Radiopharmacology: Wikis

Advertisements
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Radiopharmacology is the study and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, which are radioactive pharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field of nuclear medicine as tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Many radiopharmaceuticals use technetium (Tc-99m). In the book Technetium by Klaus Schwochau, 31 different radiopharmaceuticals based on Tc-99m are listed for imaging and functional studies of the brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors.


Not all radionuclides, the radioactive portion of a radiopharmaceutical, are technically "isotopes" at all, however the term radioisotope has historically been used to refer to all radiopharmaceuticals and this usage remains common

Contents

History...

Production

Pharmaceutical production involves the two radiation:

  • Radionuclide production of pharmaceutical products which it is based.
  • Preparation and packaging of pharmaceutical radiological complete.


Radionuclides used in radiopharmaceuticals are mostly radioactive isotopes of elements with atomic numbers less than that of Bismuth, that is, radioactive isotopes of elements that also have one or more stable isotopes. These may be roughly divided into two categories:

  • Those with fewer neutrons in the nucleus to those required for stability are known as neutron-deficient, and tend to be most easily produced using a proton accelerator such as a medical cyclotron.
  • Those with fewer neutrons in the nucleus to those required for stability are known as neutron-deficient, and tend to be most easily produced using a proton accelerator such as a medical cyclotron.

Specific radiopharmaceauticals

A list of nuclear medicine radiopharmaceuticals follows. Some radioisotopes* are used in ionic or inert form without attachment to a pharmaceutical, these are also included. There is a section for each radioisotope with a table of radiopharmaceuticals using that radioisotope. The sections are ordered alphabetically by the English name of the radioisotope. Sections for the same element are then ordered by atomic mass number

Advertisements

Calcium - 47

47 Ca is the beta and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
California - 47-ca 2 + Bone metabolism IV In-vitro Not all radionuclides, the radioactive portion of a radiopharmaceutical, are technically "isotopes". Although, they are commonly referred to as such. (SEE Isotope) Non-imaging

Carbon - 11

11 c is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
C11 - L-methyl methionine Atsoer tumor in the brain
Imaging the thyroid gland
IV In-vivo Imaging

Carbon-14

14 c is a beta emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
C14 - Glycocholic acid Breath test for small intestine bacterial overgrowth Oral In-vitro Non-imaging
C14 - PABA (para amino benzoic acid) Studies of the pancreas Oral In-vitro Non-imaging
C14 - urea Breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori Oral In-vitro Non-imaging
D - C14 - xylose Breath test for small intestine bacterial overgrowth Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Chromium - 51

51 cr is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Cr51 - red blood cells s Red cell volume; guard posts; gastrointestinal blood loss IV In-vitro Non-imaging
Cr51 cr - 3 + Gastrointestinal protein loss IV In-vitro Non-imaging
Cr51 - EDTA acid (ethylenediaminetetraacetic) Glomerular filtration rate measurement IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Cobalt 57

57 co is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Co57 - Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Absorption gastrointestinal (Gastrointestinal absorption9) Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Cobalt 58

58 co is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Co58 - Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Absorption gastrointestinal (Gastrointestinal absorption) Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Erbium - 169

169 Er is a beta emitter.

Name cure Through the Department
Er169 - colloid Terms of rheumatoid arthritis Within the articular

Fluorine - 18

18 F is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
F18 - FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Tumor imaging
Imaging of the heart muscle
IV In-vivo Imaging
F18 - Fluoride Tsoiralazm IV In-vivo Imaging
F18 - Fluorocholine Camera prostate tumor IV In-vivo Imaging

Gallium - 67

67 Ga is a gamma emitter. See gallium scan.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Ga67 - Ga 3 + Tumor imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Ga67 - Ga 3 + Imaging infection / inflammation IV In-vivo Imaging

Gallium - 68

68 Ga is a positron emitter, with 68-minute half-life, produced by the extraction process of 68 germanium. See positron emission tomography.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Ga68 - Dotatoc or Dotatate Camera neuroendocrine tumor (Neuroendocrine tumor imaging) IV In-vivo Imaging

Hydrogen - 3

3 H or tritium is a beta emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
H3 - water All the water body Oral or IV In-vitro Non-imaging

Indium - 111

In 111 is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
In111 - DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta - acetic acid) GI transit Oral In-vivo Imaging
In111 - DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta - acetic acid) Cisternography Within the cisternal vIn-vivo Imaging
In111 - Leukocyte s Imaging infection / inflammation IV In-vivo Imaging
In111 - blood platelet s Camera stroke IV In-vivo Imaging
In111 - Pentetreotide Somatostatin receptor imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Iodine - 123

123 I is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In vitro / in vivo Imaging / non-imaging
I123 - iodide Thyroid uptake By mouth or IV In vivo -- Non-imaging
I123 - iodide Imaging the thyroid gland
Thyroid metastases imaging
By mouth or IV in-vivo Imaging
I123 - Q - Iodohippurate Renal imaging IV in-vivo Imaging
I123 - MIBG (m - iodobenzylguanidine) Neuroectodermal tumor imaging IV in-vivo Imaging
I123 - PHP - Communications and Information Technology SPECT imaging of Parkinson's disease IV In vivo-In-vivo Imaging

Iodine - 131

I 131 is a beta and gamma emitter.

