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.Racism is the belief that race is a primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.^ Another theory states that the antediluvian race called the Nephilim was superior to other humans in this respect.

[1] Or, on the opposite side, racism can be described as the belief that a certain race or races portray undesirable characteristics. In the case of institutional racism, certain racial groups may be denied rights or benefits, or receive preferential treatment.
.Racial discrimination typically points out taxonomic differences between different groups of people, although anyone may be discriminated against on an ethnic or cultural basis, independently of their somatic differences.^ Examples of the difference between Command and Counsell, we may take from the formes of Speech that expresse them in Holy Scripture.

^ And therefore whatsoever examples may be drawn out of history concerning the election of pastors by the people or by the clergy, they are no arguments against the right of any civil sovereign, because they that elected them did it by his authority.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And therefore whatsoever examples may be drawn out of History, concerning the Election of Pastors, by the People, or by the Clergy, they are no arguments against the Right of any Civill Soveraign, because they that elected them did it by his Authority.

.According to the United Nations conventions, there is no distinction between the term racial discrimination and ethnic discrimination.^ In cases where the sovereign has prescribed no rule, there the subject hath the liberty to do, or forbear, according to his own discretion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No Oath, But By God By this it appears, that an Oath taken according to any other Forme, or Rite, then his, that sweareth, is in vain; and no Oath: And there is no Swearing by any thing which the Swearer thinks not God.

^ There can therefore be no contradiction between the Laws of God, and the Laws of a Christian Common−wealth.

Contents

Definitions

.Although the term racism usually denotes race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination, or oppression, the term can also have varying and contested definitions.^ The school provides education to students from pre-kindergarten to grade 12, and although numbers vary usually, it has some 500 students, most of whom are from the host country.
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Racialism is a related term, sometimes intended to avoid these negative meanings. .According to the Oxford English Dictionary, racism is a belief or ideology that all members of each racial group possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as being either superior or inferior to another racial group or racial groups.^ For all men that are not Subjects, are either Enemies, or else they have ceased from being so, by some precedent covenants.

^ Another theory states that the antediluvian race called the Nephilim was superior to other humans in this respect.

^ However, all of the sources below do not believe in the Tzadik being like God,[ citation needed ] as this belief is incompatible with Judaism .

[2]
.The Merriam-Webster's Dictionary defines racism as a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority or inferiority of a particular racial group, and that it is also the prejudice based on such a belief.^ Another theory states that the antediluvian race called the Nephilim was superior to other humans in this respect.

^ Bush and his evangelical handlers have created the Faith-based Initiative as a means to overcome and convert the human race to their way of believing.

The Macquarie Dictionary defines racism as: "the belief that human races have distinctive characteristics which determine their respective cultures, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule or dominate others."
The concept that discrimination can be based on "race" presupposes the existence of "race" itself. .However, the US Government's Human Genome Project has announced that the most complete mapping of human DNA to date indicates that there is no distinct genetic basis to racial types.^ However, that source only indicates a birth on about that date ("circa festum S. Johannis natus fuit"), not on it.

^ Thirdly, that the Resolutions of a Monarch, are subject to no other Inconstancy, than that of Humane Nature; but in Assemblies, besides that of Nature, there ariseth an Inconstancy from the Number.

^ And when there is no such Rule, he that hath most experience in that particular kind of businesse, has therein the best Judgement, and is the best Counsellour.

[2] Based on this evidence, "racial characteristics" logically cannot exist either, such as group differences in eye color or human hair color.
According to the Human Genome Project, skin color does exist as a matter of science.[2] So, that which is commonly referred to as "racism" could be more scientifically referred to as "skin color-aroused discrimination". The term "skin color aroused discrimination" has the benefit that it is based on verifiable science, is not based on disproved notions of science, and does not perpetuate a false belief in the disproved concept of biological "race".[2]
.According to Charles V Hamilton and Kwame Ture (aka Stokely Carmichael) it (racism) is the predication of decisions & policies on considerations of race for the purpose of subordinating a racial group (ethnicity) and maitaining control over that group.^ Surely, there were still Israelites left in this region when the Khazars came to power there in later centuries.There is considerable evidence that the Khazars were a mixture of races and ethnic groups.

Legal

The UN does not define "racism", however it does define "racial discrimination": according to the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life. '[3]
.This definition does not make any difference between prosecutions based on ethnicity and race, in part because the distinction between the two remains debatable among anthropologists.^ In this view, the Church is completely different and distinct from Israel, and the two are never to be confused or used interchangeably.

^ Differences Between Command And Counsell COMMAND is, where a man saith, "Doe this," or "Doe this not," without expecting other reason than the Will of him that sayes it.

^ The Difference Between The Letter And Sentence Of The Law In written Lawes, men use to make a difference between the Letter, and the Sentence of the Law: And when by the Letter, is meant whatsoever can be gathered from the bare words, 'tis well distinguished.

[4] According to British law, racial group means "any group of people who are defined by reference to their race, colour, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or national origin".[5]

Sociological

Some sociologists have defined racism as a system of group privilege. In Portraits of White Racism, David Wellman has defined racism as "culturally sanctioned beliefs, which, regardless of intentions involved, defend the advantages whites have because of the subordinated position of racial minorities”.[6] .Sociologists Noël A. Cazenave and Darlene Alvarez Maddern define racism as “...a highly organized system of 'race'-based group privilege that operates at every level of society and is held together by a sophisticated ideology of color/'race' supremacy.^ San Diego Film Critics Society The San Diego Film Critics Society (SDFCS) is an organization of film reviewers from San Diego-based publications.
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^ SANOG SANOG is the South Asian Network Operators' Group which is heavily based on the North American NANOG. The focus of SANOG, however, is on Southern Asia rather than North America.
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.Sellers and Shelton (2003) found that a relationship between racial discrimination and emotional distress was moderated by racial ideology and public regard beliefs.^ On May 18 , 1971 , "The Night of the Panthers", between 5,000 and 7,000 demonstrators gathered in Zion Square in Jerusalem in a militant protest against the racial discrimination.

.That is, racial centrality appears to promote the degree of discrimination African American young adults perceive whereas racial ideology may buffer the detrimental emotional effects of that discrimination.^ But it's hard to see what such campaigning can do to reverse years of racial suspicions many Jewish voters hold about African-Americans.

^ On May 18 , 1971 , "The Night of the Panthers", between 5,000 and 7,000 demonstrators gathered in Zion Square in Jerusalem in a militant protest against the racial discrimination.

Racist systems include, but cannot be reduced to, racial bigotry,”.[7] .Sociologist and former American Sociological Association president Joe Feagin argues that the United States can be characterized as a "total racist society" because racism is used to organize every social institution.^ American-born, third generation Japanese American citizens of the United States, the children of the Nisei Japanese Americans.
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^ Santiago de Cali "Cali" is also American slang for the state of California in the United States.
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^ Geography According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 128.8 km² (49.7 mi²).
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[8]
More recently, Feagin has articulated a comprehensive theory of racial oppression in the U.S. in his book Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression (Routledge, 2006). .Feagin examines how major institutions have been built upon racial oppression which was not an accident of history, but was created intentionally by white Americans.^ For if upon the infliction of a punishment death follow, not in the intention of the inflicter, the punishment is not to be esteemed capital, though the harm prove mortal by an accident not to be foreseen; in which case death is not inflicted, but hastened.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Feagin's view, white Americans labored hard to create a system of racial oppression in the 17th century and have worked diligently to maintain the system ever since.^ But it's hard to see what such campaigning can do to reverse years of racial suspicions many Jewish voters hold about African-Americans.

^ Moreover, some have viewed the 17th century order as a literary hoax or prank, rather than an operative society.

^ Works Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism, Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.
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.While Feagin acknowledges that changes have occurred in this racist system over the centuries, he contends that key and fundamental elements have been reproduced over nearly four centuries, and that U.S. institutions today reflect the racialized hierarchy created in the 17th century.^ Actual works within the 'pataphysical tradition tend to focus on the processes of their creation, and elements of chance or arbitrary choices are frequently key in those processes.

.Today, as in the past, racial oppression is not just a surface-level feature of this society, but rather pervades, permeates, and interconnects all major social groups, networks, and institutions across the society.^ "International Christian Leadership was designed specifically to capture wealthy or influential leaders of society, into a network controlled by the group's patrons.

^ In the past such societies had to exist by gathering a group of like-minded people in one place so that they may share and pass on vital and often secret information to each other, and new members who will form a network.

^ SANOG SANOG is the South Asian Network Operators' Group which is heavily based on the North American NANOG. The focus of SANOG, however, is on Southern Asia rather than North America.
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Feagin's definition stands in sharp contrast to psychological definitions that assume racism is an "attitude" or an irrational form of bigotry that exists apart from the organization of social structure.
.Barbara Trepagnier’s research shows that virtually all whites hold some negative stereotypes and assumptions about African Americans and other racial–ethnic minorities, what she calls silent racism.^ They prayed then, and all other pastors since, "Let thy kingdom come"; and exhorted their converts to obey their then ethnic princes.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What was the reason, when they all beleeved the Scripture, that they did not all beleeve alike; but that some approved, others disapproved the Interpretation of St. Paul that cited them; and every one Interpreted them to himself?

^ The film, which was banned from release at some theaters and publicly protested at many others, became a tipping point for the American culture wars.

.In her book, Silent Racism: How Well-Meaning White People Perpetuate the Racial Divide (2006), Trepagnier demonstrates how the negative stereotypes and assumptions of whites reproduce institutional racism, also known as systemic racism.^ The newspaper is well-known by its shorthand among the Japanese people.
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.She argues that the oppositional categories commonly used to think about racism—Racist and Not Racist—hide silent racism and other insidious forms such as color-blind racism.^ Sand Mountain (Florida) This article is about Sand Mountain (Florida); for other uses, see Sand Mountain (disambiguation).
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^ Daemonology And Exorcism Eleventhly, by their Daemonology, and the use of Exorcisme, and other things appertaining thereto, they keep (or thinke they keep) the People more in awe of their Power.

^ And for fairies, and walking ghosts, the opinion of them has, I think, been on purpose either taught, or not confuted, to keep in credit the use of exorcism, of crosses, of holy water, and other such inventions of ghostly men.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Replacing the outdated categories with a continuum labeled More Racist and Less Racist would expose these subtle forms of racism that are more closely linked to racial injustice than outright bigotry is.^ For to accuse requires less eloquence (such is man's nature) than to excuse; and condemnation, than absolution, more resembles justice.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Condensed is when there is in the very same matter less quantity than before; and rarefied, when more.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And though they shine some more, some lesse, when they are out of his sight; yet in his presence, they shine no more than the Starres in presence of the Sun.

.Color-blind racism as developed by Eduardo Bonilla-Silva in Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality (2003) refers to the claim by some whites that racism is no longer an issue since passage of the 1960s civil rights legislation.^ For whatsoever Law is not written, or some way published by him that makes it Law, can be known no way, but by the reason of him that is to obey it; and is therefore also a Law not only Civill, but Naturall.

^ Seeing then the Acts of Councell of the Apostles, were then no Laws, but Councells; much lesse are Laws the Acts of any other Doctors, or Councells since, if assembled without the Authority of the Civill Soveraign.

^ The Pope therefore, when he disclaimeth the supreme civil power over other states directly, denieth no more but that his right cometh to him by that way; he ceaseth not for all that to claim it another way; and that is, without the consent of them that are to be governed, by a right given him by God, which he calleth indirectly, in his assumption to the papacy.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

According to Bonilla-Silva, color-blind racism is an attempt to maintain white privilege without appearing racist.

Types

An anti-discrimination poster in a Hong Kong subway station, 2005

Racial discrimination

.Racial discrimination is treating people differently through a process of social division into categories not necessarily related to races.^ The ambitious schemes of the Dutch for the conquest of Brazil were carried into effect through Francisco Ribiero, a Portuguese captain, who is said to have had Jewish relations in Holland.

Racial segregation policies may officialize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalized. .Researchers, including Dean Karlan and Marianne Bertrand, at the MIT and the University of Chicago found in a 2003 study that there was widespread discrimination in the workplace against job applicants whose names were merely perceived as "sounding black". These applicants were 50% less likely than candidates perceived as having "white-sounding names" to receive callbacks for interviews.^ And of these, some be capital, some less than capital.

^ Capitall And of these, some be Capitall, some Lesse than Capitall.

^ There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.

In contrast, institutions and courts have upheld discrimination against whites when it is done to promote a diverse work or educational environment, even when it was shown to be to the detriment of qualified applicants [9][10]. The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United States' long history of discrimination (i.e. Jim Crow laws, etc.)[11]

Institutional

.Institutional racism (also known as structural racism, state racism or systemic racism) is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutions or other large organizations with the power to influence the lives of many individuals.^ He and others also say McCain, a four-term Arizona senator, largely ignored a measure on the November ballot to ban gay marriage in his home state.

^ Imagination, therefore, is nothing but decaying sense; and is found in men and many other living creatures, as well sleeping as waking.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Positive are those which have not been from eternity, but have been made laws by the will of those that have had the sovereign power over others, and are either written or made known to men by some other argument of the will of their legislator.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

Stokely Carmichael is credited for coining the phrase institutional racism in the late 1960s. He defined the term as "the collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin".[12]
Maulana Karenga argued that racism constituted the destruction of culture, language, religion and human possibility, and that the effects of racism were "the morally monstrous destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples."[13]

Economic

.Historical economic or social disparity is alleged to be a form of discrimination which is caused by past racism and historical reasons, affecting the present generation through deficits in the formal education and kinds of preparation in the parents' generation, and, through primarily unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population.^ CPS was formed in 2000, through the merger of the Burkinabè Socialist Bloc, Party of United Social Democracy and a fraction of the Social Forces Front.
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^ He called for human social affairs to be scientifically examined to discover conditions that cause historical change.

(e.g. A member of race Y, Mary, has her opportunities adversely affected (directly and/or indirectly) by the mistreatment of her ancestors of race Y.)
A hypothesis embraced by classical economists is that competition in a capitalist economy decreases the impact of discrimination. The thinking behind the hypothesis is that discrimination imposes a cost on the employer, and thus a profit-driven employer will avoid racist hiring policies.
.Although this hypothesis may be accurate in some parts of the world in other's it is the opposite.^ A law may be made to bind all the subjects of a Commonwealth: a liberty or charter is only to one man or some one part of the people.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can it, may some say, be properly said that God hath voice and language, when it cannot be properly said He hath a tongue or other organs as a man?
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Which when I have proved out of Scripture, I will further shew when, and in what sense some other Articles may bee also called Necessary.

Although a capitalist economy would avoid discrimination in order to avoid extra cost, this can be avoided in other ways. A capitalist company for example may use racist hiring policies as it deviates towards the "cultural norm." These "norms" albeit unquestioned are evident within society. .In a predominantly white society when hiring a person of colour into a position of management this may then cause disputes, and damage communications between other employers.^ What is the meaning of these words: "The first cause does not necessarily inflow anything into the second, by force of the essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to work?"
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The first cause does not necessarily inflow any thing into the second, by force of the Essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to worke?"

^ The séance, or sitting, is led by a person known as a medium who will usually go into a trance that theoretically allows the dead to communicate through him or her.
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.Thus the company would be economically put in a deficit because of the discrimination of other companies, as they envoke discrimination and isolate that company.^ No more can metaphors and tropes of speech: but these are less dangerous because they profess their inconstancy, which the other do not.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No more can Metaphors, and Tropes of speech: but these are less dangerous, because they profess their inconstancy; which the other do not.

^ For if there were, they would have been found out in some place, or other; whereas we see, there has not hitherto been any Common−wealth, where those Rights have been acknowledged, or challenged.

.Although this may be a radical, over exaggerated point of view, it portrays how pervasive racisim is and how company will some time deviate towards racist hiring policies in order to hence forth be not isolated, thus preventing the company from going into an economic deficit.^ And though this law may be drawn by consequence from some of those that are there already mentioned, yet the times require to have it inculcated and remembered.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And though this Law may bee drawn by consequence, from some of those that are there already mentioned; yet the Times require to have it inculcated, and remembred.

^ Last evening I went into a very deep isolation as I grieved for my own death, and how my death relates to family and friends.

(Burton 2009:1)

Declarations against racial discrimination

.In 1950, UNESCO suggested in The Race Question —a statement signed by 21 scholars such as Ashley Montagu, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gunnar Myrdal, Julian Huxley, etc.^ Lévi-Strauss criticized that Breton's definition of a work of art as the spontaneous activity of the mind opens the question of the aesthetic value of the work.

^ On a boat ride to Martinique in 1941 Breton met the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss and discussed with him artistic creation.

— to ."drop the term race altogether and instead speak of ethnic groups". The statement condemned scientific racism theories which had played a role in the Holocaust.^ Surely, there were still Israelites left in this region when the Khazars came to power there in later centuries.There is considerable evidence that the Khazars were a mixture of races and ethnic groups.

.It aimed both at debunking scientific racist theories, by popularizing modern knowledge concerning "the race question," and morally condemned racism as contrary to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and its assumption of equal rights for all.^ Yet in some cases contradictory voyces equall in number, may determine a question; as in condemning, or absolving, equality of votes, even in that they condemne not, do absolve; but not on the contrary condemne, in that they absolve not.

^ But because the Law of Nature is eternall, Violation of Covenants, Ingratitude, Arrogance, and all Facts contrary to any Morall vertue, can never cease to be Sinne.

^ And therefore questions of the right of Succession, have in that forme of Government no place at all.

Along with Myrdal's An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944), The Race Question influenced the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court desegregation decision in "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka".[14]
The United Nations uses the definition of racial discrimination laid out in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1966:
...any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.(Part 1 of Article 1 of the U.N. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination)[15]
In 2001, the European Union explicitly banned racism along with many other forms of social discrimination in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the legal effect of which, if any, would necessarily be limited to Institutions of the European Union: "Article 21 of the charter prohibits discrimination on any ground such as race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, disability, age or sexual orientation and also discrimination on the grounds of nationality."[16]

Ideology

A racist political campaign poster from the 1866 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election
.As an ideology, racism existed during the 19th century as "scientific racism", which attempted to provide a racial classification of humanity.^ The town was briefly under British control in the mid-19th century, during which time it was known as Greytown.
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[17] .Although such racist ideologies have been widely discredited after World War II and the Holocaust, racism and of racial discrimination have remained widespread all over the world.^ It was the site of a World War II massacre.
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^ On September 11, 2001, Secular Alternativism took a pounding from Islamic Fundamentalists who declared war on all Infidels, the un-believers of the world.

