of lineages and clusters liberates "the new racial science from the older one by disentangling ancestry from culture and capacity." .As an example, she refers to recent work by Hammer et al., which aimed to test the claim that present-day Jews are more closely related to one another than to neighbouring non-Jewish populations.^ I have never even been close ) to a Waldorf school, and there are plenty of ) Anthros who know far, far more about Waldorf ) education than I do.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Past research results/literature review: Some object to the term "White" (for example, in cognitive research one said, "white is the color of paint" and in a letter another said, "I am not the color of this paper").
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the information was presented in another format would it engender a more enthusiastic response, reaching those inclined to receive the information with an open mind?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

Hammer et al. found that the degree of genetic similarity among Jews shifted depending on the locus investigated, and suggested that this was the result of natural selection acting on particular loci. They therefore focused on the non-recombining Y chromosome to "circumvent some of the complications associated with selection".[85]
.As another example she points to work by Thomas et al., who sought to distinguish between the Y chromosomes of Jewish priests (in Judaism, membership in the priesthood is passed on through the father's line) and the Y chromosomes of non-Jews.^ At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe).
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The point to having the PEGI is to distinguish between the media formats.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

[86] Abu el-Haj concluded that this new "race science" calls attention to the importance of "ancestry" (narrowly defined, as it does not include all ancestors) in some religions and in popular culture, and people's desire to use science to confirm their claims about ancestry; this "race science," she argues, is fundamentally different from older notions of race that were used to explain differences in human behaviour or social status:
.As neutral markers, junk DNA cannot generate cultural, behavioural, or, for that matter, truly biological differences between groups ...^ To be honest getting a whole group of people to relearn the difference between the BBFC movie ratings and the PEGI game ratings would be doomed to fail in my opinion..
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Here we read about the biological-spiritual differences between Aryans, Nordics, Turanians, Semites, and so forth.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I wouldn't want to consider the acceptance of such practice a cultural difference between the US and UK. But if so, then I finally, truly understand where your support for the BBFC comes from.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

mtDNA and .Y-chromosome markers relied on in such work are not "traits" or "qualities" in the old racial sense.^ As in the books I quoted last week, one of the striking features of this work is its reliance on a range of Nazi racial theorists.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.They do not render some populations more prone to violence, more likely to suffer psychiatric disorders, or for that matter, incapable of being fully integrated - because of their lower evolutionary development - into a European cultural world.^ I would once again like to gently suggest that Steiner's admirers put a bit more effort into understanding the historical context within which anthroposophy arose.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't see how they fit into the let's-be-as-skeptical-of-secular-culture-as-of-overarching-religious-worldviews line you seemed to be pursuing.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, they are "marks," signs of religious beliefs and practices ...^ What ) ) they ) ) appear to be saying, on the contrary, is that deceit = deceit, even when ) ) ) ) it ) ) involves religious beliefs.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a family who already has their own religious beliefs and practices, the imposition of someone else's is usually not welcome.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, they were deceived about the extent to which religious beliefs were ) ) involved in the school system.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

it is via biological noncoding genetic evidence that one can demonstrate that history itself is shared, that historical traditions are (or might well be) true."[87]
.On the other hand, there are tests that do not rely on molecular lineages, but rather on correlations between allele frequencies, often when allele frequencies correlate these are called clusters.^ The idea of the indigo children *seems* to correlate with anthroposophy but in fact the way these parents handle their children is often extremely at odds with Waldorf principles.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other .
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Clustering analyses are less powerful than lineages because they cannot tell a historical story, they can only estimate the proportion of a person's ancestry from any given large geographical region.^ They cannot tell my doctor how to diagnose, but they could remove his licence if they suspected foul play.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Asking about ancestry focuses the questions back in time and conveys an historical and geographic context which some feel is clearer than the ambiguity of "race" or "ethnicity."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do .
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.These sorts of tests use informative alleles called Ancestry-informative marker (AIM), which although shared across all human populations vary a great deal in frequency between groups of people living in geographically distant parts of the world.^ All told, this stuff struck me at the time as fairly mild compared to Bradford's claims about "primitve" peoples and "etheric racial groups" and so forth.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The consolidation of questions of "race," "ethnicity," and "ancestry" into a single question of "ethnicity" (or "race/ethnicity") or of "identified population groups" would eliminate the distinction between race and ethnicity indicated in Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statist theorists maintain that the necessity of government derives from the fact that the people need to live in communities, yet personal autonomy must be constrained in these communities.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

.These tests use contemporary people sampled from certain parts of the world as references to determine the likely proportion of ancestry for any given individual.^ Make certain that students understand that each individual is responsible for reading the entire assigned section of Race and also for examining part or all of the documents in one of the units.

^ When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, "the people's century," "the century of the common man," become, like "the people's state" and "the classless society," variant expressions the real meaning of which is "the century of political Bonapartism" or "the Bonapartist state."
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, the public comment used the term, "multiracial" to refer to persons of two or more races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a recent Public Service Broadcasting (PBS) programme on the subject of genetic ancestry testing the academic Henry Louis Gates: "wasn’t thrilled with the results (it turns out that 50 percent of his ancestors are likely European)".[88] Charles Rotimi, of Howard University's National Human Genome Center, is one of many who have highlighted the methodological flaws in such research—that "the nature or appearance of genetic clustering (grouping) of people is a function of how populations are sampled, of how criteria for boundaries between clusters are set, and of the level of resolution used" all bias the results—and concluded that people should be very cautious about relating genetic lineages or clusters to their own sense of identity.^ One person suggested that groups should constitute at least one percent of the population (nationally, about 2.6 million in 1994) to be considered as a separate category.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is very valuable stuff and would help parents have at a least an inkling of what it's all about.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, the waldorfanswers folks expect people to believe all is well in Steinerville and if anyone should care and dare enough to ask questions or point to inconsistencies .
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[89]
.Thus, in analyses that assign individuals to groups it becomes less apparent that self-described racial groups are reliable indicators of ancestry.^ Students must make one or more individual and/or small group oral presentations to the class during the course, and complete a self-evaluation report.