Dx

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
I131 - iodide Thyroid uptake Oral In-vivo Non-imaging
I131 - iodide Camera Anbthat thyroid [[]] By mouth or IV In-vivo Imaging
I131 - MIBG (m - iodobenzylguanidine) Camera Neuroectodermal tumor IV In-vivo Imaging

Therapeutic

Name cure Through the Department
I131 - iodide Thyrotoxicosis IV or Oral
I131 - iodide Non-toxic goiter IV or Oral
I131 - iodide Thyroid cancer IV or Oral
I131 - MIBG (m - iodobenzylguanidine) Malignant disease IV

iron-59

[[]] Fe 59 is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Fe59 - iron or iron + 2 + 3 Iron metabolism IV In the laboratory Non-imaging

Krypton - 81m

81 SEK m is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In vitro / in vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Kr81m gas Lung ventilation imaging Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
SEK - 81m - aqueous solution Lung perfusion imaging IV In-vivo Imaging

Nitrogen - 13

13 N is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
N13 - ammonia Imaging blood flow in the heart muscle IV In-vivo Imaging

Oxygen - 15

15 O is a positron emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
O15 - water Imaging of blood flow to the brain
Imaging blood flow in the heart muscle
IV bolus In-vivo Imaging

Phosphorus - 32

32 P is a beta emitter.

Name cure Through the Department
P32 - phosphate Polycythemia and Related Disorders IV or Oral

Samarium - 153

153 Sm is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name cure Through the Department
Sm153 - EDTMP (Ethylenediaminotetramethylenephosphoric acid) Bone metastases IV

Selenium - 75

75 Se is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Se75 - Selenorcholesterol Imaging the adrenal gland IV In-vivo Imaging
Se75 - SeHCAT (Seleno - 23 - 25 - poof - Tauro - cholate) Absorption of bile salts Oral In-vivo Imaging

Sodium - 22

22 Na is a positron emitter and gamma.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Na22 Na + Studies of electrolyte IV or Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Sodium - 24

24 Na is a beta and gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Na24 Na + Studies of electrolyte IV or Oral In-vitro Non-imaging

Strontium - 89

89 Sr is a beta emitter.

Name cure Through the Department
Sr89 - chloride Bone metastases IV

Technetium - 99m

Tc 99m Is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Tc99m - pertechnetate Absorption of the thyroid gland and thyroid imaging
The stomach and salivary gland imaging
Meckel's diverticulum imaging
encephalography
Micturating cystogram
First pass blood flow imaging
First pass peripheral vascular imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - pertechnetate Lacrimal imaging Eye drops In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - human albumin Cardiac blood pool imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - human albumin Peripheral angiography IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - human albumin macroaggregates or microspheres Lung perfusion imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - human albumin macroaggregates or microspheres Lung perfusion imaging with venography IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Phosphonates and phosphates Imaging Bone IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Phosphonates and phosphates Imaging of the heart muscle IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta - acetic acid) Renal imaging
First pass blood flow studies
encephalography
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta - acetic acid) Lung ventilation imaging Aerosol Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - DMSA (V) (acid, dimercaptosuccinic) Tumor imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - DMSA (III) (acid, dimercaptosuccinic) Renal imaging IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - colloid Camera bone marrow
GI bleeding
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - colloid Lymph node imaging Interstitial In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - colloid Esophageal transit and reflux imaging Oral In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - colloid Lacrimal imaging Eye drops In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - HIDA (hepatic acid, iminodiacetic) Imaging system functional bile IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - bood Denatured red blood cells Red cell volume IV In-vitro Non-imaging
Tc99m - red blood cells GI bleeding
Cardiac blood pool imaging
Peripheral angiography
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - mag3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) Renal imaging
First pass blood flow imaging
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Exametazime Imaging of blood flow to the brain IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Exametazime described leucocytes Imaging infection / inflammation IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Sestamibi Imaging the thyroid gland
Non-specific tumor imaging
Camera tumor in the thyroid gland
galactography
Imaging of the heart muscle
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Sulesomab (IMMU - MN3 mice Fab '- u antigranulocyte fragments of monoclonal antibody) Imaging infection / inflammation IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Technegas Lung ventilation imaging Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - human immune system Imaging infection / inflammation IV vIn-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Tetrofosmin Imaging the thyroid gland
Imaging of the heart muscle
IV In-vivo Imaging
Tc99m - Early Childhood Development (Dimer-ethyl cysteinate) encephalography IV In-vivo Imaging

Thallium - 201

201 Tl is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Tl201 - Lit + Non-specific tumor imaging
Camera tumor in the thyroid gland
Imaging of the heart muscle
Imaging the thyroid gland
IV In-vivo Imaging

Xenon - 133

133 Xe is a gamma emitter.

Name Investigation Through the Department In-vitro / in-vivo Imaging / non-imaging
Xe133 gas Lung ventilation studies Inhalation In-vivo Imaging
Xe133 in isotonic sodium chloride solution cerebral blood flow IV In-vivo Imaging

Yttrium - 90

90 Y is a beta emitter.

Name cure Through the Department
Y90 - silicate Terms of rheumatoid arthritis Within the articular
Y90 - silicate Malignant disease Intracavitary

References

  • Guidance notes on the clinical management of radioactive materials and the use of sealed radioactive sources. Administration of radioactive substances advisory committee. December 1998. Produced by the National Council for the prevention of radiation.
  • Malabsorption. In: Merck Manual of aging, and chapter 111.
  • Leukoscan summary of product characteristics (Tc99m - Sulesomab).
  • Schwochau, Klaus. Technetium. Wiley VCH (2000). ISBN 3-527-29496-1

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message