^ During the World War II the town was a site of one of the sub-camps of the Mauthausen-Gu..
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Some examples of this in present day are statistics including, but not limited to, the ratio of black men in prison to free black men vs. other races, physical abilities and mental ability statistics, and other data gathered by scientific groups. While these statistics are accurate, and can show trends, it's inappropriate in most countries to assume that because a particular race has a high crime or low literacy rate, that the entire race of people automatically are criminals or unintelligent.
.It was already noted by DuBois that, in making the difference between races, it is not race that we think about, but culture: “…a common history, common laws and religion, similar habits of thought and a conscious striving together for certain ideals of life”[18] Late nineteenth century nationalists were the first to embrace contemporary discourses on "race", ethnicity and "survival of the fittest" to shape new nationalist doctrines.^ Not Fundamentall is that the abrogating whereof, draweth not with it the dissolution of the Common−Wealth; such as are the Lawes Concerning Controversies between subject and subject.

^ She noted that the addition of a Jewish slaveowner in her book was intended to write back into history “the story the Nazis had written out” — that is, the mingling of Jews and Christians before Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

^ He believes virtual worlds will some day be as common as word processors and Web logs, but he wasn’t always that enthusiastic about Second Life.

.Ultimately, race came to represent not only the most important traits of the human body, but was also regarded as decisively shaping the character and personality of the nation.^ Not only G'd can do this, also the human race is capable of it.

^ Seeing therefore the introduction of propriety is an effect of Commonwealth, which can do nothing but by the person that represents it, it is the act only of the sovereign; and consisteth in the laws, which none can make that have not the sovereign power.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Khazaria came to include not only portions of the Transcaucasus, but alsopart of the steppes north of the Black Sea.There is evidence that most Khazars were of the Caucasian race.

[19]
According to this view, culture is the physical manifestation created by ethnic groupings, as such fully determined by racial characteristics. .Culture and race became considered intertwined and dependent upon each other, sometimes even to the extent of including nationality or language to the set of definition.^ The film, which was banned from release at some theaters and publicly protested at many others, became a tipping point for the American culture wars.

^ OF SENSE Concerning the Thoughts of man, I will consider them first Singly, and afterwards in Trayne, or dependance upon one another.

^ CONCERNING the thoughts of man, I will consider them first singly, and afterwards in train or dependence upon one another.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

Pureness of race tended to be related to rather superficial characteristics that were easily addressed and advertised, such as blondness. Racial qualities tended to be related to nationality and language rather than the actual geographic distribution of racial characteristics. In the case of Nordicism, the denomination "Germanic" became virtually equivalent to superiority of race.
.Bolstered by some nationalist and ethnocentric values and achievements of choice, this concept of racial superiority evolved to distinguish from other cultures, that were considered inferior or impure.^ The film, which was banned from release at some theaters and publicly protested at many others, became a tipping point for the American culture wars.

^ In some Hasidic stories, disciples consider their Rebbes and other religious figures to be among the Lamedvavniks.

^ Cultural impact The novel is regarded by some as the greatest postmodern work of 20th century literature , while others have declared it unreadable.

This emphasis on culture corresponds to the modern mainstream definition of racism: "Racism does not originate from the existence of ‘races’. It creates them through a process of social division into categories: anybody can be racialised, independently of their somatic, cultural, religious differences."[20]
This definition explicitly ignores the fiery polemic on the biological concept of race, still subject to scientific debate. In the words of David C. Rowe "A racial concept, although sometimes in the guise of another name, will remain in use in biology and in other fields because scientists, as well as lay persons, are fascinated by human diversity, some of which is captured by race."[21]
.Until recent history this racist abuse of physical anthropology has been politically exploited.^ I found articles on the net that said the Rosicrucian were racists and anti-Semitic, they not allowing Jews and Black into their BROTHERHOOD, until recently.

Apart from being unscientific, racial prejudice became subject to international legislation. For instance, the Declaration on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on November 20, 1963, address racial prejudice explicitly next to discrimination for reasons of race, colour or ethnic origin (Article I).[22]
Racism has been a motivating factor in social discrimination, racial segregation, hate speech and violence (such as pogroms, genocides and ethnic cleansings). Despite the persistence of racial stereotypes, humor and epithets in much everyday language, racial discrimination is illegal in many countries.
Ironically, anti-racism has also become a political instrument of abuse. Some politicians have practised race baiting in an attempt to win votes. In a reversal of values, anti-racism is being propagated by despots in the service of obscurantism and the suppression of women. Said philosopher Pascal Bruckner:[23]
"Anti-racism in the UN has become the ideology of totalitarian regimes who use it in their own interests."

Ethnic nationalism

.After the Napoleonic Wars, Europe was confronted with the new "nationalities question," leading to ceaseless reconfigurations of the European map, on which the frontiers between the states had been delimited during the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.^ During WWII and immediately after, the Priory of Sion, that secret order dedicated to the Merovingian agenda, openly campaigned for a United States of Europe.

^ Although his home state of Kentucky did not secede from the Union, Preston served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and attained the rank of major general.

^ Santa Fe National Cemetery Santa Fe National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery in the city of Santa Fe, in Santa Fe County, New Mexico.
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.Nationalism had made its first striking appearance with the invention of the levée en masse by the French revolutionaries, thus inventing mass conscription in order to be able to defend the newly-founded Republic against the Ancien Régime order represented by the European monarchies.^ The defender/midfielder made his debut for the national squad on April 12, 1995 in a friendly match against I..
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^ Santiago de los Caballeros Founded in 1495 during the first wave of European colonization of the New World, today Santiago de los Caballeros (the first Santiago of America) is the second most important city in the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola.
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^ One was a famous botanist who made school, the other founded one of the first breweries American.

This led to the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) and then to the Napoleonic conquests, and to the subsequent European-wide debates on the concepts and realities of nations, and in particular of nation-states. .The Westphalia Treaty had divided Europe into various empires and kingdoms (Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Swedish Empire, Kingdom of France, etc.^ And this division is it, whereof it is said, "A kingdome divided in it selfe cannot stand:" For unlesse this division precede, division into opposite Armies can never happen.

^ And this division is it whereof it is said, a kingdom divided in itself cannot stand: for unless this division precede, division into opposite armies can never happen.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears Jesus was installing an ancient calendar that reset the four corners of the earth that were tampered with, resulting in the loss of God's established bounderies and kingdom, causing Judea to fall into the might of the Roman Slave Empire.

), and for centuries wars were waged between princes (Kabinettskriege in German).
.Modern nation-states appeared in the wake of the French Revolution, with the formation of patriotic sentiments for the first time in Spain during the Peninsula War (1808-1813 - known in Spanish as the Independence War).^ For as the nature of foul weather lieth not in a shower or two of rain, but in an inclination thereto of many days together: so the nature of war consisteth not in actual fighting, but in the known disposition thereto during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bernhard was a charismatic and popular figure among the majority of the Dutch people for his service as a pilot during World War II and his efforts at rebuilding the war-torn nation afterwards.

^ It was the Marquis de Chambrun who met General Pershing and Patton when the first American army expedition landed in France during World War One.

.Despite the restoration of the previous order with the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the "nationalities question" became the main problem of Europe during the Industrial Era, leading in particular to the 1848 Revolutions, the Italian unification completed during the 1871 Franco-Prussian War, which itself culminated in the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, thus achieving the German unification.^ These socialist communes were built in response to the Industrial Revolution in Europe that put many people out of work, and put an end to the pastoral Arcadian ideals.

^ During WWII and immediately after, the Priory of Sion, that secret order dedicated to the Merovingian agenda, openly campaigned for a United States of Europe.

.Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire, the "sick man of Europe," was confronted with endless nationalist movements, which, along with the dissolving of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, would lead to the creation after World War I of the various nation-states of the Balkans, with "national minorities" in their borders.^ Bernhard was a charismatic and popular figure among the majority of the Dutch people for his service as a pilot during World War II and his efforts at rebuilding the war-torn nation afterwards.

^ And when all the world is overcharged with inhabitants, then the last remedy of all is war, which provideth for every man, by victory or death.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In it, the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class "A" League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victo..
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[24] .Ethnic nationalism, which advocated the belief in a hereditary membership of the nation, made its appearance in the historical context surrounding the creation of the modern nation-states.^ San Juan National Historic Site San Juan National Historic Site World Heritage Sites in the United States of America Cahokia .
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.One of its main influences was the Romantic nationalist movement at the turn of the 19th century, represented by figures such as Johann Herder (1744-1803), Johan Fichte (1762-1814) in the Addresses to the German Nation (1808), Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), or also, in France, Jules Michelet (1798-1874).^ All which, by an observing reader, may be found in such ancient histories, Greek and Latin, as make mention of the German nation and manners in their times.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 19th century, the Awakening (le Réveil) and other religious movements influenced French and European Protestantism, this was also accompanied by division within French Protestantism.

^ The book claimed to be about an alleged hidden treasure found by a 19th century priest in southern France.

.It was opposed to liberal nationalism, represented by authors such as Ernest Renan (1823-1892), who conceived of the nation as a community which, instead of being based on the Volk ethnic group and on a specific, common language, was founded on the subjective will to live together ("the nation is a daily plebiscite", 1882) or also John Stuart Mill (1806-1873).^ Just who is John McCain, the man so admired by the national media because he doesn't hesitate to stick it in the eye of his own political base?

^ Not Fundamentall is that the abrogating whereof, draweth not with it the dissolution of the Common−Wealth; such as are the Lawes Concerning Controversies between subject and subject.

^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.

[25]
Ethnic nationalism quickly blended itself with scientific racist discourses, as well as with "continental imperialist" (Hannah Arendt, 1951[26]) discourses, for example in the pan-Germanism discourses, which postulated the racial superiority of the German Volk. The Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband), created in 1891, promoted German imperialism, "racial hygiene" and was opposed to intermarriage with Jews. .Another, popular current, the Völkisch movement, was also an important proponent of the German ethnic nationalist discourse, which it also combined with modern antisemitism.^ Sandra Cretu Sandra Cretu Sandra Cretu (born as Sandra Ann Lauer May 18, 1962, Saarbrücken, Germany) is a popular German singer currently living in Ibiza (Spain).
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.Members of the Völkisch movement, in particular the Thule Society, would participate in the founding of the German Workers' Party (DAP) in Munich in 1918, the predecessor of the NSDAP Nazi party.^ This suit was destined to be worn by a German Engineer who joined the Nazi Party and.

Pan-Germanism and played a decisive role in the interwar period of the 1920s-1930s.[26]
.These currents began to associate the idea of the nation with the biological concept of a "master race" (often the "Aryan race" or "Nordic race") issued from the scientific racist discourse.^ In 1817 he began a significant association with Comte, who was later able to systematize and restate Saint-Simon's fundamental conceptions to better advantage.

^ More and more Sephardim began slipping into England from the Netherlands, and these often intermarried with wealthyBritish merchant families.

.They conflated nationalities with ethnic groups, called "races", in a radical distinction from previous racial discourses which posited the existence of a "race struggle" inside the nation and the state itself.^ Surely, there were still Israelites left in this region when the Khazars came to power there in later centuries.There is considerable evidence that the Khazars were a mixture of races and ethnic groups.

^ Another theory states that the antediluvian race called the Nephilim was superior to other humans in this respect.

^ The Fairies in what Nation soever they converse, have but one Universall King, which some Poets of ours call King Oberon; but the Scripture calls Beelzebub, Prince of Daemons.

.Furthermore, they believed that political boundaries should mirror these alleged racial and ethnic groups, thus justifying ethnic cleansing in order to achieve "racial purity" and also to achieve ethnic homogeneity in the nation-state.^ And when he had done these miracles before the people, it is said that "they believed him."

^ For if after the resurrection such as have not heard of Christ, or not believed in him, may be received into Christ's kingdom, it is not in vain, after their death, that their friends should pray for them till they should be risen.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am tired of these baseless attacks and fear that they have become a distraction in what should be a national debate about important issues.

Such racist discourses, combined with nationalism, were not however limited to pan-Germanism. .In France, the transition from Republican, liberal nationalism, to ethnic nationalism, which made nationalism a characteristic of far-right movements in France, took place during the Dreyfus Affair at the end of the 19th century.^ In the 19th century, the Awakening (le Réveil) and other religious movements influenced French and European Protestantism, this was also accompanied by division within French Protestantism.

^ During the Nazi occupation of France, Denis took refuge in America where he discussed with Count Coudenhove- Kalergi, and Albert Einstein, a UnitedEurope.

^ Considérant was one of the leading democratic socialist figures in France during the volatile revolutionary period of 1830 to 1850 and functioned as the international leader of the Fourierist movement.

.During several years, a nation-wide crisis affected French society, concerning the alleged treason of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Jewish military officer.^ Until 1986, when the National Geographic Society suggested Samana Cay, it was widely believed that during hi..
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^ Some of these documents were planted in the French National Library, the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris during the 1960s.

^ In August of the same year he was again arrested, and on his appearance in court he desired his defense to be undertaken by two women who were with him, alleging that the matter was of special concern to women.

.The country polarized itself into two opposite camps, one represented by Émile Zola, who wrote J'accuse in defense of Alfred Dreyfus, and the other represented by the nationalist poet Maurice Barrès (1862-1923), one of the founders of the ethnic nationalist discourse in France.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
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^ Others are Dependent; that is to say, Subordinate to some Soveraign Power, to which every one, as also their Representative is Subject.

^ FOR the understanding of power ecclesiastical, what and in whom it is, we are to distinguish the time from the ascension of our Saviour into two parts; one before the conversion of kings and men endued with sovereign civil power; the other after their conversion.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] At the same time, Charles Maurras (1868-1952), founder of the monarchist Action française movement, theorized the "anti-France," composed of the "four confederate states of Protestants, Jews, Freemasons and foreigners" (his actual word for the latter being the pejorative métèques, i.e. wogs)). Indeed, to him the first three were all "internal foreigners," who threatened the ethnic unity of the French people.

Ethnic conflicts

Debates over the origins of racism often suffer from a lack of clarity over the term. .Many use the term "racism" to refer to more general phenomena, such as xenophobia and ethnocentrism, although scholars attempt to clearly distinguish those phenomena from racism as an ideology or from scientific racism, which has little to do with ordinary xenophobia.^ Sanpaku redirect [[Template:Importance]]Sanpaku is a Japanese term that literally means “three areas empty” and is generally referred to in English as "Sanpaku eyes".
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^ The Romans used to say that their general had pacified such a province, that is to say, in English, conquered it; and that the country was pacified by victory when the people of it had promised imperata facere, that is, to do what the Roman people commanded them: this was to be conquered.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are a descendant of shoal-draft sloops used in oyster fishing in the shallow waters of New York Bay The term "sandbagger" refers to the use of sandbags to s..
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Others conflate recent forms of racism with earlier forms of ethnic and national conflict. In most cases, ethno-national conflict seems to owe itself to conflict over land and strategic resources. .In some cases ethnicity and nationalism were harnessed to rally combatants in wars between great religious empires (for example, the Muslim Turks and the Catholic Austro-Hungarians).^ If so, they this inovative New Judaic Religion was a great threat to Rome - for some reason - and if that was the case, the Jews did not murder Jesus because he was a false Messiah.

^ The United Nations, a feeble example, will surely give way at some point to a united world government strong enough and glorious enough to be called an Empire.

^ For example, a book commemorating his show, In Smog and Thunder: Historical works from The Great War of the Californias "documents" a fictional w..
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.Notions of race and racism often have played central roles in such ethnic conflicts.^ Sanguine Productions Sanguine Productions is a production house founded in 1997 for producing role-playing games such as Ironclaw, Jadeclaw, Albedo: Platinum Catalyst, and Usagi Yojimbo.
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^ There are “massively multiplayer online role playing games” such as Everquest and World of Warcraft, where avatars clash in cyberspace and users pay a monthly fee.

.Historically, when an adversary is identified as "other" based on notions of race or ethnicity (particularly when "other" is construed to mean "inferior"), the means employed by the self-presumed "superior" party to appropriate territory, human chattel, or material wealth often have been more ruthless, more brutal, and less constrained by moral or ethical considerations.^ And of Names Universall, some are of more, and some of lesse extent; the larger comprehending the lesse large: and some again of equall extent, comprehending each other reciprocally.

^ And such men are more often in our Language stiled by the names of Righteous, and Unrighteous; then Just, and Unjust; though the meaning be the same.

^ Frenchman seldom hears our Saviour called by the name of Parole, but by the name of Verbe often; yet Verbe and Parole differ no more but that one is Latin, the other French.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

According to historian Daniel Richter, Pontiac's Rebellion saw the emergence on both sides of the conflict of "the novel idea that all Native people were 'Indians,' that all Euro-Americans were 'Whites,' and that all on one side must unite to destroy the other." (Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p. 208) Basil Davidson insists in his documentary, Africa: Different but Equal, that racism, in fact, only just recently surfaced—as late as the 1800s, due to the need for a justification for slavery in the Americas.
The idea of slavery as an "equal-opportunity employer" was denounced with the introduction of Christian theory in the West. .Maintaining that Africans were "subhuman" was the only loophole in the then accepted law that "men are created equal" that would allow for the sustenance of the Triangular Trade.^ If in this case, at the making of peace, men require for themselves that which they would not have to be granted to others, they do contrary to the precedent law that commandeth the acknowledgement of natural equality, and therefore also against the law of nature.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the very Creation, God not only reigned over all men Naturally by his might; but also had Peculiar Subjects, whom he commanded by a Voice, as one man speaketh to another.

^ These are the laws of nature, dictating peace, for a means of the conservation of men in multitudes; and which only concern the doctrine of civil society.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

New peoples in the Americas, possible slaves, were encountered, fought, and ultimately subdued, but then due to European diseases, their populations drastically decreased. .Through both influences, theories about "race" developed, and these helped many to justify the differences in position and treatment of people whom they categorized as belonging to different races (see Eric Wolf's Europe and the People without History).^ It belongeth therefore to the safety of the People, both that they be good Conductors, and faithfull subjects, to whom the Soveraign Commits his Armies.

^ These holy people are hidden, i.e., nobody knows who they are.

^ And when he had done these miracles before the people, it is said that "they believed him."

.Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that, during the Valladolid controversy in the middle of the 16th century, the Native Americans were natural slaves because they had no souls.^ Nothing Can Be Made A Crime By A Law Made After The Fact No Law, made after a Fact done, can make it a Crime: because if the Fact be against the Law of Nature, the Law was before the Fact; and a Positive Law cannot be taken notice of, before it be made; and therefore cannot be Obligatory.

^ Ignorance of the law of nature excuseth no man, because every man that hath attained to the use of reason is supposed to know he ought not to do to another what he would not have done to himself.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ And in both these controversies, there may arise a controversy between the party judged and the judge; which, because they be both subjects to the sovereign, ought in equity to be judged by men agreed on by consent of both; for no man can be judge in his own cause.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Asia, the Chinese and Japanese Empires were both strong colonial powers, with the Chinese making colonies and vassal states of much of East Asia throughout history, and the Japanese doing the same in the 19th-20th centuries.^ By all which it appeareth, that though the power both of State and Religion were in the Kings; yet none of them were uncontrolled in the use of it, but such as were gracious for their own naturall abilities, or felicities.