.One cause of the reduced power of the assignment of individuals to groups is admixture.^ Students must make one or more individual and/or small group oral presentations to the class during the course, and complete a self-evaluation report.

.For example, self-described African Americans tend to have a mix of West African and European ancestry.^ Only 3 of 4 who reported "American Indian" as their race gave "American Indian" as their first ancestry; about 9 percent gave an European first ancestry.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "African-American" and "Black African-American" were suggested as names for the category [the suggestions of "Black American" and "Amerofian" (described as Blacks who are American Natives, European, and West African) are not discussed below].
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imprecision of the category leads to possible confusion since, if one goes back far enough, many Americans are of mixed racial heritage (for example, many Whites have American Indian heritage and many Blacks have African, White, and American Indian heritage).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shriver et al. (2003)[82] found that on average African Americans have ~80% African ancestry. .Also, in a survey of college students who self-identified as "white" in a northeastern U.S. university, ~30% of whites had less than 90% European ancestry.^ This would require additional instructions and may not be acceptable to those who wish to identify their earlier ancestry.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research shows Hispanics who self-identify as White also fare better economically; thus, some said two questions were needed because ethnicity alone was insufficient for determining which Hispanics are likely to be victims of discrimination.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonresponse rates may increase for persons who wish to identify with more than one race but who are instructed to select the one category with which they most closely identify.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90]
.Stephan Palmie has responded to Abu el-Haj's claim that genetic lineages make possible a new, politically, economically, and socially benign notion of race and racial difference by suggesting that efforts to link genetic history and personal identity will inevitably "ground present social arrangements in a time-hallowed past," that is, use biology to explain cultural differences and social inequalities.^ Meets demand of some multiracial respondents, especially those whose parents are of different races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

[91]

Race and intelligence

.Researchers have reported differences in the average IQ test scores of various ethnic groups.^ Biology photo set : Triangle plot showing average mixture of five North American ethnic groups .

^ Cognitive research indicated that some people use race and ethnic origin interchangeably; they see little difference between the two concepts.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research shows that ethnic groups evolve and may modify their preferred ethnic group names; individuals may represent their affiliation with groups differently depending on the situation and may alter their perceived ethnic membership over time.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The interpretation, causes, accuracy and reliability of these differences are highly controversial.^ The interpretation, causes, accuracy and reliability of these differences are highly controversial.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the controversy surrounds the question of how to interpret these new data, and whether conclusions based on existing data are sound.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, an alternative explanation for these racial differences would rely on selection for different personality traits.
  • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some researchers, such as Arthur Jensen, Richard Herrnstein, and Richard Lynn, have argued that such differences are at least partially genetic.^ And it appeared before the House of Lords, I think, or at least in a comittee or some such things in the House of Lords.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

.Others, for example Thomas Sowell, argue that the differences largely owe to social and economic inequalities.^ Information on subgroups describes the significant social, economic, and health differences among the Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, Cuban, and other Hispanic populations.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They said that including them in the large "Asian or Pacific Islander" category resulted in data that do not accurately reflect their social and economic conditions.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still others such as Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin have argued that categories such as "race" and "intelligence" are cultural constructs that render any attempt to explain such differences (whether genetically or sociologically) meaningless.^ Discuss whether there is variation in the way different textbooks and different academic subjects treat race.

^ Poor editing :) ) ) Delineating people by spiritual categories probably isn't a very ) constructive thing to do in any event, but it's when you do it by race ) that ) we're talking about racism.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The class will examine over the course of the next five weeks different theories offered by scientists from antiquity to the present to explain race.

Political and practical uses

Racism

In biomedicine

.There is an active debate among biomedical researchers about the meaning and importance of race in their research.^ There is a fair amount of disagreement regarding definitions of "race" among the debaters.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, there shouldn't be a debate about whether they played that part of the game or not, it's abundantly clear they did.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ One is whether Hispanic origin should be a category in a single "race/ethnicity" question or whether there should be a question about Hispanic origin separate from race (discussed in Issue 3 above).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The primary impetus for considering race in biomedical research is the possibility of improving the prevention and treatment of diseases by predicting hard-to-ascertain factors on the basis of more easily ascertained characteristics.^ Potentially provides subgroup information useful to health researchers in terms of race-specific disease risk.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That a special talent is more easily accessible to a particular race is for me understandable, due to the availability of the particular physical condition.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Provides subgroup information useful to health researchers in terms of race-specific disease risk.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some have argued that without cheap and widespread genetic tests, racial identification is the best way to predict for certain diseases, such as Cystic fibrosis, Lactose intolerance, Tay-Sachs Disease and sickle cell anemia, which are genetically linked and more prevalent in some populations than others.^ Now rather than you keep repeating yourself and having me and others telling you you are wrong, do some research and then come back.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ "The BBFC, on the other hand, is nothing more than an extension of the government legal system.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The final lecture in the series contains a very revealing description of what anthroposophists mean by the overcoming of race; there Steiner explains that racial evolution was a cosmic necessity because some souls are "more advanced" than others, and that the present racial hierarchy will give way in the future to "a new spiritualised caste system" (p.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most well-known examples of genetically-determined disorders that vary in incidence among populations would be sickle cell disease, thalassaemia, and Tay-Sachs disease.^ This research will be helpful in determining those response categories which would provide useful information about our Nation's population.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combined question would most likely solicit multi-ethnic as well as multiracial responses.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

distribution of the sickle cell trait
distribution of Malaria
.There has been criticism of associating disorders with race.^ Malaria There has been criticism of associating disorders with race.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ AAPA Statement on Biological Aspects of Race American Association of Physical Anthropologists "Pure races do not exist in the human species today, nor is there any evidence that they have ever existed in the past."
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For example, in the United States sickle cell is typically associated with black people, but this trait is also found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Indian ancestry.^ For example, in the United States sickle cell is typically associated with black people, but this trait is also found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern or Indian ancestry.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even sickle cell anemia is no longer considered a "black" disease but one that emerged in areas with endemic malaria where the sickle cell trait was protective for survival.
  • Fathom :: The Source for Online Learning 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.fathom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time that forced individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories (Gossett 1997).
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[92] The sickle cell trait offers some resistance to malaria. In regions where malaria is present sickle cell has been positively selected and consequently the proportion of people with it is greater. .Therefore, it has been argued that sickle cell should not be associated with a particular race, but with having ancestors who lived in a malaria-prone region.^ All six groups should read the assigned passage from Race , examine associated pieces of artwork and answer the following question which will be presented to the whole group: .

