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Rahul Sankrityayan
राहुल सांकृत्यायन
Rahul Sankrityayan
महापंडित राहुल सांकृत्यायन
Born Kedarnath Pandey
April 9, 1893(1893-04-09)
Pandaha Village, Azamgarh District, Uttar Pradesh, British India
Died April 14, 1963 (aged 70)
Darjeeling, West Bengal, India
Pen name Rahul Baba
Occupation Writer, Essayist, Scholar, Sociology, Indian Nationalist, History, Indology, Philosophy, Buddhism, Tibetology, Lexicography, Grammar, Textual Editing, Folklore, Science, Drama, Politics, Polymath, Polyglot
Nationality Indian
Ethnicity Indian
Citizenship Indian
Notable award(s) 1958: Sahitya Akademi Award
1963: Padma Bhushan
Official website

Rahul Sankrityayan (महापंडित राहुल सांकृत्यायन) (April 9, 1893 - April 14, 1963) was a Buddhist religious scholar , a Marxist philosopher, prolific writer, and the father of Hindi Travelogue[citation needed]. He is also known as a widely-traveled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. Though he was born as Hindu Brahmin, he embraced Buddhism; for a long time he lived as a Buddhist monk (Bauddh Bhikkhu) and eventually took up Marxism. Sankrityayan was an Indian nationalist, and was arrested and jailed for three years for creating anti-British writings and speeches. He is referred as the Greatest Scholar (Pandit) of all time (Mahapandit) for his scholarships in Asia . He was renowned polymath and polyglot.

Contents

Introduction

Dr. Rahul Sankrityayan

Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan's life and works are a challenging and difficult subject for any writer of a monograph, because on the one hand there is hardly any good comprehensive book on him, even in Hindi, and on the other the range and volume of his writings are so multifarious and vast that it is impossible to cover all aspects of his contribution in detail. His autobiography, titled Meri Jivan-Yatra (My Life’s Journey), was published in two volumes in 1944 and 1950, and have not been reprinted. They have 564 and 783 pages respectively; and they narrate the events of his busy life only up to 1944. Three volumes, published posthumously, also do not cover the last phase of his life. Innumerable diaries still remain unpublished.

His works which, as listed in the appendix, are 125 published titles in five languages: Hindi, Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan and Bhojpuri. The spectrum of subjects they cover includes philosophy, history, sociology, science, travelogue, biography, fiction, drama, essays, lexicography, grammar, textual editing and research. Tibetology, Buddhism, folklore, politics and pamphleteering.

Dr. Vasudevasharan Agarwal's wrote a tribute in M S. University of Baroda’s quarterly journal in English.

Early life and background

Rahul was born Kedarnath Pandey on April 9, 1893 at village Pandaha in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. His father Govardhan Pandey was a religious-minded farmer with humble means. Mother, Kulawanti, used to stay with her parents at village Pandaha, where Kedar was born. As his mother died at the age of twenty-eight and father at the age of forty- five, he was brought up by his grandfather Shri. Ram Saran Pathak and his grandmother. His earliest memories as recorded by him were of the terrible famine in 1897.

He was sent in November 1898 to a primary school called madarsa where he started his acquaintance with the Urdu alphabet. He was not very good at sports. His school-mates were Syed Shia Muslims. Amongst his early teachers he remembered Babu Pattar Singh who used to beat the students mercilessly in the Ranisarai Lower Primary School, Rahul narrates in detail, in 50 pages, in the Appendix No.2 of the in part of his autobiography, the story of his family pedigree and gotra from Vedic days to the days of his eccentric grandfather Ramsharan Pathak. He writes about his father too, where he describes how the father chased the vagrant son. Rahul's mother and only sister died in his early childhood. Rahul was married at a very young age, but had never seen his first wife.