^ For, whosoever hath a lawful power over any writing, to make it law, hath the power also to approve or disapprove the interpretation of the same.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ Suriname, now an independent state, was established as a Dutch colony in the 17th century after the Portuguese had pushed the Dutch out of Brazil.

.In both cases, the Asian imperial powers believed they were ethnically and racially preferenced too.^ Also, riches joined with liberality is power; because it procureth friends and servants: without liberality, not so; because in this case they defend not, but expose men to envy, as a prey.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is not this full power, both temporal and spiritual, as they call it that would divide it?

^ Also Riches joyned with liberality, is Power; because it procureth friends, and servants: Without liberality, not so; because in this case they defend not; but expose men to Envy, as a Prey.

Academic variants

Drawings from Josiah C. Nott and George Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857), which suggested black people ranked between white people and chimpanzees in terms of intelligence.
.Owen 'Alik Shahadah comments on this racism by stating: "Historically Africans are made to sway like leaves on the wind, impervious and indifferent to any form of civilization, a people absent from scientific discovery, philosophy or the higher arts.^ Sanchuisanda Sanchuisanda is a tortilla-like flatbread made by the Qiang people of China.
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.We are left to believe that almost nothing can come out of Africa, other than raw material."^ Beyond that reason suggesteth nothing; but leaves them either to rest there; or for further ceremonies, to rely on those they believe to be wiser than themselves.

^ Therefore to believe that this Jesus was, he was sufficient to eternal life: but more than sufficient is not necessary; and consequently no other article is required.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whence comes it, that in Christendome there has been, almost from the time of the Apostles, such justling of one another out of their places, both by forraign, and Civill war?

[28]
Scottish philosopher and economist David Hume said, "I am apt to suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There scarcely ever was a civilised nation of that complexion, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or in speculation. No ingenious manufacture among them, no arts, no sciences."[29] German philosopher Immanuel Kant stated: "The yellow Indians do have a meagre talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people."[30]
In the nineteenth century, the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel declared that "Africa is no historical part of the world." Hegel further claimed that blacks had no "sense of personality; their spirit sleeps, remains sunk in itself, makes no advance, and thus parallels the compact, undifferentiated mass of the African continent" (On Blackness Without Blacks: Essays on the Image of the Black in Germany, Boston: C.W. Hall, 1982, p. 94).
.Fewer than 30 years before Nazi Germany started World War II, the German Otto Weininger, claimed: "A genius has perhaps scarcely ever appeared amongst the negroes, and the standard of their morality is almost universally so low that it is beginning to be acknowledged in America that their emancipation was an act of imprudence" (Sex and Character, New York: G.P. Putnam, 1906, p. 302).^ It was the site of a World War II massacre.
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^ No, surely Anderson recognized the renewed power of her (sole) unlikely hit well before she made it home to New York City.

^ During the World War II the town was a site of one of the sub-camps of the Mauthausen-Gu..
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.The German conservative Oswald Spengler remarked on what he perceived as the culturally degrading influence of Africans in modern Western culture: in The Hour of Decision Spengler denounced "the 'happy ending' of an empty existence, the boredom of which has brought to jazz music and Negro dancing to perform the Death March for a great Culture" (The Hour of Decision, pp. 227–228).^ He began his musical studies at the age of ten and later studied traditional instruments, voice, dance, and Western music at the ..
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^ Sanguma Sanguma, formed in 1977 at the National Arts School in Papua New Guinea, was a musical ensemble that combined music from the cultural tradition of Papua New Guinea with Western instruments.
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.During the Nazi era, German scientists rearranged academia to support claims of a grand "Aryan" agent behind the splendors of all human civilizations, including India and Ancient Egypt.^ The Gymnosophists of India, the Magi of Persia, and the Priests of Chaldea and Egypt, are counted the most ancient Philosophers; and those Countreys were the most ancient of Kingdomes.

^ The Gymnosophists of India, the Magi of Persia, and the Priests of Chaldaea and Egypt are counted the most ancient philosophers; and those countries were the most ancient of kingdoms.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[30]
People Show (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928.

Scientific variants

The modern biological definition of race developed in the 19th century with scientific racist theories. .The term scientific racism refers to the use of science to justify and support racist beliefs, which goes back to at least the early 18th century, though it gained most of its influence in the mid-19th century, during the New Imperialism period.^ In the 19th century, the Awakening (le Réveil) and other religious movements influenced French and European Protestantism, this was also accompanied by division within French Protestantism.

^ Charles_Fourier Group email: Charles_Fourier@yahoogroups.com Godhead (Judaism) – In Judaism , the term "Godhead" is sometimes used to refer to the unknowable aspect of God which lies beyond His actions or emanations (as it were).

^ Sannomiya Sahyoe Sannomiya Sahyoe (1565-1586) a retainer of the japanese clan of Chosokabe during the Sengoku Period of the 16th century.
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.Also known as academic racism, such theories first needed to overcome the Church's resistance to positivist accounts of history, and its support of monogenism, that is that all human beings were originated from the same ancestors, in accordance with creationist accounts of history.^ Contents 1 History2 The church3 References4 External links History The first church of Santa Cecilia was founded probably in the 5th century, by Pope..
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^ All which, by an observing reader, may be found in such ancient histories, Greek and Latin, as make mention of the German nation and manners in their times.
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^ Of Martyrs But what then shall we say of all those Martyrs we read of in the History of the Church, that they have needlessely cast away their lives?

.These racist theories put forth on scientific hypothesis were combined with unilineal theories of social progress which postulated the superiority of the European civilization over the rest of the world.^ Denis has put forth a a theory that tracesCourtly Love and Mystical Poetry to a fusion of Iranian Manichaism, neo-Platnoism, and Mohammedism mysticism.

^ For the sake of these 36 hidden saints, God preserves the world even if the rest of humanity has degenerated to the level of total barbarism.

.Furthermore, they frequently made use of the idea of "survival of the fittest", a term coined by Herbert Spencer in 1864, associated with ideas of competition which were named social Darwinism in the 1940s.^ For there is not one of them that begins his ratiocination from the definitions or explications of the names they are to use; which is a method that hath been used only in geometry, whose conclusions have thereby been made indisputable.
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^ They are a descendant of shoal-draft sloops used in oyster fishing in the shallow waters of New York Bay The term "sandbagger" refers to the use of sandbags to s..
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^ Though his account of the "passions" and some of his cosmological ideas can seem eccentric after the passage of two centuries, his social ideas made an important contribution to equalitarian traditions.

.Charles Darwin himself opposed the idea of rigid racial differences in The Descent of Man (1871) in which he argued that humans were all of one species, sharing common descent.^ What was the reason, when they all beleeved the Scripture, that they did not all beleeve alike; but that some approved, others disapproved the Interpretation of St. Paul that cited them; and every one Interpreted them to himself?

^ Therefore between Counsell and Command, one great difference is, that Command is directed to a mans own benefit; and Counsell to the benefit of another man.

^ Power is as really divided, and as dangerously to all purposes, by sharing with another Indirect Power, as with a Direct one.

.He recognised racial differences as varieties of humanity, and emphasised the close similarities between people of all races in mental faculties, tastes, dispositions and habits, while still contrasting the culture of the "lowest savages" with European civilization.^ From this institution of a Commonwealth are derived all the rights and faculties of him, or them, on whom the sovereign power is conferred by the consent of the people assembled.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ The difference between these three kinds of Commonwealth consisteth, not in the difference of power, but in the difference of convenience or aptitude to produce the peace and security of the people; for which end they were instituted.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ John McCain, a Republican with strong appeal to independents, the all-but-official Republican nominee, the general-election race is predicted to be close again and Florida may once again be key.

[31][32]
At the end of the 19th century, proponents of scientific racism intertwined themselves with eugenics discourses of "degeneration of the race" and "blood heredity." Henceforth, scientific racist discourses could be defined as the combination of polygenism, unilinealism, social darwinism and eugenism. .They found their scientific legitimacy on physical anthropology, anthropometry, craniometry, phrenology, physiognomy and others now discredited disciplines in order to formulate racist prejudices.^ Other groups of immigrants followed...When, in the 8th century, the Arabs conquered part of Daghestan, they found a large Jewish population there."

^ For if there were, they would have been found out in some place, or other; whereas we see, there has not hitherto been any Common−wealth, where those Rights have been acknowledged, or challenged.

^ For if there were, they would have been found out in some place or other; whereas we see there has not hitherto been any Commonwealth where those rights have been acknowledged, or challenged.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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.Before being disqualified in the 20th century by the American school of cultural anthropology (Franz Boas, etc.^ As in Europe, early in the 20th century American artists, craftsmen, lands..
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^ Cultural impact The novel is regarded by some as the greatest postmodern work of 20th century literature , while others have declared it unreadable.

), the British school of social anthropology (Bronisław Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, etc.), the .French school of ethnology (Claude Lévi-Strauss, etc.^ On a boat ride to Martinique in 1941 Breton met the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss and discussed with him artistic creation.

), as well as the discovery of the neo-Darwinian synthesis, such sciences, in particular anthropometry, were used to deduce behaviours and psychological characteristics from outward, physical appearances.
.The neo-Darwinian synthesis, first developed in the 1930s, eventually led to a gene-centered view of evolution in the 1960s, which seemed at first to be sufficient proof of the inanity of the "scientific racist" theories of the 19th centuries, which based their conception of evolution on "races", a concept which first appeared to lose any sense at the genetic level.^ Courtly love was born in the lyric, first appearing with Provençalpoets in the 11th century, including itinerant and courtly minstrelssuch as the French troubadours and trouveres.

^ It appears the Flash Gordon T.V. series was produced in order to prepare common Earthlings for the eventual rise of the Royal Race of the Aliens Redeemed.

^ The Originall of them all, is that which we call Sense; (For there is no conception in a mans mind, which hath not at first, totally, or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of Sense.

.However, the modern resurgence of racist theories, in particular those related to the race and intelligence controversy, seems to show that genetics could also be used for ideological, racist purposes.^ Seeing therefore our Saviour was sent from His Father, He could not use His power in the conversion of those whom His Father had rejected.
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^ Seeing therefore our Saviour sent from his Father, hee could not use his power in the conversion of those, whom his Father had rejected.

Heredity and eugenics

.The first theory of eugenics was developed in 1869 by Francis Galton (1822-1911), who used the then popular concept of degeneration.^ But who was the first that found the use of Letters, is not known.

^ But who was the first that found the use of letters is not known.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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.He applied statistics to study human differences and the alleged "inheritance of intelligence," foreshadowing future uses of "intelligence testing" by the anthropometry school.^ Interoperability” is the buzzword of the future, says Tom Layton, a former computer teacher at South Eugene High School who is using Second Life to establish a virtual training facility where teachers can learn to apply technology to their teaching.

.Such theories were vividly described by the writer Émile Zola (1840-1902), who started publishing in 1871 a twenty-novel cycle, Les Rougon-Macquart, where he linked heredity to behavior.^ Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass is the English title of Sanatorium Pod Klepsydrą, a novel by the Polish writer and painter Bruno Schulz, published in 1937.
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.Thus, Zola described the high-born Rougons as those involved in politics (Son Excellence Eugène Rougon) and medicine (Le Docteur Pascal) and the low-born Macquarts as those fatally falling into alcoholism (L'Assommoir), prostitution (Nana), and homicide (La Bête humaine).^ The same is also true of the accusation of those by whose condemnation a man falls into misery; as of a father, wife, or benefactor.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ The same is also true, of the Accusation of those, by whose Condemnation a man falls into misery; as of a Father, Wife, or Benefactor.

.During the rise of Nazism in Germany, some scientists in Western nations worked to debunk the regime's racial theories.^ Some of these documents were planted in the French National Library, the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris during the 1960s.

.A few argued against racist ideologies and discrimination, even if they believed in the alleged existence of biological races.^ Whether this is because it is a foreign ideology or because they believe it to be archaic is never made entirely clear.

^ They choose to believe most artists are mentally ill in some fashion, yet, they enjoy the fruits of their labour, their alleged illusion-making.

^ Deuteronomy, 17 For the conversion of the Gentiles, there was no use of alleging the Scriptures, which they believed not.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

However, in the fields of anthropology and biology, these were minority positions until the mid-20th century.[33] According to the 1950 UNESCO statement, The Race Question, an international project to debunk racist theories had been attempted in the mid-1930s. However, this project had been abandoned. Thus, in 1950, UNESCO declared that it had resumed:
up again, after a lapse of fifteen years, a project which the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation has wished to carry through but which it had to abandon in deference to the appeasement policy of the pre-war period. The race question had become one of the pivots of Nazi ideology and policy. .Masaryk and Beneš took the initiative of calling for a conference to re-establish in the minds and consciences of men everywhere the truth about race...^ This we call remembrance, or calling to mind: the Latins call it reminiscentia, as it were a re-conning of our former actions.
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^ Either the answer will tell us something new about the sexuality of men everywhere or it will tell us something special about the sexuality of men who go from victim to victimizer.

^ This we call Remembrance, or Calling to mind: the Latines call it Reminiscentia, as it were a Re−Conning of our former actions.

Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the authority of an international organisation.
.The Third Reich's racial policies, its eugenics programs and the extermination of Jews in the Holocaust, as well as Romani people in the Porrajmos (the Romani Holocaust) and others minorities led to a change in opinions about scientific research into race after the war.^ For he that hath seen by what courses and degrees a flourishing state hath first come into civil war, and then to ruin; upon the sight of the ruins of any other state will guess the like war and the like courses have been there also.

^ And though a people coming into possession of a land by war do not always exterminate the ancient inhabitants, as did the Jews, but leave to many, or most, or all of them their estates; yet it is manifest they hold them afterwards, as of the victor's distribution; as the people of England held all theirs of William the Conqueror.

^ If a German had been so honest, admitted she backed Hitler because Jews had moved into her neighborhood, then this evidence - German's are ansty racists - would be whisked away to the Holocaust Museum!

.Changes within scientific disciplines, such as the rise of the Boasian school of anthropology in the United States contributed to this shift.^ One of its National School Board-certified maths teachers, Kristen Springfield, is on the list of top 50 United States math teachers.
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^ In the United States, such photographs of women are found in bondage magazines.For purists, there is an Israeli pornography magazine.

^ Novato is within Marin County, one of the wealthiest counties in the United States.
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These theories were strongly denounced in the 1950 UNESCO statement, signed by internationally renowned scholars, and titled The Race Question.

Polygenism and racial typologies

.Works such as Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855) may be considered as one of the first theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of race, which opposed the former racial discourse, of Boulainvilliers for example, which saw in races a fundamentally historical reality which changed over time.^ But when by such words, the nature of qualitie of the thing it selfe, is pretended to be changed, it is not Consecration, but either an extraordinary worke of God, or a vaine and impious Conjuration.

^ At this, those who heard began to go away one at a time, theolder ones first, until only Jesus was left with the woman stillstanding there."

^ What is the meaning of these words: "The first cause does not necessarily inflow anything into the second, by force of the essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to work?"
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Gobineau thus attempted to frame racism within the terms of biological differences among humans, giving it the legitimacy of biology. He was one of the first theorists to postulate polygenism, stating that there were, at the origins of the world, various discrete "races."
.Gobineau's theories would be expanded, in France, by Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936)'s typology of races, who published in 1899 The Aryan and his Social Role, in which he claimed that the white, "Aryan race", "dolichocephalic", was opposed to the "brachycephalic" race, of whom the "Jew" was the archetype.^ He has been a pro since 1996, during which time he has raced in three editions of the Tour de France and four editions of Vuelta a España (the Tour of Spain).
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^ Sandra Gilbert Dr. Sandra M. Gilbert (born 1936), Professor of English at the University of California, Davis, is an influential Literary critic and Poet who has published widely in the fields of Feminist literary criticism, Feminist theory, and Psychoanlytic Criticism.
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Vacher de Lapoug thus created a hierarchical classification of races, in which he identified the "Homo europaeus (Teutonic, Protestant, etc.), the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat, Turkish, etc.), and finally the "Homo mediterraneus" (Neapolitan, Andalus, etc.) He assimilated races and social classes, considering that the French upper class was a representation of the Homo europaeus, while the lower class represented the Homo alpinus. .Applying Galton's eugenics to his theory of races, Vacher de Lapouge's "selectionism" aimed first at achieving the annihilation of trade unionists, considered to be a "degenerate"; second, creating types of man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any contestation of labour conditions.^ From the very Creation, God not only reigned over all men Naturally by his might; but also had Peculiar Subjects, whom he commanded by a Voice, as one man speaketh to another.

^ Sandwich board --> A sandwich board is a type of advertisement composed of two boards carried by an individual, one in front and one behind, creating a "sandwich" effect.
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^ The best signs of passions present are either in the countenance, motions of the body, actions, and ends, or aims, which we otherwise know the man to have.
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His "anthroposociology" thus aimed at blocking social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social order[34]
.The same year than Vacher de Lapouge, William Z. Ripley used identical racial classification in The Races of Europe (1899), which would have a great influence in the United States.^ Santiago de Cali "Cali" is also American slang for the state of California in the United States.
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^ Sanctity of life The phrase Sanctity of life refers to the idea that life is sacred, mostly used by the pro-life side in the political and moral debates over abortion in the United States and the United Kingdom.
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^ Santa Fe Baldy Santa Fe Baldy, elevation 12,622 feet (3847 meters), is a summit in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico, United States.
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.Others famous scientific authors include H.S. Chamberlain at the end of the 19th century (a British citizen who naturalized himself as German because of his admiration for the "Aryan race") or Madison Grant, a eugenicist and author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916).^ Ignorance of the law of nature excuseth no man, because every man that hath attained to the use of reason is supposed to know he ought not to do to another what he would not have done to himself.
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^ According to kabbalah , a tzadik, because he has completely nullified himself and his desires to what God wants, his Godly soul (which like every Godly soul is part of God) is revealed within him more than other people who have not completely nullified themselves to God.

^ One was a famous botanist who made school, the other founded one of the first breweries American.

Human zoos

.Human zoos (called "People Shows"), were an important means of bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: they were both objects of public curiosity and of anthropology and anthropometry.^ By this means it was that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the people against the senate, having won to himself the affections of his army, made himself master both of senate and people.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And when the Endeavour is fromward something, it is generally called AVERSION. These words Appetite, and Aversion we have from the Latines; and they both of them signifie the motions, one of approaching, the other of retiring.

^ It belongeth therefore to the safety of the People, both that they be good Conductors, and faithfull subjects, to whom the Soveraign Commits his Armies.

[35][36] .Joice Heth, an African American slave, was displayed by P.T. Barnum in 1836, a few years after the exhibition of Saartjie Baartman, the "Hottentot Venus", in England.^ Years later, after he opened a bakery in Brooklyn, "I got disgusted, because they killed Jews," he said, citing neighborhood crimes committed by African-Americans.

^ But it's hard to see what such campaigning can do to reverse years of racial suspicions many Jewish voters hold about African-Americans.