^ Collection -- identification issues: --People who can mark their race may not know the geographic region of origin of their ancestors or parents (e.g., adoptees).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then there are those who formed the ancestors of the Mongolian race.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Africans living in areas where there is no malaria, such as the East African highlands, have a prevalence of sickle cell as low as parts of Northern Europe.^ There is no such equation in the quoted sentence, or elsewhere in the ) ) text.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no such equation in the quoted sentence, or elsewhere in the text.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There's no need to set law, policies, and procedures to prevent any such occurance because, after all, the government says it's totally trustworthy.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

.Another example of the use of race in medicine is the recent U.S. FDA approval of BiDil, a medication for congestive heart failure targeted at black people in the United States.^ Why would the United States government be asking immigrants what their race is, and provide such a lengthy list?

^ United States History photo set : Letter reporting that Confederacy is not treating black captives as POWs, but as slaves, 1864.

^ In many Waldorf schools, for example, students are not allowed to use the color black in the early grades.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[93] .Several researchers have questioned the scientific basis for arguing the merits of a medication based on race, however.^ Several researchers have questioned the scientific basis for arguing the merits of a medication based on race, however.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a recent editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine [ 1 ] claimed that "race is biologically meaningless" and warned that "instruction in medical genetics should emphasize the fallacy of race as a scientific concept and the dangers inherent in practicing race-based medicine."
  • Genome Biology | Full text | Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genomebiology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many traits amongst races are not DNA based but cultural, however cultural traits eventually become genetic if repeated.
  • William Saletan and the Editors of Slate Demonstrate that They Are Not Members of the Genetic Elite 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC delong.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As Stephan Palmie has recently pointed out, black Americans were disproportionately affected by Hurricane Katrina, but for social and not climatological reasons; similarly, certain diseases may disproportionately affect different races, but not for biological reasons.^ Summary of different biological definitions of "race" .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As Stephan Palmie has recently pointed out, black Americans were disproportionately affected by Hurricane Katrina, but for social and not climatological reasons; similarly, certain diseases may disproportionately affect different races, but not for biological reasons.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The races differ also in constitution, in acclimatisation and in liability to certain diseases.
  • Literature.org - The Online Literature Library 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.literature.org [Source type: Original source]

.March 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Several researchers have suggested that BiDil was re-designated as a medicine for a race-specific illness because its manufacturer, Nitromed, needed to propose a new use for an existing medication to justify an extension of its patent and thus monopoly on the medication,[94] not for pharmacological reasons.^ If specific races are not indicated, the general category is too heterogeneous for meaningful analysis or for use in civil rights monitoring and enforcement.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There would be a major effect on historical continuity if specific races are not indicated because it may reduce the count of the current broad categories and in unknown ways.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If separate race and ethnic categories are used, the minimum designations are: a.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gene flow and intermixture also have an effect on predicting a relationship between race and "race linked disorders". Multiple sclerosis is typically associated with people of European descent and is of low risk to people of African descent.^ Does this requirement weaken or strengthen the link between race and physical appearance?

^ How did the quota which favored Northern and Western European countries strengthen the link between place of birth and race?

^ Does this enrollment weaken or strengthen the link between race and inheritance?

However, due to gene flow between the populations, African Americans have elevated levels of MS relative to Africans.[95] Notable African Americans affected by MS include Richard Pryor and Montel Williams. .As populations continue to mix, the role of socially constructed races may diminish in identifying diseases.^ Races as a social construction .
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Races as social constructions .
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As populations continue to mix, the role of socially constructed races may diminish in identifying diseases.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A problem with making this distinction between Africans and Americans of African descent, however are recent discoveries of a link of where someone grew up as a child based upon latitudinal distance from the equator and a link with developing MS as an adult.^ But when we receive the children into the school we shall still be able to make up for many things which have been done wrongly, or left undone, in the first years of the child's life.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each group will have between 5 and 10 minutes to makes its presentation plus up to 5 minutes for answering questions posed by the teacher and/or other students.

^ However, the idea that human beings belong to biologically distinct races emerged quite recently in world history, in the 1700s.

.While the incidence of MS increases with degree of melanin in the skin and Vitamin D production from sunlight exposure, in this manner the importance of race exists primarily in regards to childhood development and sunlight exposure.^ Skin color (melanin content) is not the sole way people identify their race and ethnicity.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rates of MS among caucasians and other races are also higher among adults who grew up in higher latitudes.^ Among persons who indicated in the 1990 census that they were of Hispanic origin, 52 percent marked the "White" circle and 43 percent marked the "Other race" circle.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If "Hispanic" is not listed as a separate category, research shows an extremely high percentage of "Other" responses are Hispanics who do not identify with one of the listed race categories.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonresponse rates may increase for persons who wish to identify with more than one race but who are instructed to select the one category with which they most closely identify.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This would make expression of genotype more important than the genotype itself since all races experience greater rates of development of MS if childhood exposure to sunlight and Vitamin D production is decreased.^ I would be interested in more of your own thoughts on how critics can present their case in a way that might make it more likely to be considered by anthroposophists.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany.
  • James Burnham on the Managerial State 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No more than have movies and games rated by the same ratings board.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

In law enforcement

.
In the U.S., the FBI identifies fugitives to categories they define as sex, physical features, occupation, nationality, and race.
^ These agencies say that if categories are more detailed and include nationality groups, or if there is a "multiracial" category (and especially if the multiple races have to be identified), it would be virtually impossible to give instructions for how to classify by visual observation.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collection if specific races are not identified: --Physical space on forms: adds one racial category.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If "Hispanic" is not listed as a separate category, research shows an extremely high percentage of "Other" responses are Hispanics who do not identify with one of the listed race categories.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From left to right, the FBI assigns the above individuals to the following races: White, Black, White (Hispanic), Asian.^ Among persons who indicated in the 1990 census that they were of Hispanic origin, 52 percent marked the "White" circle and 43 percent marked the "Other race" circle.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Directive requires compilation of data for four racial categories (White, Black, American Indian or Alaskan Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander), and an ethnic category to indicate Hispanic origin, or not of Hispanic origin.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data collection agencies would have to code to broad categories based on probability (e.g., "English" likely to be White but could be Black or Asian also).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Top row males, bottom row females.[96]
.In an attempt to provide general descriptions that may facilitate the job of law enforcement officers seeking to apprehend suspects, the United States FBI employs the term "race" to summarize the general appearance (skin color, hair texture, eye shape, and other such easily noticed characteristics) of individuals whom they are attempting to apprehend.^ Or, lightening of skin color over successive generations?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did they weaken the link between race and skin color?