Rahul led hardly a year or two of a settled married life. Firstly, in Leningrad, he married the Mongolian scholar Lola (Ellen Smertolna Sankrityayani) and had a son Igor. Neither the mother nor the sons were permitted, in the Stalinist regime, to join Rahul in India. Later, he married an Indian Nepali lady Dr. Kamala Sankrityayan, nee Kamala Periar, and spent a few years of married life at Masuri. But after the birth of Jaya and Jeta, a daughter and a son, he was invited by Sri Lanka Vidyalankara University, as a professor of Buddhism, and there he fell seriously ill. Diabetes, high blood pressure and a heart stroke took heavy toll of his overstrained health and, as referred to earlier, he lost his memory in his last two years and breathed his last at Darjeeling in 1963. There is a small monument at the place where he was cremated.

Personality

Rahul was a liberal humanist and a non-conformist. Many great personages gave their different views on Rahulji and used different tropes for him.

Personage Views on Rahulji
Shri. Amrit Rai He was six feet tall, with a wide forehead, broad chest, full shoulders-his build was like that of an ancient Aryan whose aspect would remind the distinguished oriental scholar Sylvan Levi of Lord Buddha.
Shri. Bhaqavatsharan Upadhyay A Column.
Shri. Thakurprasad Singh A Banyan Tree.
Shri. Vidyanivas Mishra A lover of Himalayas who went beyond Himalayas and became one with those Ranges.
Shri. Kashiprasad Jaiswal He wrote an article on him in Modern Review after Rahul’s return from Tibet with valuable material like manuscripts, paintings and rare texts. In it he compared him with Buddha, as far as the radiance of his appearance was concerned.

Travels

Born in a small village in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, in an orthodox Sarayuparina Brahmin family, the Young boy ran away from his home-in search of knowledge and work. Kedarnath Pandey was his original name. He learnt Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian in a traditional manner in Banaras; but all the other thirty languages he knew were acquired by himself. He changed his name and orthodox Sanatani Hindu belief to Baba Ram Udar Das, a wandering mendicant, and to Arya Samaj. Not satisfied with the Vedic dogmatism of Arya Samaj, he took to yellow robes and became a regular Buddhist bhikkhu (monk) alter his tours to Nepal and Sri Lanka. He learnt the Buddhist texts in Pali, Sinhalese and Tibetan, and acquired the degree of a Mahapandit and Tripitakacharya (one who has mastered all the three Pitaka’s or Holy Canons of Buddhism of the Theravada school). This led him to undertake a risky journey to the land of the Lamas where he staked his life, in learning Tibetan, by leading the life of a dumb sadhu. He also went to Europe, as a Buddhist missionary and saw many lndologists. But Europe did not attract him, nor did he accept the invitation to go to America to preach Buddhism.

At this stage in his life, Marxism attracted him to such an extent, that after his first journey to Soviet Russia, in 1935, he turned into a socialist zealot. He entered into active politics of the Kisan Sabha and Indian National Congress. He went to Soviet Russia three more times, in 1937, 1944 and in 1962. Unfortunately the last journey was for treatment, after he had lost his memory, but he returned uncured. He became a member of the Communist Party in Monghyr on 19 October 1939, and remained a Communist for nine years. In January 1948 the Indian Communist Party cancelled his membership for his Presidential speech at Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Bombay. He was always travelling from one post of knowledge to another, from one set of beliefs to another-a restless soul, ever in search of the human emancipation from misery.

When he was hardly ten years old, in 1903, he left his hometown secretly and went to Banaras. In 1907 and 1909 he went to Calcutta in search of a job and to become self-reliant. He writes that the desire to see the wide world and acquire more knowledge was the basic urge. Frustrated and lost in a metropolitan city like Calcutta. Rahul came back to his village. In 1909, at the age of sixteen, he left again for Calcutta and worked in a tobacco shop as an assistant. Here he ate some intoxicated sweets and fell unconscious. He had to be admitted to the Medical College Hospital.