.Such exhibitions became common in the New Imperialism period, and remained so until World War II.^ It was the site of a World War II massacre.
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^ During the World War II the town was a site of one of the sub-camps of the Mauthausen-Gu..
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^ Bernhard was a charismatic and popular figure among the majority of the Dutch people for his service as a pilot during World War II and his efforts at rebuilding the war-torn nation afterwards.

Carl Hagenbeck, inventor of the modern zoos, exhibited animals beside humans who were considered as "savages".[37][38]
Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was displayed in 1906 by eugenicist Madison Grant, head of the Bronx Zoo, as an attempt to illustrate the "missing link" between humans and orangutans: thus, racism was tied to Darwinism, creating a social Darwinism ideology which tried to ground itself in Darwin's scientific discoveries. .The 1931 Paris Colonial Exhibition displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia.^ He set forth elaborate plans for a Texas colony in Au Texas, published in Paris in 1854, and in The Great West, published the same year in New York.

[39] A "Congolese village" was on display as late as 1958 at the Brussels' World Fair.

Evolutionary theories about the origins of racism

.Biologists John Tooby and Leda Cosmides were puzzled by the fact that race is one of the three characteristics most often used in brief descriptions of individuals (the others are age and sex).^ The race is open to fillies, age three, willing to race seven furlongs on the dirt.
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^ The race is open to horses, age three and up willing to race seven furlongs on the dirt.
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^ It is open to three-year-old fillies willing to race the Oaks' one and one-sixteenth miles on the dirt.
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.They reasoned that natural selection would not have favoured the evolution of an instinct for using race as a classification, because for most of human history, humans almost never encountered members of other races.^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the law of nature?
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^ If they be not, what others are so, besides the Law of Nature?

^ And the reason hereof, is not because they that Teach, but because they that are to Learn, are his Subjects.

.Tooby and Cosmides hypothesized that modern people use race as a proxy (rough-and-ready indicator) for coalition membership, since a better-than-random guess about "which side" another person is on will be helpful if one does not actually know in advance.^ If one prophet deceive another, what certainty is there of knowing the will of God by other way than that of reason?
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^ And in sedition, men being always in the precincts of battle, to hold together and use all advantages of force is a better stratagem than any that can proceed from subtlety of wit.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ In fact, The Fool, himself,helped build this Tower back when the most important thing to him wasmaking his mark on the world and proving himself better than othermen.

Their colleague Robert Kurzban designed an experiment whose results appeared to support this hypothesis. .Using the Memory confusion protocol, they presented subjects with pictures of individuals and sentences, allegedly spoken by these individuals, which presented two sides of a debate.^ These Articles, are they, which otherwise are called the Lawes of Nature: whereof I shall speak more particularly, in the two following Chapters.

^ For notwithstanding the insignificant distinction of Temporall, and Ghostly, they are still two Kingdomes, and every Subject is subject to two Masters.

^ Sanctity of life The phrase Sanctity of life refers to the idea that life is sacred, mostly used by the pro-life side in the political and moral debates over abortion in the United States and the United Kingdom.
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.The errors which the subjects made in recalling who said what indicated that they sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker of the same race as the "correct" speaker, although they also sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker "on the same side" as the "correct" speaker.^ Jesus is THEIR STANDARD they judge all other men by – beginning with the Democrats, who do not have Jesus O' God on their side, thus they are SUBHUMAN. With the Democrats out of the race – THE HUMAN RACE – its now down to choosing a candidate that best represents who THEY ARE at their very core.

^ And again, because he said they went about to kill him, the people answered, "Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?"

^ Peter onely, "Who men said he was;" and they answered, that "some said he was John the Baptist, some Elias, and others Jeremias, or one of the Prophets:" Then (ver.

.In a second run of the experiment, the team also distinguished the "sides" in the debate by clothing of similar colors; and in this case the effect of racial similarity in causing mistakes almost vanished, being replaced by the color of their clothing.^ But this conjecture has the same uncertainty almost with the conjecture of the future, both being grounded only upon experience.
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^ But his conjecture, has the same incertainty almost with the conjecture of the Future; both being grounded onely upon Experience.

.In other words, the first group of subjects, with no clues from clothing, used race as a visual guide to guessing who was on which side of the debate; the second group of subjects used the clothing color as their main visual clue, and the effect of race became very small.^ In other words, there is no Mother.

^ That Men Are Apt To Be Deceived By False Miracles For it is evident enough, that Words have no effect, but on those that understand them; and then they have no other, but to signifie the intentions, or passions of them that speak; and thereby produce, hope, fear, or other passions, or conceptions in the hearer.

^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.

[40]
Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the development of cooperation. .Political scientists Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod created a computer simulation wherein virtual individuals were randomly assigned one of a variety of skin colors, and then one of a variety of trading strategies: be color-blind, favor those of your own color, or favor those of other colors.^ And whereas it is sayd, that having eaten, they saw they were naked; no man hath so interpreted that place, as if they had formerly blind, as saw not their own skins: the meaning is plain, that it was then they first judged their nakednesse (wherein it was Gods will to create them) to be uncomely; and by being ashamed, did tacitely censure God himselfe.

^ You own your own creation.” The young woman Seer told me.

^ For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded.

.They found that the ethnocentric individuals clustered together, then grew until all the non-ethnocentric individuals were wiped out.^ These operations are not incident to numbers only, but to all manner of things that can be added together, and taken one out of another.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And so perhaps are some of those books which are called Apocrypha, if left out of the Canon, not for inconformity of doctrine with the rest, but only because they are not found in the Hebrew.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For if by all together, they mean not the collective body as one person, then all together and every one signify the same; and the speech is absurd.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

[41]

As state-sponsored activity

U.S government poster from WWII featuring a Japanese soldier depicted as a rat.
.State racism - that is, institutions and practices of a nation-state that are grounded in racist ideology - has played a major role in all instances of settler colonialism, from the United States to Australia to Israel.^ The Festival played a major role in ..
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^ Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories, which is managed and operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation), is a major United States Department of Energy research and development national laboratory with two locations, one in Albuquerque, New Mexico and the othe..
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^ This team was part of the failed XFL begun by Vince McMahon of the World Wrestling Federation and by NBC, a major television network in the United States.
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It also played a prominent role in the Nazi Germany regime and fascist regimes in Europe, and in the first part of Japan's Shōwa period. The politics of Zimbabwe promote discrimination against whites, in an effort of ethnically cleansing the country. [7]
.State racism contributed as well to the formation of the Dominican Republic's identity [8] and violent actions encouraged by Dominican governmental xenophobia against Haitans and "Haitian looking" people.^ San Rafael del Yuma San Rafael del Yuma is a municipality of approximately 17,000 people, located in the Dominican Republic.
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.Currently the Dominican Republic employs a de facto system of separatism for children and grandchildren of Haitians and black Dominicans, denying them birth certificates, education and access to health care.^ Santiago Metro The Santiago Metro symbol located at Escuela Militar station Metro de Santiago is the metro system serving Santiago, the capital of the Republic of Chile.
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^ Population Density:105.5 / km² [[ISO 3166-2:DO|ISO 3166-2]]: Map San José de Ocoa is a province of the Dominican Republic, and also the name of its capital city.
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^ Population Density:207.7 / km² [[ISO 3166-2:DO|ISO 3166-2]]:DO-23 Map San Pedro de Macorís is a province of the Dominican Republic, also the name of its capital city.
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[42] .These governments advocated and implemented policies that were racist, xenophobic and, in case of Nazism, genocidal.^ Méndez was a moderate who advocated a strict conservative financial policy for the government.
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[43][44][45]

In history

In Antiquity

According to the Indo-Aryan migrations theory, Indo-Aryans migrated from Central Asia to India sometime after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization.[46] .They are believed to have been related to Indo-European-speaking peoples from the Near East, Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Europe.^ And when he had done these miracles before the people, it is said that "they believed him."

^ And Moses alone shall come near the Lord, but they shall not come nigh, neither shall the people go up with him."

^ And they that believe that which a prophet relates unto them in the name of God take the word of the prophet, do honour to him, and in him trust and believe, touching the truth of what he relateth, whether he be a true or a false prophet.

[47] .Following the discovery of the Indo-European languages in the 19th century, British historians put forth the Aryan invasion theory which argued that it was "Aryans" who established the caste system, an elitist form of social organization that (according to the British) separated the "light-skinned" Indo-Aryan conquerors from the "conquered dark-skinned" indigenous Dravidian tribes through enforcement of "racial endogamy".[48][49] This claim was used by the British, defining themselves as "purely Aryan", to justify British Rule in India.^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

^ That they were descended from Jews who had originally migrated there from Palestine confirms theywere racial members of the tribe of Judah!

^ This argues that the king of the Khazars, who already had a Hebrew title at the time of his conversion to Judaism, may have already been a racial member of the house of Judah.

Much of this was simply conjecture, fueled by British imperialism.[50] Since the independence of South Asia from British rule, the Aryan invasion theory and subjugation of the dark skinned Dravidians in India" has become a staple polemic in South Asian geopolitics, including the propaganda of Indophobia in Pakistan.[51]
.According to Genesis chapter 30-31, God supported the descendants of Abraham against "White" (Laban).^ When therefore a Prophet is said to speak in the Spirit, or by the Spirit of CHAPTER XXXVI. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS 156 Leviathan God, we are to understand no more, but that he speaks according to Gods will, declared by the supreme Prophet.

^ CHAPTER XL. OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD, IN ABRAHAM, MOSES, THE HIGH PRIESTS, AND THE KINGS OF JUDAH The Soveraign Rights Of Abraham The Father of the Faithfull, and first in the Kingdome of God by Covenant, was Abraham.

King David collected Philistine's foreskins. Chouki El Hamel has cited the Babylonian Talmud, which divides mankind between the three sons of Noah, stating that "the descendants of Ham are cursed by being black, and [it] depicts Ham as a sinful man and his progeny as degenerates."[52] Bernard Lewis has cited the Greek philosopher Aristotle who, in his discussion of slavery, stated that while Greeks are free by nature, 'barbarians' (non-Greeks) are slaves by nature, in that it is in their nature to be more willing to submit to despotic government.[53] .Though Aristotle does not specify any particular races, he argues that people from Asia are more prone to this than those from Europa.^ The examples of Princes, to those that see them, are, and ever have been, more potent to govern their actions, than the Lawes themselves.

^ It contains a little more than 35 million people.
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^ And though they shine some more, some lesse, when they are out of his sight; yet in his presence, they shine no more than the Starres in presence of the Sun.

[54]

Middle Ages and Renaissance

Lewis also cites the Arab Empire, the first "truly universal civilization," which brought together for the first time "peoples as diverse as the Chinese, the Indians, the people of the Middle East and North Africa, black Africans, and white Europeans." The Qur'an, the Prophet Muhammad, and the overwhelming majority of Islamic jurists and theologians, all agreed that humankind has a single origin and rejected the idea of certain ethnic groups being superior to others. .Despite this, some ethnic prejudices later developed among Arabs due to several reasons: their extensive conquests and slave trade; the influence of Aristotelian ideas regarding slavery, which some Muslim philosophers directed towards Zanj (East African) and Turkic peoples;[53] and the influence of Judeo-Christian ideas regarding divisions among humankind.^ Many of these women subscribe to the idea Jesus and the Christian church took away the power of women - and Mary Magdalene was a Superwoman of some kind, a Divine Prostitute.

^ These views were regarding hermetic knowledge, related to the higher nature of man, and also with common philosophical conceptions towards the foundation of a more perfected human society.

^ Sanctus Ignis served to showcase Adagio's neo-classical influences more directly than their later albums; some find that Adagio only began to develop their unique sound with their sophomore release, Underworld.
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[55] According to J. Philippe Rushton, Arab relations with blacks whom the Muslims had dealt as slave traders for over 1,000 years could be summed up as follows:
.Although the Qur'an stated that there were no superior and inferior races and therefore no bar to racial intermarriage, in practice this pious doctrine was disregarded.^ But this again has no place but in a State Civill, because before such estate, there is no Dominion of Persons.

^ And therefore of absurd and false affirmations, in case they be universal, there can be no understanding; though many think they understand then, when they do but repeat the words softly, or con them in their mind.

^ And therefore where there is once a sovereignty, there can be no absolute representation of the people, but by it.

.Arabs did not want their daughters to marry even hybridized blacks.^ What did Black Folk ever do to the Jews to gain their mistrust, even loathing?

.The Ethiopians were the most respected, the "Zanj" (Bantu and other Negroid tribes from East and West Africa south of the Sahara) the least respected, with Nubians occupying an intermediate position.^ It is bordered on the north by Oviedo, on the east by Ribera de Arriba and Morcín, on the south by Quirós and Proaza and on the west by Proaza and Grado.
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^ The municipality is bounded by Lipa City in the north and northeast, the municipality of Ibaan in the east, Batangas City and municipality of San Pascual in the south, and the municipality of Cuenca in the west.
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^ It spreads over almost 80 km in width (west to east) and 40 km in length (north to south).
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[56]
.In response to such views, the Afro-Arab author Al-Jahiz, himself of East African descent, wrote a book entitled Superiority Of The Blacks To The Whites,[57] and explained why the Zanj were black in terms of environmental determinism in the "On the Zanj" chapter of The Essays.^ The first author of Speech was GOD himselfe, that instructed Adam how to name such creatures as he presented to his sight; For the Scripture goeth no further in this matter.

^ The first author of speech was God himself, that instructed Adam how to name such creatures as He presented to his sight; for the Scripture goeth no further in this matter.

^ How do we explain why and how Israel reappeared as a nation in the 20th century after not existing for 1900 years?The view that Israel and the Church are different is clearly taught in the New Testament.

[58] By the 14th century, a significant number of slaves came from sub-Saharan Africa, leading to the likes of Egyptian historian Al-Abshibi (1388-1446) writing: "It is said that when the [black] slave is sated, he fornicates, when he is hungry, he steals."[59]
The 14th century North African Arab sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, has often been mistranslated to fit the needs of colonial propaganda.[60] .One such older translation states: "beyond [known peoples of black West Africa] to the south there is no civilization in the proper sense.^ Amongst the people of Asia, Africa, and America, there is not, nor was ever, any such thing.

^ But this again has no place but in a State Civill, because before such estate, there is no Dominion of Persons.

^ But if there be no immaterial spirit, nor any possession of men's bodies by any spirit corporeal, it may again be asked why our Saviour his Apostles did not teach the people so, and in such clear words as they might no more doubt thereof.

.There are only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings.^ But this is no Body Politique, there being no Common Representative to oblige them to any other Law, than that which is common to all other subjects.

^ At this, those who heard began to go away one at a time, theolder ones first, until only Jesus was left with the woman stillstanding there."

^ Thirdly, that the Resolutions of a Monarch, are subject to no other Inconstancy, than that of Humane Nature; but in Assemblies, besides that of Nature, there ariseth an Inconstancy from the Number.

.They live in thickets and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain.^ "God laid not His hand upon them, they saw God, and did eat and drink" (that is, did live), but did not carry any commandment from Him to the people.

^ "God laid not his hand upon them, they saw God and did eat and drink" (that is, did live), but did not carry any commandement from him to the people.

They frequently eat each other. They cannot be considered human beings." ."Therefore, the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because (Negroes) have little that is (essentially) human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated."^ And the Commonwealth only prescribes and commandeth the observation of those rules which we call law: therefore the Commonwealth is the legislator.

^ And the Common−wealth only, praescribes, and commandeth the observation of those rules, which we call Law: Therefore the Common−wealth is the Legislator.

[61][62] .Although bias against those of very black complexion existed in the Arab world in the 15th century, it didn't have as much stigma as it later would.^ One day there would be six million of these, loosely ruled by a world "omniarch", or (later) a World Congress of Phalanxes.

^ And thus much in refutation of his first Book, wherein hee would prove St. Peter to have been the Monarch Universall of the Church, that is to say, of all the Christians in the world.

^ And thus much in refutation of his first book, wherein he would prove St. Peter to have been the monarch universal of the Church, that is to say, of all the Christians in the world.

.Older translations of Ibn Khaldun, for example in The Negro land of the Arabs Examined and Explained which was written in 1841, gives excerpts of older translations that were not part of later colonial propaganda and show black Africans in a generally positive light.^ The light therefore that must guide us in this question must be that which is held out unto us from the books themselves: and this light, though it show us not the writer of every book, yet it is not unuseful to give us knowledge of the time wherein they were written.

[63] Ibn Khaldun dispelled the Hamitic theory as a myth, stating that black skin was due to environmental determinism and that the "strange practices and customs" of black Africans was due to the hot climate of Sub-Saharan Africa, not because of any curse.[64]
The Arabic geographer, Ibn Battuta, who had visited the Mali Empire in 1352, wrote many positive comments on black people.[62][65] It should also be noted that ethnic prejudice among some elite Arabs was not limited to darker-skinned black people, but was also directed towards fairer-skinned "ruddy people" (including Persians, Turks, Caucasians and Europeans), while Arabs referred to themselves as "swarthy people".[66]
.Richard E. Nisbett has said that the question of racial superiority may go back at least a thousand years, to the time when the Umayyad Caliphate invaded Hispania, occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula for six centuries, where they founded the advanced civilization of Al-Andalus (711-1492).^ Yet in some cases contradictory voyces equall in number, may determine a question; as in condemning, or absolving, equality of votes, even in that they condemne not, do absolve; but not on the contrary condemne, in that they absolve not.

^ From 700 B.C, until at least the 5th century A.D., it was inhabited by many descendants of the ten tribes of Israel (called Scythians, Iberians, Sacae, Goths, etc.

^ Yet in some cases contradictory voices equal in number may determine a question; as in condemning, or absolving, equality of votes, even in that they condemn not, do absolve; but not on the contrary condemn, in that they absolve not.

Al-Andalus coincided with La Convivencia, an era of religious tolerance, and with the Golden age of Jewish culture in Iberia (912, the rule of Abd-ar-Rahman III - 1066, Granada massacre).[67] It was followed by a violent Reconquista under the Reyes Catolicos (Catholic Kings), Ferdinand V and Isabella I. The Catholic Spaniards then formulated the Cleanliness of blood doctrine. It was during this time in history that the Western concept of aristocratic "blue blood" emerged in a highly racialized and implicitly white supremacist context, as author Robert Lacey explains:
It was the Spaniards who gave the world the notion that an aristocrat's blood is not red but blue. .The Spanish nobility started taking shape around the ninth century in classic military fashion, occupying land as warriors on horseback.^ The church started out, around 14th century, as a chapel of the University of Rome palace.
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.They were to continue the process for more than five hundred years, clawing back sections of the peninsula from its Moorish occupiers, and a nobleman demonstrated his pedigree by holding up his sword arm to display the filigree of blue-blooded veins beneath his pale skin--proof that his birth had not been contaminated by the dark-skinned enemy.^ For the words there are cheirotonesantes autois presbuterous kat ekklesian, that is, "when they had ordained them elders by the holding up of hands in every congregation."