^ Or, lightening of skin color over )successive generations?
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.From the perspective of law enforcement officers, it is generally more important to arrive at a description that will readily suggest the general appearance of an individual than to make a scientifically valid categorization by DNA or other such means.^ If you mean to ask, how can critics make their critique more palatable, I'd say that's a bad idea in general.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some expressed concern that if specific races are not known, the category has the potential for increasing racial segregation, discrimination, and the stigmatization of broad categories (other than White) which may result in less effective enforcement of civil rights laws.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State and local agencies such as law enforcement agencies (through the Uniform Crime Reporting system), school districts, the business community, and others required to use the Directive in reporting these data to the Federal government.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, in addition to assigning a wanted individual to a racial category, such a description will include: height, weight, eye color, scars and other distinguishing characteristics.^ That is one reason why skin color, though a favorite phenotypic trait for racial theorists across centuries, has never been able to support, all by itself, the weight that racial categories demand; hair type, eye color, facial features, stature, and all sorts of other characteristics have always been added to the mix.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under consolidation, Hispanic would be included as an ethnic or racial/ethnic category along with other categories previously classified as races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geographically, "Middle Easterner" as a category would include persons other than Arabs.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British Police use a classification based in the ethnic background of British society: W1 (White-British), W2 (White-Irish), W9 (Any other white background); M1 (White and black Caribbean), M2 (White and black African), M3 (White and Asian), M9 (Any other mixed background); A1 (Asian-Indian), A2 (Asian-Pakistani), A3 (Asian-Bangladeshi), A9 (Any other Asian background); B1 (Black Caribbean), B2 (Black African), B3 (Any other black background); O1 (Chinese), O9 (Any other).^ Tabulation and analysis: Indicates diverse and significant differences in the characteristics of the Asian population; potentially useful in analyses of health and other trends.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In displaying detailed information which represents a combination of race and ethnicity, the description of the data being displayed must clearly indicate that both bases of classification are being used.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They objected to categorization with Blacks as they are a multiracial/ethnic group (African, French, American Indian, and Hispanic).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the characteristics that constitute these groupings are biological and some are learned (cultural, linguistic, etc.^ Some of the characteristics that constitute these groupings are biological and some are learned (cultural, linguistic, etc.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (The latter adds "association with a person or group with one or more of these actual or perceived characteristics."
  • Classical Values :: "Gender." If it ain't fixed, let's break it! 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.classicalvalues.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious, cultural, social, national, ethnic, linguistic, genetic, geographical and anatomical groups have been and sometimes still are called 'races'".
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

) traits that are easy to notice.[citation needed]
.In many countries, such as France, the state is legally banned from maintaining data based on race, which often makes the police issue wanted notices to the public that include labels like "dark skin complexion", etc[citation needed].^ In displaying detailed information which represents a combination of race and ethnicity, the description of the data being displayed must clearly indicate that both bases of classification are being used.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A change by OMB to a "multiracial" category would reduce costs for these few States because they would not have to maintain data in two different ways.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on this list was race linked to skin color or ethnic groups?

.One factor that encourages this kind of circuitous wordings is that there is controversy over the actual relationship between crimes, their assigned punishments, and the division of people into races, leading officials to try to deemphasize the alleged race of suspects[citation needed].^ The consolidation of questions of "race," "ethnicity," and "ancestry" into a single question of "ethnicity" (or "race/ethnicity") or of "identified population groups" would eliminate the distinction between race and ethnicity indicated in Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people of more than one race, who under Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here it follows that one's previous actions will actually determine the conditions of one's next life (for instance: where one is born, what kind of body one has, what tendencies one has).
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States, the practice of racial profiling has been ruled to be both unconstitutional and also to constitute a violation of civil rights.^ Federal agencies that use racial and ethnic data for regulatory programs, civil rights monitoring and enforcement generally oppose any revision of Directive No.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tabulation and analysis: useful for civil rights monitoring and enforcement in State of Massachusetts.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States History photo set : Addition of gender discrimination to Civil Rights bill of 1964.

.There is active debate regarding the cause of a marked correlation between the recorded crimes, punishments meted out, and the country's populations.^ Peter S. )There is a fair amount of disagreement regarding definitions of "race" )among the debaters.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The "punishment" is so far out of proportion to the "crime", while other very real crimes go unprosecuted and unpunished.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a fair amount of disagreement regarding definitions of "race" among the debaters.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many consider de facto racial profiling an example of institutional racism in law enforcement.^ One prime example is the work of Arthur de Gobineau, author of the seminal work of 19th century racism, Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Apparently, "racial profiling" is also considered to embody racist elements.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Apparently, "racial profiling" is also considered ) to embody racist elements.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.The history of misuse of racial categories to impact adversely one or more groups and/or to offer protection and advantage to another has a clear impact on debate of the legitimate use of known phenotypical or genotypical characteristics tied to the presumed race of both victims and perpetrators by the government.^ Under consolidation, Hispanic would be included as an ethnic or racial/ethnic category along with other categories previously classified as races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the more disturbing aspects of anthroposophical versions of this idea is that each mission has a time frame, and when your mission runs out your race is supposed to disappear from the cosmic stage.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These agencies say that if categories are more detailed and include nationality groups, or if there is a "multiracial" category (and especially if the multiple races have to be identified), it would be virtually impossible to give instructions for how to classify by visual observation.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recent work in racial taxonomy based on DNA cluster analysis (see Lewontin's Fallacy) has led law enforcement to narrow their search for individuals based on a range of phenotypical characteristics found consistent with DNA evidence.^ Again I think your fundemental lack of knowledge of how law works and where government and police enforcement fit in is your downfall.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ A literature search on work related to racial classification in the health field (using MEDLINE) is being conducted by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think that is right, though in my work I try to stick to the more restricted definition, while exploring the implications of the "racial missions" idea.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