Wander-Just and a desire to abandon the worldly ways of being square and systematically learning and earning, a kind of mendicant-like roaming attracted young Rahul in 1910. He was sensitive, and an introvert. He wanted to read Vedanta in original Sanskrit. This time when he left his home to join the Sadhus, he had no desire to work and earn, lead a settled life and enjoy good things. Life-and-world-negation or detachment had al- ready taken possession of his mind and soul. So his belongings were limited, his desires were more 'spiritual’. The very company of Sadhus turned him into a bitter critic of orthodoxy and blind belief. He ultimately became an atheist and a confirmed materialist-but this philosophical journey was very long and tortuous.

He did not know cooking and lived on alms in the beginning. Walking on foot, he went to Ayodhya and Moradabad. He travelled without ticket to Haridwar. The Himalayas attracted him immensely. After reaching Haridwar he wrote a postcard in a prose-poem form, in code language, to his schoolmate Yagesh. He travelled to Rishikesh and Devaprayag and through difficult mountain tracks to Badri-Kedar, Jamnotri and Gangotri. He smoked hashish along with the wandering Sadhus, but never became an addict. On 30 January 1948, after Mahatma Gandhi’s assassination, the same Rahul who had bitterly criticized Gandhi as a capitalist agent, in his Vaigyanik Bhautikvad (Scientific Materialism). took a vow never to touch a cigarette after that day, and stuck to it. He loved non-vegetarian food, but was a teetotaller. He was a person of immense strong will. The first brief journey to the Himalayas, at an early age of seventeen, left a deep impression on him. His soul was lured to travel beyond the Himalayas to forbidden lands. He returned to Banaras, where he lived in the monastery of Chakrapani Brahmnachari. He started learning Sanskrit Laghukaumudi, in a traditional manner, in October 1910. Once he travelled on foot to Chunar, Mirzapur and Allahabad. But in Banaras he learns many Sanskrit texts, poetic classics, works on grammar, medicine and astronomy. He even tried to get the blessings of some gods and goddesses, by undergoing the difficult siddhis and namajap.

Rahulji's sketch

In 1910, he started his regular travels, with Himalayas as the destination, first along with a group of mendicants and later alone. He travelled all over India, visiting several towns and cities for the next eleven years: Kashi, Parasa, Tirumishi, Tirupati, Kanchipur, Bangalore, Vijayanagar, Triyambak, Ujjain, Ahmedabad, Ayodhya, Agra, Lahore, Coorg and so on. In 1926 he went back to the Himalayas, to Tibet, Bushahar State, Sumnam, Kanam, Spiti and such far-off places.

The first rationalist quest in him came at the age of nineteen, when he listened to Pandit Ramavatar Sharma, who was a great scholar and yet did not believe in the Vedas, nor any gods. Rahul was admitted in the seventh class in the Dayanand School, where he learned English and mathematics. But formal education was not in his fate. Rahul became a regular Sadhu in Parasa math; his name was changed to Ram Udar Das. Here he did not like the cozy life of the would-be heir and master of the monastery, with the regular routine hours of ritualistic mumbo-jumbo in mechanical worship of temple-gods. He started reading Saraswati and Dawn, Hindi and English monthlies. He purchased some books in Sanskrit and Hindi.

As there was no arrangement for further education in that monastery, Rahul returned to his village Kanaila for a few months. But the desire to educate himself was very strong. The village offered no opportunities. So Rahul came back, at the age of twenty to Parasa monastery. Interest in various dialects and cultural anthropology seems to be his passion. He refers to the different systems of phonetics in Bhojpuri and Malli in Kashika or Banarasi branch of spoken Hindi. He also details the customs and rituals performed by women of different castes.

Feeling intellectually starved, Rahul ran away from Parasa in July 1913 and went to Hajipur by rail. Travelling without ticket via Asansol, Adra and Kharagpur, Rahul reached Puri. After seeing this pilgrim-centre, Rahul went to Madras. As a sadhu he lived in the free inn or satram. He travelled on foot to Tirumalai, where he stayed in an Uttararthi-matham. He started learning Tamil. He went to Punnamalai, Pachchaperumal, Tirumishi and Tinnanur. He visited all the religious places in the South as a sadhu. He went to Tirupati, Tirukalikundram, Kanchipuram and Rameshwaram.