^ Less than a hundred years later, this movement..
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^ The arms of the Swastika are four sevens, equaling twenty> eight, the number of days in the months (moons) of the five season> year.

Sangre azul, blue blood, was thus a euphemism for being a white man--Spain's own particular reminder that the refined footsteps of the aristocracy through history carry the rather less refined spoor of racism.
[68]
.Following the expulsion of most Sephardic Jews from the Iberian peninsula, the remaining Jews and Muslims were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, becoming "New Christians" which were despised and discriminated by the "Old Christians". An Inquisition was carried out by members of the Dominican Order in order to weed out converts that still practiced Judaism and Islam in secret.^ The requirement of circumcision was likely a disincentive for most Khazar men to convert to Judaism.

^ We will take the best of Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism.

^ As he that foresees what wil become of a Criminal, re−cons what he has seen follow on the like Crime before; having this order of thoughts, The Crime, the Officer, the Prison, the Judge, and the Gallowes.

The system and ideology of the limpieza de sangre ostracized Christian converts from society, regardless of their actual degree of sincerity in their faith.
.In Portugal, the legal distinction between New and Old Christian was only ended through a legal decree issued by the Marquis of Pombal in 1772, almost three centuries after the implementation of the racist discrimination.^ But to this he hath replied that the Christians of old deposed not Nero, nor Dioclesian, nor Julian, nor Valens, an Arian, for this cause only, that they wanted temporal forces.

^ The kingdom therefore of God is a real, not a metaphorical kingdom; and so taken, not only in the Old Testament, but the New.

^ And in the New Testament there was but one only mark, and that was the preaching of this doctrine that Jesus is the Christ, that is, the King of the Jews, promised in the Old Testament.

.The limpieza de sangre doctrine was also very common in the colonization of the Americas, where it led to the racial separation of the various peoples in the colonies and created a very intricate list of nomenclature to describe one's precise race and, by consequence, one's place in society.^ Mimi began to think seriously about creating opportunities for performing artists to bring the joy of live entertainment to people shut away from society.

^ In the past such societies had to exist by gathering a group of like-minded people in one place so that they may share and pass on vital and often secret information to each other, and new members who will form a network.

^ In the second place, I observe the diseases of a Commonwealth that proceed from the poison of seditious doctrines, whereof one is that every private man is judge of good and evil actions.

This precise classification was described by Eduardo Galeano in the Open Veins of Latin America (1971). .It included, among others terms, mestizo (50% Spaniard and 50% Native American), castizo (75% European and 25% Native American), Spaniard (87.5% European and 12.5% Native American), Mulatto (50% European and 50% African), Albarazado (43.75% Native American, 29.6875% European, and 26.5625% African), etc.^ San Ramón is situated on [11°07′29″S, 75°21′25″W] at an elevation of 770 m above sea level.
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^ Sangley Sangley (Sangleye, Sangley Mestizo, Mestiso ng Sangley, Mestizo de Sangley or Chinese-mestiso; plural: "Sangleys/es") , is a term used to describe a Filipino of mixed Chinese and native Filipino ancestry.
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^ Although many of the early members were from Ireland, persons of English, Scottish and other European backgrounds joined including even Poles.

.At the end of the Renaissance, the Valladolid debate (1550-1551) concerning the treatment of natives of the "New World" opposed the Dominican friar and Bishop of Chiapas Bartolomé de Las Casas to another Dominican philosopher Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda.^ San Cristóbal de las Casas Catedral San Cristóbal de las Casas is a city in the central highlands of the state of Chiapas, Mexico.
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^ Statistics Capital:San Juan de la Maguana Area:3,569 km² Population (2000 est.
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^ San Juan La Laguna San Juan La Laguna is a municipality on the southern shore of Lago de Atitlán, Sololá, Guatemala.
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.The latter argued that "Indians" were natural slaves because they had no souls, and were therefore beneath humanity.^ And therefore of absurd and false affirmations, in case they be universal, there can be no understanding; though many think they understand then, when they do but repeat the words softly, or con them in their mind.

^ Nothing Can Be Made A Crime By A Law Made After The Fact No Law, made after a Fact done, can make it a Crime: because if the Fact be against the Law of Nature, the Law was before the Fact; and a Positive Law cannot be taken notice of, before it be made; and therefore cannot be Obligatory.

^ Ignorance of the law of nature excuseth no man, because every man that hath attained to the use of reason is supposed to know he ought not to do to another what he would not have done to himself.

.Thus, reducing them to slavery or serfdom was in accordance with Catholic theology and natural law.^ Having thus briefly spoken of the natural kingdom of God, and His natural laws, I will add only to this chapter a short declaration of His natural punishments.

^ And thus also the controversie, and the condition of War remaineth, contrary to the Law of Nature.

^ And thus also the controversy and the condition of war remaineth, contrary to the law of nature.

.To the contrary, Bartolomé de Las Casas argued that the Amerindians were free men in the natural order and deserved the same treatment as others, according to Catholic theology.^ If in this case, at the making of peace, men require for themselves that which they would not have to be granted to others, they do contrary to the precedent law that commandeth the acknowledgement of natural equality, and therefore also against the law of nature.

^ Of the same kind it is also when any but the sovereign restraineth in any man that power which the Commonwealth hath not restrained; as they do that impropriate the preaching of the gospel to one certain order of men, where the laws have left it free.

^ For whatever men are to take knowledge of for law, not upon other men's words, but every one from his own reason, must be such as is agreeable to the reason of all men; which no law can be, but the law of nature.

.It was one of the many controversy concerning racism, slavery and Eurocentrism that would arise in the following centuries.^ One of his workmen, however, had his legs crushed when he was hit by two stone balls that rolled out of a wall another trap installed so many centuries earlier.

^ Eighthly, is annexed to the sovereignty the right of judicature; that is to say, of hearing and deciding all controversies which may arise concerning law, either civil or natural, or concerning fact.

.Although anti-Semitism has a long European history, related to Christianism (anti-Judaism), racism itself is frequently described as a modern phenomenon.^ "I have worked tirelessly to eliminate the sin of anti-Semitism from the Christian world and to ensure the survival of the state of Israel."

.In the view of the French intellectual Michel Foucault, the first formulation of racism emerged in the Early Modern period as the "discourse of race struggle", a historical and political discourse which Foucault opposed to the philosophical and juridical discourse of sovereignty.^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

[69] .Philosopher and historian Michel Foucault argued that the first appearance of racism as a social discourse (as opposed to simple xenophobia, which some might argue has existed in all places and times) may be found during the 1688 Glorious Revolution in Great Britain, in Edward Coke or John Lilburne's work.^ Great Event of all time?

^ And though this law may be drawn by consequence from some of those that are there already mentioned, yet the times require to have it inculcated and remembered.

^ That the Book of Joshua was also written long after the time of Joshua may be gathered out of many places of the book itself.

.However, this "discourse of race struggle", as interpreted by Foucault, must be distinguished from 19th century biological racism, also known as "race science" or "scientific racism". Indeed, this early modern discourse has many points of difference with modern racism.^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

^ However, many researchers on the history of Rosicrucianism argue that modern Rosicrucianists are in no sense directly derived from the "Brethren of the Rose Cross" of the 17th century.

^ Sandyford murder case The Sandyford murder case was a well-known proceeding of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United Kingdom.
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.First of all, in this "discourse of race struggle", "race" is not considered a biological notion — which would divide humanity into distinct biological groups — but as a historical notion.^ I think there be few Princes that consider not this as Injust, and Inconvenient; but I wish they would all resolve to be Kings, or Subjects.

^ Sangüesa - Zangoza is the historic capital of one of the six Merindades into which the old Kingdom of Navarra was divided.
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^ And thus much in refutation of his first Book, wherein hee would prove St. Peter to have been the Monarch Universall of the Church, that is to say, of all the Christians in the world.

.Moreover, this discourse is opposed to the sovereign's discourse: it is used by the bourgeoisie, the people and the aristocracy as a mean of struggle against the monarchy.^ By this means it was that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the people against the senate, having won to himself the affections of his army, made himself master both of senate and people.

^ For whosoever ordereth, and establisheth the Policy, as first founder of a Common−wealth (be it Monarchy, Aristocracy, or Democracy) must needs have Soveraign Power over the people all the while he is doing of it.

^ By this means it was, that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the People against the Senate, having won to himselfe the affections of his Army, made himselfe Master, both of Senate and People.

.This discourse, which first appeared in Great Britain, was then carried on in France by people such as Boulainvilliers, Nicolas Fréret, and then, during the 1789 French Revolution, Sieyès, and afterward Augustin Thierry and Cournot.^ These were Lawes, at first, by the vertue of the Soveraign Power residing in the people; and such of them as by the Emperours were not abrogated, remained Lawes by the Authority Imperiall.

^ These were laws, at first, by the virtue of the sovereign power residing in the people; and such of them as by the emperors were not abrogated remained laws by the authority imperial.

^ He participated in the French revolution, actively supporting some of the measures introduced after 1789.

Boulainvilliers, which created the matrix of such racist discourse in medieval France, conceived the "race" as something closer to the sense of "nation", that is, in his times, the "people".
.He conceived France as divided between various nations — the unified nation-state is, of course, here an anachronism — which themselves formed different "races". Boulainvilliers opposed the absolute monarchy, who tried to bypass the aristocracy by establishing a direct relationship to the Third Estate.^ It is called the Sandford Principle after Lord Sandford who chaired the National Parks Policy Review Committee which reviewed national parks of England and Wales in between 1971 and 1974.
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^ The first use violence, to make themselves masters of other men's persons, wives, children, and cattle; the second, to defend them; the third, for trifles, as a word, a smile, a different opinion, and any other sign of undervalue, either direct in their persons or by reflection in their kindred, their friends, their nation, their profession, or their name.

^ Examples of the difference between command and counsel we may take from the forms of speech that express them in Holy Scripture.

.Thus, he created this theory of the French aristocrats as being the descendants of foreign invaders, whom he called the "Franks", while the Third Estate constituted according to him the autochthonous, vanquished Gallo-Romans, who were dominated by the Frankish aristocracy as a consequence of the right of conquest.^ Sans-culottes Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created 1790 - 1792 by the aristocracy to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons instead of the chique culotte.
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^ The sovereignty therefore was always in that assembly which had the right to limit him, and by consequence the government not monarchy, but either democracy or aristocracy; as of old time in Sparta, where the kings had a privilege to lead their armies, but the sovereignty was in the Ephori.

^ For the prosperity of a people ruled by an aristocratical or democratical assembly cometh not from aristocracy, nor from democracy, but from the obedience and concord of the subjects: nor do the people flourish in a monarchy because one man has the right to rule them, but because they obey him.

.Early modern racism was opposed to nationalism and the nation-state: the Comte de Montlosier, in exile during the French Revolution, who borrowed Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", thus showed his despise for the Third Estate calling it "this new people born of slaves...^ For a "peculiar people," the vulgar Latin hath, peculium de cunctis populis: the English translation made in the beginning of the reign of King James hath, a "peculiar treasure unto me above all nations"; and the Geneva French, "the most precious jewel of all nations."

^ In 1791, Guillaume availed himself of the possibility granted by a bill of the Assemblée Constituante giving back their French nationality to descendants of people who had left France for religious reasons.

^ Bernhard was a charismatic and popular figure among the majority of the Dutch people for his service as a pilot during World War II and his efforts at rebuilding the war-torn nation afterwards.

mixture of all races and of all times".
.While 19th century racism became closely intertwined with nationalism, leading to the ethnic nationalist discourse which identified the "race" to the "folk", leading to such movements as pan-Germanism, Zionism, pan-Turkism, pan-Arabism, pan-Farism (Related to Persian racism) ,and pan-Slavism, medieval racism precisely divided the nation into various non-biological "races", which were thought as the consequences of historical conquests and social conflicts.^ Santa Bárbara (department) Santa Bárbara is one of the 18 departments (departamentos) into which the Central American nation of Honduras is divided.
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^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

^ All which, by an observing reader, may be found in such ancient histories, Greek and Latin, as make mention of the German nation and manners in their times.

.Michel Foucault traced the genealogy of modern racism to this medieval "historical and political discourse of race struggle". According to him, it divided itself in the 19th century according to two rival lines: on one hand, it was incorporated by racists, biologists and eugenicists, who gave it the modern sense of "race" and, even more, transformed this popular discourse into a "state racism" (e.g.^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

^ But what he does according to these is the act of every one: for of the act of the sovereign every one is author, because he is their representative unlimited; and the act of him that recedes not from the letters of the sovereign is the act of the sovereign, and therefore every member of the body is author of it.

^ Allegedly the Templars turned of their grounds incorporated into the 'City of London' to lawyers The Huguenot diaspora is one of the most important and most spectacular dispersions of a religious minority in early modern Europe.

Nazism). .On the other hand, Marxists also seized this discourse founded on the assumption of a political struggle which provided the real engine of history and continued to act underneath the apparent peace.^ "The ploughman still carries his goad , a weapon apparently more fitted for the hand of the soldier than the peaceful husbandman .

Thus, Marxists transformed the essentialist notion of "race" into the historical notion of "class struggle", defined by socially structured position: capitalist or proletarian. In The Will to Knowledge (1976), Foucault analyzed another opponent of the "race struggle" discourse: Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, which opposed the concepts of "blood heredity", prevalent in the 19th century racist discourse.

19th century

.Authors such as Hannah Arendt, in her 1951 book The Origins of Totalitarianism, have said that the racist ideology (popular racism) which developed at the end of the 19th century helped legitimize the imperialist conquests of foreign territories and the acts that accompanied them (such as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide of 1904-1907 or the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1917).^ In the 19th century, the Awakening (le Réveil) and other religious movements influenced French and European Protestantism, this was also accompanied by division within French Protestantism.

^ The book claimed to be about an alleged hidden treasure found by a 19th century priest in southern France.

^ Sandbagger sloop A sandbagger sloop is a type of sailboat made popular in the 19th century as a work vessel which also could be used as a pleasure craft.
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.Rudyard Kipling's poem The White Man's Burden (1899) is one of the more famous illustrations of the belief in the inherent superiority of the European culture over the rest of the world, though also thought to be a satirical appraisal of such imperialism.^ The law is made by the sovereign power, and all that is done by such power is warranted and owned by every one of the people; and that which every man will have so, no man can say is unjust.

^ For besides sense, and thoughts, and the train of thoughts, the mind of man has no other motion; though by the help of speech, and method, the same faculties may be improved to such a height as to distinguish men from all other living creatures.

^ But if that prove impossible afterwards, which before was thought possible, the covenant is valid and bindeth, though not to the thing itself, yet to the value; or, if that also be impossible, to the unfeigned endeavour of performing as much as is possible, for to more no man can be obliged.

Racist ideology thus helped legitimize subjugation and the dismantling of the traditional societies of indigenous peoples, which were thus conceived as humanitarian obligations as a result of these racist beliefs.
.However, during the 19th century, West European colonial powers were involved in the suppression of the Arab slave trade in Africa,[70] as well as in suppression of the slave trade in West Africa.^ In the 19th century, the Awakening (le Réveil) and other religious movements influenced French and European Protestantism, this was also accompanied by division within French Protestantism.

^ Brazil obtained 35.4% of all African slaves traded in the Atlantic slave trade , more than 3 million slaves were sent to Brazil to work mainly on sugar cane plantations from the 16th to the 19th century.

^ Sandyford murder case The Sandyford murder case was a well-known proceeding of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United Kingdom.
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[71] .Other colonialists recognized the depravity of their actions but persisted for personal gain and there are some Europeans during the time period who objected to the injustices caused by colonialism and lobbied on behalf of aboriginal peoples.^ Nevertheless, during the Apostles' times, there were other pastors that observed it not; as Diotrephes who cast out of the Church such as St. John himself thought fit to be received into it, out of a pride he took in pre-eminence:[295] so early it was that vainglory and ambition had found entrance into the Church of Christ.

^ And though this law may be drawn by consequence from some of those that are there already mentioned, yet the times require to have it inculcated and remembered.

^ At this, those who heard began to go away one at a time, theolder ones first, until only Jesus was left with the woman stillstanding there."

Thus, when the Hottentot Venus was displayed in England in the beginning of the nineteenth century, the African Association publicly opposed itself to the exhibition. .The same year that Kipling published his poem, Joseph Conrad published Heart of Darkness (1899), a clear criticism of the Congo Free State owned by Leopold II of Belgium.^ Salm.: 1141 (sic, but in same year as the death of Pope Innocent II); Will.

^ Each year the SDFCS meets to vote on their San Diego Film Critics Society Awards for films released in the same calendar year.
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^ He set forth elaborate plans for a Texas colony in Au Texas, published in Paris in 1854, and in The Great West, published the same year in New York.

Examples of racial theories used to legitimize the imperialist conquest[citation needed] include the creation of the Hamitic ethno-linguistic group during the European exploration of Africa. .Used in different ways, the term was first used by Johann Ludwig Krapf (1810-1881) to qualify all languages of Africa spoken by black people.^ All which ways He used also in the New Testament.

^ For the use of laws (which are but rules authorized) is not to bind the people from all voluntary actions, but to direct and keep them in such a motion as not to hurt themselves by their own impetuous desires, rashness, or indiscretion; as hedges are set, not to stop travellers, but to keep them in the way.

^ Sandawe language Sandawe is a tonal language spoken by about 40,000 people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
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[citation needed] It was then restricted by Karl Friedrich Lepsius (1810-1877) to non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages.[72]
The term Hamite then became quite popular and was applied to different populations within Africa mainly comprising Ethiopians, Eritreans, Somalis, Berbers, and Nubians. .Hamites were regarded as Caucasoid peoples who probably originated in either Arabia or Asia on the basis of their cultural, physical and linguistic similarities with the peoples of those areas.^ Those who referred to these people as 'Bohemians' meant that they thought of them as Gypsies (low life).

^ The bad news is that there are probably a fair number of racist white people in Kentucky and West Virginia who will never vote for him.

^ The greatest friends of a people are not those who praise but those who honestly find fault.

[73][74][75] .Europeans considered Hamites to be more civilized than Black Africans, and more akin to themselves and Semitic peoples.^ It contains a little more than 35 million people.
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^ According to kabbalah , a tzadik, because he has completely nullified himself and his desires to what God wants, his Godly soul (which like every Godly soul is part of God) is revealed within him more than other people who have not completely nullified themselves to God.

^ For let a man, as most men do, rate themselves at the highest value they can, yet their true value is no more than it is esteemed by others.

[76] .In the first two-thirds of the 20th century, the Hamitic race was, in fact, considered one of the branches of the Caucasian race, along with the Indo-Europeans, Dravidians, Semites, and the Mediterranean race.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
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^ One of his workmen, however, had his legs crushed when he was hit by two stone balls that rolled out of a wall another trap installed so many centuries earlier.