[97]
While controversial, DNA analysis has been successful in helping police identify both victims and perpetrators by indicating what phenotypical characteristics to look for and what community the individual may have lived in. .For example, in one case phenotypical characteristics suggested that the friends and family of an unidentified victim would be found among the Asian community, but the DNA evidence directed official attention to missing Native Americans, where her true identity was eventually confirmed.^ For example, in one case phenotypical characteristics suggested that the friends and family of an unidentified victim would be found among the Asian community, but the DNA evidence directed official attention to missing Native Americans, where her true identity was eventually confirmed.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some suggested this be a "Native American" category.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not impossible that both diluvial races lived at the same era, so that crossing appeared, as would seem the case from the skulls found at Galley Hill and at Brünn.

[98] .In an attempt to avoid potentially misleading associations suggested by the word "race," this classification is called "biogeographical ancestry" (BGA),[99] but the terms for the BGA categories are similar to those used as for race.^ Some of the more significant issues that have been identified for research and testing are: classification of multiracial persons; combining race and Hispanic origin; combining concepts of race/ethnicity/ancestry; changing the names of current categories; and adding new classifications.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Varied and possibly inconsistent definitional criteria, such as geographic origin, cultural origin, cultural identification and affiliation, community recognition, and race itself, are used to describe the terms.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the most part, the public comment used the term, "multiracial" to refer to persons of two or more races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The difference is that ancestry-informative DNA markers identify continent-of-ancestry admixture, not ethnic self-identity, and provide a wide range of phenotypical characteristics such that some people in a biogeographical category will not match the stereotypical image of an individual belonging to the corresponding race.^ The difference is that ancestry-informative DNA markers identify continent-of-ancestry admixture, not ethnic self-identity, and provide a wide range of phenotypical characteristics such that some people in a biogeographical category will not match the stereotypical image of an individual belonging to the corresponding race.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some scientists, such as Arthur Jensen and Richard Lynn , have argued that the threat of being labeled as a "scientific racist" has made the scientific study of race and racial differences politically taboo and has stifled true scientific discourse.
  • Ask A Word 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other geneticists, in contrast, argue that categories of self-identified race/ethnicity or biogeographic ancestry are both valid and useful, [ 72 ] that these categories correspond to clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data , [ 73 ] and that this correspondence implies that genetic factors might contribute to unexplained phenotypic variation between groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.To facilitate the work of officials trying to find individuals based on the evidence of their DNA traces, firms providing the genetic analyses also provide photographs showing a full range of phenotypical characteristics of people in each biogeographical group.^ To facilitate the work of officials trying to find individuals based on the evidence of their DNA traces, firms providing the genetic analyses also provide photographs showing a full range of phenotypical characteristics of people in each biogeographical group.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Of special interest to officials trying to find individuals on the basis of DNA samples that indicate a diverse genetic background is what range of phenotypical characteristics people with that general mixture of genotypical characteristics may display.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This won't fit into race, but there clearly are groups of people with genetic similarities due to cultural closeness and mating together.
  • Fathom :: The Source for Online Learning 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.fathom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of special interest to officials trying to find individuals on the basis of DNA samples that indicate a diverse genetic background is what range of phenotypical characteristics people with that general mixture of genotypical characteristics may display.^ Of special interest to officials trying to find individuals on the basis of DNA samples that indicate a diverse genetic background is what range of phenotypical characteristics people with that general mixture of genotypical characteristics may display.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They have general characteristics as Narn, Centauri or Mimbari but are individuals with their own thoughts, goals, agendas… (also they’re not dressed all alike in various pyjamas!
  • Writing Excuses Season 2 Episode 16: Non-Human Races » Writing Excuses 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.writingexcuses.com [Source type: General]

^ While controversial, DNA analysis has been successful in helping police identify both victims and perpetrators by indicating what phenotypical characteristics to look for and what community the individual may have lived in.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Forensic anthropology

Similarly, forensic anthropologists draw on highly heritable morphological features of human remains (e.g. cranial measurements) to aid in the identification of the body, including in terms of race. .In a recent article anthropologist Norman Sauer asked, "if races don't exist, why are forensic anthropologists so good at identifying them?"^ They want to identify their multiple races, but say that those who prefer to choose one of the existing broad categories could do so.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some asked how far back in one's ancestry respondents should go in deciding to identify multiple races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some who favored asking race/Hispanic origin as one question said many Hispanics do not identify themselves as a race.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] Sauer observed that the use of 19th century racial categories is widespread among forensic anthropologists:
.
  • "In many cases there is little doubt that an individual belonged to the Negro, Caucasian, or Mongoloid racial stock."^ There are racially mixed individuals and populations.

    ^ "In many cases there is little doubt that an individual belonged to the Negro, Caucasian, or Mongoloid racial stock."
    • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These interpersonal preferences are characterized by a negative exposure effect - individuals decrease their support for welfare if there are more welfare recipients in their area - and racial group loyalty - individuals increase their support for welfare spending if a larger fraction of welfare recipients in their area belongs to their racial group.
    • Group Loyalty and the Taste for Redistribution 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC ideas.repec.org [Source type: Academic]

    [101]
  • .
  • "Thus the forensic anthropologist uses the term race in the very broad sense to differentiate what are commonly known as white, black and yellow racial stocks."^ Use of race in forensics .
    • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Thus the forensic anthropologist uses the term race in the very broad sense to differentiate what are commonly known as white, black and yellow racial stocks."
    • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Race Race in biomedicine Race baiting Race card Racial purity Racial discrimination Racial realism Racial superiority The Race Question The Race of the Future Societal collapse Subspecies White Nationalism Whiteness studies Nationalism Ethnic nationalism .
    • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    [102]
  • .
  • "In estimating race forensically, we prefer to determine if the skeleton is Negroid, or Non-Negroid.^ "In estimating race forensically, we prefer to determine if the skeleton is Negroid, or Non-Negroid.
    • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ So those of us in forensic anthropology know that the skeleton reflects race, whether "real" or not, just as well if not better than superficial soft tissue does.