In his autobiography, he gives a detailed description of his travels to Ramnad, Bangalore, Vijayanagar, Bagalkot, Pandharpur, Poona, Bombay, Nasik, Triambak, Kapildhara, Onkar Mandhata and Ujjain. At Ujjain he saw the Kumbha fair and was thoroughly disgusted with the quarrels amongst the big Sadhus. He travelled to Dakor, Ahmedabad and returned to Parasa monastery in 1914. His heart was not in looking after the property documents and administration of this math. Two photographers, S. Ganguli and Pindidas, from the Archaeological Department of the Government of India, visited this math. Rahul was very much attracted towards photography which later became his hobby. The life in the math was stifling. So Rahul left it secretly and went to Ayodhya. Here he came in contact with Arya Samaji preachers and started a lecture-and- debate society. He organised a meeting against a Brahmachari, who used to sacrifice goats at Devikali temple between Ayodhya and Faizabad, and was beaten by the orthodox priests. The matter was reported to the police. But Rahul was now dubbed as an Arya Samaji, an iconoclast and non-believer.

The period from 1915 to 1922, Rahul calls the period of New Light. His grandfather had died and father was still confident that he might become a good householder and lead a steady life. But Rahul was a rebel. He deliberately cooked and ate fish at Rajput and Muslim houses. He read many Arya Samaj books. In January 1915 he reached Agra and joined the Arya Musafir Vidyalaya. For two years he learnt Sanskrit, Arabic, theology of various religions and nationalist history. This disciplined life aroused in him love for simple living and also a kind of vague political consciousness which was prompted by reading several newspapers. In 1915 Kedarnath Vidyarthi started writing articles in Urdu for the Musafir, Agra. In Bhaskar, a Hindi magazine from Meerut, Rahul published his first long article in Hindi, exposing the hypocritical Sadhus, who cheated householders.

Rahulji's Tombstone at Darjeeling.

He started reading widely. Books against orthodox Hinduism by Aryasamajists, books by Christian missionaries criticising lslam, point-counter-point and declamatory prose, Maulavi Sanaullah’s Ahle-Hadis and many Kadiani journals were his first fare. From Vaishnavism to Vairagi Udasi sect, and from this monastic order to Arya Samaj, criticising caste distinctions, was a progressive mental journey towards rationalism. He wrote about an open theological debate in Jabalpur, in 1915, between Maulavis and Aryasamaji pandits-how they quoted texts from books, and how the discussion went on for two days. He was later given the work of writing the Quran in Devanagari and translating it in Hindi. But the payment was very poor. So he left it. While he was a student at Agra, Komagatamaru incident took place, wherein brave Sikhs had lost their lives, fighting British imperialism. All these events were agitating the young rebel's mind.

In 1916, Rahul decided to pursue his studies in Sanskrit, and so went to Lahore. His first encounter with Punjabi language and women was very interesting. He was reminded of Gatha-Saptashati when he encountered a Punjabi village belle at Kota. He travelled via Delhi and Haryana. Lahore was at that time the stronghold of Aryasamaji movement. Free thinking attracted him and so he left the monastery-loving Sadhus. Arya Samaj also seemed to him dogmatic and a blind alley in many respects. Rahul went to various Arya Samaj offices at Etawah, Kanpur and Lucknow. But this ‘Arya Musafir’ was not accepted at any place. At Rai Bareily he gave an extempore speech on Hindi language and literature and delivered lectures in Banaras. At Aharora. Rahul's father came spin requesting him to return to the village home and lands. But Rahul refused to return to the life he had once left. In those days he used to correspond in Sanskrit. Even his diaries in 1922, from 13 February to 9 August, when he was in Buxar jail as a political prisoner, are in Sanskrit. At places he tried to versify in Sanskrit, Arabic, Urdu and Hindi. He again tried to run away from Aharora. His heart-broken father accompanied him up to Banaras and tried to change Rahul's mind. But he failed. This was his last meeting with his father. For many years to come Rahul had never a home of his own. Rahul decided not to return to his home-district Azamgarh, until he completed fifty years of age. And he kept his decision.