^ And as controversies are of two sorts, namely of fact and of law; so are judgements, some of fact, some of law: and consequently in the same controversy, there may be two judges, one of fact, another of law.

However, the Hamitic peoples themselves were often deemed to have failed as rulers, a failing that was usually ascribed to interbreeding with Negroes. In the mid-20th century, the German scholar Carl Meinhof (1857-1944) claimed that the Bantu race was formed by a merger of Hamitic and Negro races. .The Hottentots (Nama or Khoi) were formed by the merger of Hamitic and Bushmen (San) races — both being termed nowadays as Khoisan peoples).^ The San Gabriel River is formed in Georgetown, Texas (about 30 miles north of Austin, Texas) by the confluence of the North Fork San Gabriel and the South Fork San Gabriel (both originating in Burnet County).
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The term Hamitic is nowadays obsolete.[citation needed]
One in a series of posters attacking Radical Republicans on the issue of black suffrage, issued during the Pennsylvania gubernatorial election of 1866.
.Racism spread throughout the "New World" in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

^ By the early 18th century, when Nassy lived, the Dutch and Portuguese were joined by a group of new immigrants: Germans and British.

^ How do we explain why and how Israel reappeared as a nation in the 20th century after not existing for 1900 years?The view that Israel and the Church are different is clearly taught in the New Testament.

.Whitecapping which started in Indiana in the late 19th century soon spread throughout all of North America, causing many African laborers to flee from the land they worked on.^ Fourier's followers started phalanxes throughout America and were responsible for one of the more famous ones, Utopia, Ohio .

^ Jon Presco "Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism These two versions of early 19th century French socialism are frequently mentioned in the works of the period, e.

^ This purchase was said to have been the largest private land deal ever undertaken in North America.

In the US during the 1860s, racist posters were used during election campaigns. .In one of these racist posters (see above), a black man is depicted lounging idly in the foreground as one white man ploughs his field and another chops wood.^ These operations are not incident to numbers only, but to all manner of things that can be added together, and taken one out of another.

^ When therefore these two powers oppose one another, the Commonwealth cannot but be in great danger of civil war and dissolution.

^ Therefore between counsel and command, one great difference is that command is directed to a man's own benefit, and counsel to the benefit of another man.

.Accompanying labels are: "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread," and "The white man must work to keep his children and pay his taxes."^ The Israelites had been commanded by God in Deuteronomy 23:7:"Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; for he is thy brother ...the children that are begotten of them shall enter into the congregation of the Lord in their third generation."

^ The covenant God made with Abraham in a supernatural manner was thus, "This is the covenant which thou shalt observe between me and thee and thy seed after thee."

^ "Thy law is burnt; therefore no man knoweth the things that are done of Thee, or the works that shall begin."

.The black man wonders, "Whar is de use for me to work as long as dey make dese appropriations."^ His works also include [[Khamoshi: The Musical]] (1996), Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999) and Black (2005) (based on The Miracle Worker).
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Above in a cloud is an image of the "Freedman's Bureau! Negro Estimate of Freedom!" The bureau is pictured as a large domed building resembling the U.S. Capitol and is inscribed "Freedom and No Work." Its columns and walls are labeled, "Candy," "Rum, Gin, Whiskey," "Sugar Plums," "Indolence," "White Women," "Apathy," "White Sugar," "Idleness," and so on.
On June 5, 1873, Sir Francis Galton, distinguished English explorer and cousin of Charles Darwin, wrote in a letter to The Times:
"My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro race" "I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own law." [77]

In the Age of Enlightenment

While modern racism has an essentialist and biological conception of race, racist or xenophobic opinions have been shared by some authors, from the Antiquity to the Age of Enlightenment. However, this early form of racism did not conceive of "race" as a biological concept — as biology itself did not exist as such —, but as the accidental effect of climate on physical traits.[78] With the Age of Discovery, the diversity of mankind became an important topic of research, leading to debates concerning monogenism and polygenism, respectively endorsing the unique origin of mankind (coherent with the Genesis Biblical account) and the multiple origins of mankind.
Pierre de Maupertuis (1698-1759), for example, reconciled the Biblical account with the present diversity of "races" in his Essai de philosophie morale (1749, Essay on Moral Philosophy), explaining "racial" differences by climatic factors.[78] .He thus explained the colour of black people through the inheritance of acquired characteristics, claiming white was the original colour of mankind.^ Obama was leading a REVOLT OF POOR PEOPLE - white, black, red, yellow!

[78] .He also highlighted the spiritual strength of Africans seized as slaves, pointing out how, like the Ancient Stoic philosophers, they prefer to die rather than to survive to capture.^ Sixthly, I find not that the ancients they cite took it for an ornament to do the like with those that wrote before them.

^ This was why I pointed out the Jewish slave owners.

^ He explained, "The Rebbe is completely connected with his Hasidim, not like two separate things that connect, rather they become completely one.

[78]
.Arguments on the influence of climate found additional weight with Buffon's Histoire naturelle in the middle of the 18th century, and his thesis on the unity of mankind was taken back by Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie in the article Humaine, espèce (Human, Specie).^ She noted that the addition of a Jewish slaveowner in her book was intended to write back into history “the story the Nazis had written out” — that is, the mingling of Jews and Christians before Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

^ In the middle of the 20th century, Fourier's influence began to rise again among writers reappraising socialist ideas outside the Marxist mainstream.

[78] .According to Ann Thomson, although Buffon did establish a "clear hierarchy [...] between the beautiful white civilised races of the temperate zone and those savages who have degenerated in more extreme climates, his emphasis on the unity of the human race and his distinction between humans and other animals were extremely influential.^ Jesus is THEIR STANDARD they judge all other men by – beginning with the Democrats, who do not have Jesus O' God on their side, thus they are SUBHUMAN. With the Democrats out of the race – THE HUMAN RACE – its now down to choosing a candidate that best represents who THEY ARE at their very core.

^ Breton answered that he is "hardly interested in establishing a hierarchy of surrealist works (contrary to Aragon who once said: "If you write dreadful rubbish in an authentically surrealistic manner, it is still rubbish") - nor, as I have made clear, a hierarchy of romantic or symbolist works."

^ According to kabbalah , a tzadik, because he has completely nullified himself and his desires to what God wants, his Godly soul (which like every Godly soul is part of God) is revealed within him more than other people who have not completely nullified themselves to God.

[78]" The abolitionists thus used his arguments to show that Africans were not naturally inferior, and could be improved by different treatment and different climate.[78]
.The abbé Demanet (1767) claimed that a Portuguese colony in Africa had become black after several generations, due to the effect of climate, a story which was given wide credence by abolitionists, quoted for example by Cabanis (1757-1808) and Thomas Clarkson (1760-1846)[78][78] The abolitionist Physiocrat abbé Pierre-Joseph-André Roubaud alleged that black Africans would change skin colour if they lived in different climatic conditions.^ But withal, they live in the condition of a perpetual war, and upon the confines of battle, with their frontiers armed, and cannons planted against their neighbours round about.

^ If my fried and I had rolled down the Benteley’s window and asked the Cornhuskers if they knew where the future black President of the United States lived (he about nine years of age) we would have been punched in the nose.- for starters!

^ For men contend with the living, not with the dead; to these ascribing more than due, that they may obscure the glory of the other.

[78] According to Ann Thomson,
.What emerges from these examples is the overwhelming desire to insist on the unity of the human race by emphasizing the effect of the climate and other environmental causes, but not necessarily to claim the equality of all humans; for the existence of a hierarchy is not systematically denied but, on the contrary, frequently accepted [exceptions quoted by Thomson includes James Dunbar and the abbé Grégoire.^ Jesus is THEIR STANDARD they judge all other men by – beginning with the Democrats, who do not have Jesus O' God on their side, thus they are SUBHUMAN. With the Democrats out of the race – THE HUMAN RACE – its now down to choosing a candidate that best represents who THEY ARE at their very core.

^ What is the meaning of these words: "The first cause does not necessarily inflow anything into the second, by force of the essential subordination of the second causes, by which it may help it to work?"

^ This endeavour, when it is toward something which causes it, is called appetite, or desire, the latter being the general name, and the other oftentimes restrained to signify the desire of food, namely hunger and thirst.

]. This of course was to have long-lasting effects in the Nineteenth Century, when the arguments about climate were countered and the hierarchy was seen to be permanent, as the differences between humans were innate.[78]
Moral factors were also considered to influence physical and psychical traits. .The American abolitionist Anthony Benezet stated, in the Historical Account of Guinea (1772), that Africans in Africa were a sociable, virtuous and intelligent people; but that their servile condition in America explained their "degeneration" and adoption of the vices of Europeans.^ The club was founded in 1974, with the stated objective to "uplift the socio-economic and moral condition of the young people of San Juan and its environs."
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^ San Marinese Christian Democratic Party Part of the Politics series onChristian Democracy Parties Christian Democratic parties Christian Democrat International European People's Party European Democratic Party Euro Christian Political Movement Christian Dem Org of America Ideas Social conservatism Social market economy Catholic..
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^ San Juan National Historic Site San Juan National Historic Site World Heritage Sites in the United States of America Cahokia .
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[78] .Furthermore, the theory of the Great Chain of Being, which asserted a continuity between animals and humans, thus contradicting Christian religion (and henceforth supported by materialists such as Diderot) was used by some, such as Edward Long, spokesman for the West India Lobby, or Charles White’s Account of the Regular Gradation in Man (1799 — White denied the effect of climate) to assert the animal nature of some humans.^ But God declareth his laws three ways; by the dictates of natural reason, by revelation, and by the voice of some man to whom, by the operation of miracles, he procureth credit with the rest.

^ And thus came in the use of wax candles and was also established by some of the ancient councils.

^ BY philosophy is understood the knowledge acquired by reasoning, from the manner of the generation of anything, to the properties; or from the properties, to some possible way of generation of the same; to the end to be able to produce, as far as matter and human force permit, such effects as human life requireth.

[78]
An improvised camp for Soviet prisoners of war. Between June 1941 and January 1942, the Nazis killed an estimated 2.8 million Red Army POWs, whom they viewed as "subhuman".[79]

20th century

Japan proposed racial equality at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Japanese racial equality proposal got a large majority of votes; however, the proposal was declined by few countries with strong oppositions. Burma, China, India and Japan held the Greater East Asia Conference in 1943, at which the countries declared their intention to work for the abolition of racial discrimination. Imperial Japanese Army general Kiichiro Higuchi and colonel Norihiro Yasue saved 20,000 Jews from German genocide[citation needed]. Also, the Japanese diplomat Chiune Sugihara saved 6,000 Jews from German genocide[citation needed]. .According to Herbert Bix, Racial discrimination against other Asians was habitual in Imperial Japan.^ According to the conclusions of that committee, discrimination did exist against many levels in society.

^ On May 18 , 1971 , "The Night of the Panthers", between 5,000 and 7,000 demonstrators gathered in Zion Square in Jerusalem in a militant protest against the racial discrimination.

[80]
.The Nazis considered Jews, Gypsies, Poles along with other Slavic people like the Russians, Ukrainians, Czechs and anyone else who was not an "Aryan" according to the contemporary Nazi race terminology to be subhuman (Untermensch).^ Who are these other people mentioned?

^ Jesus is THEIR STANDARD they judge all other men by – beginning with the Democrats, who do not have Jesus O' God on their side, thus they are SUBHUMAN. With the Democrats out of the race – THE HUMAN RACE – its now down to choosing a candidate that best represents who THEY ARE at their very core.

^ According to kabbalah , a tzadik, because he has completely nullified himself and his desires to what God wants, his Godly soul (which like every Godly soul is part of God) is revealed within him more than other people who have not completely nullified themselves to God.

.The Nazis rationalized that the Germans, being a super human (Übermenschlich) race, had a biological right to displace, eliminate and enslave inferiors.^ Fourier saw that “traditional” marriage could potentially hurt woman's rights as human beings and thus never married.

^ Thomas was a pioneer in the field of computers, but, rather then seeing it as a tool to benefit mankind, he used it to enslave the imperfect human beings.

[81] Some 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis during the Holocaust.
.After the war, under the "Big Plan", Generalplan Ost foresaw the eventual expulsion of more than 50 million non-Germanized Slavs of Eastern Europe through forced migration, as well as some of the Balts, beyond the Ural Mountains and into Siberia.^ More than 50 Technology..
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^ What then can be the meaning of this place, other than that he went of himself into the wilderness; and that this carrying of him up and down, from the wilderness to the city, and from thence into a mountain, was a vision?

^ It contains a little more than 35 million people.
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In their place, Germans would be settled in an extended "living space" (Lebensraum) of the 1000-Year Empire (Tausendjähriges Reich). .Herbert Backe was one of the orchestrators of the Hunger Plan - the plan to starve tens of millions of Slavs in order to ensure steady food supplies for the German people and troops.^ But almost one week after the devastating cyclone, people in Myanmar are still waiting for relief supplies which aid workers say are being turned back as they a arrrive at the airport.

[82]
Heinrich Himmler speech to about 100 SS Group Leaders in Posen, occupied Poland, 1943:
"What happens to the Russians, what happens to the Czechs, is a matter of utter indifference to me... .Whether the other peoples live in comfort or perish of hunger interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our culture; apart from that it does not interest me.^ Therefore, where there is already erected a sovereign power, there can be no other representative of the same people, but only to certain particular ends, by the sovereign limited.

^ So that it is evident that whatsoever we believe, upon no other reason than what is drawn from authority of men only, and their writings, whether they be sent from God or not, is faith in men only.

^ It's placed in the southern area of the city and has a special function for the people living in other boroughs around, due th..
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Whether or not 10,000 Russian women collapse from exhaustion while digging a tank ditch interests me only in so far as the tank ditch is completed for Germany... .We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude to animals, will also adopt a decent attitude to these human animals, but it is a crime against our own blood to worry about them and to bring them ideals...^ By this means it was that Julius Caesar, who was set up by the people against the senate, having won to himself the affections of his army, made himself master both of senate and people.

^ When we say anything is infinite, we signify only that we are not able to conceive the ends and bounds of the thing named, having no conception of the thing, but of our own inability.

^ And again, because he said they went about to kill him, the people answered, "Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?"

.I shall speak to you here with all frankness of a very serious subject.^ Distributive are those that determine the rights of the subjects, declaring to every man what it is by which he acquireth and holdeth a propriety in lands or goods, and a right or liberty of action: and these speak to all the subjects.

^ As it is now, you barely escaped becoming a veritable prisoner in this lifetime, that is, all the information you came here to share."

^ My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all my house; with him I will speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the Lord shall he behold."

.We shall now discuss it absolutely openly among ourselves, nevertheless we shall never speak of it in public.^ IN THE last chapter I have spoken of the similar parts of a Commonwealth: in this I shall speak of the parts organical, which are public ministers.

I mean the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish race."
[83]

Inter-minority variants

.Inter-minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society.^ THE KHAZARS AND THE MODERN JEWS By Steven M. Collins Let us consider an aspect of Jewish history which is sometimes controversial.

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Prejudiced thinking among and between minority groups does occur, for example conflicts between blacks and Korean Americans (notably in the Los Angeles riots of 1992), by blacks towards Jews (such as the riots in Crown Heights in 1991), between new immigrant groups (such as Latinos), or towards whites.^ However, it does not grow the grapes at its Los Angeles location as its f..
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^ The de Luxe (meaning something luxurious, or elegant) was inaugurated on December 12, 1911 with a weekly schedule between Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California.
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^ By the early 18th century, when Nassy lived, the Dutch and Portuguese were joined by a group of new immigrants: Germans and British.

[84][85][86][87] .One particularly pernicious form of racism in the United States is racial segregation, which arguably continues to exist today.^ It has been considered the most pernicious scale insect in the United States.
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^ This breed was officially recognized in 1940, becoming the first beef breed formed in the United States.
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^ One of its National School Board-certified maths teachers, Kristen Springfield, is on the list of top 50 United States math teachers.
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[88]
.There has been a long-running racial tension between African Americans and Mexican Americans.^ But it's hard to see what such campaigning can do to reverse years of racial suspicions many Jewish voters hold about African-Americans.

[89][90][91] .There have been several significant riots in California prisons where Mexican American inmates and African Americans have specifically targeted each other based on racial reasons.^ If one prophet deceive another, what certainty is there of knowing the will of God by other way than that of reason?

^ Lastly, when the question is propounded of our belief; because some are moved to believe for one, and others for other reasons, there can be rendered no one general answer for them all.

^ There are Christians in the dominions of several princes and states, but every one of them is subject to that Commonwealth whereof he is himself a member, and consequently cannot be subject to the commands of any other person.

[92][93] .There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against African Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by Mexican Americans, and vice versa.^ That they were descended from Jews who had originally migrated there from Palestine confirms theywere racial members of the tribe of Judah!

^ There are families of POWs and MIAs who are working against McCain day and night who outright accuse him of being a traitor.

^ Years later, after he opened a bakery in Brooklyn, "I got disgusted, because they killed Jews," he said, citing neighborhood crimes committed by African-Americans.

[94][95][96][97] .In the late 1920s in California, there was animosity between the Filipinos and the Mexicans and between whites and Filipinos since they competed for the same jobs.^ There be other names of government in the histories and books of policy; as tyranny and oligarchy; but they are not the names of other forms of government, but of the same forms misliked.

^ For if they were the absolute representative of the people, then were it the sovereign assembly; and so there would be two sovereign assemblies, or two sovereigns, over the same people; which cannot consist with their peace.

^ And if the excesses be madness, there is no doubt but the passions themselves, when they tend to evil, are degrees of the same.

[98] .Recently, there has also been an increase in racial violence between African immigrants and Blacks who have already lived in the country for generations.^ That they were descended from Jews who had originally migrated there from Palestine confirms theywere racial members of the tribe of Judah!

^ This argues that the king of the Khazars, who already had a Hebrew title at the time of his conversion to Judaism, may have already been a racial member of the house of Judah.

^ Legends tell that in this world, there always live thirty-six men who are also called Tzadikim Nistarim, or the Hidden Just Men.

[99]
The Aztlan movement has been described as racist. The movement's goal involves the pursuit of repossessing the American southwest. .It has also been called the Mexican "reconquista" (re-conquest) whose name was inspired by the Spanish reconquista, which led to the expulsion of the Moors from Spain.^ Sangre Chicana Sangre Chicana (Spanish for Chicano Blood) is the ring name of Mexican professional wrestler Andrés Durán Reyes.
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^ The names of the original eight reindeer are taken from Clement Clarke Moore's 1823 poem A Visit from St. Nicholas, which led to the popularity of reindeer as Christmas symbols.Source..
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[100] .According to gang experts and law enforcement agents, a longstanding race war between the Mexican Mafia and the Black Guerilla family, a rival African American prison gang, has generated such intense racial hatred among Mexican Mafia leaders or shot callers, that they have issued a "green light" on all blacks.^ They have the final say on all issues of "personal status," which feminists will recognize as the famous private sphere in which civilly subordinate women are traditionally imprisoned.