    ^ Forensic anthropologists regularly classify skeletons of decomposed bodies by race.
    • Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

    .If findings favor Non-Negroid, then further study is necessary to rule out Mongoloid."^ If findings favor Non-Negroid, then further study is necessary to rule out Mongoloid."
    • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus the northern European Caucasoids should resemble the Mongoloids more than those further south, and the Mediterranean Caucasoids should resemble the Negroids more.
    • Stalking the Wild Taboo -Edward M. Miller- Paternal Provisioning versus Mate Seeking in Human Populations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [103]
.According to Sauer, "The assessment of these categories is based upon copious amounts of research on the relationship between biological characteristics of the living and their skeletons."^ According to Sauer, "The assessment of these categories is based upon copious amounts of research on the relationship between biological characteristics of the living and their skeletons."
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As president of the American Cancer Society from 1988 to 1989, Freeman explored the relationship between racial classifications, created arbitrarily by men and based on physical characteristics, and the improper use of these sociological classifications as objective scientific variables.
  • Fathom :: The Source for Online Learning 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.fathom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In all cultures people are placed into categories based on their gender and are expected to have certain values and social roles according to which category they are put in.
  • Artifact & Artifice: Cultural Studies of the Textual City: April 2008 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC artifactandartifice.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, he says he agrees with other anthropologists that race is not a valid biological taxonomic category, and that races are socially constructed.^ Under consolidation, Hispanic would be included as an ethnic or racial/ethnic category along with other categories previously classified as races.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The categories do not represent objective "truth" but rather, are ambiguous social constructs and involve subjective and attitudinal issues.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/race-ethnicity.html 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There seems no middle ground upon which to agree on )definitions of "race" and some other concepts.
  • Waldorf Critics Archive 0604 (April, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

.He argued there is nevertheless a strong relationship between the phenotypic features forensic anthropologists base their identifications on, and popular racial categories.^ He argued there is nevertheless a strong relationship between the phenotypic features forensic anthropologists base their identifications on, and popular racial categories.
  • Race (classification of human beings) - Genealogy 23 September 2009 1:16 UTC genealogy.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nor would a broad classification based on "racial categories" tell you that Ashkenazi Jews, for example, are prone to a rare mutation that causes breast cancer.
  • Edge: THE NATURE OF NORMAL HUMAN VARIETY A Talk with Armand Leroi 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most widely used human racial categories are based on visible traits (especially skin color, cranial or facial features and hair texture), and self-identification."
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