In 1918, Rahul read some news about the Russian Revolution in Urdu, Hindi and English newspapers. He began to think of a New Atlantis or Utopia, an ideal Communist society, and even wrote out a draft in 1922 in Sanskrit verse. In 1923-24, while in Hazaribagh jail, he wrote his book Baisavin Sadi (Twenty-second century) which completed his political idealistic dream, in the form of a book. The first real encounter with politics came when Rahul had to see and experience the Martial Law regime in Lahore in April-May 1919. Here was a new challenge, where neither the Sanskrit theological equipment of the monastic, nor the Aryasamaji order was going to be of any use. The black days of ‘0’Dyer-shahi’ created a new wave of hatred against the British rule. “Many faces of Indians were getting de-masked", Rahul writes. Rahul failed in the Sanskrit Shastri examination, because of his strong opinions. Later Rahul went to Chitrakut and appeared in Kashi Nyayamadhyama examination in Sanskrit, in which, too, he failed. But he passed, in first class, in the Mimansa examination of Calcutta for which he appeared at Jabalpur.

The traveller’s itch was again troubling Rahul. In 1920, at the age of 27, Rahul left Karvi by rail, without ticket, and fell ill in Banaras and went to Sarnath for the first time. From Gorakhpur he went to Kasiya, the place of Buddha’s parinirvana. In his autobiography, he writes in ecstatic poetic language about this pilgrimage to Buddhist centres. From Gorakhpur he went to Nepal and visited Lumbini and Kapilvastu. The broken Asokan edict at the tank of Nigalihara attracted him. He expressed his desire to go to the land of Bhotias, and declined the offer of a Nepali Mahant (high priest) to adopt him as his disciple. He sarcastically refers to the affairs of these priests with hashish-smoking libertine Yoginis.

Rahul Baba's Words on Hindi

In 1923, Rahulji’s tours to foreign countries was started. His first journey was to Nepal. In 1927, he went to Sri Lanka. In 1930, he changed his name from Ram Udar Das to a regular Buddhist name, which stuck to him till the end-Rahul Sankrityayan. He went to Tibet four times. In his travelogues, he considers these tours to be the most difficult, dangerous and yet most satisfying and meaningful. In 1932, he went to Europe, where he saw life in France, Germany and England. In Soviet Russia, he taught at Leningrad University and made a special study of the Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union. He later wrote a monumental History of Central Asia. Madhya Asia ka ltihas, in two volumes and received the Sahitya Akademi Award for Hindi in 1958. Rahul travelled to various countries in the Middle and Far East. He went to Japan, Korea, Iran and China. His life from 1901 till his end in 1963, is a story of constant travelling. He made a philosophy out of it and wrote a ‘Treatise for Roamers’ Ghumakkar-Shastra.

But the travel bug never left him. He undertook hazardous journey to the forbidden land of Tibet. There were practically no roads. Only nomads and petty merchants traveled with loads on mules. Disguised as a Buddhist bhikku (mendicant), He entered Tibet via Kashmir, Ladakh, Kargil and started his journey on foot. Rahul's main purpose was to collect lost works in Sanskrit on Indian culture in general and Buddhism in particular. After Bakhtiyar Khilji’s burning the libraries of Nalanda and Vikramshila universities in the 13th century C.E, not many ancient texts in Sanskrit survived in India. Some were smuggled out on time to Tibet. There was general belief among Indian scholars that these were well preserved in Tibetan monasteries, but not explored. But Rahul found out most of these had disappeared. With great difficulty, he could salvage some from the ruins of a monastery, which were all in Bhot language and not in Sanskrit. He returned with the valuable manuscripts and some Thanka paintings which are preserved in Patna museum. Rahul visited Tibet, three more times. He mastered Tibetan language, wrote Tibetan primers, grammar and Tibetan-Hindi dictionary.