^ Yesterday, Black voters unseated a Republican in Mississippi whch spells doom for the party of the rich according to experts!

^ David Caton, Florida director of the Rev. Donald Wildmon's American Family Association, announced a boycott of all Disney products and theme parks.

A sort of gang-life fatwa, this amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.[101]
.In Britain, tensions between minority groups can be just as strong as any minority group suffers with the majority population.^ In the late 1980s, the major conservative Christian groups suffered a series of public setbacks.

In Birmingham, there have been long-term divisions between the Black and South Asian communities, which were illustrated in the Handsworth riots and in the smaller 2005 Birmingham riots. .In Dewsbury, a Yorkshire town with a relatively high Muslim population, there have been tensions and minor civil disturbances between Kurds and South Asians.^ A relatively new development area a few kilometres south of Otta, the population (SSB 2005) of Sandbumoen is 285.
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[102]
.During the Congo Civil War (1998-2003), Pygmies were hunted down like game animals and eaten.^ From her I got a clear picture of what it is like to be hunted down - for more then one generation.

^ Although his home state of Kentucky did not secede from the Union, Preston served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and attained the rank of major general.

^ For he that hath seen by what courses and degrees a flourishing state hath first come into civil war, and then to ruin; upon the sight of the ruins of any other state will guess the like war and the like courses have been there also.

.Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers.^ Others are dependent; that is to say, subordinate to some sovereign power, to which every one, as also their representative, is subject.

^ There are literally dozens of politicians, military men (including generals on both sides of the Civil War), preachers, doctors and authors.

UN human rights activists reported in 2003 that rebels had carried out acts of cannibalism. Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, has asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.[103] A report released by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination condemns Botswana's treatment of the 'Bushmen' as racist.[104]
Some 70,000 black African Mauritanians were expelled from Mauritania in the late 1980s.[105] In the Sudan, black African captives in the civil war were often enslaved, and female prisoners were often used sexually.[106] The Darfur conflict has been described by some as a racial matter.[107] In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport the Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[108] .This population numbered about 150,000.[109] While the Government was rounding Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing Government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages.^ In the fashion layout, three women in swimsuits are posed as if they are looking at and moving away from two men on motorcycles.

^ John C. Jr., died a Captain and has ason John C. now a Captain in the U.S. Navy, and two girls not married.

[110] .The Ethiopian Jewish community's integration to Israeli society has been complicated by racist attitudes on the part of some elements of Israeli society and the official establishment.^ In some ways, Obama would seem a natural fit for the Jewish community, which is disproportionately Democratic, liberal and pro-civil rights.

[111][112] .The Israeli media reported that residents of Pisgat Ze'ev, a large Jewish settlement in East Jerusalem, had formed a vigilante-style patrol to stop interracial dating between Arab men and local Jewish girls.^ Behind the great iron bars, where women are voluntarily locked in to stay alive, there is a living model of Palestinian-Israeli cooperation: behind the iron bars that keep out the violent men--Jewish and Arab.

^ Are Jewish women going to be destroyed again by Nazis, this time with Israeli men as their surrogates?

^ Other groups of immigrants followed...When, in the 8th century, the Arabs conquered part of Daghestan, they found a large Jewish population there."

.In the 2007 poll, more than half of Israeli Jews said that intermarriage should be equated with “national treason”.^ More than a half-dozen strong Democratic candidates are competing for Republican-held seats in states from Maine to New Mexico.

^ "I would be more worried if I was in a third tier financial centre like Paris or Frankfurt than in London or New York," he said.

^ I should have said malarkey.” WASHINGTON -- Addressing the Israeli parliament, President Bush set off a political firestorm today with an apparent criticism of Sen.

[113]
.The mass demonstrations and riots against African students in Nanjing, China, lasted from December 1988 to January 1989.[114] Bar owners in central Beijing had been forced “not to serve black people or Mongolians” during the 2008 Summer Olympics.^ It appeared in a bathroom for female athletes during the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.
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^ March 2006 April 2006 May 2006 June 2006 July 2006 August 2006 September 2006 October 2006 November 2006 December 2006 January 2007 February 2007 March 2007 April 2007 May 2007 June 2007 July 2007 August 2007 September 2007 October 2007 November 2007 December 2007 January 2008 February 2008 March 2008 April 2008 May 2008 June 2008 July 2008 August 2008 September 2008 October 2008 November 2008 December 2008 January 2009 February 2009 March 2009 April 2009 June 2009 July 2009 August 2009 Current Posts .

^ Sang competed for China in badminton at the 2004 Summer Olympics in men's doubles with partner Zheng Bo.
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[115] Some neighborhood committees in Guangzhou bar Africans from living in residential complexes.[116]
.In France, home to Europe’s largest population of Muslims — about 6 million — as well as the continent’s largest community of Jews, about 600,000, anti-Jewish violence, property destruction, and racist language has been wildly increasing over the last several years and French-Jews are worried more every month that it will spiral even higher.^ Enfantin stayed there two years, and might have entered Ali's service had he professed himself, as several of his followers did, a Muslim .

^ In 1933 and1946, the shower produced brief but intense meteor storms (more than5,000 per hour); in 1998, it reached a rate of about 500 meteors anhour over eastern Europe.

^ Even so, the strongest support for Premillennialism is found in the clear teaching of Revelation 20:1-7, where it says, six times, that Christ's kingdom will last 1,000 years.

.Jewish leaders perceive as intensifying anti-Semitism in France, mainly among Muslims of Arab or African heritage, but also growing among Caribbean islanders from former colonies.^ Jon Jewish allies of the Rev. John Hagee rushed to his defense yesterday to say the Texas evangelist is not anti-Semitic despite Sen.

^ Farrakahn Claims Jewish Boys are Natorious Masturbators Jewish Mothers are up in arms after reading the latest anti-semitic lies of Farrakahn that claim Jewish boys - and men - jackoff to Holocaust Porn!

[117][118]
.Serious race riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in 1949.[119] Ne Win's rise to power in Burma in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" led to an exodus of some 300,000 Burmese Indians.^ Traditionally known as le Refuge, this migration led to the exodus of nearly 200,000 Protestants out of France in 1685 at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

^ Traditionally known as le Refuge, this migration led to the exodus of nearly 200,000 Protestants out of France in 1685 at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes."

^ It appears the Flash Gordon T.V. series was produced in order to prepare common Earthlings for the eventual rise of the Royal Race of the Aliens Redeemed.

[120] .They migrated to escape racial discrimination and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[121] The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964 put an end to the local Arab dynasty.^ That they were descended from Jews who had originally migrated there from Palestine confirms theywere racial members of the tribe of Judah!

^ These socialist communes were built in response to the Industrial Revolution in Europe that put many people out of work, and put an end to the pastoral Arcadian ideals.

^ Years later, after he opened a bakery in Brooklyn, "I got disgusted, because they killed Jews," he said, citing neighborhood crimes committed by African-Americans.

Thousands of Arabs and Indians in Zanzibar were massacred in riots, and thousands more were detained or fled the island.[122] On 4 August 1972, Idi Amin, President of Uganda, ethnically cleansed Uganda's Asians giving them 90 days to leave the country.[123] The Jakarta riots of May 1998 targeted many Chinese Indonesians.[124] The anti-Chinese legislation was in the Indonesian constitution until 1998. Xenophobia against Chinese migrants is currently on the rise in Africa[125][126][127] and Oceania.[128][129] .Anti-Chinese rioting, involving tens of thousands of people,[130] broke out in Papua New Guinea in May 2009.[131] The Fiji coup of 2000 has provoked a violent backlash against the Indo-Fijians.^ Whoever is born out of treacherymust> not be slain against his will, because demons are conceived when> people die in rage.> Isis trained the child to be Her guard.

^ And therefore whatsoever examples may be drawn out of history concerning the election of pastors by the people or by the clergy, they are no arguments against the right of any civil sovereign, because they that elected them did it by his authority.

^ American evangelicals came out strongly against terrorists, with some calling Islam a violent religion.

[132] Fiji citizens of Indian, European, mixed race or other island heritage have become second-class citizens.[133][134] Racial divisions also exist in Guyana[135] and Malaysia.[136]

See also

References & notes

  1. ^ "racism". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009-03-16. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/racism. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  2. ^ a b c d Minorities, Race, and Genomics
  3. ^ UN International Convention on the Elimination of All of Racial Discrimination, NEW YORK 7 March 1966
  4. ^ A. Metraux (1950) "United nations Economic and Security Council Statement by Experts on Problems of Race" in American Anthropologist 53(1): 142-145)
  5. ^ The CPS : Racist and Religious Crime - CPS Prosecution Policy
  6. ^ Wellman, David T. (1993). Portraits of White Racism. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. x. 
  7. ^ Cazenave, Noël A.; Darlene Alvarez (1999). “Defending the White Race:White Male Faculty Opposition to a White Racism Course” Race and Society 2. pp. 25–50. 
  8. ^ Feagin, Joe R. (2000). Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 6. 
  9. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2009-04-22-scotus-firefighters_N.htm?loc=interstitialskip
  10. ^ http://academic.udayton.edu/race/04needs/education03.htm
  11. ^ Sendhil Mullainathan and Marianne Bertrand (2003). "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination", NBER Working Paper No. 9873, July, 2003).
  12. ^ Richard W. Race, Critics have replied that Carmichael's definition glosses over individual responsibility and leaves no room to question whether the members of a group are failing or not meeting standards due not to discrimination but due to their own dysfunctional behaviour and bad choices. Analysing ethnic education policy-making in England and WalesPDF (47.2 KiB), Sheffield Online Papers in Social Research, University of Sheffield, p.12. Accessed 20 June 2006.
  13. ^ ""Effects on Africa"". "Ron Karenga". http://www.africawithin.com/karenga/ethics.htm. 
  14. ^ “Toward a World without Evil: Alfred Métraux as UNESCO Anthropologist (1946-1962)”, by Harald E.L. Prins, UNESCO (English)
  15. ^ Text of the Convention, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966
  16. ^ http://www.lbr.nl/internationaal/charter%20uk.html
  17. ^ Pierre-André Taguieff, La force du préjugé, 1987 (French)
  18. ^ The Conservation of Races - W.E.B. DuBois, 1897 (p. 21)[1]
  19. ^ The Idea of National Superiority in Central Europe, 1880 – 1918, Marius Turda, ISBN 0-7734-6180-9 ISBN 978-0-7734-6180-2, 2005
  20. ^ National Analytical Study on Racist Violence and Crime, RAXEN Focal Point for ITALY - Annamaria Rivera [2]
  21. ^ David C. Rowe in Heredity 87 (2001) 254-255 : Book review on The Emperor's New Clothes: biological theories of race at the new millennium. Joseph L. Graves Jr. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 2001, ISBN 0-8135-2847-X) [3]
  22. ^ INTER-AMERICAN CONVENTION AGAINST RACISM AND ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AND INTOLERANCE - Study prepared by the Inter-American Juridical Committee, 2002 [4]
  23. ^ [5] Boycot Durban II By Pascal Bruckner, 16/06/2008
  24. ^ On this "nationalities question" and the problem of nationalism, see the relevant articles for a non-exhaustive account of the state of contemporary historical researches; famous works include: Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (1983); Eric Hobsbawm,The Age of Revolution : Europe 1789-1848 (1962), Nations and Nationalism since 1780 : programme, myth, reality (1990); Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (1991); Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital and European States AD 990-1992 (1990); Anthony D. Smith, Theories of Nationalism (1971), etc.
  25. ^ John Stuart Mill, Considerations on Representative Government, 1861
  26. ^ a b Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951)
  27. ^ Maurice Barrès, Le Roman de l'énergie nationale (The Novel of National Energy, a trilogy started in 1897)
  28. ^ The Removal of Agency from Africa by Owen 'Alik Shahadah
  29. ^ RACE AND RACISM IN THE WORKS OF DAVID HUME by Eric Morton
  30. ^ a b [Race and Racism ( O.R.P.) (Oxford Readings in Philosophy) (Paperback)] by Bernard Boxill
  31. ^ Charles Darwin (1871). "The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex". John Murray. http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F937.1&viewtype=text&pageseq=245. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  32. ^ Desmond, Adrian; Moore, James (1991). Darwin. London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. ISBN 0-7181-3430-3. OCLC 185764721.  pp. 28, 147, 580.
  33. ^ UNESCO, The Race Question, 1950
  34. ^ Matsuo Takeshi (University of Shimane, Japan). L'Anthropologie de Georges Vacher de Lapouge: Race, classe et eugénisme (Georges Vacher de Lapouge anthropology) in Études de langue et littérature françaises 2001, n°79, pp. 47-57. ISSN 0425-4929 ; INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 25320, 35400010021625.0050 (Abstract resume on the INIST-CNRS
  35. ^ On A Neglected Aspect Of Western Racism, Kurt Jonassohn, December 2000
  36. ^ Pascal Blanchard, Sandrine Lemaire and Nicolas Bancel (August 2000). "Human zoos - Racist theme parks for Europe's colonialists". Le Monde Diplomatique. http://mondediplo.com/2000/08/07humanzoo.  (English); "Ces zoos humains de la République coloniale". Le Monde diplomatique. August 2000. http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2000/08/BANCEL/14145.html.  (French) (available to everyone)
  37. ^ Human Zoos, by Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard and Sandrine Lemaire, in Le Monde diplomatique, August 2000 (English) French - free
  38. ^ Savages and Beasts - The Birth of the Modern Zoo, Nigel Rothfels, Johns Hopkins University Press (English)
  39. ^ The Colonial Exhibition of May 1931PDF (96.6 KiB) by Michael G. Vann, History Dept., Santa Clara University, USA
  40. ^ Robert Kurzban , John Tooby, and Leda Cosmides (December 18, 2001). "Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (26): 15387–15392. doi:10.1073/pnas.251541498. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11742078. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/papers/eraserace.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-11. . The authors provide a summary and other comments at "(untitled)". http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/erasingrace.htm. .
  41. ^ New Scientist. Issue 2595, 17 March 2007.
  42. ^ AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL USA http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?lang=e&id=ENGUSA20070321002
  43. ^ Edward Russel of Liverpool, The Knights of Bushido, 2002, p.238, Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2001, p.313, 314, 326, 359, 360, Karel Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese power, 1989, p.263-272
  44. ^ Anti-Haitianism, Historical Memory, and the Potential for Genocidal Violence in the Dominican Republic University of Toronto Press ISSN 1911-0359 (Print) 1911-9933 (Online) Issue Volume 1, Number 3 / December 2006 DOI 10.3138/7864-3362-3R24-6231
  45. ^ El Diario/LA PRENSA OnLine
  46. ^ The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, Edwin Bryant, 2001
  47. ^ Trivedi, Bijal P (2001-05-14). "Genetic evidence suggests European migrants may have influenced the origins of India's caste system". Genome News Network (J. Craig Venter Institute). http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/05_01/Indo-European.shtml. Retrieved 2005-01-27. 
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  53. ^ a b Bernard Lewis (2003). "From Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry". in Kevin Reilly, Stephen Kaufman, Angela Bodino. Racism: A Global Reader. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 52–8. ISBN 0765610604. 
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  56. ^ Race, Evolution, and Behavior, unabridged edition, 1997, by J. Phillipe Rushton pg 97-98
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  71. ^ Chasing Freedom Exhibition: the Royal Navy and the Suppression of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
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  79. ^ Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. 290) - "2.8 million young, healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans, "mainly by starvation ... in less than eight months" of 1941-42, before "the decimation of Soviet POWs ... was stopped" and the Germans "began to use them as laborers" (emphasis added).
  80. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.280
  81. ^ Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe. Selections from: "Poland under Nazi Occupation", by Janusz Gumkowkski and Kazimierz Leszczynski
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  83. ^ Heinrich Himmler Speech before SS Group Leaders Posen, Poland 1943. Hanover College Department of History
  84. ^ Recomnetwork.org - recomnetwork Resources and Information. This website is for sale!
  85. ^ SPLCenter.org: The Rift
  86. ^ http://www.michnews.com/artman/publish/article_12516.shtml
  87. ^ http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/frontpage/index.ssf?/base/news-4/1137481512176100.xml
  88. ^ Thomas J. Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty: the Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North (Random House: New York, 2008), 533-543.
  89. ^ Race relations | Where black and brown collide | Economist.com
  90. ^ Riot Breaks Out At Calif. High School, Melee Involving 500 People Erupts At Southern California School
  91. ^ California Prisons on Alert After Weekend Violence
  92. ^ JURIST - Paper Chase: Race riot put down at California state prison
  93. ^ Racial segregation continues in California prisons
  94. ^ A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black gangs is spreading across Los Angeles
  95. ^ The Hutchinson Report: Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter
  96. ^ Reconquistador
  97. ^ Commentary: Black-brown friction waste of energy
  98. ^ Filipino Migrant Workers in California
  99. ^ African immigrants face bias from blacks
  100. ^ La Voz de Aztlan
  101. ^ BAW: The Hutchinson Report: Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter
  102. ^ http://www.dewsburyreporter.co.uk/viewarticle.aspx?sectionid=28&articleid=2955186 http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/guide/seat-profiles/dewsbury bit
  103. ^ DR Congo Pygmies appeal to UN
  104. ^ UN Condems Botswana's Racism. Survival International. August 31, 2002.
  105. ^ MAURITANIA: Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance. IRIN Africa. March 5, 2007.
  106. ^ Arab militia use 'rape camps' for ethnic cleansing of Sudan. Telegraph. May 30, 2004.
  107. ^ Racism at root of Sudan's Darfur crisis. Csmonitor.com. July 14, 2004.
  108. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | Niger starts mass Arab expulsions
  109. ^ Reuters AlertNet - Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate
  110. ^ UNHCR | Refworld - The Leader in Refugee Decision Support
  111. ^ "Ethiopian Israelis love their country but not the racism". Ethiomedia.com. February 15, 2006.
  112. ^ "Why Jews see racism in Israel". Csmonitor.com. September 1, 2009.
  113. ^ "Israeli drive to prevent Jewish girls dating Arabs". The National. September 25, 2009.
  114. ^ Black Africa Leaves China In Quandary. The New York Times. December 30, 1988.
  115. ^ Fears of a 'no-fun' Olympics in Beijing. The Age. July 19, 2008.
  116. ^ Out of Africa and into China, emigres struggle. Reuters. August 20, 2009.
  117. ^ Anti-Semitism seen rising among France's Muslims
  118. ^ French Jews flee to Israel as racist attacks mount, The Independent, January 7, 2003
  119. ^ Current Africa race riots like 1949 anti-Indian riots: minister. TheIndianStar.com. May 26, 2008.
  120. ^ Martin Smith (1991). Burma - Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 43–44,98,56–57,176. 
  121. ^ Asians v. Asians. TIME. 17 July 1964.
  122. ^ Country Histories - Empire's Children. Channel 4.
  123. ^ 1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda. BBC.
  124. ^ BBC News | Analysis | Indonesia: Why ethnic Chinese are afraid
  125. ^ Algeria: Xenophobia against Chinese on the rise in Africa. Afrik.com. August 5, 2009.
  126. ^ "Rioters attack Chinese after Zambian poll". Telegraph. October 3, 2006.
  127. ^ "LESOTHO: Anti-Chinese resentment flares". IRIN Africa. January 24, 2008.
  128. ^ Spiller, Penny: "Riots highlight Chinese tensions", BBC News, Friday, 21 April 2006, 18:57 GMT
  129. ^ "Editorial: Racist moves will rebound on Tonga", New Zealand Herald, November 23, 2001
  130. ^ "Looters shot dead amid chaos of Papua New Guinea's anti-Chinese riots". The Australian. May 23, 2009.
  131. ^ "Overseas and under siege". The Economist. August 11, 2009.
  132. ^ Future bleak for Fiji's Indians. BBC News. July, 2000.
  133. ^ Dealing with the dictator. The Australian. April 16, 2009.
  134. ^ Fiji Islands: From Immigration to Emigration. Brij V. Lal. The Australian National University.
  135. ^ "Guyana's staggering crime crisis". The Jamaica Observer. January 26, 2003.
  136. ^ "Racism alive and well in Malaysia". Asia Times. March 24, 2006.