Thus, he argued, forensic anthropologists apply a racial label to human remains because their analysis of physical morphology enables them to predict that when the person was alive, a particular racial label would have been applied to them.[104]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b AAPA Statement on Biological Aspects of Race American Association of Physical Anthropologists "Pure races, in the sense of genetically homogeneous populations, do not exist in the human species today, nor is there any evidence that they have ever existed in the past."
  2. ^ Bamshad, Michael and Steve E. Olson. "Does Race Exist?", Scientific American Magazine (10 November 2003).
  3. ^ "NOVA Online: Mystery of the First Americans". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/brace.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  4. ^ a b "NOVA Online: Mystery of the First Americans". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/gill.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  5. ^ S. O. Y. Keita, R. A. Kittles, C. D. M. Royal, G. E. Bonney, P. Furbert-Harris, G. M. Dunston & C. N. Rotimi, 2004 "Conceptualizing human variation" in Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 Conceptualizing human variation
  6. ^ For example, the following statement expresses the official viewpoint of the American Anthropological Association at their web page: "Evidence from the analysis of genetics (e.g., DNA) indicates that most physical variation lies within so-called racial groups. This means that there is greater variation within 'racial' groups than between them."
  7. ^ John Lie Modern Peoplehood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004)
  8. ^ Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X. 
  9. ^ a b Gordon 1964
  10. ^ a b "American Anthropological Association Statement on "Race"". Aaanet.org. 1998-05-17. http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  11. ^ a b Palmie, Stephan (2007) "Genomics, Divination, 'Racecraft'" in American Ethnologist 34(2): 214
  12. ^ a b Mevorach, Katya Gibel (2007) "Race, Racism and Academic Complicity" in American Ethnologist 34(2): 239-240
  13. ^ Daniel A. Segal 'The European': Allegories of Racial Purity Anthropology Today, Vol. 7, No. 5 (Oct., 1991), pp. 7-9 doi:10.2307/3032780
  14. ^ a b Bindon, Jim. University of Alabama. "Post World War II". 2005. August 28, 2006.
  15. ^ The Mummies of Xinjiang, DISCOVER Magazine
  16. ^ A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's Celtic mummies, The Independent
  17. ^ Julian the Apostate, Against the Galileans: remains of the 3 books, excerpted from Cyril of Alexandria, Contra Julianum (1923) pp.319-433
  18. ^ El Hamel, Chouki (2002). "'Race', slavery and Islam in Maghribi Mediterranean thought: the question of the Haratin in Morocco". The Journal of North African Studies 7 (3): 29–52 [39–42]. 
  19. ^ Bethwell A. Ogot, Zamani: A Survey of East African History, (East African Publishing House: 1974), p.104
  20. ^ Cyril Glasse, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers: 2008), p.631
  21. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam, (University of Chicago Press: 1991), p.466
  22. ^ Lawrence I. Conrad (1982), "Taun and Waba: Conceptions of Plague and Pestilence in Early Islam", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 25 (3): 268-307 [278]
  23. ^ A. Smedley (1999) Race in North America: origin and evolution of a worldview, 2nd ed. Westview Press, Boulder
  24. ^ Meltzer M (1993) Slavery: a world history, rev ed. DaCapo Press, Cambridge, MA
  25. ^ Takaki R (1993) A different mirror: a history of multicultural America. Little, Brown, Boston
  26. ^ Banton M (1977) The idea of race. Westview Press, Boulder
  27. ^ Smedley A (1999) Race in North America: origin and evolution of a worldview, 2nd ed. Westview Press, Boulder
  28. ^ Huxley, T. H. "On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind" (1870) Journal of the Ethnological Society of London
  29. ^ Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, Chapter 7 - On the Races of Man. Consider, for instance, the following excerpt: "We thus see that many of the wilder races of man are apt to suffer much in health when subjected to changed conditions or habits of life, and not exclusively from being transported to a new climate. Mere alterations in habits, which do not appear injurious in themselves, seem to have this same effect; and in several cases the children are particularly liable to suffer. It has often been said, as Mr. Macnamara remarks, that man can resist with impunity the greatest diversities of climate and other changes; but this is true only of the civilised races."
  30. ^ Darwin, C. (1871/1874). The Descent of Man, 2nd. Ed., London: John Murray.
  31. ^ Carleton S. Coon, The Origin of Races, (New York: Knopf, 1962)
  32. ^ The American Heritage Book of English Usage A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English. 1996. Entry on "Race"
  33. ^ "In Ways Unacademical": The Reception of Carleton S. Coon's The Origin of Races by Prof. John P Jackon Jr, from 'Journal of the History of Biology' published 2001
  34. ^ Leonard Lieberman and Fatimah Linda C. Jackson (1995) "Race and Three Models of Human Origin" in American Anthropologist Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 232-234
  35. ^ Leonard Lieberman and Fatimah Linda C. Jackson (1995) "Race and Three Models of Human Origin" in American Anthropologist Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 237
  36. ^ Leonard Lieberman and Fatimah Linda C. Jackson (1995) "Race and Three Models of Human Origin" in American Anthropologist Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 239
  37. ^ a b Pleijel, F. and Rouse, G., W. (2000) "Least-inclusive taxonomic unit: a new taxonomic concept for biology" Proceedings of the Royal Society 267: 627–630 PDF
  38. ^ SUSAN M. HAIG, ERIK A. BEEVER, STEVEN M. CHAMBERS, HOPE M. DRAHEIM, BRUCE D. DUGGER, SUSIE DUNHAM,§ ELISE ELLIOTT-SMITH, JOSEPH B. FONTAINE, DYLAN C. KESLER, BRIAN J. KNAUS, IARA F. LOPES, PETE LOSCHL, THOMAS D. MULLINS, AND LISA M. SHEFFIELD (2006) "Taxonomic Considerations in Listing Subspecies Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act" Conservation Biology 20: 1584–1594 doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00530.x
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Keita et al. 2004
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Templeton, 1998
  41. ^ Long and Kittles, 2003
  42. ^ O'Brien, S., J. and Meyr, E. (1991) "Bureaucratic mischief: recognizing endangered species and subspecies." Science 251: 1187-1190 PDF
  43. ^ AMADON, D. 1949. The seventy-five percent rule for subspecies. Condor 51:250-258.
  44. ^ MAYR, E. 1969. Principles of Systematic Zoology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  45. ^ Patten MA & Unitt P. (2002). Diagnosability versus mean differences of sage sparrow subspecies. Auk. vol 119, no 1. p. 26-35.
  46. ^ Wright, S. 1978. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, Vol. 4, Variability Within and Among Natural Populations. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. p. 438
  47. ^ Human Genome Project Information: Minorities, Race, and Genomics
  48. ^ a b c Joseph L. Graves, (2006) What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race from Race and Genomics
  49. ^ The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research by Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 77(4): 519–532.
  50. ^ DECONSTRUCTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETICS AND RACE Michael Bamshad, Stephen Wooding, Benjamin A. Salisbury and J. Claiborne Stephens. Nature Genetics (2004) 5:598-609
  51. ^ Conceptualizing human variation by S O Y Keita, 2, R A Kittles1, C D M Royal, G E Bonney, P Furbert-Harris, G M Dunston & C N Rotimi. Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
  52. ^ Implications of biogeography of human populations for 'race' and medicine by Sarah A Tishkoff & Kenneth K Kidd. Nature Genetics 36, S21 - S27 (2004)
  53. ^ Genetic variation, classification and 'race' by Lynn B Jorde & Stephen P Wooding. Nature Genetics' 36, S28 - S33 (2004)
  54. ^ "Project MUSE - Human Biology - Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races". Muse.jhu.edu. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/human_biology/v075/75.4long.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  55. ^ http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/an.2006.47.2.7?journalCode=an accessed June 2007
  56. ^ Saitou. Kyushu Museum. 2002. February 2, 2007
  57. ^ Race and Three Models of Human Origin, Lieberman and Jackson (1995).
  58. ^ Theodosious Dobzhansky "Comment" in Current Anthropology 3(3): 279-280
  59. ^ Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For Light Skin, The Washington Post, December 16, 2005
  60. ^ Pilar Ossorio and Troy Duster (2006) Race and Genetics Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences American Psychologist 60 115–128 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.60.1.115
  61. ^ Your Family May Once Have Been A Different Color by Robert Krulwich. Morning Edition, National Public Radio. 2 Feb 2009.
  62. ^ a b What is a population? An empirical evaluation of some genetic methods for identifying the number of gene pools and their degree of connectivity. by ROBIN S. WAPLES and OSCAR GAGGIOTTI. Molecular Ecology (2006) 15, 1419–1439. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02890.x
  63. ^ Koertvelyessy, TA and MT Nettleship 1996 Ethnicity and mating structure in Southwestern Hungary. Rivista di Antropologia (Roma) 74:45-53
  64. ^ Koertvelyessy, T 1995 Etnicity, isonymic relationships, and biological distance in Northeastern Hungary. Homo 46/1:1-9.
  65. ^ Pettener. D 1990 Temporal trends in marital structure and isonymy in S. Paolo Albanese, Italy. Human Biology 6:837-851.
  66. ^ Biondi, G, P Raspe, GW Lasker, and GGN Mascie-Taylor 1990 Relationships estimated by isonymy among the Italo-Greco villages of southern Italy. Human Biology 62:649-663.
  67. ^ Wright S. 1978. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, Vol. 4, Variability Within and Among Natural Populations. Chicago, II: Univ. Chicago Press
  68. ^ a b * Witherspoon DJ, Wooding S, Rogers AR, Marchani EE, Watkins WS, Batzer MA, Jorde LB. (2007) Genetic similarities within and between human populations. Genetics. 176(1):351–9. Full Text
  69. ^ Leonard Lieberman, Rodney C. Kirk, and Alice Littlefield, "Perishing Paradigm: Race—1931-99," American Anthropologist 105, no. 1 (2003): 110-13. A following article in the same issue, by Mat Cartmill and Kaye Brown, questions the precise rate of decline, but from their opposing perspective agrees that the Negroid/Caucasoid/Mongoloid paradigm has fallen into near-total disfavor.
  70. ^ (Wilson et al. 2001), (Cooper et al. 2003) (given in summary by Bamshad et al. 2004 p.599)
  71. ^ (Schwartz 2001), (Stephens 2003) (given in summary by Bamshad et al. 2004 p.599)
  72. ^ (Smedley and Smedley 2005), (Helms et al. 2005), [1]. Lewontin, for example argues that there is no biological basis for race on the basis of research indicating that more genetic variation exists within such races than among them (Lewontin 1972).
  73. ^ (Risch et al. 2002), (Bamshad 2005). Neil Risch argues: "One could make the same arguments about sex and age! ... you can undermine any definitional system... In a recent study... we actually had a higher discordance rate between self-reported sex and markers on the X chromosome [than] between genetic structure [based on microsatellite markers] versus [racial] self-description, [which had a] 99.9% concordance... So you could argue that sex is also a problematic category. .And there are differences between sex and gender; self-identification may not be correlated with biology perfectly.^ I'm just waiting for an anthroposophist now to take this right back to the beginning: "So is it racist to admit there are differences between the races?"
    • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The difference between the US and UK is that in the UK there wasn't a need to show harm before an independant ratings body was allocated the force of law.
    • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I think he may ) have ) found that if parents were directed there, they got a little too much ) anthroposophy ("cosmological cell biology" anyone?
    • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    And there is sexism. .And you can talk about age the same way.^ Login or register to post comments Submitted by chuma - February 29, 2008 at 6:55 am -0500 Blase: Way to not understand what you are talking about.
    • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