While he was in primary school, learning Urdu, the following couplet in the story Khudrai Ka Natija by Navazinda Bajinda, caught his young imagination. He quotes these lines many times in his autobiography:

Hindi English (Translated)
सैर कर दुनिया की गाफिल जिंदगानी फिर कहाँ, जिंदगानी गर रही तो नौजवानी फिर कहाँ। Oh you ignorant and idle, go and travel all over the wide world. You are not going to have another life for this. Even if you live longer, this youth is not going to return.

So don't stay at one place, be always moving-this was his motto in life. This travel-bug really charged Rahul’s personality -something which goaded him from within not to lead the dull and complacent life of a householder. He was ever moving, from place to place, from continent to continent, from one language area to another, from one field of human enquiry to another. He never believed in amassing anything or staying put. Seeking knowledge was an insatiable quest.

Once, while Historian Prabhakar Mawche was working with him, in Allahabad Hindi-Sahitya Sammelan, in 1948, in editing a 16000-word English to Hindi dictionary of administrative terms, someone criticized him for his hasty work and the incompleteness that resulted. After listening patiently to this gentleman's advice about thoroughness. Rahul smiled and said in his inimitable manner: Buddha has said nothing is stationary; everything is transient. Sabbam Khanikam. Lenin also remarked. ‘Nothing is final'. I don't believe that any human being is perfect. I do not have the monopoly of truth. I do my bit. Let the future generation improve upon me. These unforgettable words remind how Rahul was ever-conscious of his limitations.

Political career

Before narrating the interesting, risky and adventurous part of Rahul’s life-journey, his four trips to Tibet, Rahul’s political career may be given in brief. He calls it Entry into Politics (1921–27). He recalls that the first political speech he delivered was during the Non-cooperation movement in 1921, at Khandwa. As a Sadhu, in ochre robes, Rahul entered the District Indian National Congress Committee office at Salempur and declared his desire to start his work from Parasa. He humorously records that when the superstitious disciples did not leave the practice of offering sacrificed animals and hashish and wine to the so-called god-men, Rahul one day acted as if he were possessed of a new god named Gandhi and he shouted. "All gods are now with Gandhi Baba. Whosoever will offer hashish, wine and sacrificial animals, will be destroyed. I accurse them.” It had a very sobering effect. Rahul, the monk, engaged himself in serving the poor flood-afflicted masses at Chhapra. In those days social work and nationalist movement were not two different fields of activity. In Ekma he distributed spinning wheels with Gandhi School as the centre. He gave public speeches in Bhojpuri, full of discontent against the foreign rule. On January 31, 1922, he was arrested. In the prison they got a smuggled copy of Trotsky’s Bolshevism and World Revolution. Rahul composed a political bhajan, in Sanskrit, and sang it loudly to cheer his fellow jail-mates:

Sanskrit English (Translated)
श्रुणो श्रुणो रे पंत, अह्मि नह एकाकि Listen O travellers, I am not alone!

On pleading guilty, Rahulji was sentenced to six months simple imprisonment. He said Thanks, iron handcuffs were put on his hands. He writes, "When grandfather put silver bangles on both the wrists, they were almost like these handcuffs; the only difference is that one cannot work so well with these tied so closely. In Buxar jail he spent six months, composing impromptu verses in Brajbhasha, on 'files' and ‘black.’ They staged Bharatendu Harishchandra’s play Andher Nagari. In jail Rahulji started translating the Quran in Sanskrit. He also taught Upanishads and Vedanta to fellow inmates. News of activities inside the jail were smuggled out and published in Mazahrul Haq’s Mother Land.

After his release, he went to Bihar and worked with Dr. Rajendra Prasad (later President of India) who became a close friend. In those days social service was part of freedom struggle and he engaged himself in constructive activities laid down by Gandhiji. On 29 October 1922 Rahul Sankrityayan was elected the Secretary of the District Congress. Later, he became President of Azamgarh District Congress as well.