Further reading

  • Allen, Theodore. (1994). 'The Invention of the White Race: Volume 1 London, UK: Verso.
  • Allen, Theodore. (1997). .The Invention of the White Race: Volume 2 London, UK: Verso.
  • Barkan, Elazar (1992), The Retreat of Scientific Racism : Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
  • Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo.^ But several model communities, calling themselves phalangsteries, were established in the United States, among them New Harmony.

    ^ "Meeting" was a failure, in spite of the remarkable men who followed Considering through the ocean and the United States, because that started in full American Civil War .

    ^ "I would be more worried if I was in a third tier financial centre like Paris or Frankfurt than in London or New York," he said.

    2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. .Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Dain, Bruce (2002), A Hideous Monster of the Mind : American Race Theory in the Early Republic, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (18th century US racial theory)
  • Diamond, Jared (1999), "Guns, Germs, and Steel", W.W. Norton, New York, NY.
  • Daniels, Jessie (1997), White Lies: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse, Routledge, New York, NY.
  • Daniels, Jessie (2009), Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD.
  • Ehrenreich, Eric (2007), The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.
  • Ewen & Ewen (2006), "Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality", Seven Stories Press, New York, NY.
  • Feagin, Joe R. (2006).^ She noted that the addition of a Jewish slaveowner in her book was intended to write back into history “the story the Nazis had written out” — that is, the mingling of Jews and Christians before Jewish emancipation in the late 18th century.

    ^ By the early 18th century, when Nassy lived, the Dutch and Portuguese were joined by a group of new immigrants: Germans and British.

    ^ Today's Washington Post reports on the radical right's attack on the new movie about Kinsey.

    Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression, Routledge: New York, NY.
  • Feagin, Joe R. (2009). .Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations, 2nd Edition.Routledge: New York, NY.
  • Gibson, Rich (2004) Against Racism and Nationalism http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/%7Ergibson/againstracism.htm
  • Graves, Joseph.^ My Prophetic Myanmar Posts http://www.theocracywatch.org/faith_base.htm (Images: Monks in Myanmar.

    ^ The Leeds edition launched on 30th September 2003, Hull on 15th March 2004, York on 15th October 2004 and Nottingham o..
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Martinism http://www.gnostique.net/initiation/RER.htm http://www.gnostique.net/tradition.htm Sabbatai Sevi controversy and the Ottoman reform in Egypt.

    (2004) The Race Myth NY: Dutton.
  • Ignatiev, Noel. 1995. How the Irish Became White NY: Routledge.
  • Lentin, Alana. .(2008) Racism: A Beginner's Guide Oxford: One World.
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1952), Race and History, (UNESCO).
  • Memmi, Albert, Racism, University of Minnesota Press (1999) ISBN 978-0816631650
  • Rocchio, Vincent F. (2000), Reel Racism : Confronting Hollywood's Construction of Afro-American Culture, Westview Press.
  • Smedley, Audrey and Brian D. Smedley.^ On a boat ride to Martinique in 1941 Breton met the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss and discussed with him artistic creation.

    ^ It was the Marquis de Chambrun who met General Pershing and Patton when the first American army expedition landed in France during World War One.

    (2005) "Race as Biology if Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem is Real." American Psychologist 60: 16-26.
  • Smedley, Audrey. .2007. Race in North America: Origins and Evolution of a World View.^ It is a Grade I race for horses three years old and up and is considered the most important race for older horses in North America during the winter racing season.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bembicines are predators on various groups of insects, and are most diverse and abundant in arid regions of the world, primarily in North and South America.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Boulder, CO: Westview.
  • Stokes, DaShanne (forthcoming), Legalized Segregation and the Denial of Religious Freedom, URL.
  • Stoler, Ann Laura (1997), "Racial Histories and Their Regimes of Truth", Political Power and Social Theory 11 (1997), 183–206. (historiography of race and racism)
  • Taguieff, Pierre-André (1987), La Force du préjugé : Essai sur le racisme et ses doubles, Tel Gallimard, La Découverte.
  • Trepagnier, Barbara.^ Santa Regina (ferry) MV Santa Regina Year Built: 1985 Builder: Ateliers et Chantiers du Havre, Le Havre, France.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sangonet SANGONeT is a South African civil society organisation with a focus on ICTs founded in 1987, and has a history closely linked to the social and political changes experienced by South Africa during its transition to democracy.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2006. Silent Racism: How Well-Meaning White People Perpetuate the Racial Divide. .Paradigm Publishers.
  • Twine, France Winddance (1997), Racism in a Racial Democracy: The Maintenance of White Supremacy in Brazil, Rutgers University Press.
  • UNESCO, The Race Question, 1950
  • Tali Farkash, "Racists among us" in Y-Net (Yediot Aharonot), "Jewish Scene" section, April 20, 2007
  • Winant, Howard The New Politics of Race (2004)
  • Winant, Howard and Omi, Michael Racial Formation In The United States Routeledge (1986); Second Edition (1994).
  • Wohlgemuth, Bettina.^ Sandy Hook Sandy Hook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sandy Hook, ConnecticutSandy Hook, KentuckySandy Hook, MississippiSandy Hook, on the coast of New Jersey (See also Sandy.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico Santa Ana Pueblo is a census-designated place located in Sandoval County, New Mexico, in the United States.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sand Ridge, New York Sand Ridge is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Oswego County, New York, United States.
    • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Racism in the 21st century - How everybody can make a difference", Saarbrücken, DE, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K., (2007). ISBN 978-3-8364-1033-5
  • Wright W. D. (1998) "Racism Matters", Westport, CT: Praeger.

External links

Racism free Homepage [9]

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Race article)

From Wikiquote

Race is a grouping of animals within a species, particularly humans, on the basis of heredity and stereotyped physical traits. Among humans race is often used as a basis for participation in or exclusion from social activities. .The construction of racial groupings varies by culture and time, and is often influenced by political considerations.^ San Francisco Mime Troupe The San Francisco Mime Troupe is a group of political, satirical actors, who perform free shows in various parks in the San Francisco Bay Area and around California.
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Sourced

  • If somebody told me I only had an hour to live, I'd spend it choking a white man. I'd do it nice and slow.… The only white people I don't like are the prejudiced white people. .Those the shoe don't fit, well, they don't wear it.^ Well, women get beaten--and beaten to death--here too, don't they?

  • If you're a real American—that is, an American Indian—you're lucky to be alive. .For whether he really believed it or not, the white man has acted on the principle that "The only good Indian is a dead one". This was certainly one of the foundation stones upon which the white European invaders of North America and their descendants established and built the republic of the U.S.A.
  • Most of the American laws defining race are not to be compared with those once enforced by Nazi Germany, the latter being relatively more liberal.^ Sandeep Batra Sandeep Batra was one of the finalists of Fame Gurukul, one of the most watched Indian reality television shows.
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    ^ The Santa Ynez Mountains are a portion of the Transverse Ranges, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges of the west coast of North America, and are one of the northernmost mountain ranges in Southern California.
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    ^ It houses the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Autonomous University of Nuevo León), one of the most prestigious public schools in Latin America.
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    .In the view of the Nazis, persons having less than one fourth Jewish blood could qualify as Aryans, whereas many of the American laws specify that persons having one-eighth, one-sixteenth, or any ascertainable" Negro blood are Negroes in the eyes of the law and subject to all restrictions governing the conduct of Negroes.^ San Nicolás, Buenos Aires San Nicolás is one of the neighbourhoods of the Buenos Aires city in Argentina, in which most of the main banks and government institutions are located, as well as many offices.
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    ^ Sandals Negril Sandals Negril is one of the many all inclusive resorts in Negril Jamaica.
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    ^ From one point in Sandavágur you can get a view of all the southern island..
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    .
  • I look forward confidently to the day when all who work for a living will be one with no thought to their separateness as Negroes, Jews, Italians or any other distinctions.^ One other man who was present suffered no injuries.
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    ^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
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    ^ Sanjay Rath There are very few or no other articles that link to this one.Please help [[help:link|introduce links]] in articles on [related topics].
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    This will be the day when we bring into full realization the American dream — a dream yet unfulfilled. A dream of equality of opportunity, of privilege and property widely distributed; a dream of a land where men will not take necessities from the many to give luxuries to the few; a dream of a land where men will not argue that the color of a man's skin determines the content of his character; a dream of a nation where all our gifts and resources are held not for ourselves alone, but as instruments of service for the rest of humanity; the dream of a country where every man will respect the dignity and worth of the human personality. .
    • Martin Luther King, (11 May 1959) "Address at the Religious Leaders Conference"; Washington, D.C.
  • You have to look beyond race because as a human being you have to experience the person from the inside first.^ Sandie Disambiguation: you may also be looking for Sawney Sandie is the first album or L.P. by 1960s British girl singer Sandie Shaw.
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    .
    • Henrik Larsson, as quoted by Neil McLeman (2002-10-11) "Larsson: I Was Victim of Racists in Sweden" The Mirror (London)
  • I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will for ever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality.^ He is 10, and loves Timmy to a certain extent (as seen in Escape from Unwish Island, where Sanjay says he dreams about being rescued by Timmy on a white horse).
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    ^ Living with her husband and two children and working as an office assistant in Fort Lewis, Washington, she is also distinguished for being the only castaway (in this season) to never recei..
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    ^ Khazaria came to include not only portions of the Transcaucasus, but alsopart of the steppes north of the Black Sea.There is evidence that most Khazars were of the Caucasian race.

    And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be a position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race.
  • You guys have been practicing discrimination for years. Now it is our turn.
  • I don't care what people are saying Uptown or wherever they are. This city will be chocolate at the end of the day.… This city will be a majority African-American city. It's the way God wants it to be.
    • Ray Nagin (15 January 2006), speech commemorating Martin Luther King Jr. Day
  • The emotions between the races could never be pure; even love was tarnished by the desire to find in the other some element that was missing in ourselves. .Whether we sought out our demons or salvation, the other race would always remain just that: menacing, alien, and apart.^ One thing these arrogant demons will not be passing out, is free gasoline, cause Bush’s real close friends would look down and frown on that.

    ^ Jews have always believed that the “Savior of Israel” would be a man of flesh and blood like themselves that would deliver them out of oppression, pain and suffering.

    .
  • Racism is simply an ugly form of collectivism, the mindset that views humans strictly as members of groups rather than individuals.^ The group was formed in 1984 and other members include: Hubert Kemmler (singer and song writer), Markus Löhr, Klaus Hirschburge..
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    ^ Saint-Simonian ideals were influential in their generally meliorist view of the possibility of human progress and advocacy of social organization rather than laissez-faire.

    ^ Ten months earlier, I survived the threats of my girlfriend’s father who was a member of the purple gang.

    Racists believe that all individuals who share superficial physical characteristics are alike: as collectivists, racists think only in terms of groups. By encouraging Americans to adopt a group mentality, the advocates of so-called "diversity" actually perpetuate racism. Their obsession with racial group identity is inherently racist. The true antidote to racism is liberty. .Liberty means having a limited, constitutional government devoted to the protection of individual rights rather than group claims.^ SANOG SANOG is the South Asian Network Operators' Group which is heavily based on the North American NANOG. The focus of SANOG, however, is on Southern Asia rather than North America.
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    Liberty means free-market capitalism, which rewards individual achievement and competence, not skin color, gender, or ethnicity. .
  • Racism is the lowest, most crudely primitive form of collectivism.^ Official website: [http://www.sbcounty.gov/] |- class="hiddenStructure" !
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    ^ External link http://www.sinaloa.gob.mx/conociendo/municipios/sanignacio.htm ..
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    ^ [[Image:http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nmfs/images/big/figb0308.jpg] ..
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    .
  • I need say hardly anything in favor of the Intellects of the Negroes, or of their capacities for virtue and happiness, although these have been supposed by some to be inferior to those of the inhabitance of Europe.^ What I've found, says Tenen, is that these principlescorrespond to the numerical patterns of some of the basicgeometrical forms found in the physical world.

    The accounts which travelers give of their ingenuity, humanity and strong attachments to their parents, relations, friends and country, show us that they are equal to the Europeans.… All the vices which are charged upon the Negroes in the southern colonies, and the West Indies, such as Idleness, Treachery, Theft and the like, are the genuine offspring of slavery, and serve as an argument to prove, that they were not intended, by Providence, for it.
    • Benjamin Rush (1773) "On Slavekeeping"
  • Yeah, it was wise. .I mean, if black people kill black people every day, why not have a week and kill white people?… White people, this government and that mayor were well aware of the fact that black people were dying every day in Los Angeles under gang violence.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
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    ^ The de Luxe (meaning something luxurious, or elegant) was inaugurated on December 12, 1911 with a weekly schedule between Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California.
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    ^ It is completely surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, with the di..
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    So if you're a gang member and you would normally be killing somebody, why not kill a white person? .Do you think that somebody thinks that white people are better, are above and beyond dying, when they would kill their own kind?^ Both would be seen as a Savior if they win the White House.

    ^ You would think Jews in America would sympathise with the plight of slaves, as what was done to them, would later ben done to Jews in Germany.

    ^ One would think the 70 Jews who wrote the Septuagint would have given us a clew of their fate - but they do!

    .
    • Sister Souljah, remarks to Washington Post reporter David Mills (April 1992) on the wisdom of black-on-white violence during the 1992 Los Angeles riots
  • Among these widely differing families of men, the first that attracts attention, the superior in intelligence, in power, and in enjoyment, is the white, or European, the MAN pre-eminently so called, below him appear the Negro and the Indian.
  • The most formidable of all the ills that threaten the future of the Union arises from the presence of a black population upon its territory; and in contemplating the cause of the present embarrassments, or the future dangers of the United States, the observer is invariably led to this as a primary fact.
  • You may set the Negro free, but you cannot make him otherwise than an alien to the European.^ It is the tenth-most populous city in the United States, and has held the t..
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    ^ Note the method of securing to the foot by a thong between the toes In some parts of the United States, these type of..
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    ^ Santa Susana Mountains Santa Susana Mountains The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States.
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    Nor is this all we scarcely acknowledge the common features of humanity in this stranger whom slavery has brought among us. .His physiognomy is to our eyes hideous, his understanding weak, his tastes low; and we are almost inclined to look upon him as a being intermediate between man and the brutes.^ For the sake of our dear forefathers, and of our dear liberty, I entreat you a thousand times never let the eye of a monk look on these writings."

    ^ Upon this, Baba immediately protected him and gave the guide to understand He liked it.

    .
  • Nearly all black and brown skins are beautiful, but a beautiful white skin is rare.^ The have huge horses, all dusky brown or black.
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    .
    • Mark Twain (1899) Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World
  • The authority of science … promotes and encourages the activity of observing, comparing, measuring and ordering the physical characteristics of human bodies.… Cartesian epistemology and classical ideals produced forms of rationality, scientificity and objectivity that, though efficacious in the quest for truth and knowledge, prohibited the intelligibility and legitimacy of black equality….^ Its distinguishing characteristics are a well designed tail fin for swimming, a black body and a bro..
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    In fact, to "think" such an idea was to be deemed irrational, barbaric or mad. .
  • If you know the history of the whole concept of whiteness—if you know the history of the whole concept of the white race, where it came from and for what reason—you know that it was a trick, and it’s worked brilliantly.^ Two in 10 white West Virginia voters said race was an important factor in their votes.

    You see, prior to the mid to late 1600s, in the colonies of what would become the United States, there was no such thing as the white race. Those of us of European descent did not refer to ourselves by that term really ever before then. .
  • Basically, it suggests that if you spray-painted one of your starters white, you’d win a few more games.^ You won't say nothin' to no one, Ever in your life.You never heard it.How absurd it all seems, without any proof!

    ^ No more chit-chat with this goddess for you - unless you want to break your vow.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
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Look up race in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

See also

References

  1. Smedley, A., & Smedley, B. (2005). Race as Biology Is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on the Social Construction of Race. American Psychologist, 60,16-26.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|A racist poster for elections in Georgia, in 1866]] [[File:|thumb|American propaganda during the Second World War]]

File:Gas the arabs painted in
A Graffiti in Hebron reading Gas the Arabs. It is signed JDL, which stands for the Jewish Defense League

Racism is the belief that a particular race is better or worse than another, and that a person is born with their social and moral traits, which are related to their race. Racial separatism is the belief, which is based on racism most of the time, that different races should remain apart from one another. Racism has existed throughout human history. It may be defined as the hatred of one person by another -- or the belief that another person is less than human -- because of skin color, language, customs, place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person. It has influenced wars, slavery, the formation of nations, and legal codes.

During the past 500-1000 years, racism on the part of Western powers toward non-Westerners has had a far more significant impact on history than any other form of racism (such as racism among Western groups or among Easterners, such as Asians, Africans, and others). The most well known example of racism by the West has been slavery, especially making Africans slaves in the New World (slavery itself dates back thousands of years). This happened because of the racist belief that Bback Africans were not as human as white Europeans and their descendants.

This belief was not "automatic": that is, Africans were not always to be worse or less human. When Portuguese sailors first explored Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries, they came upon empires and cities as advanced as their own, and they thought Africans to be serious rivals. Over time, though, as African civilizations did not match the technological advances of Europe, and the major European powers began to take things from the continent and kidnap people who lived there, forcing them to work as slave laborers in new colonies across the Atlantic, Africans came to be seen as an inferior "species," as "savages." This view was necessary to justify the slave trade at a time when Western culture had begun to promote individual rights and human equality. The willingness of some Africans to sell other Africans to European slave traders also led to claims of savagery, based on the false belief that the "dark people" were all like brothers, and all part of one society - as opposed to many different nations, some of which were at war with one another.

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Examples

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Species, which are similar to those in the above article.








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