    A person's chronological age does not perfectly correspond to his biological age for a variety of reasons, both inherited and non-inherited. .Perhaps just using someone's actual birth year is not a very good way of measuring age.^ As always I would ) Find it very )interesting if you would point to a statement here, or ) elsewhere, where someone has claimed )that Waldorf does not have a right ) to ) )teach art this way.
    • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As always I would Find it very )interesting if you would point to a statement here, or elsewhere, where someone has claimed )that Waldorf does not have a right to )teach art this way.
    • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think encouraging parents to read to their young children is a good thing, and I do so (not just on this list, but in various other ways in my own life, such as tutoring).
    • Waldorf Critics Archive 0602 (February, 2006) 9 October 2009 20:31 UTC www.waldorfcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Does that mean we should throw it out?^ When movies ratings came out, was everyone "R? does that mean racing?"
    • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ... Any category you come up with is going to be imperfect, but that doesn't preclude you from using it or the fact that it has utility"(Gitschier 2005).
  74. ^ (Harpending and Rogers 2000), (Bamshad et al. 2003), (Edwards 2003), (Bamshad et al. 2004), (Tang et al. 2005), (Rosenberg et al. 2005): "If enough markers are used... individuals can be partitioned into genetic clusters that match major geographic subdivisions of the globe".
  75. ^ (Mountain and Risch 2004)
  76. ^ Frederick P. Rivara and Laurence Finberg, "Use of the Terms Race and Ethnicity," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 155, no. .2 (2001): 119. For similar author's guidelines, see Robert S. Schwartz, "Racial Profiling in Medical Research," The New England Journal of Medicine, 344 (no, 18, May 3, 2001); M.T. Fullilove, "Abandoning 'Race' as a Variable in Public Health Research: An Idea Whose Time has Come," American Journal of Public Health, 88 (1998), 1297-1298; and R. Bhopal and L. Donaldson, "White, European, Western, Caucasian, or What?^ Students will read Race in conjunction with four literature units to be studied over the course of the school year to see how different authors over time and culture have depicted the clash between differing peoples.

    ^ The GMC's close relationship with the medical profession has come under fire numerous times in recent years and consequently their replacement has been much mooted.
    • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Group leaders should monitor time and group interactions so no single member dominates or disrupts, but may need back-up from the teacher.

    Inappropriate Labeling in Research on Race, Ethnicity, and Health." American Journal of Public Health, 88 (1998), 1303-1307.
  77. ^ See program announcement and requests for grant applications at the NIH website, at nih.gov.
  78. ^ ssc.uwo.ca
  79. ^ "'Race'—Still an Issue for Physical Anthropology? Results of Polish Studies Seen in the Light of the U.S. Findings" by Katarzyna A. Kaszycka. American Anthropologist March 2003, Vol. 105, No. 1, pp. 116-124
  80. ^ Marks, Jonathan (2007) "Grand Anthropological Themes" in American Ethnologist 34(2): 234, cf. .Marks, Jonathan (1995) Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race, and History.^ However, the idea that human beings belong to biologically distinct races emerged quite recently in world history, in the 1700s.

    New York: Aldine de Gruyter
  81. ^ "New Ideas, New Fuels: Craig Venter at the Oxonian". FORA.tv. 2008-11-03. http://fora.tv/2008/07/30/New_Ideas_New_Fuels_Craig_Venter_at_the_Oxonian#chapter_17. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  82. ^ a b Shriver et al. 2003
  83. ^ "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Office of Management and Budget. 1997-10-30. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html. Retrieved 2009-03-19.  Also: U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data and B03002. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE; 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates
  84. ^ Mark D. Shriver & Rick A. Kittles, "Genetic ancestry and the search for personalized genetic histories" in Nature Reviews Genetics 5, 611-618
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  97. ^ Molecular eyewitness: DNA gets a human face Controversial crime-scene test smacks of racial profiling, critics say CAROLYN ABRAHAM June 25, 2005
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