Books

It is difficult for any writer to include all the Books written by Rahulji. One of his most famous books in Hindi is named Volga se Ganga, meaning (A journey) from Volga to Ganga and is an attempt to present a fictional account of migration of Aryans from the steppes of the Eurasia to regions around the Volga river; then their movements across the Hindukush and the Himalayas and the sub-Himalayan regions; and their spread to the Indo-Gangetic plains of the subcontinent of India. The book begins from 6000 BC and ends in 1942, the year when Mahatma Gandhi, the Indian nationalist leader has given a call for quit India movement. The book is remarkable for its historical elements interwoven with fiction.

This book has been translated by K.N.Muthiya-Tamilputhakalayam in Tamil language as Valgavil irundu gangai varai and is still considered a bestseller and also translated in Telugu it inspiried many telugu people."Volga muthal Ganga vare",the Malayalam translation of this book,became immensely popular among the young intellectuals of Kerala and it continues to be one of the most influential and one of a kind hi"storic" book of its times.

Death

Rahulji died in Darjeeling on April 14, 1963 due to memory loss, diabetes, high blood pressure and a mild stroke.

Awards and honours

Rahulji was awarded Padmabhushan in 1963 and Sahitya Akademi Award in 1958 for his book Madhya Asia ka Itihaas. In 1993, on Rahulji's 100th Birthday a stamp on his name was launched by the Government of India. Many of his Books are translated in more than 100 languages like English, Russian, French etc. In honour of him, Patna Museum, Patna, has a special section, where a number of his books and other items have been displayed. A museum in Pandaha village at his home has also been established where a statue of Rahulji is also available.

Many awards in in his honour are launched by the Government of India.

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Awards in his honor

Award Precis Established By
Rahul Sankrityayan National Award Contribution to Hindi travel Literature (also called Travel Litterateur's Honour) Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Government of India
Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan Paryatan Puraskar Contribution in the field of travelogue and Discovery and Research in Hindi, for books written originally in Hindi on Tourism related subjects. Ministry Of Tourism, Government of India

Works by Rahul Sankrityayan

Novels

  • Baisvin Sadi - 1923
  • Jine ke Liye - 1940
  • Simha Senapathi - 1944
  • Jai Yaudheya - 1944
  • Bhago Nahin, Duniya ko Badlo - 1944
  • Madhur Svapna - 1949
  • Rajasthani Ranivas - 1953
  • Vismrit Yatri - 1954
  • Divodas - 1960
  • Vismriti Ke Garbh Me
Short Stories
  • Satmi ke Bachche - 1935
  • Volga Se Ganga - 1944
  • Bahurangi Madhupuri - 1953
  • Kanaila ki Katha - 1955-56
Autobiography
  • Meri Jivan Yatra I - 1944
  • Meri Jivan Yatra II - 1950
  • Meri Jivan Yatra III, IV, V - published posthumously
Biography
  • Sardar Prithvi Singh - 1955
  • Naye Bharat ke Naye Neta (2 volumes) - 1942
  • Bachpan ki Smritiyan - 1953
  • Atit se Vartaman (Vol I) - 1953
  • Stalin - 1954
  • Lenin - 1954
  • Karl Marx - 1954
  • Mao-Tse-Tung - 1954
  • Ghumakkar Swami - 1956
  • Mere Asahayog ke Sathi - 1956
  • Jinka Main Kritajna - 1956
  • Vir Chandrasingh Garhwali - 1956
  • Simhala Ghumakkar Jaivardhan - 1960
  • Kaptan Lal - 1961
  • Simhal ke Vir Purush - 1961
  • Mahamanav Budha - 1956
Some of his other books are:-
  • Mansik Gulami
  • Rhigvedic Arya
  • Ghumakkar Shastra
  • Kinnar desh mein
  • Darshan Digdarshan
  • Dakkhini Hindi ka Vyaakaran
  • Puratatv Nibandhawali
  • Manava Samaj

In Bhojpuri

  • Teen Natak - 1942
  • Panch Natak - 1942

Related to Tibetan

  • Tibbati Bal-Siksha - 1933
  • Pathavali (Vol. 1,2 & 3) - 1933
  • Tibbati Vyakaran (Tibetan Grammar) - 1933
  • Tibbat May Budh Dharm-1948

References

See also


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